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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

ABSTRACT

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Population Characteristics , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Maternal Mortality , Epigenomics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Malnutrition , Nutritional Transition
2.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has remained controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of NACT versus primary debulking surgery (PDS) in patients with EOC.METHODS: PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were queried to assess the therapeutic value of NACT versus PDS in EOC. Electronic databases were queried by using the keywords “ovarian cancer/neoplasms”, “primary debulking surgery”, and “neoadjuvant chemotherapy”.RESULTS: The available trials were pooled, and hazard ratios (HRs), relative risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined. Sixteen trials involving 57,450 participants with EOC (NACT, 9,475; PDS, 47,975) were evaluated. We found that NACT resulted in markedly decreased overall survival than PDS in patients with EOC (HR=1.30; 95% CI=1.13–1.49; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=82.7%). Furthermore, our results demonstrated that the NACT group displayed increased completeness of debulking removal (RR=1.69, 95% CI=1.32–2.17; heterogeneity: p<0.001, ²=81.9%), and reduced risk of postsurgical death (RR=0.18, 95% CI=0.06–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.698, ²=0%) and major infection (RR=0.29, 95% CI=0.17–0.51; heterogeneity: p=0.777, ²=0%) compared with patients administered PDS.CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicated that NACT results in increased completeness of debulking removal, and reduced risk of postsurgical death and major infection compared with PDS, while PDS is associated with improved survival in comparison with NACT in EOC patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42019120625


Subject(s)
Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms , Population Characteristics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782513

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric coronavirus that causes diarrhea in piglets. However, the biological characteristics of PDCoV are unclear. In this study, the hemagglutination (HA) abilities of two PDCoV strains (CH-01 and HNZK-04) were investigated. Our results showed that PDCoV has the ability to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes after virion pretreatment with trypsin or neuraminidase. Additionally, the HA assay results showed a significant positive correlation with the infectious viral titer. Our results suggest that assessing the HA activity of PDCoV may be a useful diagnostic method for investigating and surveilling PDCoV infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Diarrhea , Erythrocytes , Hemagglutination , Methods , Neuraminidase , Population Characteristics , Swine , Trypsin , Virion
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) has been the most significant pathogen for liver abscesses in East Asia including the Republic of Korea (ROK). Although gastrointestinal colonization of K. pneumoniae may cross the intestinal barrier to invade the liver, characteristics of gastrointestinal carriage K. pneumoniae of hvKP liver abscess patients in the ROK are not well known.METHODS: Characteristics of K. pneumoniae isolated from stool samples and liver aspirate samples of patients with hvKP liver abscess at a tertiary care hospital in the ROK between 2017 and 2018 were evaluated.RESULTS: Out of 37 patients with hvKP liver abscess, 11 patients were noted to have K. pneumoniae isolated from stool samples and were enrolled for analysis. The median age was 71 years. For hvKP isolates from the liver aspirate samples, the most common serotype was K1 (72.7%) followed by K2 (27.3%). For K. pneumoniae isolates from the stool sample, the majority was non-K1/K2 serotype (72.7%). Among non-K1/K2 serotype isolates, high variability of sequence type (ST; ST15, ST307, ST37, ST273, ST2622, and ST42) with high rate of presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (100.0%) was noted. The concordance rate of the K. pneumoniae isolates between the liver aspirate samples and the stool samples from the primary hvKP liver abscess was low (27.3%).CONCLUSION: This study suggests that significant heterogeneity of K. pneumoniae colonizing intestinal tract of the hvKP liver abscess patients. Further studies involving a larger number of hvKP liver abscess patients with continuing surveillance are needed to define the changing epidemiology and the role of gastrointestinal K. pneumoniae in the hvKP liver abscess patients in the ROK.


