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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255714, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529210

ABSTRACT

Uma das demandas centrais das pessoas em situação de rua é a dificuldade de acesso a trabalho e renda, o que tanto pode levá-las a essa circunstância como dificultar sua saída das ruas. Nessa direção, em parceria com o Movimento Nacional da População em Situação de Rua em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (MNPR/RN), Brasil, realizamos projeto de extensão com os objetivos de fortalecer as ações de geração de renda para os militantes do referido movimento e para o movimento em si e de promover a organização coletiva e política dos militantes do MNPR/RN em torno da pauta trabalho. Baseamo-nos na Economia Solidária para elaborar ações de geração de renda e fortalecimento político, e na Psicologia Social do Trabalho para informar sobre as intervenções realizadas pela equipe extensionista. Como estratégia de ação, foram realizados cinco bazares solidários em 2019, os quais envolveram militantes do MNPR/RN e extensionistas em reuniões preparatórias, arrecadação de materiais e efetivação dos bazares. Avaliou-se que os bazares foram uma ótima estratégia para a arrecadação de fundos para o movimento e a geração de renda imediata para os militantes envolvidos, mas que não garantiram a médio e longo prazo a renda dessas pessoas. Também possibilitaram o fortalecimento da autonomia, da participação ativa como trabalhadores e trabalhadoras e do aprendizado mútuo sobre princípios da Economia Solidária.(AU)


One of the main demands of people living on the streets is the difficulty in accessing work and income, which can either lead them to this circumstance or make it difficult for them to leave the streets. In this direction, in partnership with the National Movement of Homeless Population in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (Movimento Nacional População de Rua - MNPR/RN), we carried out an extension project with the objectives of strengthening the actions to generate income for the militants of the referred movement and for the movement itself and to promote the collective and political organization of the MNPR/RN militants around the work agenda. We start with the Solidarity Economy for the elaboration of actions to generate income and political strengthening, and from the Social Psychology of Work to inform about the interventions carried out by the extension team. As an action strategy, five solidarity bazaars were held in 2019, involving MNPR/RN militants and extension workers in preparatory meetings, collection of materials, and holding the bazaars. The bazaars were considered an excellent strategy for raising funds for the movement and generating immediate income for the activists involved, but that they could not guarantee the income of these people in the medium and long term. It also allowed for the strengthening of autonomy, active participation as a female or male worker, and mutual learning on the principles of Solidarity Economy.(AU)


Una de las principales demandas de las personas en situación de calle es la dificultad para acceder al trabajo y a los ingresos, lo que puede llevarlos a esta situación o dificultarles su salida de la calle. En este sentido, en colaboración con el Movimiento Nacional de Población en Situación de Calle en Natal/RN (MNPR/RN), realizamos un proyecto de extensión con los objetivos de fortalecer las acciones de generación de ingresos para los activistas del referido movimiento y para el movimiento en sí y de promover la organización colectiva y política de los activistas del MNPR/RN en torno a las normas del trabajo. Partimos de la economía solidaria para desarrollar acciones de generación de ingresos y de fortalecimiento político, y desde la Psicología Social del Trabajo para informar de las intervenciones que realiza el equipo de extensión. Como estrategia de acción, en el 2019 se realizaron cinco ferias solidarias, en las cuales participaron activistas y grupos de extensión del MNPR/RN en reuniones preparatorias, recolección de materiales y realización de las ferias. Se consideró que las ferias son una excelente estrategia para recaudar fondos para el movimiento y generar ingresos inmediatos para los activistas involucrados, pero no pueden garantizar los ingresos de estas personas a mediano y largo plazo. También permiten fortalecer la autonomía, la participación activa como trabajador y trabajadora, y el aprendizaje mutuo sobre los principios de la economía solidaria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Work , Ill-Housed Persons , Economics , Solidarity , Income , Poverty , Prejudice , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rest , Retirement , Safety , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Planning , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Body Image , Brazil , Family , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Hunger , Workplace , Community-Institutional Relations , Privacy , Credentialing , Shelter , Capitalism , Democracy , Dehumanization , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Diet , Education , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Job Market , User Embracement , Products Commerce , Family Conflict , Social Stigma , Social Participation , Binge Drinking , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Sociological Factors , Literacy , Social Segregation , Survivorship , Academic Failure , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Right to Health , Right to Work , Workhouses , Freedom of Movement , Food Insecurity , Housing Instability , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Access to Healthy Foods , Home Environment , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Working Conditions , Health Policy , Holidays , Housing , Human Rights , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Labor Unions , Leisure Activities , Occupations
2.
Saúde Soc ; 32(2): e210771pt, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450438

ABSTRACT

Resumo O contexto atual no qual estamos inseridos oferece um padrão a ser seguido, em que os indivíduos necessitam ser altamente produtivos. Esse estilo de vida não é exercido a partir da coerção, mas sim através do empreendedorismo de si mesmo, ou seja, força, foco e fé são as palavras de ordem (auto)impostas que guiam o comportamento humano. Isso também se reflete no relacionamento estabelecido entre o próprio corpo e a alimentação. O resultado desse processo é o adoecimento psíquico, social e físico da população. Diante disso, este ensaio buscou desenvolver a relação entre o conceito da sociedade do cansaço e a alimentação contemporânea, de modo a investigar, compreender e refletir sobre o impacto desse modelo no comportamento alimentar que tangencia tanto a prática clínica do nutricionista quanto o campo da saúde coletiva. Na construção deste texto, foram mobilizados autores das ciências humanas e sociais, da saúde coletiva e da nutrição, para mediar as discussões.


Abstract The current context in which we are inserted offers a standard model to be followed in which individuals need to be highly productive. This lifestyle is not exercised via coercion, but via self-entrepreneurship, that is, strength, focus, and faith are the (self-)imposed watchwords that guide human behavior. This is also reflected in the relationship established between the body and food. The result of this process is the mental, social, and physical illness of the population. In the face of that, this essay sought to develop the relationship between the concept of burnout society and contemporary eating, to investigate, understand, and reflect on the impact of this model on eating behavior that touches both the clinical practice of the nutritionist and the field of collective health. In constructing this text, authors from the human and social sciences, collective health, and nutrition were mobilized to mediate the discussions.


