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1.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 21-27, ene.-mar. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391830

ABSTRACT

El estudio de la función pulmonar en los deportistas de alto rendimiento es importante para el correcto manejo del entrenamiento y así evitar la frecuencia de la fatiga muscular respiratoria. Lo anterior reviste mayor importancia en el fútbol, debido al elevado esfuerzo desplegado por los deportistas en sus diferentes posiciones. Determinar el efecto del entrenamiento deportivo sobre la función pulmonar en deportistas de fútbol de la división sub-20 de un equipo deportivo local de la ciudad de Pereira. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con 40 deportistas del equipo de fútbol de la división sub-20 de la ciudad de Pereira, Colombia. A todos se les realizó la prueba de espirometría, donde se identificó su función pulmonar teniendo relevancia en la relación VEF1/CVF. Los resultados encontrados refieren que la posición más frecuente en la población estudiada es la de volante, los parámetros recolectados de la relación VEF1/CVF muestran normalidad de su función pulmonar. Los deportistas de alto rendimiento realizan la ventilación a grandes volúmenes de aire corriente y menor frecuencia respiratoria, debido, al constante estímulo a que someten el centro respiratorio y al desarrollo de los músculos respiratorios aumentando la elasticidad tóraco-pulmonar mejorando la mecánica ventilatoria, favoreciendo por tanto la ventilación alveolar, por tal razón es importante incluir dentro del entrenamiento físico y de acondicionamiento, los ejercicios respiratorios.


The study of lung function in high-performance athletes is important for the correct management of training and thus avoiding the frequency of respiratory muscle fatigue. This is more important in soccer, due to the high effort deployed by athletes in their different positions. To determine the effect of sports training on lung function in soccer athletes from the U20 division of a local sports team in the city of Pereira. A descriptive study was carried out with 40 athletes from the soccer team of the sub20 division of the city of Pereira, Colombia. All of them underwent the spirometry test, where their lung function was identified, having relevance in the FEV1 / CVF relationship. The results found refer that the most frequent position in the study population is that of a steering wheel, the parameters collected from the FEV1 / FVC ratio show normal lung function. High-performance athletes perform ventilation with large volumes of running air and a lower respiratory rate, due to the constant stimulation of the respiratory center and the development of the respiratory muscles, increasing thoracopulmonary elasticity, improving ventilatory mechanics, favoring Both alveolar ventilation, for this reason it is important to include breathing exercises within physical training and conditioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Spirometry , Population Characteristics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Athletic Performance
2.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 866-870, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399225

ABSTRACT

Severe theophylline toxicity requiring haemodialysis accounts for approximately one-third of drug toxicity cases admitted to the Livingstone Tertiary Hospital (LTH) intensive care unit (ICU) in Gqeberha, South Africa, imposing a significant resource burden.Objectives. To investigate the characteristics and burden of severe theophylline toxicity in an Eastern Cape Province tertiary hospital adult ICU.Methods. A retrospective review of all severe theophylline toxicity admissions to the ICU from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2018 was conducted. Demographic and clinical data were captured and analysed. The National Department of Health 2019 fees schedule was used to calculate costs based on duration of ICU stay and number of haemodialysis sessions received.Results. Of the 57 patients included in the study, 84% were cases of deliberate self-harm. The majority were aged <40 years (77%) and female (79%). The mean (standard deviation (SD)) initial serum theophylline level was 612 (269) µmol/L. Complications included convulsions (n=12; 21%), arrhythmias (n=9; 16%), need for mechanical ventilation (n=7; 12%) and death (n=4; 7%). The main risk factors for these complications were age ≥30 years, an inappropriately normal or elevated initial serum potassium level, an elevated serum creatinine kinase level and an elevated initial serum theophylline level. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis assessing the initial serum theophylline level as a discriminator for life-threatening complications produced an area under the curve of 0.71 for serum theophylline >400 µmol/L (sensitivity 88%, specificity 12%). All the 4 patients who died had an initial serum theophylline level >1 000 µmol/L. The mean (SD) cost per admission amounted to ZAR16 897 (10 718), with a mean of one 4-hour dialysis session per admission.Conclusion. Severe theophylline toxicity, usually in the context of deliberate self-harm, is a preventable yet life-threatening toxicity encountered at LTH. Demographic risk factors include young females from certain areas in and around Gqeberha. Risk factors for complications include older age, paradoxically normal or elevated serum potassium levels, elevated serum creatinine kinase levels and an initial serum theophylline level >400 µmol/L. Patients with these clinical features should be closely monitored and treated timeously at an appropriate level of care. The need for ICU admission and dialysis, both limited resources, makes the treatment of severe theophylline toxicity costly. Further studies of the underlying psychosocial drivers, local prescribing practices and preventive interventions related to severe theophylline toxicity are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Theophylline , Cost of Illness , Population Characteristics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Critical Care
3.
Brazzaville; World Health Organization. Regional office for Africa; 2022. xii, 31 p. figures, tables.
Monography in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401336
4.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-8, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382385