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases , Colon , Epidemiology , Far East , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Liver Abscess , Liver , Pneumonia , Population Characteristics , Republic of Korea , Serogroup , Tertiary Healthcare
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.RESULTS: We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.CONCLUSION: Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Arginine Vasopressin , Arginine , Bias , Consensus , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , Norepinephrine , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Treatment Outcome , Vasoconstrictor Agents
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the added value of a shear-wave elastography (SWE) quality map (QM) in the diagnosis of breast lesions and in predicting the biological characteristics of invasive breast cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2016 and February 2019, this study included 368 women with 368 pathologically proven breast lesions, which appeared as poor-quality regions in the QM of SWE. To measure shear-wave velocity (SWV), seven regions of interest were placed in each lesion with and without QM guidance. Under QM guidance, poor-quality areas were avoided. Diagnostic performance was calculated for mean SWV (SWV(mean)), max SWV (SWV(max)), and standard deviation (SD) with QM guidance (SWV(mean) + QM, SWV(max) + QM, and SD + QM, respectively) and without QM guidance (SWV(mean) − QM, SWV(max) − QM, and SD − QM, respectively). For invasive cancers, the relationship between SWV findings and biological characteristics was investigated with and without QM guidance.RESULTS: Of the 368 women (mean age, 47 years; SD, 10.8 years) enrolled, 159 had benign breast lesions and 209 had malignant breast lesions. SWV(mean) + QM (3.6 ± 1.39 m/s) and SD + QM (1.02 ± 0.84) were significantly different from SWV(mean) − QM (3.29 ± 1.22 m/s) and SD − QM (1.46 ± 1.06), respectively (all p < 0.001). For differential diagnosis of breast lesions, the sensitivity and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SWV(mean) + QM (sensitivity: 89%; AUC: 0.932) were better than those of SWV(mean) − QM (sensitivity, 84.2%; AUC, 0.912) (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity between SD + QM and SD − QM (all p = 1.000). Among the biological characteristics of invasive cancers, lymphovascular involvement, axillary lymph node metastasis, negative estrogen receptor status, negative progesterone receptor status, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor status, and aggressive molecular subtypes showed higher SWV(mean) + QM (all p < 0.05), while only lymphovascular involvement showed higher SWV(mean) − QM (p = 0.036).CONCLUSION: The use of QM in SWE might improve the diagnostic performance for breast lesions and facilitate prediction of the biological characteristics of invasive breast cancers.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of surgery of primary sites on stage IVB cervical cancer patients from a population-based database, the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).METHODS: Propensity score matching was performed to minimize heterogeneity in patient between with-surgery group and without-surgery group. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared using the χ² or Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model.RESULTS: Between 2010-2015, a total of 1,139 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IVB cervical cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were included in this retrospective study. Within post-matching cohort, the median duration of overall survival (OS) in stage IVB cervical cancer patients receiving CRT was 22 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 25.7%. The increasing American Joint Committee on Cancer T stage (T1 vs. T2, p=0.033, hazard ratio [HR]=1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05–3.05; T1 vs. T3, p=0.003, HR=2.20, 95% CI=1.31–3.67; T1 vs. T4, p=0.037, HR=2.75, 95% CI=1.06–7.12) and visceral metastasis (with vs. without, p=0.038, HR=1.60, 95% CI=1.03–2.49) was reported as independent risk factors of OS. Surgery of primary sites combined with CRT tended to prolong the survival of stage IVB cervical cancer patients (p<0.001, HR=0.36, 95% CI=0.21–0.61) compared with CRT, especially for patients without visceral metastasis (p=0.005, HR=0.31, 95% CI=0.14–0.70).CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with stage IVB cervical cancer may achieve their best outcomes through CRT combined with surgery of primary sites. However, it deserves large scale prospective clinical trials to confirm.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Epidemiology , Gynecology , Humans , Joints , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Obstetrics , Population Characteristics , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
8.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811195