Subject(s)
Feeding and Eating Disorders , Diet , Population Characteristics
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243766, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431119

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da covid-19 impôs transformações no cotidiano mundial, em âmbito micro e macroestrutural. Seu impacto psicológico desestabiliza e evidencia desigualdades e vulnerabilidades psicossociais brasileiras. Configura-se como um estudo de perspectiva crítica, com base na Psicologia Sócio-histórica, com o objetivo de mapear os posicionamentos da Psicologia, vindos de diferentes campos, diante das ações de saúde mental. Para tanto, utiliza-se o site do Conselho Federal de Psicologia para a análise de 62 documentos, que resultaram em dois eixos de produção crítica: 1) a relação da Psicologia com o Conselho Federal de Psicologia; e 2) da Psicologia com a sociedade. Revela-se o abismo social entre segmentos da sociedade brasileira; formas de exclusão da população carcerária; violência doméstica contra as mulheres e as crianças; dificuldades de acesso a estratégias sociais, na educação e na saúde, e de superação dos impasses acirrados com a infecção global pelo novo coronavírus. Conclui-se que a diversidade de públicos, temáticas, áreas de atuação e referenciais teóricos materializa um compromisso crítico e científico da Psicologia.(AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic imposed transformations in the world daily life, at the micro and macrostructural levels. Its psychological impact destabilizes and highlights Brazilian inequalities and psychosocial vulnerabilities. This is a critical perspective study, based in socio-historical Psychology, aiming to map the positions of Psychology, from different fields, in the face of mental health actions. To this end, the Federal Council of Psychology website is utilized to analyze 62 documents, which resulted in two axes of critical production: 1) the relation between Psychology and the Federal Council of Psychology; and 2) Psychology with society. They reveal the social gap between segments of Brazilian society; ways of excluding prison po7pulation; domestic violence against women and children; and difficulties in accessing social strategies, in education and health, and in overcoming impasses aggravated by the global infection by the new coronavirus. In conclusion, the diversity of public, themes, areas of professional performance, and theoretical references materialize Psychology's critical and scientific commitment.(AU)


La pandemia del COVID-19 provocó transformaciones globales en lo cotidiano a nivel micro y macroestructural. Su impacto psicológico desestabiliza y destaca las desigualdades y vulnerabilidades psicosociales en Brasil. Esta es una investigación en la perspectiva crítica, basada en la psicología sociohistórica, con el objetivo de mapear las posiciones de la Psicología, procedentes de diferentes campos, frente a las acciones de salud mental. Para este fin, se utiliza el sitio web del Consejo Federal de Psicología para el análisis de 62 documentos, lo que resultó en dos ejes de producción crítica: 1) la relación de la Psicología con el Consejo Federal de Psicología; y 2) de la Psicología con la sociedad. Se revelan la brecha social entre los segmentos de la sociedad brasileña; las formas de exclusión de la población carcelaria; la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres y los niños; y las dificultades para acceder a las estrategias sociales, en la educación y la salud, para superar los impasses agravados por la infección global por el nuevo coronavirus. Se concluye que la diversidad de públicos, temáticas, áreas de actividad y referentes teóricos materializa un compromiso crítico y científico de la Psicología.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Pain , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Research , Role , Safety , Sexual Behavior , Authoritarianism , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Sports , Torture , Population Characteristics , Food Relief , Ill-Housed Persons , Marriage , Poverty Areas , Child Abuse , Child Welfare , Quarantine , Public Health , Hunger , Codependency, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Combat Disorders , Congresses as Topic , Crime , Armed Conflicts , Relief, Assistance and Protection in Disasters , Access to Information , Judiciary , State , Dehumanization , Human Rights Abuses , Depression , Developing Countries , Air Pollution , Education , Elder Abuse , Emergencies , Professional Training , Information Technology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Social Marginalization , Help-Seeking Behavior , Physical Abuse , Social Segregation , Gender-Based Violence , Cultural Rights , Internet-Based Intervention , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Emotional Abuse , Social Cohesion , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Family Support , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Post-Infectious Disorders , Health Promotion , Human Rights , Jurisprudence , Malpractice
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244065, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431122

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o impacto das variáveis habilidades sociais, resolução de problemas sociais, automonitoria, autoeficácia e coping na adaptação acadêmica em estudantes de instituições de ensino superior públicas e privadas. Participaram 637 estudantes de ambos os sexos, sendo 36,5% (115) homens de instituições públicas e 22,3% (72) de instituições privadas, com idade variando entre 18 e 38 anos (M=24,7; DP=6,3), de diferentes graduações. Foram utilizados o Inventário de Resolução de Problemas Sociais, o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais, a Escala de Automonitoria, a Escala de Autoeficácia Acadêmica de Estudantes do Ensino Superior, o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e o Questionário de Vivências Acadêmicas-reduzido. A autoeficácia na gestão acadêmica (40,9%) e a autoafirmação na expressão de afeto positivo (13,7%) apresentaram maior impacto para os estudantes de instituições públicas e privadas, podendo contribuir com possíveis intervenções no processo de adaptação ao ensino superior. Pesquisas prospectivas podem investigar questões relacionadas a dados sociodemográficos.(AU)


The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the variables Social Skills, Resolution of Social Problems, Self-monitoring, Self-efficacy and Coping on Academic Adaptation in students from public and private higher education institutions. 637 students of both sexes participated, being 36.5% (115) men from public institutions and 22.3% (72) from private institutions, aged between 18 to 38 years (M = 24.7; SD = 6.3), of different grades. The Social Problem Solving Inventory, the Social Skills Inventory, the Self-Monitring Scale, the Higher Education Students' Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Strategies Inventory and the Academic Experiences-Reduced Questionnaire were used. Self-efficacy in Academic Management (40.9%) and Self-affirmation in the Expression of Positive Affection (13.7%) had a greater impact on students from public and private institutions, which may contribute to possible interventions in the process of adapting to Higher Education. Prospective research can investigate issues related to sociodemographic data.(AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el impacto de las variables Habilidades sociales, Resolución de problemas sociales, Autocontrol, Autoeficacia y Afrontamiento en la adaptación académica en estudiantes de instituciones de educación superior públicas y privadas. Participaron 637 estudiantes de ambos sexos, siendo 36,5% (115) hombres de instituciones públicas y 22,3% (72) de instituciones privadas, con edades entre 18 y 38 años (M = 24,7; SD = 6,3), de diferentes grados. Se utilizaron el Inventario de Resolución de Problemas Sociales, el Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, la Escala de Autocontrol, la Escala de Autoeficacia Académica de los Estudiantes de Educación Superior, el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento y el Cuestionario de Experiencias Académicas Reducidas. La Autoeficacia en la Gestión Académica (40,9%) y la Autoafirmación en la Expresión de Afecto Positivo (13,7%) tuvieron un mayor impacto en los estudiantes de instituciones públicas y privadas, lo que puede contribuir a posibles intervenciones en el proceso de adaptación a la Educación Superior. La investigación prospectiva puede investigar cuestiones relacionadas con los datos sociodemográficos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Social Adjustment , Universities , Adaptation, Psychological , Problem-Based Learning , Self Efficacy , Social Skills , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Professional Competence , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Autoanalysis , Social Change , Social Class , Social Support , Social Values , Socialization , Sociology , Thinking , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Shyness , Career Choice , Career Mobility , Attitude , Mental Health , Statistics as Topic , Liability, Legal , Organizational Policy , Investigative Techniques , Cognition , College Admission Test , Community-Institutional Relations , Competitive Behavior , Cultural Diversity , Cooperative Behavior , Lecture , Creativity , Personal Autonomy , Democracy , Education , Educational Measurement , Emotions , Employee Incentive Plans , Planning , Faculty , Resilience, Psychological , Altruism , Metacognition , Academic Performance , Academic Success , Latent Class Analysis , Social Evolution , Financial Stress , Community Resources , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Promotion , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Learning Disabilities
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248295, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431129