ABSTRACT

HPV prevalence in Nigeria has been challenging to quantify given regional population heterogeneity and differences in diagnostic methodology. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 studies, each of which summarized HPV prevalence in women residing in six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The estimated pooled prevalence (effect size) of HPV in Nigeria was 32% (CI: 23-41%). HPV prevalence was 29% (CI: 20-39%) among studies that detected HPV by genotype. HPV prevalence among studies that used serologic detection was 38% (CI: 12-65%). When stratified by region, a study in the South East (SE) geopolitical zone reported the highest prevalence of 71% (CI: 61-80%) while a study in the South South (SS) geopolitical zone reported the lowest prevalence of 4.9% (CI: 3-9%). HPV prevalence in Nigeria was high. Heterogeneity between study regions and differing HPV detection methods both contribute to variation in estimates. Using pooled estimates serves to inform future strategies for epidemiologic surveillance and future design of HPV and cervical cancer prevention initiatives. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:89-96).


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Alphapapillomavirus , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Meta-Analysis
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212755, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254632

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate restorative decisions made by dentists and to examine what demographic characteristics are associated with the decisions for managing approximal and occlusal lesions. Methods: A questionnaire was randomly sent to 900 Palestinian dentists. It noted the demographic details of the dentists and the years of experience. The questionnaire evaluated the respondents for their treatment decisions regarding approximal and occlusal carious lesions. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics for windows. The associations between gender and years of experience of the respondents and their restorative decisions were assessed. Results: The response rate was 58.2%. For occlusal carious lesions, 93.9% of the respondents would postpone operative treatment until the lesion was in dentine (grade 3 to 5). For approximal lesions, intervention was deemed appropriate by 92.6% of the respondents when there was radiographic evidence of a carious lesion reaching the DEJ or deeper. Around 53% preferred to prepare approximal lesions according to the traditional principles of cavity preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants opted for resin composites. Statistically, there was a significant association between the restorative decisions with the years since graduation and gender. Conclusion: The study showed variations between the treatment decisions of Palestinian dentists. The subjects chose conservative treatment plans but still adhered to traditional learned practices especially when cavity preparation for approximal lesions was concerned. The years since graduation and gender played a significant role in the choice of treatment opted for. Resin composites seemed to be a popular choice for treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Population Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Composite Resins , Practice Patterns, Dentists' , Dental Caries , Dental Cavity Preparation
7.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 366-372, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339788

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is an important marker within the aging process, as it reflects the level of independence to perform in the real world. However, there is a scarcity of studies that investigate the different performance profiles among older adults. Objective: To investigate the heterogeneity present in the community of elderly people, grouping them based on characteristics and patterns observed through an objective performance-based assessment. Methods: Participants were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: fluency in Portuguese, 360 years, regular participation in a social program offered by the government of Rio de Janeiro, and absence of a caregiver. The evaluation of IADLs was determined by the total and brief version of the University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) and the Lawton and Brody IADL scale. The Brief Cognitive Screening Battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used to characterize the sample, in addition to the Geriatric Depression Scale. A total of 61 elderly people with an average age of 72.5 years, predominantly females (85.2%), and average education of 11.2 were evaluated and grouped according to their performance at UPSA through clustering analysis. Results: The analysis revealed three grouping patterns, subdividing the sample into subgroups that differed significantly in terms of age, education, global cognition, and all instrumental activities assessed by UPSA — planning, finance, communication, transportation, and household chores. Conclusions: This study was able to identify the heterogeneity present between the elderly people in the different factors that compose the IADLs through a performance-based assessment.