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Aberrant glycosylation of the histo-blood group antigens (including the angina bullosa haemorrhagica [ABH]) is often observed during malignant transformation in most types of carcinomas. Data concerning their ethnic distributions are diverse which explains why their biological characteristics have to be studied in different populations. Our aim was to analyze the expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of the histo-blood group (specifically the ABH) antigens was studied in 109 patients with breast carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using χ² and Fisher analyses.RESULTS: The loss of expression of histo-blood group (ABH) antigens in breast carcinoma was observed in 81.13% of patients with blood group O, 37.93% with blood group A, and 96.30% with blood group B. One key finding of this study was that the loss of expression of the ABH antigen was also observed in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. The loss of expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p < 0.05). Expression of H antigen was observed in 50% of cases with loss of expression of B antigen and was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression (p < 0.05). The loss of H antigen in patients with blood group O was associated with estrogen receptor expression (p < 0.001). Incompatible A antigen in tumor was expressed in 20.75% of patients with blood group O.CONCLUSION: Loss of the ABH antigens correlated with the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. H antigen was associated with HER2 overexpression in breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to determine the role of incompatible A antigen in mammary carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Estrogens , Glycosylation , Histocompatibility , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors
9.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 101-108, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis which pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Classical pathophysiologic studies have analysed the affected and perilesional areas, but little is known about the status of sun-protected skin, which is subjected to the same endogenous and genetic factors.OBJECTIVE: To assess the histological characteristics of melasma compared to adjacent and retroauricular skin.METHODS: Skin samples were collected from 10 female from: melasma, perilesional area and retroauricular. The samples were stained (haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Fontana-Masson, picrosirius red, toluidine blue and Verhoeff), immunolabelled for CD34 and Wnt1. The data from the skin sites were analysed simultaneously by a multivariate model.RESULTS: Melasma skin exhibited noteworthy stratum corneum compaction, greater collagen heterogeneity, solar elastosis, higher number of mast cells, basement membrane zone (BMZ) damage, Wnt1 expression, pendulum melanocytes, higher cellularity and vascular proliferation at the superficial dermis. Stratum corneum compaction, collagen heterogeneity and BMZ abnormalities were variables associated to melasma that not follow a continuum through retroauricular to adjacent skin. Mast cell count was the variable that disclosed correlation with the most other abnormalities as well as had the greater contribution in the multivariate model.CONCLUSION: In addition to melanocyte hyperactivity, melasma skin exhibits alterations in the epidermal barrier, upper dermis and BMZ, which differ from the adjacent sun-exposed skin and retroauricular skin, indicating a distinct phenotype, rather than a mere extension of photoageing or intrinsic ageing. Mast cells appear to play a central role in the physiopathology of melasma.


Subject(s)
Basement Membrane , Collagen , Dermis , Epidermis , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Mast Cells , Melanocytes , Melanosis , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Skin , Tolonium Chloride , Wnt Signaling Pathway
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811071

ABSTRACT

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system against pathogens and antigens that involve both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, especially at body surface mucosal sites such as the airways. ILCs are activated mainly by cytokines, lipid mediators and neuropeptides that are produced by surrounding cells, and they produce large amounts of cytokines that result in inflammation. In addition, ILCs can change their phenotype in response to stimuli from surrounding cells, which enables them to respond promptly to microenvironmental changes. ILCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, with different phenotypes and functions depending on the organ and type of inflammation, presumably because of differences in microenvironments. Thus, ILCs may be a sensitive detector of microenvironmental changes, and analysis of their phenotype and function at local sites may enable us to better understand the microenvironment in airway diseases. In this review, we aimed to identify molecules that either positively or negatively influence the function and/or plasticity of ILCs and the sources of the molecules in the airways in order to examine the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases and facilitate the issues to be solved.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Neuropeptides , Phenotype , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases
12.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(6): 145-150, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054915

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Caring for a child with cerebral palsy (CP) is an arduous task and the over-reliance on specific coping strategies may predispose caregivers to depression. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the different types of coping strategies and presence of depression in caregivers of children with CP. Methods One hundred and thirty two participants were recruited into the study. Their coping styles were measured using the Brief COPE inventory while depression was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results The prevalence of current depressive episodes among the participants was 20.5%. Depression had a strong negative correlation with active coping (r = -0.415), planning (r = -0.432), and positive reframing (r = -0.594), and a weak negative correlation with humor (r = -0.239). But a strong positive correlation with use of instrumental support (r = 0.421) and self-blame (r = 0.448), and a moderate positive correlation with denial (r = 0.313), and behavioral disengagement (r = 0.308). Both emotion-focused (r = -0.361) and problem-focused (r = -0.576) coping style had a strong negative correlation with depression. While dysfunctional coping style had a strong positive correlation with depression (r = 0.489). Discussion Emotional and problem focused coping style were found to more protective against depression than dysfunctional coping styles among care givers of children with CP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Cerebral Palsy , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Population Characteristics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Nigeria
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(7): 421-426, agosto 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1022195