ABSTRACT

Este ensaio propõe que a Covid-19 pode operar como um analisador, dentro da perspectiva da análise institucional, iluminando um determinado modo de organização social que promove profundas desigualdades e ameaça a vida em diversos níveis e revelando as condições sociais, institucionais e políticas de produção de sofrimento no corpo profissional de Enfermagem. A pandemia desvelou um conjunto de marcas relacionadas à profissão, agravadas pela crise sanitária, reforçando a naturalização das relações de cuidado atribuídas ao feminino, bem como um conjunto de clivagens e hierarquias internas à profissão a partir da sinergia de marcadores da diferença, como gênero, cor/raça, classe e geração. Além disso, este trabalho mostra a presença de uma necropolítica nas respostas à pandemia que banaliza a vida e permite morrer determinados grupos sociais. A ideia de "profissionais de linha de frente" é criticada em suas metáforas bélicas, mas tomada como figura de linguagem em sua potência para afirmar que existem corpos que, pelas marcas sociais e históricas e pela interdependência do cuidado, são mais presentes e exigidos e, portanto, mais vulneráveis à doença e ao sofrimento dela decorrente.(AU)


The essay proposes that Covid-19 can operate as an analyzer, within the perspective of institutional analysis, illuminating a certain mode of social organization that promotes profound inequalities and threatens life at various levels, revealing the social, institutional and political conditions for the production of suffering in the professional nursing body. The pandemic would unveil a set of marks related to the profession, aggravated by the sanitary crisis, reinforcing the naturalization of the care relations attributed to the feminine, as well as a set of cleavages and internal hierarchies to the profession from the synergy of markers of difference as gender, color/race, class and generation. The work shows the presence of necropolitics in responses to the pandemic, which trivializes life and allows certain social groups to die. The idea of "front-line professionals" is criticized in its war metaphors, but taken as a figure of speech in its potency to affirm that there are bodies that by social and historical marks, and by the interdependence of care, are more present and demanded, and therefore more vulnerable to disease and the resulting suffering.(AU)


El ensayo propone que el Covid-19 puede funcionar como analizador, desde la perspectiva del análisis institucional, revelando las condiciones sociales, institucionales y políticas de producción de sufrimiento de enfermeras. La pandemia revela algunas marcas relacionadas con la profesión, agravadas por la crisis de salud, reforzando la naturalización de la atribución del cuidado a lo femenino y un conjunto de jerarquías internas de la profesión. El trabajo también muestra la presencia de una necropolítica en las respuestas a la pandemia. La idea de "profesionales de primera línea" es criticada, pero tomada como una figura del lenguaje en su potencia para afirmar que hay cuerpos que, por las marcas sociales e históricas y por la interdependencia del cuidado, están más presentes y demandados, y por lo tanto más vulnerables a la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nursing , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Self-Testing , COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pain , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Patients , Politics , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Women, Working , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Nursing Theory , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Virus Diseases , Vaccines , Nursing Research , Accidents, Occupational , Carrier State , Mental Health , Mortality , Models, Nursing , Occupational Health , Workload , Professional Autonomy , Long-Term Care , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Immunization Programs , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Continuity of Patient Care , Feminism , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Air Pollution , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Emergencies , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Essential Public Health Functions , Health Status Disparities , Ethics, Professional , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Program of Risk Prevention on Working Environment , Air Contamination Effects , Evidence-Based Nursing , Fear , Remuneration , Early Medical Intervention , Medicalization , Ambulatory Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Caregiver Burden , Models, Biopsychosocial , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Gender Equity , Vaccine Development , Community Resources , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Working Conditions , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Accident Prevention , Health Occupations , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humanism , Life Support Care , Masks , Muscle Tonus , Night Care , Nursing Care , Nursing, Practical , Nursing, Team , Occupational Diseases
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e249090, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431130

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, o trabalho doméstico remunerado é essencialmente feminino e emprega cerca de 5,9 milhões de mulheres, correspondendo a 16,8% da ocupação feminina. Desse contingente, 61 % são compostos por mulheres negras. As empregadas domésticas estiveram historicamente submetidas a uma série de aspectos excludentes, como baixa remuneração, contratações à margem da legalidade e discriminação de gênero e raça. Esta pesquisa objetivou compreender a resistência enquanto categoria fundamental para compreensão do trabalho doméstico. Ao falar sobre essa categoria, destacamos a subjetividade que constitui os fenômenos sociais, partindo de uma compreensão dialética e histórica do sujeito e da relação indivíduo-sociedade, inserida em uma historicidade. Os resultados encontrados, coletados por meio de documentos, notícias, reportagens, participações no sindicato da categoria e da realização de entrevistas com cinco domésticas apontam a existência de formas de resistência no campo do trabalho doméstico, compondo movimentos de oposição e reação ao modus operandi colonial e às hierarquias de gênero-raça-classe que formam a sociedade brasileira. A psicologia sócio-histórica foi escolhida como abordagem teórico-metodológica, pois possibilita compreender do homem como ser ativo, social e histórico. Ao investigar as formas de resistência presentes nesse tipo de trabalho, compreende-se a trabalhadora doméstica não como mera consequência da realidade social em que se insere, mas como sujeito ativo que constitui essa realidade e é simultaneamente constituído por ela. Com esta pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir com a crítica à ideologia dominante que subalterniza essas trabalhadoras e as relega à subcidadania, uma condição sem reconhecimento e direitos.(AU)


In Brazil, paid domestic work is essentially female and employs about 5.9 million women, corresponding to 16.8% of the female occupation. Of this contingent, 61% is made up of black women. Domestic workers have historically been subjected to a series of exclusionary aspects, such as low remuneration, hiring outside the legal system and gender and race discrimination. This research aimed to understand resistance as a fundamental category for understanding domestic work. When talking about this category, we highlight the subjectivity that constitutes social phenomena, starting from a dialectical and historical understanding of the subject and the individual-society relationship, inserted in a historicity. The results found, collected from documents, news, reports, participation in the category union and interviews with five domestic workers, point to the existence of forms of resistance in the field of domestic work, composing movements of opposition and reaction to the colonial modus operandi and the gender-race-class hierarchies that make up Brazilian society.Socio-historical psychology was chosen as a theoretical-methodological approach, since it provides an understanding of man as an active, social and historical being. When investigating the forms of resistance present in this type of work, the domestic worker is understood not as a mere consequence of the social reality in which she is inserted, but, as an active subject, who constitutes this reality and is simultaneously constituted by it. This research intends to contribute to the criticism of the dominant ideology that subordinates these workers and relegates them to a sub-citizenship, a condition without recognition and rights.(AU)