RESUMO A capacidade para realização das atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs) é um importante marcador no envelhecimento, uma vez que reflete o grau de independência para atuação no mundo real. No entanto, há uma escassez de estudos que se proponham a investigar os diferentes perfis de desempenho entre idosos. Objetivo: Investigar a heterogeneidade presente em idosos da comunidade, agrupando-os a partir de características e padrões observados através de uma avaliação objetiva baseada em desempenho. Métodos: Participantes foram selecionados conforme critérios de inclusão: ter fluência no Português; ter 60 ou mais anos; participar de forma regular no programa de casas de convivência do Rio de Janeiro e não possuir cuidador. A avaliação das AIVDs foi determinada pela versão total e breve do The University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) e pela escala AIVD de Lawton e Brody. A Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo e o Miniexame do Estado Mental foram utilizados para caracterização da amostra, além da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. Um total de 61 idosos com idade média de 72,5 anos, predominantemente do sexo feminino (85,2%) e escolaridade média de 11,2 foram avaliados e agrupados de acordo com o seu desempenho no UPSA por meio de uma análise de cluster. Resultados: A análise revelou três padrões de agrupamento, subdividindo a amostra em subgrupos que se diferenciaram significativamente em termos de idade, escolaridade, cognição global e todas as atividades instrumentais avaliadas pelo UPSA — planejamento, finanças, comunicação, transporte e habilidades domésticas. Conclusões: O presente estudo foi capaz de identificar a heterogeneidade presente na população idosa entre os diferentes fatores que compõe as AIVDs por meio de uma avaliação baseada em desempenho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population Characteristics , Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Cluster Analysis
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(2): 192-201, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La anemia en el embarazo persiste como un problema de salud pública y varía según características propias en cada población. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas en Perú. MÉTODO: Estudio analítico transversal de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) de 2019. Se incluyeron las mujeres embarazadas que participaron en la encuesta poblacional. Se analizaron las características sociales y demográficas asociados a la anemia, mediante análisis bivariado y análisis de regresión logística múltiple, procesados en el software estadístico R. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron datos de 1090 mujeres embarazadas, 28,3% presento anemia. En el análisis bivariado, se evidencio asociación entre anemia y región geográfica, nivel educativo, edad y tener seguro de salud (p<0,05). En el análisis multivariado, se evidencio que la anemia se encuentra asociada al nivel educativo de primaria (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secundaria (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), edad de 15 a 18 años (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), edad mayor a 35 años (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), no tener seguro de salud (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas fue del 28,3%. Los factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la anemia en mujeres embarazadas fueron la edad de 15 a 18 años, edad tardía de 35 años a más, tener un bajo nivel educativo y no contar con un seguro de salud. Estos factores evidenciaron asociación con anemia en mujeres embarazadas, estando ajustados por otras características como región geográfica, quintil de riqueza y lugar de residencia. Se requieren de más estudios que permiten analizar los resultados según temporalidad en la población con independencia de otros factores asociados.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Anemia in pregnancy persists as a public health problem and varies according to specific characteristics in each population. The purpose was to determine the social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women in Peru. METHOD: Analytical cross-sectional study of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES). The study included data on pregnant women. The social and demographic characteristics associated with anemia were analyzed using bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, processed in the R statistical software. RESULT: Data from 1 090 women were analyzed; 28.3% had anemia. Bivariate analysis showed an association between anemia and geographical region, educational level, age and health insurance (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, anemia was associated with the educational level of primary (OR=1,96; IC: 1,18-3,28), secondary (OR=2,0; IC95%: 1,42-2,82), age from 15 to 18 years (OR=2,35; IC95%: 1,33-4,14), age over 35 years (OR=1,51; IC95%: 1,06-2,16), not having health insurance (OR=1,82; IC95%: 1,19-2,79). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was 28.3%. The social and demographic factors associated with anemia in pregnant women were age 15-18, late age to 35, low educational level and lack of health insurance; regardless of geographical region, wealth quintile and place of residence. More studies are needed to analyze the results according to temporality in the population, independently of other associated factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Demography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Age Distribution , Insurance, Health
9.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0168, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347236