ABSTRACT

Vitamin d deficiency state is a global public health issue that has been linked in addition to bone problems to a number of disordes affecting the cardiovascular syste, the development of neoplastic disords and autoimmune diseases. However, the prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency in daily clinical practice in our province in the Mid-Euphrates region of Iraq is poorly defined. The current study was planned and conducted, taking into consideration the aim of estimating a hospital base prevalence rate of vitamin D and relate vitamin D insufficiency state to a number of demographic factors. The current crosssectionalk study was carried out in the orthopedic unit at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Mid Euphrates rgion, Iraq. The study included a random sample of 141 individuals from the pool of patientes daily visiting the orthopedic unit. The study started in January 2018 and ended on June 2019. Serum estimation of vitamin D was carried out to all particpants in addition to the inclusion of the fowling variables in the questionnaire form: age gender, residency, occupation, education level, and economic status. The results of the current study revealed that the serum level of vitamin D ranged from 4.80 to 70.00 ng/dl and it averaged 18.57±11.59 ng/dl; its median and inter-quartile range level was 15.83 (14.40) ng/dl. According to a cutoffvalue of < 20 ng/dl defining the vitamin D deficiency status according to some literature, the prevalence rate was 64.5%. Whereas, considering the cutoff value to be < 30 ng/dl, the prevalence rate of vitamin deficiency was 87.9%. Serum vitain D level was not significantly correlated to any of the demographic characteristics included in the study. In view of the available data from the current study and previous reports, vitamin D deficiency is a common health issue in daily clinical practice and strategies ust be adipted by our health institutes to overcome this health problem and associated disorders (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 690-693, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002278

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the degree of body architecture differentiation between Creole goats, two introduced breeds and their hybrids in semi arid areas of the north of Chile. The study was carried out between 2012 and 2015. One hundred and eighty five adult female goats belonging to 17 herds from the Coquimbo region were used. Ten animals of the Saanen breed and 10 animals of the Anglo nubian breed belonging to two hatcheries and 165 Creole and hybrid goats belonging to small farmers were measured. The animals were categorized into pure breed (20), hybrid (52) and creole (113). Eight body measurements were taken: head length (HL), head width (HW), longitudinal diameter (LD), bicostal diameter (BD), dorsal-sternal diameter (DSD), rump width (RW), rump length (RL) and whithers height (WH). Data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher LSD test, using the XLSTAT-Pro Statistic software. The analysis indicated the existence of homogeneity subsets within the population, without a common architectural pattern for the entire population. The Creole biotype showed a smaller body architecture than the two breeds and hybrids with which it was compared, which could be an adaptative result. It is possible to assess that the Creole biotype has a differentiated body architecture with respect to the introduced goat breeds and the animals hybridized in different proportions. In addittion, it was observed that Creole goats maintain distinctive characteristics and they are differentiable even of the individuals with different degrees of hybridization.


El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo identificar si existe diferenciación en la arquitectura corporal entre caprinos Criollos, razas introducidas y rebaños hibridados con las mismas. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre 2012 y 2015 en la región de Coquimbo, Chile. Ciento ochenta y cinco cabras fueron estudiadas, pertenecientes a 17 rebaños distintos. Se midieron 10 animales de raza Saanen y 10 animales de raza Anglo nubian presentes en dos criaderos, y 165 animales Criollos e híbridos en predios de productores. Ocho medidas corporales fueron determinadas: longitud de la cabeza (HL), ancho de la cabeza (HW), diámetro longitudinal (LD), diámetro bicostal (BD), diámetro dorso-esternal (DSD), ancho de la grupa (RW), longitud de la grupa (RH) y alzada a la cruz (WH). Los datos de medidas se analizaron mediante análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y test LSD de Fischer con el programa estadístico XLSTAT Pro. Los resultados indican que las diferencias entre variables refllejan la existencia de subcojuntos de homogeneidad dentro de la población, no apreciándose un patron arquitectónico común para toda la población. De esta manera, el biotipo Criollo presenta una arquitectura corporal más reducida que las razas con las que se compara en este estudio, lo cual pudiera ser una respuesta adaptativa. En este sentido, es posible afirmar que el biotipo Criollo presenta una arquitectura corporal diferenciada respecto de las razas introducidas a la región y a los animales hibridados en distintas proporciones con dichas razas, con lo cual es posible observar que mantiene características distintivas y que es diferenciable incluso de distintos grados de hibridaje presente en dicha población.