El trabajo doméstico remunerado en Brasil es predominantemente femenino y emplea casi 5,9 millones de mujeres, lo que corresponde al 16,8% de la ocupación femenina. El 61% de este grupo está compuesto por mujeres negras. Históricamente, las trabajadoras del hogar han sido sometidas a una serie de aspectos excluyentes, como la baja remuneración, la contratación fuera del sistema legal y la discriminación de género y raza. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comprender la resistencia como categoría fundamental para entender el trabajo doméstico. Al hablar de esta categoría, se destaca la subjetividad que constituye los fenómenos sociales a partir de una comprensión dialéctica e histórica del sujeto y la relación individuo-sociedad, insertada en una historicidad. Los datos recogidos de documentos, noticias, participación en la categoría unión y entrevistas con cinco sirvientas permitieron concluir que existen formas de resistencia en el ámbito del trabajo doméstico, que se componen de movimientos de oposición y reacción al modus operandi colonial y a jerarquías de género-raza-clase que conforman la sociedad brasileña. La psicología sociohistórica fue el enfoque teórico-metodológico utilizado, ya que proporciona una comprensión del ser humano como ser activo, social e histórico. El análisis de las formas de resistencia presentes en este tipo de trabajo permite identificar la trabajadora doméstica no como una mera consecuencia de la realidad social en la cual se inserta, sino como sujeto activo que constituye esta realidad y, a la vez, es constituido por ella. Se espera que esta investigación pueda contribuir a la crítica de la ideología dominante que subordina a estas trabajadoras, relegándolas a una subciudadanía, una condición sin reconocimiento y sin derechos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Personal Satisfaction , Cultural Characteristics , Sociological Factors , History , Household Work , Poverty , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Environment , Social Justice , Social Mobility , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Women's Rights , Population Characteristics , Occupational Risks , Accidents, Occupational , Family , Poverty Areas , Population Dynamics , Hunger , Workload , Civil Rights , Safety Management , Contract Services , Censuses , Legislation , Access to Information , Death , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Black People , Economics , Educational Status , Employee Grievances , Employment , Job Market , Ethics , Femininity , Social Participation , Racism , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Enslavement , Literacy , Moral Status , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Academic Failure , Cultural Rights , Socioeconomic Rights , Social Oppression , Economic Status , Respect , Right to Work , Empowerment , Emotional Abuse , Disinformation , Home Environment , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Working Conditions , Health Benefit Plans, Employee , Hierarchy, Social , Housing , Labor Unions , Deception , Mothers
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 39(2): e201, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1442062

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el conocimiento del cannabis medicinal data de hace más de 10.000 años y tiene sus orígenes en el continente asiático y en la medicina oriental. En el último tiempo ha surgido especial interés en su uso terapéutico, y Uruguay desde 2013 cuenta con una ley que regula la tenencia y uso de la planta de cannabis. Objetivo: caracterizar el uso de los derivados de cannabis medicinal (DCM) en una población de usuarios uruguayos. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo, en una población de usuarios de DCM, a través de encuestas telefónicas. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron utilizando Excel®, mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 32 usuarios entre 29 y 78 años, la mayoría de sexo femenino. La forma farmacéutica más utilizada fue el aceite y la principal indicación fue para el tratamiento del dolor. Se observó una disminución en la intensidad del dolor postratamiento. El principal efecto adverso observado fue la sequedad de boca. Conclusiones: es el primer estudio nacional en caracterizar el uso de DCM artesanal. Se incluyeron 32 usuarios de DCM artesanal. La principal indicación de DCM fue para el tratamiento del dolor, siendo la artrosis su principal causa. Todos los usos fueron para indicaciones no aprobadas si se compara con sus equivalentes industrializados. Predominó el uso en mujeres adultas. Se destacó una gran expectativa frente al inicio del uso. Los eventos adversos observados estuvieron dentro de los esperados y de entidad leve.


Summary: Introduction: knowledge on medical cannabis is over 10,000 years old and stems from Asian and Eastern medicine. In recent years, special interest on its therapeutic use has arisen, and in 2013 Uruguay passed a law to regulate possession and use of cannabis plants. Objective: to characterize the use of medicinal cannabis derivatives in a population of Uruguayan users. Method: observational, prospective study in a population of medicinal cannabis derivatives users through telephone surveys. Data obtained were analysed with Excel®, by using descriptive statistics. Results: thirty two users were included in the study, between 29 and 78 years old, most of which were female. The most widely used pharmaceutical form was oil and the main indication was to treat pain. A decline in pain intensity after treatment was observed. The main adverse effect observed was dry mouth. Conclusions: this is the first national study to characterize the use of artisanal medicinal cannabis derivatives. Thirty two users of artisanal medicinal cannabis derivatives were included in the study. The main indication for artisanal medicinal cannabis derivatives was the treatment of pain, arthrosis being the main cause. All users followed non-approved indications if compared to industrialized equivalents. The use was more extended among women. Great expectation upon initiation of use was noticed. Adverse events observed were mild and the expected.


Introdução: o conhecimento da cannabis medicinal remonta a mais de 10.000 anos e tem suas origens no continente asiático e na medicina oriental. Nos últimos tempos, surgiu um interesse especial em seu uso terapêutico e, desde 2013, o Uruguai possui uma lei que regula a posse e o uso da planta de cannabis. Objetivo: caracterizar o uso de derivados de cannabis medicinal (DCM) em uma população de usuários uruguaios. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo, em uma população de usuários de DCM, por meio de inquéritos telefônicos. Os dados obtidos foram analisados ​​no programa Excel®, por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados: foram incluídos 32 usuários entre 29 e 78 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino. A forma farmacêutica mais utilizada foi o óleo e a principal indicação foi para o tratamento da dor. Observou-se diminuição da intensidade da dor pós-tratamento. O principal efeito adverso observado foi boca seca. Conclusões: este é o primeiro estudo nacional a caracterizar o uso de DCM artesanal. Foram incluídos 32 usuários artesanais de DCM. A principal indicação da CMD foi para o tratamento da dor, sendo a osteoartrite sua principal causa. Todos os usos foram para indicações não aprovadas quando comparados aos seus equivalentes industrializados. Predominou o uso em mulheres adultas. Houve uma grande expectativa desde o início do uso. Os eventos adversos observados estavam dentro do esperado e de entidade leve.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Medical Marijuana/therapeutic use , Osteoarthritis , Pain , Uruguay , Population Characteristics
8.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 1-11, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427755

ABSTRACT

Background: Much controversies have been associated with the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma hominis but little has been done to unravel the mystery behind the different views. This study aimed at investigating the genetic variants abounding within M. hominis and the distribution of the virulent genes among the variants. Methodology: Twenty (20) M. hominis isolates from high vaginal swabs of women (11 from pregnant women and 9 from women presenting with infertility) attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Nigeria, were sequenced using 16S rRNA universal gene target for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological typing. The isolates were also screened for the presence of M. hominis variable adherence antigen (vaa) and p120 virulent genes using primer constructs from the respective genes in a conventional PCR protocol. Results: Of the 20 M. hominis vaginal isolates, 4 phylogenetic strains were detected; strain MHS43 constituted 10/20 (50.0%) [2/9 (22.2%) from infertile women and 8/11 (72.7%) from pregnant women]; strain MHBS constituted 3/20 (15%) [3/9 (33.3%) from infertile women and 0/11 (0%) from pregnant women]; strain MHSWP2 constituted 4/20 (20.0%) [3/9 (33.3%) from infertile women and 1/11 (9.1%) from pregnant women]; while strain MHKC87 constituted 3/20 (15%) [1/9 (11.1%) from infertile women and 2/11 (18.2%) from pregnant women].Each of vaa and p120 genes was detected in 14 of 20 isolates, while 6 isolates did not carry the genes. A 2-way ANOVA test showed that none of the genes was significantly associated with a particular strain (p=0.8641). Conclusions: The different views regarding the pathogenicity of M. hominis may be linked to the heterogeneity within the species and lack of homogeneity in the virulent genes as witnessed both in the intra species and intra strain levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycoplasma hominis , Virulence Factors , Sprains and Strains , Virulence , Population Characteristics , Pregnant Women
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e262428, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529203

