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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e1022017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-999077

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol-A is currently considered an environmental pollutant, capable of interfering in the endocrine system of organisms and causing alterations in its development and reproductive system. An alternative method to the chemical treatment of this pollutant has been the use of oxidative enzymes, especially laccases produced by fungi. In order to reduce production costs, agro-industrial waste can be used in the culture medium composition. Nonionic surfactants, which are only slightly toxic to biological membranes, can be applied, as well as Tween 80, to facilitate the excretion of these enzymes into the culture medium. The objectives of this work were: a) characterize the immersion water of banana straw used in the formulation of the culture medium; b) evaluate laccase production by Pleurotus sajor-caju in culture medium with and without addition of Tween 80, through shaken flasks; c) evaluate the efficiency of the crude enzyme broth in degrading bisphenol-A. The shaken flasks were incubated at 30°C for 12 days. The immersion water had a C:N ratio of 13.8, ash percentage of 28.6%, and pH close to neutrality. The addition of Tween 80 on the culture medium (7.5%, m/v) yielded laccase activity and productivity values equal to 3,016.47 U L-1 and 502.7 U L-1 day-1, respectively. These values were 50 and 33.5 times higher than those obtained in the culture medium without addition of Tween 80 for laccase activity and productivity, respectively. The crude enzyme broth degraded 100% of bisphenol-A after 48 hours, regardless of concentration (500, 750 and 1,000 mg L-1).(AU)


O bisfenol-A é considerado um poluente ambiental capaz de interferir no sistema endócrino dos organismos, ocasionando alterações em seu desenvolvimento e sistema de reprodução. Um método alternativo ao tratamento químico desse tipo de poluente tem sido a utilização de enzimas oxidativas, especialmente as lacases, produzidas por fungos. A fim de diminuir custos de produção, resíduos agroindustriais podem compor o meio de cultivo. Assim, surfactantes não iônicos e pouco tóxicos para as membranas biológicas, como o Tween 80, podem ser utilizados para facilitar a excreção dessas enzimas para o meio de cultivo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: caracterizar quimicamente o resíduo água de imersão de palha de bananeira, usado na formulação do meio de cultivo; avaliar a produção de lacase por Pleurotus sajor-caju em meio de cultivo líquido (frascos Erlenmeyer) com e sem adição de Tween 80; e avaliar a eficiência do caldo enzimático bruto em degradar bisfenol-A. Os frascos foram incubados a 30°C, por 12 dias. A água de imersão apresentou relação C:N 13,8, percentual de cinzas 28,6% e pH próximo da neutralidade. O cultivo adicionado de Tween 80 (7,5%, m/v) propiciou valores de atividade e produtividade em lacase iguais a 3.016,47 U L-1 e 502,7 U L-1 dia-1, respectivamente. Esses valores são 50 e 33,5 vezes maiores que os obtidos no cultivo sem adição de Tween 80, para atividade e produtividade em lacase, respectivamente. O caldo enzimático bruto degradou 100% do bisfenol-A após 48 horas, independentemente da concentração (500, 750 e 1.000 mg L-1).(AU)


Subject(s)
Polysorbates , Surface-Active Agents , Pleurotus , Endocrine System , Musa , Laccase , Environmental Pollutants , Enzymes
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771674