ABSTRACT

Esse artigo analisa o impacto de política fiscal e de seguridade social em presença de bônus demográfico num modelo de equilíbrio geral dinâmico com agentes se comportando de acordo com a hipótese do ciclo da vida. Permitindo uma estrutura demográfica não estacionária, sob a hipótese do ciclo da vida, o modelo teórico captura o impacto da política fiscal e de seguridade social sobre a distribuição de renda durante a fase de bônus demográfico. O método de análise se baseia em técnicas de economia computacional para simular choques demográficos a partir do equilíbrio estacionário do modelo. O crescimento provisório da parcela da população correspondente aos trabalhadores causa aumento da poupança e redução da taxa de juros. Já o estoque de capital segue uma trajetória em forma de U invertido, tal como sugerido na literatura. A políticas que elevam o grau de contribuição da seguridade social são ferramentas de estímulo ao consumo e à redistribuição da renda em favor dos aposentados. A principal contribuição do artigo é fornecer uma análise das implicações macroeconômicas do bônus demográfico a partir de um modelo teórico com fundamentos microeconômicos para as decisões de consumo e acumulação de ativos.


This paper analyzes the impact of fiscal and social security policies in the presence of demographic bonuses in a dynamic general equilibrium model with life cycle hypothesis. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Gertler (1999), but allowing a non-stationary demographic structure, the context of the demographic bonus was captured to infer the impact of tax and social security policy on income distribution during the demographic bonus phase. The results of the simulations indicate that the temporary increase in the share of workers in the population generates an increase in savings and a reduction in interest rates, while the behavior of the capital stock in the economy showed that the trajectory is an inverted U shape, as already suggested in the literature. In addition, it was seen that policies increasing the degree of social security contribution are tools to stimulate consumption and income redistribution in favor of retirees. The contribution of the paper is the analysis of macroeconomics implications of a demographic dividend with investment and fully microfounded consumption decisions.


Este artículo analiza el impacto de la política fiscal y previsional ante la presencia de bonos demográficos en un modelo dinámico de equilibrio general con agentes comportándose según la hipótesis del ciclo de vida. Con base en el marco teórico propuesto por Gertler (1999), pero permitiendo una estructura demográfica no estacionaria, se capturó el contexto del bono demográfico para inferir sobre el impacto de la política fiscal y previsional sobre la distribución del ingreso durante la fase del bono demográfico. Los resultados de las simulaciones indican que el aumento temporal de la participación de los trabajadores en la población genera un aumento del ahorro y una reducción de las tasas de interés, mientras que el comportamiento del stock de capital en la economía mostró que la trayectoria es en forma de U invertida, como ya se ha sugerido en la literatura. Además, se observó que las políticas que aumentan el grado de cotización a la seguridad social son herramientas para estimular el consumo y la redistribución del ingreso a favor de los jubilados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Welfare , Population Characteristics , Demography , Life Cycle Stages , Economics , Fiscal Policy , Sustainable Development , Economic Factors
10.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0170, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341118