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a experiência de alguns professores ao lecionar projeto de vida durante a implementação do componente curricular Projeto de Vida no estado de São Paulo. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, de caráter exploratório. Participaram do estudo sete professoras que lecionavam o componente curricular Projeto de Vida em duas escolas públicas, de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo, escolhidas por conveniência. Foram utilizados o Questionário de Dados Sociodemográficos e o Protocolo de Entrevista Semiestruturada para Projeto de Vida de Professores, elaborados para este estudo. As professoras foram entrevistadas individualmente, on-line, e as entrevistas foram gravadas em áudio e vídeo. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise temática. Os resultados indicaram possibilidades e desafios em relação à implementação do componente curricular Projeto de Vida. Constatou- se que a maioria das docentes afirmou que escolheu esse componente curricular devido à necessidade de atingir a carga horária exigida na rede estadual. As professoras criticaram a proposta, os conteúdos e os materiais desse componente curricular. As críticas apresentadas pelas professoras estão em consonância com aquelas presentes na literatura em relação à reforma do Ensino Médio e ao Inova Educação. Esses resultados sugerem a necessidade de formação tanto nos cursos de licenciatura quanto em ações de formação continuada, para que os professores se sintam mais seguros e preparados para lecionar o componente curricular Projeto de Vida na Educação Básica. Propõe-se uma perspectiva de formação pautada na reflexão e na troca entre os pares para a construção de um projeto coletivo da escola para o componente Projeto de Vida.(AU)


This study aimed to know the experience of some teachers when teaching life purpose during the implementation of the curricular component "Life Purpose" (Projeto de Vida) in the state of São Paulo. A qualitative, exploratory research was carried out. Seven teachers who taught the curricular component "Life Purpose" (Projeto de Vida) in two public schools in a city in the inland state of São Paulo, chosen for convenience, participated in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire and the Semi-structured Interview Protocol for Teachers' Life Purposes, developed for this study, were used. The teachers were interviewed individually, online, and the interviews were recorded in audio and video. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results indicated possibilities and challenges regarding the implementation of the Life Purpose curricular component. It was found that most teachers chose this curricular component due to the need to reach the required workload in the state network. The teachers criticized the proposal, the contents and the materials of this curricular component. Teacher's critics are in line with the criticisms present in the literature regarding the reform of High School and Inova Educação. Therefore, training is essential, both in undergraduate courses and in continuing education actions, so that teachers can teach the curricular component Life Purpose in Basic Education. A training perspective based on reflection and exchange between peers is proposed for the construction of a collective school project for the Life Purpose component.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la experiencia de algunos profesores al enseñar proyecto de vida durante la implementación del componente curricular Proyecto de Vida en el estado de São Paulo. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, exploratoria. Participaron en el estudio siete profesores que impartían el componente curricular Proyecto de Vida en dos escuelas públicas en un municipio del estado de São Paulo, elegidos por conveniencia. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos y el protocolo de entrevista semiestructurada para proyectos de vida de profesores, desarrollados para este estudio. Las entrevistas a los profesores fueron en línea, de manera individual, y fueron grabadas en audio y video. Los datos se sometieron a un análisis temático. Los resultados indicaron posibilidades y desafíos en relación a la implementación del componente curricular Proyecto de Vida. La mayoría de los profesores declararon elegir este componente curricular por la necesidad de alcanzar la carga horaria requerida en la red estatal. Los profesionales criticaron la propuesta, los contenidos y los materiales de este componente curricular. Las críticas presentadas están en línea con las críticas presentes en la literatura respecto a la reforma de la educación básica e Inova Educação. Por lo tanto, la formación es fundamental, tanto en los cursos de grado como en las acciones de educación permanente, para que los profesores puedan impartir el componente curricular Proyecto de Vida en la educación básica. Se propone una formación basada en la reflexión y el intercambio entre pares para la construcción de un proyecto escolar colectivo en el componente Proyecto de Vida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Work , Life , Education, Primary and Secondary , Projects , Faculty , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Orientation , Perception , Politics , Problem Solving , Professional Competence , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Aspirations, Psychological , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Self Concept , Self-Evaluation Programs , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Responsibility , Social Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Technology , Thinking , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Mentors , Adaptation, Psychological , Organizational Culture , Family , Schools, Public Health , Adolescent , Employment, Supported , Workplace , Interview , Time Management , Cognition , Concept Formation , Congresses as Topic , Creativity , Disaster Vulnerability , Cultural Characteristics , Culture , Moral Obligations , Decision Making , Education , Education, Professional , Educational Measurement , Employee Incentive Plans , Methodology as a Subject , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Planning , Process Optimization , Pandemics , Remuneration , Hope , Mindfulness , Social Skills , Social Capital , Optimism , Teacher Training , Academic Performance , Freedom , Mentalization , Respect , Teleworking , Interprofessional Education , Social Interaction , COVID-19 , Sociodemographic Factors , Citizenship , Human Development , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Methods
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255410, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529230

ABSTRACT

Com a instauração da política de cotas, ocorreram profundas transformações no perfil dos estudantes das universidades públicas brasileiras. Essa nova composição do corpo discente, com maior representatividade de minorias e/ou estudantes de baixa renda, traz consigo novas demandas relacionadas à saúde mental do estudante. Apesar disso, ainda são escassas as pesquisas que investiguem esse contexto específico. Este estudo visa comparar a saúde mental de estudantes cotistas e não cotistas, avaliando diferenças nas prevalências de sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse entre os dois grupos. Participaram da pesquisa 6.103 estudantes de graduação de uma universidade pública federal, dos quais 2.983 (48,88%) cotistas e 3.120 (51,12%) não cotistas. O levantamento de dados foi feito por meio de questionário on-line contendo questionário sociodemográfico e de hábitos de vida, e pelo Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, na sua versão reduzida de 21 itens (DASS-21), utilizada para avaliar sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Os resultados indicaram que os estudantes cotistas apresentaram maiores prevalências de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade quando comparados aos não cotistas. As áreas de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, e os Bacharelados Interdisciplinares apresentaram maiores diferenças entre os dois grupos em relação a esses problemas em saúde mental. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de que as universidades estejam atentas às novas demandas em saúde mental dos estudantes e que estas sejam contempladas nas políticas de atenção à saúde estudantil.(AU)