ABSTRACT

Based on the fact that chromogenic reaction of blue complex, a reaction product which can be dissolved in organic solvents, can be realized by polyethoxy and ammonium thiocyanate in tween 80, a rapid and accurate way for the determination for tween 80 in pharmaceutical adjuvant was established in this study, providing reliable technical means for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Based on the study of reaction kinetics, chromogenic reaction temperature and time, as well as extraction of organic solvents and other key conditions were optimized, and Kumu injection was used as the test material for method validation and applicability investigation. It was finally determined that 3 mL ammonium thiocyanate solution was added in the sample solution, and the reaction was carried out in a boiling water bath for 2 h. After cooling to room temperature, 5 mL of dichloromethane was added to extract the chromogenic product. The absorbance value was measured at the wavelength of 623 nm to calculate the tween 80 content in the sample. Under optimized conditions, tween 80 solution showed a good linear relationship with the absorbance in the range from 0.8 mg to 3.0 mg. The linear regression equation was =0.258-0.047. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 6. Under the experimental conditions, the average recovery was 99.66%, and the precision RSD was less than 2.0%. The results showed that this method can quickly and accurately determine the content of tween 80 in Kumu injection, and it could be applicable to the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polysorbates , Chemistry , Quality Control , Solvents , Temperature
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to verify the antibacterial activity of two essential oils, lavender and peppermint, against dental caries and to review their synergistic effect when used in combination. Our results provide basic data for the evaluation of the use of these two substances towards the prevention and cure of dental caries. METHODS: The sample solutions of lavender and peppermint oils were prepared in three different concentrations (30%, 50%, and 70% (v/v)) by diluting them with third-distilled water and Tween 20. Streptococcus mutans was selected as the bacterial species for testing. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antibacterial activity of the sample solutions. For generating growth curves and measuring the number of clusters of the bacterial, the liquid medium-dilution method was used; the absorbance of the medium was measured at 600 nm after 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: When the antibacterial activity of the oils was tested via the disk diffusion method, the activity improved with increasing concentrations of all the sample solutions of peppermint, lavender, and the blend, but there was no significant difference between them with respect to the type of oil. In the growth curves of S. mutans, growth inhibition was observed after 12 hours. The inhibitory effect of 30% lavender oil on growth was 64.9% and 80.1% after 12 and 24 hours of treatment, respectively whereas that of peppermint oil was 71.3% and 80.1% after 12 and 24 hours of treatment, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blended oil was 71.9% and 81.0% after 12 and 24 hours of treatment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is still required in order to determine the efficacy of lavender and peppermint oils, as well as other essential oils, for wider use in preventing dental caries.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Diffusion , Lavandula , Mentha piperita , Methods , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Polysorbates , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Water
4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 427-431, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microsporum gypseum has been isolated from South Korea since 1966. However, the incidence of M. gypseum infection is very low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to add massive data on M. gypseum to the literature and to provide useful information on clinical and mycological characteristics of M. gypseum. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 198 cases infected with M. gypseum from 1979 to 2016. The identification of M. gypseum was done with mycological examination using 15% KOH preparation and potato corn meal tween 80 agar culture media. RESULTS: The incidence of M. gypseum infection was very low in South Korea, showing a tendency to decrease. Out of 198 cases, men were 94 cases (47.5%) and women were 104 cases (52.5%). Mean age of all patients was 29.83 years old: 24.97 years old in men and 34.22 years old in women. M. gypseum infection occurred most frequently in September (16.7%) and August (16.2%). The most common clinical type of M. gypseum infection was tinea corporis (38.4%). CONCLUSION: M. gypseum infection shows very low incidence but still remains around us until recent years. We should keep in mind the characteristics of M. gypseum.


Subject(s)
Agar , Culture Media , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Meals , Microsporum , Polysorbates , Retrospective Studies , Solanum tuberosum , Tinea , Zea mays
5.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(6): 603-611, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896636

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective : to determine the functional and morphological effects at rabbits retina of PS80 concentration used in the preparation of intravitreal drugs. Methods: eleven New Zealand rabbits received a intravitreal injection of 0.1ml of PS80. As control, the contralateral eye of each rabbit received the same volume of saline. Electroretinography was performed according to a modified protocol, as well as biomicroscopy and retina mapping before injection and seven and ten days after. Animals were euthanized in the 30th day and the retinas were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: eyes injected with PS80 did not present clinical signs of intraocular inflammation. Electroretinography did not show any alteration of extent and implicit time of a and b waves at scotopic and photopic conditions. There were no morphological alterations of retinas at light microscopy. Conclusion: intravitreal injection of PS80 in the used concentration for intravitreal drug preparations do not cause any functional or morphological alterations of rabbit retinas. These results suggest that PS80 is not toxic to rabbit retinas and may be safely used in the preparation of new lipophilic drugs for intravitreal injection.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar os efeitos funcionais e morfológicos na retina de coelhos da concentração de PS80 utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas. Métodos: onze coelhos New Zealand receberam injeção intravítrea de 0,1ml de PS80. Como controle, o olho contralateral de cada coelho recebeu o mesmo volume de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados eletrorretinogramas de acordo com o protocolo modificado, biomicroscopia e mapeamento de retina antes da injeção, sete e dez dias depois. Os animais foram sacrificados no 30o dia e as retinas analisadas por microscopia de luz. Resultados: os olhos injetados com PS80 não apresentaram sinais clínicos de inflamação intraocular. O eletrorretinograma não apresentou alteração de amplitude e tempo implícito das ondas a e b nas condições escotópica e fotópica. Não houve alteração morfológica da retina na microscopia de luz. Conclusão: a injeção intravítrea de PS80 na concentração utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas não causa alterações funcionais e morfológicas na retina de coelhos. Esses resultados sugerem que o PS80 não é tóxico para a retina de coelhos e pode ser usado com segurança na preparação de novas drogas lipofílicas para injeção intravítrea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Retina/anatomy & histology , Retina/physiology , Rabbits , Retina/drug effects , Electroretinography , Intravitreal Injections
6.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 23(2): 4-9, jul.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-902074