ABSTRACT

Na sequência da integração europeia, os fluxos migratórios portugueses foram diminuindo, de tal forma que, na viragem do século, acreditou-se que Portugal tinha passado de "país de emigrantes" para "país de imigrantes". Com efeito, nas últimas décadas do século XX, Portugal atraiu inclusive cidadãos do país que, tradicionalmente, recebeu as mais significativas levas de expatriados portugueses (o Brasil) e, no contexto global, passou a integrar o conjunto de países atrativos para os migrantes económicos. Não obstante, a recente crise económica que pautou os primeiros anos do século XXI veio pôr a descoberto que essa realidade não estava solidificada, pelo menos não tanto como alguns cientistas sociais defenderam. Isto porque novos fluxos migratórios emergiram no território nacional, particularmente visíveis em áreas de baixa densidade, como é o caso da maior parte do distrito da Guarda. Neste trabalho, tendo como pano de fundo a região da Guarda, procuram-se equacionar "as molas impulsionadoras" que estão, novamente, a impelir estes portugueses a procurarem melhores condições de vida longe do país, na tentativa de perceber até que ponto estes novos fluxos migratórios têm uma génese comum aos que os precederam ou se, pelo contrário, têm configurações particulares que os individualizam no panorama migratório português.


As a result of European integration, Portuguese migratory flows decreased in such a way that, at the turn of the century, it was believed that Portugal had gone from being a "country of emigrants" to "country of immigrants". Indeed, in the last decades of the twentieth century, Portugal even attracted citizens of the country which traditionally received the most significant waves of Portuguese expatriates (Brazil) and, in the global context, became part of the set of countries attractive to economic migrants. However, the recent economic crisis that marked the first years of the 21st century has revealed this reality was not consolidated, at least not as much as some social scientists have argued. This is because new migratory flows have emerged in the national territory, particularly visible in low density territories as is the case in most of the district of Guarda. In this work, with the Guarda region as a backdrop, we seek to equate "the driving springs" that are, once again, impelling these Portuguese to seek better living conditions away from the country, in an attempt to understand the extent to which these new migratory flows have a common genesis to those who preceded them or, whether, on the contrary, they have particular configurations that individualize them in the Portuguese migratory panorama.


Como resultado de la integración europea, los flujos migratorios portugueses disminuyeron, por lo que, a principios de siglo, se creía que Portugal había pasado de ser un país de emigrantes a uno de inmigrantes. De hecho, en las últimas décadas del siglo XX, Portugal atrajo incluso a ciudadanos del país que tradicionalmente había recibido las olas más significativas de expatriados portugueses (Brasil) y, en el contexto global, se convirtió en parte del conjunto de países atractivos para los migrantes económicos. Sin embargo, la reciente crisis económica que marcó los primeros años del siglo XXI reveló que esta realidad no se ha solidificado, al menos no tanto como algunos científicos sociales han argumentado. Esto se debe a que han surgido nuevos flujos migratorios en el territorio nacional, particularmente visibles en los territorios de baja densidad, como en la mayor parte del distrito de Guarda. En este artículo, con la región de Guarda como telón de fondo, buscamos combinar los resortes impulsores que, una vez más, están llevando a estos portugueses a buscar mejores condiciones de vida fuera del país, en un intento por comprender en qué medida estos nuevos flujos de migrantes tienen una génesis común a quienes los precedieron o si, por el contrario, tienen configuraciones particulares que los individualizan en el panorama migratorio portugués.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transients and Migrants , Emigrants and Immigrants/history , Portugal , Social Conditions , Sociology , Work , Population Characteristics , Demography/history
12.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 138-147, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150021