With the introduction of the quota policy, profound changes took place in the profile of students in Brazilian public universities. This new composition of the student body, with greater representation of minorities and/or low-income students, brings new demands related to student mental health. Despite this, there are still few studies investigating this specific context. This study aims to compare the mental health of quota and non-quota students, evaluating differences in the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress between the two groups. A total of 6,103 undergraduate students from a federal public university participated in the research, of which 2,983 (48.88%) were quota students and 3,120 (51.12%) were nonquota students. Data collection was carried out via an online questionnaire containing a sociodemographic and lifestyle questionnaire, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, in its reduced version of 21 items (DASS-21) was used to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. The results indicated that quota students had higher prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety when compared to non-quota students. The areas of Exact and Earth Sciences and Interdisciplinary Bachelors were the ones that showed the greatest differences between the two groups in relation to these mental health problems. The results point to the need for universities to be attentive to the new demands in mental health of students and for these to be included in student health care policies.(AU)


Con la introducción de la política de cuotas, se produjeron cambios profundos en el perfil de los estudiantes de las universidades públicas brasileñas. Esta nueva composición del alumnado, con mayor representación de minorías y/o estudiantes de escasos recursos, trae consigo nuevas demandas relacionadas con la salud mental del alumno. Pero todavía existen pocas investigaciones sobre el contexto específico. Este estudio tiene como objetivo comparar la salud mental de los estudiantes beneficiarios de las políticas de cuotas y los no beneficiarios, y evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés entre los dos grupos. En la investigación participaron un total de 6.103 estudiantes de grado de una universidad pública federal, de los cuales 2.983 (48,88%) son estudiantes beneficiarios y 3.120 (51,12%) son estudiantes no beneficiarios. Los datos se recolectaron de un formulario en línea, que estaba compuesto por un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de hábitos de vida, y por la Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés, en su versión reducida de 21 ítems (DASS-21), utilizada para evaluar síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Los resultados destacaron que los estudiantes beneficiarios de las políticas de cuotas tenían una mayor prevalencia de síntomas de depresión y ansiedad en comparación con los estudiantes no beneficiarios. Las áreas de Ciencias Exactas y de la Tierra y Licenciaturas Interdisciplinarias presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos grupos con relación a estos problemas en salud mental. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de que las universidades sean conscientes de las nuevas demandas sobre la salud mental de los estudiantes y de que estas se incluyan en las políticas de atención de la salud estudiantil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Universities , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Prejudice , Professional Competence , Psychology , Psychometrics , Public Policy , School Admission Criteria , Schools , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Justice , Social Mobility , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological , Student Dropouts , Teaching , Violence , Population Characteristics , Black or African American , Career Choice , Family , Illicit Drugs , Poverty Areas , Schools, Public Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Disabled Persons , College Admission Test , Domestic Violence , Cultural Diversity , Statistics , Culture , Democracy , Friends , Racial Groups , Depression , Alcoholic Beverages , Education , Educational Measurement , Equity , Fear , Fellowships and Scholarships , Test Taking Skills , Racism , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Medicalization , Tobacco Products , Social Skills , Sociological Factors , Healthy Lifestyle , Academic Performance , Academic Success , Ethnic Inequality , Social Privilege , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Indigenous Peoples , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Economic Factors , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Sociodemographic Factors , Intersectional Framework , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Social Vulnerability , Quilombola Communities , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Low Socioeconomic Status , Residential Segregation , Hierarchy, Social , Human Rights , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Mental Disorders , Methods , Antidepressive Agents
11.
Buenos Aires; s.n; dic. 2022. 108 p. tab, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1531438

ABSTRACT

Realizar intervenciones sobre el proceso de salud-enfermedad-atención-cuidado representa un desafío constante en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, debido a la diversidad y a la complejidad de escenarios que en ella confluyen. Poder conocer en parte la situación de morbimortalidad y su caracterización, así como una descripción del ámbito donde se desarrollan, es el primer paso para pensar en futuras intervenciones que respondan a las realidades que acontecen a cada rincón de la Ciudad. En el ASIS 2020, al igual que en ediciones anteriores, se persigue el objetivo de poder caracterizar este proceso, incorporando la complejidad de analizar datos recolectados en el contexto de la pandemia de Covid-19. La prevalencia de algunas enfermedades, la respuesta del sistema de salud y el registro de datos sufrió alteraciones debido a las medidas de Aislamiento Social Preventivo y Obligatorio. Por ejemplo, con respecto a esto último el análisis de algunas variables no pudo desagregarse al nivel de comunas, como se hizo en años anteriores ya que, el dato se presentaba sólo a nivel zonal (norte, centro y sur) debido a la muestra recolectada. El presente informe se desarrolla y se coordina desde la Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología del Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, en articulación con diversas áreas del Gobierno de la Ciudad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Population Characteristics , Epidemiology/trends , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Demographic Indicators
12.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391830

ABSTRACT

El estudio de la función pulmonar en los deportistas de alto rendimiento es importante para el correcto manejo del entrenamiento y así evitar la frecuencia de la fatiga muscular respiratoria. Lo anterior reviste mayor importancia en el fútbol, debido al elevado esfuerzo desplegado por los deportistas en sus diferentes posiciones. Determinar el efecto del entrenamiento deportivo sobre la función pulmonar en deportistas de fútbol de la división sub-20 de un equipo deportivo local de la ciudad de Pereira. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con 40 deportistas del equipo de fútbol de la división sub-20 de la ciudad de Pereira, Colombia. A todos se les realizó la prueba de espirometría, donde se identificó su función pulmonar teniendo relevancia en la relación VEF1/CVF. Los resultados encontrados refieren que la posición más frecuente en la población estudiada es la de volante, los parámetros recolectados de la relación VEF1/CVF muestran normalidad de su función pulmonar. Los deportistas de alto rendimiento realizan la ventilación a grandes volúmenes de aire corriente y menor frecuencia respiratoria, debido, al constante estímulo a que someten el centro respiratorio y al desarrollo de los músculos respiratorios aumentando la elasticidad tóraco-pulmonar mejorando la mecánica ventilatoria, favoreciendo por tanto la ventilación alveolar, por tal razón es importante incluir dentro del entrenamiento físico y de acondicionamiento, los ejercicios respiratorios.