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de formación de biopelículas en especies del género Candida provenientes de muestras clínicas con procesos infecciosos. La muestra estuvo constituida por 70 aislados obtenidos de laboratorios clínicos privados. Para la identificación de las especies se utilizó la Prueba de tubo germinativo y la técnica de microcultivo en agar harina de maíz con tween 80, mientras que la cuantificación de la capacidad de formación de biopelículas se realizó por la técnica de microplaca de poliestireno. Entre los resultados obtenidos en la investigación las especies aisladas fueron: Candida glabrata (34%), Complejo Candida albicans (30%), Complejo Candida parapsilosis (27%) y Candida tropicalis (9%), de las cuales 41 aislados (59%) formaron biopelículas, resultando el Complejo Candida albicans y Candida glabrata las especies con mayor grado de formación de biopelículas con 29% cada una, seguida de Complejo Candida parapsilosis con 27% y Candida tropicalis con 15%. Las cepas que tuvieron mayor formación de biopelículas provenían de orina, seguidas de secreción ótica, secreción vaginal y sangre, sin embargo al aplicar la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (x2) de Pearson se determinó que no existe asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la capacidad de formación de biopelículas y el grado de formación con la procedencia clínica así como tampoco hay asociación entre la capacidad de formación de biopelículas y grado de formación con la especie involucrada (p > 0,05)


The aim of this research was to evaluate the capability of biofilm formation in Candida genus species from clinical samples with infectious conditions. The sample consisted of 70 isolates obtained from private clinical laboratories. Germ tube test and agar cornmeal with tween 80 microculture technique were used as species identification, meanwhile, quantification of biofilm formation capacity was performed by the polystyrene microplate technique. Among the results obtained in the research, isolated species were: Candida glabrata (34%), Candida albicans Complex (30%), Candidaparapsilosis Complex (27%) and Candida tropicalis (9%), of which 41 isolates (59%) formed biofilms, resulting Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Complex species with the highest degree of biofilms with 29% each, followed by Candida parapsilosis Complex with 27% and Candida tropicalis with 15%. Strains with more biofilm formation came from urine, followed by ear discharge, vaginal secretion and blood. However, by applying the Chi squaretest the Pearson, it was determined that there was no statistically significant association between thecapability of biofilm formation and the formation degree with clinical origin, neither there is association between the ability of biofilm formation and the formation degree with the species involved (p> 0.05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Candida albicans , Biofilms , Vaginal Discharge , Bodily Secretions , Polysorbates , Polystyrenes , Zea mays , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Agar , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 1-101 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833865

ABSTRACT

A zidovudina (AZT), fármaco antirretroviral utilizado no tratamento da AIDS, apresenta biodisponibilidade oral em torno de 60% e seu uso prolongado pode ocasionar efeitos tóxicos e tolerância ao tratamento. A lamivudina (3TC), apesar de demonstrar menor citotoxicidade e menor resistência viral, é considerada também menos potente. A associação entre os dois fármacos é recomendável em função da boa resposta terapêutica e maior adesão ao tratamento. As nanopartículas são uma alternativa para melhorar a biodisponibilidade e o transporte de fármacos sobretudo através da BHE. Nesse sentido, as nanopartículas poliméricas de poli (n-butil cianoacrilato) (PBCA) apresentam grande potencial para melhoria das características farmacêuticas, além de possibilitar resultados terapêuticos mais eficazes por meio da modificação de sua superfície, direcionando o fármaco ao sítio alvo. Diante do exposto, foram desenvolvidas nanopartículas de PBCA contendo a associação lamivudina e zidovudina (3TC/AZT) revestidas com polissorbato 80 (Ps80). As nanopartículas obtidas foram caracterizadas e apresentaram resultados coerentes aos encontrados na literatura. Após a encapsulação dos fármacos e o revestimento com Ps80, notou-se um aumento no diâmetro médio e o potencial Zeta foi próximo de zero. Esses resultados juntamente com a análise de SAXS comprovam o revestimento das nanopartículas de PBCA. Os dados de DSC e TG/DTG mostram que a encapsulação foi eficiente para a estabilização térmica dos fármacos. Foi desenvolvido e validado o método analítico por CLAE, a fim de determinar a eficiência de encapsulação. A validação do método analítico para quantificação simultânea do 3TC e AZT, tanto nas nanopartículas de PBCA quanto nas nanopartículas revestidas, apresentou linearidade, especificidade, precisão e exatidão adequadas de acordo com as normativas. A porcentagem de encapsulação dos fármacos foi igual a 44,45% e 30,44%. As nanopartículas de PBCA e PBCAPs80, em concentrações abaixo de 100 µg/mL, apresentaram viabilidade celular superior a 70% em células Caco-2, comprovando que o sistema apresenta baixa citotoxicidade, o que representa uma alternativa promissora para a encapsulação de fármacos antirretrovirais e consequente progresso no tratamento da AIDS