ABSTRACT

Resumen. Introducción: El parto pretérmino es uno de los principales problemas de la salud infantil. Es la principal causa de mortalidad infantil en los países en vía de desarrollo. Los últimos 20 años ha venido en aumento en el mundo por diferentes causas. Conocer su tendencia y características poblacionales es un elemento útil para su atención. Objetivo: Describir las características poblacionales asociados al parto pretérmino en Colombia desde los datos del Registro del Nacido Vivo en la década 2008 - 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo ecológico a partir de fuentes segundarias: microdatos de Estadísticas Vitales del DANE; información almacenada en el programa Excel de Microsoft Office®. Análisis de las variables tiempo/lugar/persona en el programa estadístico SPSS™ mediante estadística descriptiva, análisis de asociación utilizando el estadístico Ji-cuadrado y el coeficiente de correlación Phi para la asociación estadística entre variables. Resultados. Fueron analizados 6.705.385 registros de nacidos vivos, 1.277.839 correspondientes a parto hasta las 37 semanas de gestación. Prevalencia del 19% de todos los años. Departamentos con mayor tasa de prematuros: Atlántico, Bogotá, Antioquía y Santander. No se encontró una asociación fuerte con los datos del registro del nacido vivo. Conclusiones: Existe déficit de información acerca del parto pretérmino en aspectos de datos completos y accesibles a los investigadores. La información no es homogénea ni sigue parámetros específicos. El registro de nacido vivo, sin embargo, es un excelente instrumento de recolección de datos poblacionales y base de aproximación al evento.


Abstract Background: Preterm birth is one of the main problems in infant health and it is the leading cause of infant mortality in developing countries. During the last 20 years this particularity has been increasing in the world for different reasons. Knowing its trend and population characteristics is a useful element for its attention. Objectives: To describe the population characteristics associated with preterm birth in Colombia from the data of the Live Birth Registry in the decade 2008 - 2017. Methods: Descriptive ecological study using secondary sources such us Vital Statistics microdata from DANE; information stored in the Microsoft Office® Excel program. Also, the analysis of the time/place/person variables in the SPSS ™ statistical program through descriptive statistics, and association analysis using the Chi-square statistic and the Phi correlation coefficient for the statistical association between variables was implemented. Results: 6,705,385 records from live-born registry were analyzed. 1,277,839 corresponded to preterm birth up to 37 weeks of gestation with 19% of prevalence all years. The departments with the highest rate of premature infants were Atlántico, Bogotá, Antioquia, and Santander. No strong association was found with live birth registry data. Conclusions: There is lack of complete and accessible information to researchers related to preterm birth. The data is not homogeneous and does not follow specific parameters. However, the live-born registry is an excellent instrument for collecting population data and a useful basis for approaching this event.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vital Statistics , Parturition , Premature Birth , Live Birth , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Population Characteristics , Registries , Infant Mortality , Colombia , Reference Standards
13.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

ABSTRACT

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Population Characteristics , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Maternal Mortality , Epigenomics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Malnutrition , Nutritional Transition
14.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(4)20200000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368003

ABSTRACT

Estudio Descriptivo. Análisis y comparación de las características de la población que concurrió al Servicio de Medicina Legal del Hospital Nacional A. Posadas, a renovar sus pensiones asistenciales a través de la confección del Certificado Médico Oficial Digital, en el año 2019, y comparándolas con las renovaciones a nivel nacional ocurridas en el año 2014


Descriptive Study. Analysis and comparison of the population´s characteristics who concur to the Legal Medicine Service at the National Hospital A. Posadas, to renovate their welfare pensions through the confection of the Digital Official Medical Certificate, year 2019, and comparing them with the national renovations which happened in 2014


Subject(s)
Humans , Pensions/statistics & numerical data , Population Characteristics , Certificate of Need/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Forensic Medicine
15.
Psico USF ; 25(1): 139-154, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135708

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de dados sociodemográficos sobre o nível de resiliência de uma parcela da população brasileira. Para tanto, contou-se com uma amostra nacional não probabilística composta por 2.038 participantes, que responderam à Escala de Resiliência desenvolvida por Wagnild e Young. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e bivarida com auxílio do software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Entre os resultados, verificou-se uma média geral baixa nos índices de resiliência (M = 124,60; DP = 22,69). Constatou-se também indicativos de que pessoas com determinadas características sociodemográficas têm maior tendência à resiliência: pessoas com religião, com maior nível de escolaridade, divorciados/casados, aposentados, sem piercing, não fumante, sem histórico de desistência ou repetição em anos escolares. Conclui-se que tais características podem estar relacionadas à capacidade da pessoa ser resiliente, mas não ser determinante, no nível de resiliência. Essas informações são primordiais para compreender os fatores que predispõem à resiliência da população. (AU)