Subject(s)
Animals , Population Characteristics , Goats/anatomy & histology , Chile , Semi-Arid Zone
15.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1176, jan.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1005456

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: trata-se de estudo transversal cujo objetivo foi analisar a associação entre a condição de fragilidade física e as características clínicas dos idosos submetidos aos exames de aptidão física e mental para conduzir veículos automotores. Método: o estudo foi realizado em 11 clínicas de trânsito no período de agosto de 2015 a março de 2017. A amostra foi constituída por 347 idosos (≥ 60 anos). Destes, 1,5% foi considerado frágil, 46,8% pré-frágeis e 51,7% não frágeis. Quanto às características clínicas 67,4% possuem alguma doença, 66,6% utilizam medicamento(s), 4,9% usam cinco ou mais medicamentos, 21,6% ingerem bebidas alcoólicas, 9,8% fazem uso de tabaco, 9,2% sofreram queda(s) e 9,8% foram hospitalizados. Resultados: não houve associação significativa entre as características clínicas e a condição de fragilidade física dos idosos. A condição de pré-fragilidade apresentou alto percentual, o que reforça a necessidade do rastreamento da fragilidade física em idosos nas clínicas de trânsito. Conclusão: o estudo é inédito na área da Enfermagem e os resultados fornecem subsídios para outros estudos que objetivam um trânsito mais seguro.(AU)


Objective: this is a cross-sectional study whose objective was to analyze the association between the condition of physical frailty and clinical characteristics of elderly people undergoing physical and mental fitness examination for driving licensing of motor vehicles. Method: the study was carried out in 11 clinics specialized in traffic, from August 2015 to March 2017. The sample consisted of 347 elderly (≥ 60 years old). Of these, 1.5% elderly were considered frail, 46.8% pre-frail, and 51.7% non-frail. Regarding clinical characteristics, 67.4% had a disease, 66.6% used medication(s), 4.9% made use of five or more medicines, 21.6% drank alcohol, 9.8% used tobacco, 9.2% had suffered falls, and 9.8% had been hospitalized. Results: there was no significant association between the clinical characteristics and the condition of physical frailty in the elderly. Pre-frailty presented a high percentage, which reinforces the need to track physical frailty in elderly people in clinics specialized in traffic. Conclusion: the study is unprecedented in the area of Nursing and the results provide subsidies for further studies aimed at a safer traffic.(AU)


Objetivo: estudio transversal con el objetivo de analizar la asociación entre la condición de fragilidad física y las características clínicas de las personas mayores obligadas a realizar las pruebas de aptitud física y mental para conducir vehículos automotores. Método: el estudio fue realizado en 11 clínicas de tránsito entre agosto de 2015 y marzo de 2017. Resultados y discusión: la muestra estaba compuesta de 347 adultos mayores (≥ 60 anos). El 1,5% era considerado frágil, 46,8% pre-frágil y un 51,7% no frágil. Sobre...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Automobile Driver Examination , Automobile Driving , Population Characteristics , Frail Elderly , Health of the Elderly
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 651-658, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762095

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed that common variants on or near EDNRA, HDAC9, SOX17, RP1, CDKN2B-AS1, and RBBP8 genes are associated with intracranial aneurysm (IA) in European or Japanese populations. However, due to population heterogeneity, whether these loci are associated with IA pathogenesis in Chinese individuals is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations among GWAS-identified loci and risk of IA in a Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 765 individuals (including 230 IA patients and 535 controls) were involved in this study. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of candidate loci were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Associations were analyzed using univariate or multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: SNPs in CDKN2B-AS1 (especially rs10757272) showed significant associations with IA in dominant and additive models [odds ratio (OR), 2.99 and 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44–6.24 and 1.10–1.86, respectively]. A SNP near HDAC9 (rs10230207) was associated with IA in the dominant model (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.01–1.99). One SNP near RP1 (rs1072737) showed a protective effect on IA in the dominant model (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46–0.95), while another SNP in RP1 (rs9298506) showed a risk effect on IA in a recessive model (OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.84–7.91). No associations were observed among common variants near EDNRA, SOX17, or RBBP8 and IA. CONCLUSION: These data partially confirmed earlier results and showed that variants in CDKN2B-AS1, RP1, and HDAC9 could be genetic susceptibility factors for IA in a Chinese population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Population Characteristics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical performance of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for measuring liver stiffness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies reporting the technical performance of 2D-SWE, including concerns with technical failures, unreliable measurements, interobserver reliability, and/or intraobserver reliability, published until June 30, 2018. The pooled proportion of technical failure and unreliable measurements was calculated using meta-analytic pooling via the random-effects model and inverse variance method for calculating weights. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore potential causes of heterogeneity. The pooled intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using the Hedges-Olkin method with Fisher's Z transformation of the correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The search yielded 34 articles. From 20 2D-SWE studies including 6196 patients, the pooled proportion of technical failure was 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.9%). The pooled proportion of unreliable measurements from 20 studies including 6961 patients was 7.5% (95% CI, 4.7–11.7%). In the subgroup analyses, studies conducting more than three measurements showed fewer unreliable measurements than did those with three measurements or less, but no intergroup difference was found in technical failure. The pooled ICCs for interobserver reliability (from 10 studies including 517 patients) and intraobserver reliability (from 7 studies including 679 patients) were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.90) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89–0.95), respectively, suggesting good to excellent reliability. CONCLUSION: 2D-SWE shows good technical performance for assessing liver stiffness, with high technical success and reliability. Future studies should establish the quality criteria and optimal number of measurements.