Zidovudine (AZT), which is an anti-retroviral drug used in the treatment of AIDS, has oral bioavailability around 60% and its prolonged use can cause toxic effects and tolerance to the treatment. Lamivudine (3TC), although it has lower cytotoxicity and lower viral resistance, is also considered less potent. The association between these two drugs is recommended based on the good therapeutic response and greater adherence to treatment. Nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the bioavailability and the transport of drugs, particularly through the BBB. Thus, the polymeric nanoparticles of poly (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) have great potential for improving the pharmaceutical characteristics, besides enabling more effective therapeutic results through the modification of its surface, directing the drug to the target site. That being said, PBCA nanoparticles were developed containing the association of lamivudine and zidovudine (3TC/AZT) coated with polysorbate 80 (Ps80). Nanoparticles obtained were characterized and presented coherent results when compared to those found in the literature. After the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals and Ps80 coating, it was noted an increase in the average diameter and Zeta potential was close to zero. These results along with the SAXS analysis proved the coating of the PBCA nanoparticles. The data of DSC and TG/DTG show that encapsulation was efficient for thermal stabilization of pharmaceuticals. An analytical method by HPLC was developed and validated to determine the efficiency of encapsulation. The validation of the analytical method for simultaneous quantification of 3TC and AZT, in both the PBCA nanoparticles and coated nanoparticles, presented as in linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy according to the regulations. The percentage of drug encapsulation was equal to 44.45% and 30.44%. The nanoparticles of PBCA and PBCA-Ps80, at concentrations below 100 µg/ml, presented cell viability greater than 70% in Caco-2 cells, proving that the system has low cytotoxicity, which represents a promising alternative for the encapsulation of antiretroviral drugs and consequent progress in AIDS treatment


Subject(s)
Lamivudine/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/analysis , Zidovudine/pharmacology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Polysorbates/pharmacology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147984

ABSTRACT

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a effectively chemotherapeutic agent which is extensively able to treat the non-small cell lung, pancreatic, breast and other cancers. But it is a practically insoluble drug with water solubility less than 1 μg/mL, which restricts its therapeutic application. To overcome the problem, hyaluronic acid-complexed paclitaxel nanoemulsions (HPNs) were prepared by ionic complexation of paclitaxel (PTX) nanoemulsions and hyaluronic acid (HA) to specifically target non-small cell lung cancer. HPNs were composed of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, soybean oil, polysorbate 80, ferric chloride, and HA and fabricated by high-pressure homogenization. The HPNs were 85.2 ± 7.55 nm in diameter and had a zeta potential of −35.7 ± 0.25 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was almost 100%, and the PTX content was 3.0 mg/mL. We assessed the in vivo antitumor efficacy of the HPNs by measuring changes in tumor volume and body weight in nude mice transplanted with CD44-overexpressing NCI-H460 xenografts and treated with a bolus dose of saline, Taxol®, PTX nanoemulsions (PNs), or HPNs at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Suppression of cancer cell growth was higher in the PN- and HPN-treated groups than in the Taxol® group. In particular, HPN treatment dramatically inhibited tumor growth, likely because of the specific tumor-targeting affinity of HA for CD44-overexpressed cancer cells. The loss of body weight and organ weight did not vary significantly between the groups. It is suggest that HPNs should be used to effective nanocarrier system for targeting delivery of non-small cell lung cancer overexpressing CD44 and high solubilization of poorly soluble drug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Breast , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Heterografts , High Pressure Neurological Syndrome , Hyaluronic Acid , Lung , Mice , Mice, Nude , Organ Size , Paclitaxel , Polysorbates , Solubility , Soybean Oil , Tumor Burden , Water
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 417-423, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780825