The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of sociodemographic data on the level of resilience of a portion of the Brazilian population. For this purpose, a non-probabilistic national sample composed of 2,038 participants answered the Resilience Scale developed by Wagnild and Young. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics with the help of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software. Among the results, there was a low overall mean in resilience indices (M = 124.60, SD = 22.69). There were also indications that people with certain sociodemographic characteristics tend to be more resilient: people who are religious, with a higher education level, divorced / married, retired, without piercing, non- smoker, without a history of dropout or repetition in school years. It can be concluded that such characteristics may be related to a person's ability to be resilient, but not determinant, in the level of resilience. This information is essential to understand the factors that predispose the population to resilience. (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de datos sociodemográficos sobre el nivel de resiliencia de una parte de la población brasileña. Para ello, se contó con una muestra nacional no probabilística compuesta por 2.038 participantes, que respondieron la Escala de Resiliencia desarrollada por Wagnild y Young. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva y bivariada con ayuda del software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Entre los resultados, se constató un promedio general bajo en los índices de resiliencia (M = 124,60, DP = 22,69). Se verificaron también indicativos de que personas con determinadas características sociodemográficas tienen mayor tendencia a resiliencia: personas con religión, con mayor nivel de escolaridad, divorciados / casados, jubilados, sin piercing, no fumadores, sin histórico de desistencia o repetición de años escolares. Se concluye que tales características pueden estar relacionadas con la capacidad de la persona de ser resistente, pero no ser determinante, a nivel de resiliencia. Estas informaciones son primordiales para comprender los factores que predisponen la resiliencia de la población. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Characteristics , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has remained controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of NACT versus primary debulking surgery (PDS) in patients with EOC.METHODS: PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were queried to assess the therapeutic value of NACT versus PDS in EOC. Electronic databases were queried by using the keywords “ovarian cancer/neoplasms”, “primary debulking surgery”, and “neoadjuvant chemotherapy”.RESULTS: The available trials were pooled, and hazard ratios (HRs), relative risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined. Sixteen trials involving 57,450 participants with EOC (NACT, 9,475; PDS, 47,975) were evaluated. We found that NACT resulted in markedly decreased overall survival than PDS in patients with EOC (HR=1.30; 95% CI=1.13–1.49; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=82.7%). Furthermore, our results demonstrated that the NACT group displayed increased completeness of debulking removal (RR=1.69, 95% CI=1.32–2.17; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=81.9%), and reduced risk of postsurgical death (RR=0.18, 95% CI=0.06–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.698, ²=0%) and major infection (RR=0.29, 95% CI=0.17–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.777, ²=0%) compared with patients administered PDS.CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that NACT results in increased completeness of debulking removal, and reduced risk of postsurgical death and major infection compared with PDS, while PDS is associated with improved survival in comparison with NACT in EOC patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42019120625


Subject(s)
Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms , Population Characteristics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811195

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aberrant glycosylation of the histo-blood group antigens (including the angina bullosa haemorrhagica [ABH]) is often observed during malignant transformation in most types of carcinomas. Data concerning their ethnic distributions are diverse which explains why their biological characteristics have to be studied in different populations. Our aim was to analyze the expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens was studied in 109 patients with breast carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using χ² and Fisher analyses.RESULTS: The loss of expression of histo-blood group (ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma was observed in 81.13% of patients with blood group O, 37.93% with blood group A, and 96.30% with blood group B. One key finding of this study was that the loss of expression of the ABH antigen was also observed in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. The loss of expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p < 0.05). Expression of H antigen was observed in 50% of cases with loss of expression of B antigen and was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression (p < 0.05). The loss of H antigen in patients with blood group O was associated with estrogen receptor expression (p < 0.001). Incompatible A antigen in tumor was expressed in 20.75% of patients with blood group O.CONCLUSION: Loss of the ABH antigens correlated with the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. H antigen was associated with HER2 overexpression in breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of incompatible A antigen in mammary carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Estrogens , Glycosylation , Histocompatibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors
18.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
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