The study of lung function in high-performance athletes is important for the correct management of training and thus avoiding the frequency of respiratory muscle fatigue. This is more important in soccer, due to the high effort deployed by athletes in their different positions. To determine the effect of sports training on lung function in soccer athletes from the U20 division of a local sports team in the city of Pereira. A descriptive study was carried out with 40 athletes from the soccer team of the sub20 division of the city of Pereira, Colombia. All of them underwent the spirometry test, where their lung function was identified, having relevance in the FEV1 / CVF relationship. The results found refer that the most frequent position in the study population is that of a steering wheel, the parameters collected from the FEV1 / FVC ratio show normal lung function. High-performance athletes perform ventilation with large volumes of running air and a lower respiratory rate, due to the constant stimulation of the respiratory center and the development of the respiratory muscles, increasing thoracopulmonary elasticity, improving ventilatory mechanics, favoring Both alveolar ventilation, for this reason it is important to include breathing exercises within physical training and conditioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Spirometry , Population Characteristics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Athletic Performance
14.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-8, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382385

ABSTRACT

HPV prevalence in Nigeria has been challenging to quantify given regional population heterogeneity and differences in diagnostic methodology. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 studies, each of which summarized HPV prevalence in women residing in six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated pooled prevalence (effect size) of HPV in Nigeria was 32% (CI: 23-41%). HPV prevalence was 29% (CI: 20-39%) among studies that detected HPV by genotype. HPV prevalence among studies that used serologic detection was 38% (CI: 12-65%). When stratified by region, a study in the South East (SE) geopolitical zone reported the highest prevalence of 71% (CI: 61-80%) while a study in the South South (SS) geopolitical zone reported the lowest prevalence of 4.9% (CI: 3-9%). HPV prevalence in Nigeria was high. Heterogeneity between study regions and differing HPV detection methods both contribute to variation in estimates. Using pooled estimates serves to inform future strategies for epidemiologic surveillance and future design of HPV and cervical cancer prevention initiatives. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:89-96).


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Alphapapillomavirus , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Meta-Analysis
15.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 866-870, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399225

ABSTRACT

Severe theophylline toxicity requiring haemodialysis accounts for approximately one-third of drug toxicity cases admitted to the Livingstone Tertiary Hospital (LTH) intensive care unit (ICU) in Gqeberha, South Africa, imposing a significant resource burden.Objectives. To investigate the characteristics and burden of severe theophylline toxicity in an Eastern Cape Province tertiary hospital adult ICU.Methods. A retrospective review of all severe theophylline toxicity admissions to the ICU from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2018 was conducted. Demographic and clinical data were captured and analysed. The National Department of Health 2019 fees schedule was used to calculate costs based on duration of ICU stay and number of haemodialysis sessions received.Results. Of the 57 patients included in the study, 84% were cases of deliberate self-harm. The majority were aged <40 years (77%) and female (79%). The mean (standard deviation (SD)) initial serum theophylline level was 612 (269) µmol/L. Complications included convulsions (n=12; 21%), arrhythmias (n=9; 16%), need for mechanical ventilation (n=7; 12%) and death (n=4; 7%). The main risk factors for these complications were age ≥30 years, an inappropriately normal or elevated initial serum potassium level, an elevated serum creatinine kinase level and an elevated initial serum theophylline level. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis assessing the initial serum theophylline level as a discriminator for life-threatening complications produced an area under the curve of 0.71 for serum theophylline >400 µmol/L (sensitivity 88%, specificity 12%). All the 4 patients who died had an initial serum theophylline level >1 000 µmol/L. The mean (SD) cost per admission amounted to ZAR16 897 (10 718), with a mean of one 4-hour dialysis session per admission.Conclusion. Severe theophylline toxicity, usually in the context of deliberate self-harm, is a preventable yet life-threatening toxicity encountered at LTH. Demographic risk factors include young females from certain areas in and around Gqeberha. Risk factors for complications include older age, paradoxically normal or elevated serum potassium levels, elevated serum creatinine kinase levels and an initial serum theophylline level >400 µmol/L. Patients with these clinical features should be closely monitored and treated timeously at an appropriate level of care. The need for ICU admission and dialysis, both limited resources, makes the treatment of severe theophylline toxicity costly. Further studies of the underlying psychosocial drivers, local prescribing practices and preventive interventions related to severe theophylline toxicity are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Theophylline , Cost of Illness , Population Characteristics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Critical Care
16.
Brazzaville; World Health Organization. Regional office for Africa; 2022. xii, 31 p. figures, tables.
Monography in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401336
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e238317, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422380

ABSTRACT

A estrutura e o planejamento dos espaços urbanos influenciam a relação pessoa-cidade, na qual a mobilidade urbana representa um importante fator, que impacta diretamente a qualidade de vida dos habitantes, pois implica acesso aos bens e serviços da cidade. Este estudo transversal buscou avaliar os preditores de percepção de qualidade de vida em três grupos de usuários, de acordo com seu modal de transporte prioritário (G1 - veículo particular/aplicativo de carros, G2 - transporte público coletivo e G3 - bicicleta/caminhada). Os participantes foram 417 moradores da cidade de Porto Alegre (RS), com idade entre 18 e 60 anos, pedestres ou que se utilizem de equipamentos de transporte urbano em sua rotina semanal. Os instrumentos contemplaram os blocos: dados sociodemográficos; percepção de qualidade de vida; meios de transporte e avaliação objetiva e afetiva da cidade. A análise de dados foi realizada utilizando-se regressão linear múltipla. Como resultados, foram obtidos três modelos, um para cada grupo. Todos apresentaram, como preditores de percepção de qualidade de vida, motivos para o uso do transporte prioritário e avaliação objetiva da cidade. Os preditores diferentes entre os grupos foram a idade mais elevada (G1); o fato de ter nascido na cidade e uma avaliação afetiva positiva da cidade (G2); e a experiência de relacionamento social devido ao meio de transporte (G3). O estudo contribuiu para um melhor entendimento dos fatores relacionados à mobilidade urbana que influenciam a percepção de qualidade de vida em centros urbanos.(AU)


The structure and planning of urban spaces influence the person-city relationship, in which urban mobility represents an important factor, which directly impacts the quality of life of the inhabitants, since it implies access to the city's goods and services. This cross-sectional study sought to assess the predictors of quality of life perception in three groups of users, according to their priority transportation modal (G1 - private vehicle/ride sharing apps, G2 - public transportation, and G3 - bicycle/walking). The participants were 417 residents of the city of Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul - RS), aged between 18 and 60 years, pedestrians or who use urban transport equipment in their weekly routine. The instruments included: sociodemographic data; perception of quality of life; means of transportation; and objective and affective assessment of the city. Data analysis was performed using multiple linear regression. As a result, three models were obtained, one for each group. All of them presented reasons for using the priority transportation and objective assessment of the city as predictors of quality of life perception. The different predictors between the groups were the highest age (G1); the fact of being born in the city and a positive affective evaluation of the city (G2); and the experience of social relationships due to the means of transportation (G3). The study contributed to a better understanding of the factors related to urban mobility that influence the quality of life perception in urban centers.(AU)