ABSTRACT

Abstract Various chemical compounds, including surfactants, when introduced to culture media may increase the permeability of cellular membranes and thereby affect the quantity of metabolites excreted by cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of detergents including Triton X-100, Span 20 and Tween 80 on erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia K1 in a shake-flask experiment, batch and fed-batch cultures. When Span 20 was added to a fed-batch culture with glycerol as a carbon source (300 g L-1), erythritol production increased by 15% compared to the culture without the surfactant where it reached 142 g L-1 after 5 days, which corresponded to 0.47 g g-1 yield and productivity of 1.1 g L-1 h-1. Therefore, it was concluded that Span 20 considerably enhanced the production of this polyol from glycerol.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Culture Media/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism , Erythritol/biosynthesis , Mannitol/metabolism , Polysorbates/analysis , Polysorbates/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/analysis , Octoxynol/analysis , Octoxynol/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Erythritol/analysis , Mannitol/analysis
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 825-834, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755824

ABSTRACT

Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium isolated from Brazilian pork sausage, capable of inhibiting the growth of microbial pathogens, mainly Listeria monocytogenes. In order to optimize bacteriocin production for industrial applications, this study evaluated the effect of supplementation of MRS broth with glucose, Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium citrate, potassium chloride and cysteine, and effect of the initial pH and temperature of incubation of the medium on production of bacteriocins by L. sakei 2a. Adding glucose and Tween 20 to the medium, an initial pH of 5.0 or 5.5, and incubation temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C resulted to the highest bacteriocin yields. Thus, a 24 factorial design with the four variables was performed, and statistical analysis showed that it was an adequate model (R2 = 0.8296). In the studied range, the four parameters significantly influenced bacteriocin production, with the maximum yield produced at an initial pH between 5.5 and 7.0, a temperature between 25 and 30 °C and supplementation of the MRS broth with glucose from 3.25 to 6.0 g L−1 and Tween 20 from 0.575 to 1.15% (v/v). Response Surface Methodology analysis indicated that the highest bacteriocin production (12800 AU mL−1) occurred in the MRS broth supplemented with 5.5 g L−1 glucose and 1.05% Tween 20 at an initial pH of 6.28 and an incubation temperature of 25 °C. The amount of bacteriocin produced in commercial MRS broths under the same conditions was only 5600AU mL−1.

.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacteriocins/metabolism , Culture Media/metabolism , Lactobacillus/growth & development , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Brazil , Glucose/metabolism , Lactobacillus/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polysorbates/metabolism , Red Meat/microbiology , Surface Properties , Temperature
11.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 181-186, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750028

ABSTRACT

Tacrolimus and cyclosporine have been used in various formulations, but their hypersensitivity reactions are rare in practice. Castor oil derivatives are nonionic surfactants used in aqueous preparations of hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients. Castor oil derivatives that can be used as additives to tacrolimus and cyclosporine may play a role in the development of hypersensitivity reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Various immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms have been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions induced by castor oil derivatives. Physicians should be aware that not only the drug itself, but also its additives or metabolites could induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of anaphylaxis caused by vitamin K (phytonadine), serotonin antagonist (granisetron), intravenous tacrolimus, and cyclosporine. Interestingly, the patient tolerated oral cyclosporine, which did not contain Cremophor EL or polysorbate 80.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Castor Oil , Cyclosporine , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Polysorbates , Serotonin , Surface-Active Agents , Tacrolimus , Vitamin K
12.
Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences. 2015; 1 (1): 1-6
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176269

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although a huge number of experimental works may be observed in the literature for microemulsions, modelling reports on these nano-systems are rare. Additionally, no comprehensive work so far has detailed the changes occurring to a micellar droplet when oil molecules are introduced [i.e. obtaining microemulsions from micelles]. This work aimed to simulate a micelle and a microemulsion system containing polysorbate 80 - as surfactant - and study the structural changes in the two systems


Methods: Molecular dynamics simulation employing a coarse-grained model was used


Results: The results showed that the oil molecules located in the hydrophobic core of the micelle make its size larger, while the co-surfactant molecules distribute throughout the system and enter the hydrophilic shell of the micelle


Conclusion: It was shown that insertion of oil molecules makes the droplets more spherical, while co-surfactants tend to enlarge them


Subject(s)
Emulsions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polysorbates , Models, Structural
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are several media for culture of Malassezia spp., such as Leeming & Notman (LN) medium, modified Leeming & Notman (mLN) medium, Dixon's medium and modified Dixon's medium etc. It is known that Malassezia spp. grow well in these media in general, but the kind and amounts of their ingredients are various and un-uniform according to researchers. Author propose the new and transparent BHI based medium for the optimal growth of Malassezia spp. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to design the simple and transparent BHI based medium and find essential ingredients for the growth of M. globosa and M. obtusa. METHODS: The colony size of eight standard strains (M. dermatis, M. furfur, M. globosa, M. japonica, M. obtusa, M. sloofiae, M. sympodialis, M. yamatoensis) on the modified BHI (mBHI) agar media with different ingredients was observed by naked eye after seven day culture. The compositions of mBHI medium were as follows; mBHI-1 was supplemented with 0.7% dextrose, 1.5% Tween 80, 1% glycerol to BHI medium, mBHI-2 was supplemented with 1.5% Tween 40 to mBHI-1 instead of Tween 80, mBHI-3 was supplemented with 1.5% Tween 60 to mBHI-1 instead of Tween 80, mBHI-4 was added with 0.8% bile salts to mBHI-1. mBHI-5 was supplemented with 1.5% Tween 60 to mBHI-4 instead of Tween 80, and mBHI-6 was supplemented with 1.5% Tween 40 to mBHI-4 instead of Tween 80. pH of six mBHI media was all adjusted to 6.5. RESULTS: M. furfur & M. japonica were grown well on mBHI-1 agar, but M. globosa & M. obtusa were not grown and others grown poorly. M. globosa & M. obtusa were not grown on mBHI-1 & mBHI-4 containing Tween 80 as lipid source, but others grown on all mBHI media. The media that all eight Malassezia strains grew well were slightly turbid mBHI-5 & transparent mBHI-6 medium. CONCLUSIONS: M. globosa & M. obtusa need glycerol and bile salts as well as Tween 60 or 40 instead of Tween 80 for growth. M. furfur & M. japonica need not bile salts for growth. Author proposes the transparent modified BHI medium supplemented with 0.7% dextrose, 1.5% Tween 40, 1% glycerol and 0.8% bile salts (mBHI-6) as new standard medium for culture of eight Malassezia species.


Subject(s)
Agar , Bile Acids and Salts , Glucose , Glycerol , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Malassezia , Polysorbates
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160770

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old man presented with pain in the left eye that revealed a 3x3 mm deep corneal stromal infiltrate, with a 2x2 mm epithelial defect. The patient started topical moxifloxacin, voriconazole 2%, and natamycin for 2 weeks. However, the treatment was not effective and the corneal infiltration worsened. Subsequently, the patient underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Thick brown/gray mold colonies on Potato Corn Meal Tween 80 agar was isolated from excised corneal tissue and on slide culture many septated, and club-shaped ascospores were revealed. Histological findings also showed numerous hyphae scattered in corneal tissue. A. alternata colonies were confirmed by 18S rRNA sequencing. Intracameral voriconazole was injected every other day for 2 weeks to eliminate remaining fungi on the deep corneal stroma. The remaining corneal infiltration was improved one month after the injection. During 5 months postoperative follow up, the infection did not recurred. In conclusion, deep corneal infection of A. alternata was effectively treated with intracameral voriconazole injection.


Subject(s)
Agar , Aged , Alternaria , Corneal Stroma , Follow-Up Studies , Fungi , Humans , Hyphae , Keratitis , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Meals , Natamycin , Polysorbates , Solanum tuberosum , Zea mays
15.
Nanomedicine Journal. 2014; 1 (5): 298-301
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171645

ABSTRACT

Investigation of phase diagram of various drug formulations is effective to predict different phase region of drugs to detect final formula. The purpose of this research was to develop the ternary phase diagrams for a drug microemulsion system consisting of Cucurbita pepo [pumpkin] oil, surfactant [Tween 80] and deionized water. An electrical conductivity was used to study the properties of system. Particle size analysis of microemulsion system was performed by dynamic light scattering. The electrical conductivity of the microemulsions increases with increasing of aqueous phase content. Structural transitions from the oil-in-water to a bi-continuous phase then inversion to water-in-oil occured in the system. Diameter of particles was calculated 70 nm [for 75 percent of particles] and 35 nm [for 25 percent of particles]. Solubility results showed that microemulsion system of Cucurbita pepo oil can increase its solubility in aqueous medium due to droplet size reduction into nanometer size. Microemulsion technique can be used as a successful method in preparation of Cucurbita pepo oil drug formulation


Subject(s)
Plant Oils , Emulsions , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Surface-Active Agents , Polysorbates , Water , Electric Conductivity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327868