La estructura y la planificación de los espacios urbanos influyen en la relación persona-ciudad, en la que la movilidad urbana representa un factor importante, que tiene un impacto directo en la calidad de vida calidad de vida de los habitantes, ya que implica el acceso a los bienes y servicios de la ciudad. Este estudio transversal buscó evaluar los predictores de la percepción de calidad de vida en tres grupos de usuarios, de acuerdo con su modalidad de transporte prioritario (G1 - vehículo privado, aplicación de automóvil, G2 - transporte público colectivo y G3 - bicicleta/caminar). Los participantes fueron 417 residentes de la ciudad de Porto Alegre (RS), con edades entre 18 y 60 años, peatones o que utilizan equipos de transporte urbano en su rutina semanal. Los instrumentos incluyeron los bloques: datos sociodemográficos; percepción de calidad de vida; medios de transporte y evaluación objetiva y afectiva de la ciudad. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante regresión lineal múltiple. Como resultado, se obtuvieron tres modelos, uno para cada grupo. Todos ellos presentaron, como predictores de percepción de calidad de vida, razones para usar el transporte prioritario y evaluación objetiva de la ciudad. Los predictores distintos entre los grupos fueron la edad más alta (G1); el haber nacido en la ciudad y una evaluación afectiva positiva de la ciudad (G2); y la experiencia de relaciones sociales debido al transporte (G3). El estudio contribuyó a una mejor comprensión de los factores relacionados con la movilidad urbana que influencian la percepción de calidad de vida en los centros urbanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Urban Area , Environmental Psychology , Sustainable Development , Transit-Oriented Development , Architectural Accessibility , Psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological , Transportation , Population Characteristics , Sociodemographic Factors , Growth , Leisure Activities , Life Style , Locomotion
18.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212755, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1254632

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate restorative decisions made by dentists and to examine what demographic characteristics are associated with the decisions for managing approximal and occlusal lesions. Methods: A questionnaire was randomly sent to 900 Palestinian dentists. It noted the demographic details of the dentists and the years of experience. The questionnaire evaluated the respondents for their treatment decisions regarding approximal and occlusal carious lesions. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics for windows. The associations between gender and years of experience of the respondents and their restorative decisions were assessed. Results: The response rate was 58.2%. For occlusal carious lesions, 93.9% of the respondents would postpone operative treatment until the lesion was in dentine (grade 3 to 5). For approximal lesions, intervention was deemed appropriate by 92.6% of the respondents when there was radiographic evidence of a carious lesion reaching the DEJ or deeper. Around 53% preferred to prepare approximal lesions according to the traditional principles of cavity preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants opted for resin composites. Statistically, there was a significant association between the restorative decisions with the years since graduation and gender. Conclusion: The study showed variations between the treatment decisions of Palestinian dentists. The subjects chose conservative treatment plans but still adhered to traditional learned practices especially when cavity preparation for approximal lesions was concerned. The years since graduation and gender played a significant role in the choice of treatment opted for. Resin composites seemed to be a popular choice for treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Population Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Composite Resins , Practice Patterns, Dentists' , Dental Caries , Dental Cavity Preparation
19.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 366-372, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339788

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is an important marker within the aging process, as it reflects the level of independence to perform in the real world. However, there is a scarcity of studies that investigate the different performance profiles among older adults. Objective: To investigate the heterogeneity present in the community of elderly people, grouping them based on characteristics and patterns observed through an objective performance-based assessment. Methods: Participants were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: fluency in Portuguese, 360 years, regular participation in a social program offered by the government of Rio de Janeiro, and absence of a caregiver. The evaluation of IADLs was determined by the total and brief version of the University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) and the Lawton and Brody IADL scale. The Brief Cognitive Screening Battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used to characterize the sample, in addition to the Geriatric Depression Scale. A total of 61 elderly people with an average age of 72.5 years, predominantly females (85.2%), and average education of 11.2 were evaluated and grouped according to their performance at UPSA through clustering analysis. Results: The analysis revealed three grouping patterns, subdividing the sample into subgroups that differed significantly in terms of age, education, global cognition, and all instrumental activities assessed by UPSA — planning, finance, communication, transportation, and household chores. Conclusions: This study was able to identify the heterogeneity present between the elderly people in the different factors that compose the IADLs through a performance-based assessment.


RESUMO A capacidade para realização das atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs) é um importante marcador no envelhecimento, uma vez que reflete o grau de independência para atuação no mundo real. No entanto, há uma escassez de estudos que se proponham a investigar os diferentes perfis de desempenho entre idosos. Objetivo: Investigar a heterogeneidade presente em idosos da comunidade, agrupando-os a partir de características e padrões observados através de uma avaliação objetiva baseada em desempenho. Métodos: Participantes foram selecionados conforme critérios de inclusão: ter fluência no Português; ter 60 ou mais anos; participar de forma regular no programa de casas de convivência do Rio de Janeiro e não possuir cuidador. A avaliação das AIVDs foi determinada pela versão total e breve do The University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) e pela escala AIVD de Lawton e Brody. A Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo e o Miniexame do Estado Mental foram utilizados para caracterização da amostra, além da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. Um total de 61 idosos com idade média de 72,5 anos, predominantemente do sexo feminino (85,2%) e escolaridade média de 11,2 foram avaliados e agrupados de acordo com o seu desempenho no UPSA por meio de uma análise de cluster. Resultados: A análise revelou três padrões de agrupamento, subdividindo a amostra em subgrupos que se diferenciaram significativamente em termos de idade, escolaridade, cognição global e todas as atividades instrumentais avaliadas pelo UPSA — planejamento, finanças, comunicação, transporte e habilidades domésticas. Conclusões: O presente estudo foi capaz de identificar a heterogeneidade presente na população idosa entre os diferentes fatores que compõe as AIVDs por meio de uma avaliação baseada em desempenho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population Characteristics , Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Cluster Analysis
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(2): 192-201, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La anemia en el embarazo persiste como un problema de salud pública y varía según características propias en cada población. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas en Perú. MÉTODO: Estudio analítico transversal de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) de 2019. Se incluyeron las mujeres embarazadas que participaron en la encuesta poblacional. Se analizaron las características sociales y demográficas asociados a la anemia, mediante análisis bivariado y análisis de regresión logística múltiple, procesados en el software estadístico R. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron datos de 1090 mujeres embarazadas, 28,3% presento anemia. En el análisis bivariado, se evidencio asociación entre anemia y región geográfica, nivel educativo, edad y tener seguro de salud (p<0,05). En el análisis multivariado, se evidencio que la anemia se encuentra asociada al nivel educativo de primaria (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secundaria (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), edad de 15 a 18 años (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), edad mayor a 35 años (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), no tener seguro de salud (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas fue del 28,3%. Los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas fueron la edad de 15 a 18 años, edad tardía de 35 años a más, tener un bajo nivel educativo y no contar con un seguro de salud. Estos factores evidenciaron asociación con anemia en mujeres embarazadas, estando ajustados por otras características como región geográfica, quintil de riqueza y lugar de residencia. Se requieren de más estudios que permiten analizar los resultados según temporalidad en la población con independencia de otros factores asociados.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Anemia in pregnancy persists as a public health problem and varies according to specific characteristics in each population. The purpose was to determine the social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women in Peru. METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES). The study included data on pregnant women. The social and demographic characteristics associated with anemia were analyzed using bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, processed in the R statistical software. RESULT: Data from 1 090 women were analyzed; 28.3% had anemia. Bivariate analysis showed an association between anemia and geographical region, educational level, age and health insurance (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, anemia was associated with the educational level of primary (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secondary (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), age from 15 to 18 years (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), age over 35 years (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), not having health insurance (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was 28.3%. The social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women were age 15-18, late age to 35, low educational level and lack of health insurance; regardless of geographical region, wealth quintile and place of residence. More studies are needed to analyze the results according to temporality in the population, independently of other associated factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Demography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Age Distribution , Insurance, Health
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