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the method for determining polysorbate 80 in Reduning injection by HPLC-ELSD, and to control the mass of polysorbate 80 in Reduning injection.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>It was performed by HGPC-ELSD with TOSHTSK-GEL G4000PWxl (7.8 mm x 300 mm, 10 μm). Water was used as mobile phase, the flow rate was 0.7 mL x min(-1), and the temperature was set at 30°C. The evaporated light scattering detector was adopted. The drift tube temperature was 55°C, and nitrogen was used as carrier gas, with the flow rate of 2.0 L x min(-1) and gain of 1.0.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The calibration curve showed good linearity of polysorbate 80 in the test range from 1.01 to 15.20 g x L(-1) (r2 = 0.999 3). The recovery rate was 98.10% with RSD of 2.0%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is simple, rapid, accurate and reliable and suitable for the determination of polysorbate 80 in Reduning injection.</p>


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Injections , Polysorbates , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140824

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study we compared the surface wettability of ocular prosthesis and depositions depending on different types of artificial tear eye drops. METHODS: The artificial tear eye drops contain sodium hyaluronate (HA) 0.1%, 0.18%, 0.3%, carboxylmethylcellulose sodium (CMC), hydroxymethylcelluose + dextran (HMC), propylene glycol + polyethylene glycol (PG), polysorbate 80 (PS) povidone (Pov) were evaluated. Flat rectangular parallelepiped blocks consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or silicone materials were made. One artificial tear eye drop was applied on the surface of two different blocks of artificial eyes using a 23-gauge needle. Then, the static method contact angle was measured by using a contact angle goniometer. To measure the deposits, a petri dish was covered with 3 mL of artificial tear eye drops and dried for 48 hours at room temperature. Then, the light transmittance at the center of the petri dish was measured to investigate the amount of the residue. RESULTS: The contact angles of HA 0.1%, 0.18%, 0.3%, CMC, HMC, PG, PS and Pov on PMMA were 78.69degrees, 84.29degrees, 75.46degrees, 80.93degrees, 66.29degrees, 71.26degrees, 58.40degrees and 70.24degrees, respectively. The contact angles on silicone were 53.68degrees, 60.87degrees, 64.46degrees, 62.78degrees, 38.89degrees, 63.58degrees, 30.68degrees and 51.41degrees, respectively. The largest decrease in transparency was observed in the artificial tear eye drops containing HMC. CONCLUSIONS: The wettability and deposits on the surface of ocular prosthesis can vary based on the components and concentration of artificial tear eye drops. The results from this study should be considered when choosing the right artificial tear eye drops for improving dry eye symptoms in patients wearing ocular prostheses.


Subject(s)
Anophthalmos , Dextrans , Dry Eye Syndromes , Eye, Artificial , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Needles , Ophthalmic Solutions , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Polysorbates , Povidone , Propylene Glycol , Silicones , Sodium , Tears , Wettability
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140821

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study we compared the surface wettability of ocular prosthesis and depositions depending on different types of artificial tear eye drops. METHODS: The artificial tear eye drops contain sodium hyaluronate (HA) 0.1%, 0.18%, 0.3%, carboxylmethylcellulose sodium (CMC), hydroxymethylcelluose + dextran (HMC), propylene glycol + polyethylene glycol (PG), polysorbate 80 (PS) povidone (Pov) were evaluated. Flat rectangular parallelepiped blocks consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or silicone materials were made. One artificial tear eye drop was applied on the surface of two different blocks of artificial eyes using a 23-gauge needle. Then, the static method contact angle was measured by using a contact angle goniometer. To measure the deposits, a petri dish was covered with 3 mL of artificial tear eye drops and dried for 48 hours at room temperature. Then, the light transmittance at the center of the petri dish was measured to investigate the amount of the residue. RESULTS: The contact angles of HA 0.1%, 0.18%, 0.3%, CMC, HMC, PG, PS and Pov on PMMA were 78.69degrees, 84.29degrees, 75.46degrees, 80.93degrees, 66.29degrees, 71.26degrees, 58.40degrees and 70.24degrees, respectively. The contact angles on silicone were 53.68degrees, 60.87degrees, 64.46degrees, 62.78degrees, 38.89degrees, 63.58degrees, 30.68degrees and 51.41degrees, respectively. The largest decrease in transparency was observed in the artificial tear eye drops containing HMC. CONCLUSIONS: The wettability and deposits on the surface of ocular prosthesis can vary based on the components and concentration of artificial tear eye drops. The results from this study should be considered when choosing the right artificial tear eye drops for improving dry eye symptoms in patients wearing ocular prostheses.


Subject(s)
Anophthalmos , Dextrans , Dry Eye Syndromes , Eye, Artificial , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Needles , Ophthalmic Solutions , Polyethylene Glycols , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Polysorbates , Povidone , Propylene Glycol , Silicones , Sodium , Tears , Wettability
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(4): 763-773, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704108

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical O/W emulsion containing plant-derived polyphenol extracts and evaluate its stability and antioxidant activity. O/W emulsions were prepared using ionic surfactant polysorbate 80 (Tween 80®). The odorwas adjusted with few drops of blue sea fragrance. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts alone and emulsions containing these extracts. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the emulsions to storage at 8 ºC, 25 ºC, 40 ºC and 40 ºC + 70% RH (relative humidity) for two months. Various physical characteristics of emulsions monitored, include color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH. Brookfield rotational rheometer was used to determined viscosities and rheological behavior of emulsions. Different types of emulsion were determined microscopically, while pH values of emulsions were measured by a pH meter. Electrical conductivity data confirmed that the outer phase was water. Samples presented an acceptable pH value for an external topical use. Shear thinning behaviour was observed for all emulsions. The polyphenol-rich-plant-derived extracts alone and the extract containing emulsions showed good antioxidant activities. This research confirmed that the method used was suitable for preparing emulsions with Hippophae rhamnoids and Cassia fistula extracts, suggesting that those emulsions are suitable for topical use.


O presente estudo objetivou o desenvolvimento de uma emulsão farmacêutica óleo-água contendo extratos de plantas ricos em polifenóis, a comparação à sua formulação-controle e a avaliação de sua estabilidade, assim como de sua capacidade antioxidante. Extrato concentrado de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula foi encapsulado no interior da fase oleosa da emulsão O/W. As emulsões foram preparadas usando o tensoativo iônico monooleato sorbital de polioxietileno (Tween 80®). O odor foi ajustado pela adição de algumas gotas de fragrância azul do mar. O ensaio do DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazil) foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade antioxidante dos extratos de plantas sozinhos e nas emulsões contendo os extratos. A estabilidade física foi avaliada submetendo os cremes a diferentes temperaturas de estocagem, como a 8 ºC, 25 ºC e 40 ºC e a 40% + 70% de umidade relativa por um período de 2 meses. As características físicas das emulsões foram monitoradas por 2 meses incluindo cor, cremosidade, liquefação, centrifugação e pH. O reômetro rotacional de Brookfield foi utilizado para determinar a viscosidade e o comportamento reológico das emulsões. O programa Rheocalc Brookfield foi utilizado para análise dos dados. As características organolépticas também foram avaliadas. O tipo de emulsão foi determinado microscopicamente, enquanto o pH das emulsões foi avaliado por meio de um pHmetro. A estabilidade farmacêutica esperada das emulsões foi alcançada dentro dos dois meses de estudo. Os resultados da condutividade elétrica confirmaram que a fase externa da emulsão era composta de água. O pH das amostras estava dentro da normalidade para uso tópico. A emulsão apresentou boa fragrância e pode ser retirada da pele com água após a aplicação, características desejáveis em emulsões O/W. Os extratos vegetais ricos em polifenóis isolados ou nas emulsões apresentaram boa atividade antioxidante. Nossos estudos confirmaram que o método utilizado foi adequado para preparar a emulsão semi-sólida contendo extratos de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula. Nossos achados sugerem que emulsões contendo extratos de Hippophae rhamnoids e Cassia fistula são adequados para o uso tópico.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Cassia/classification , Emulsions/analysis , Hippophae/classification , Polysorbates , Cosmetic Stability
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 617-622
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142626

ABSTRACT

Achieving a desirable percutaneous absorption of drug molecule is a major concern in formulating dermal and transdermal products. The use of penetration enhancers could provide a successful mean for this purpose. The aim of this study was to develop Clotrimazole gel and to evaluate the effect of almond oil and tween 80 [in different concentrations], on the permeation of drug through rabbit skin in vitro. In order to investigate the effect of penetration enhancers used in this study on the permeation of Clotrimazole through sections of excised rabbit skin, Franz diffusion cell was employed. Sample solution was withdrawn at specific time interval up to 24 h. Significant difference in permeation among the eight formulations was seen in the study. The permeation profile of various formulations also showed that the added enhancers in individual batches affected the permeation of the drug. Drug permeation increased with increased concentration of Tween 80 and decreased concentration of almond oil. Furthermore, almond oil combined with tween 80 showed synergistic effect. The clotrimazole gels were successfully formulated and could be beneficial for topical use


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Polysorbates/chemistry , Gels/chemistry , Permeability , Plant Oils/chemistry , Administration, Topical , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Rabbits , Skin Absorption
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