Subject(s)
Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Liver , Methods , Population Characteristics , Ultrasonography , Weights and Measures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Iranian children under 5 years of age using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, CINHAL, and the Iranian databases, including Scientific Information Database (www.sid.ir), Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (Irandoc.ac.ir), Iranmedex (www.iranmedex.com), and Magiran (www.magiran.com), for all articles published between January 1989 and August 2017. Sources of heterogeneity were determined using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: Six articles were ultimately included in the meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence, based on which the prevalence of obesity and overweight were estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%–10%) and 9% (95% CI, 7%–11%), respectively. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity in boys and girls was 9% (95% CI, 6%–13%) and 7% (95% CI, 4–10%), respectively, and the prevalence of overweight in boys and girls was 10% (95% CI, 5%–15%) and 9% (95% CI, 5%–13%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite high heterogeneity among the results of the articles included in the meta-analysis, the prevalence of obesity and overweight is higher in Iranian children under 5 years of age. Therefore, parents and the health system must pay more attention to the lifestyle, nutritional habits, and physical activity of these children.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Child , Female , Humans , Information Science , Life Style , Motor Activity , Obesity , Overweight , Parents , Pediatric Obesity , Population Characteristics , Prevalence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomies with balloon-guide catheters (BGC) are thought to improve successful recanalization rates and to decrease the incidence of distal emboli compared to thrombectomies without BGC. We aimed to assess the effects of BGC on the outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic strokes.METHODS: Studies from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library database from January 2010 to February 2018 were reviewed. Random effect model for meta-analysis was used. Analyses such as meta-regression and the “trim-and-fill” method were additionally carried out.RESULTS: A total of seven articles involving 2223 patients were analyzed. Mechanical thrombectomy with BGC was associated with higher rates of successful recanalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.632; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293–2.059). BGC did not significantly decrease distal emboli, both before (OR, 0.404; 95% CI, 0.108–1.505) and after correcting for bias (adjusted OR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.310–4.382). Good outcomes were observed more frequently in the BGC group (OR, 1.886; 95% CI, 1.564–2.273). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality did not differ significantly with BGC use.CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that BGC enhance recanalization rates. However, BGC use did not decrease distal emboli after mechanical thrombectomies. This should be interpreted with caution due to possible publication bias and heterogeneity. Additional meta-analyses based on individual patient data are needed to clarify the role of BGC in mechanical thrombectomies.


Subject(s)
Bias , Catheters , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Methods , Mortality , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Stroke , Thrombectomy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment (EVT) outcomes for acute M2 segment of middle cerebral artery occlusion remains unclear because most results are obtained from patients with large artery occlusion in the anterior circulation. The objective of this study was to assess procedural outcomes for acute M2 occlusion and compare outcomes according to thrombus location (M1 vs. M2).METHODS: A systematic review was performed for online literature published from January 2004 to December 2016. Primary outcome was successful recanalization rate and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (S-ICH) after the procedure. A fixed effect model was used if heterogeneity was less than 50%.RESULTS: Eight articles were included. EVT showed successful recanalization rate of 69.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9–80.4%) and S-ICH rate of 6.1% (95% CI, 4.5–8.3%). The rates of good clinical outcome at 3 months and mortality were 59.4% (95% CI, 49.9–68.2%) and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.4–19.3%), respectively. According to thrombus location (M1 vs. M2), successful recanalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.539; 95% CI, 0.293–8.092; p=0.610) and S-ICH (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 0.603–2.861; p=0.493) did not differ significantly. Good clinical outcome was more evident in M2 occlusion after EVT than that in M1 occlusion (OR, 1.639; 95% CI, 1.135–2.368; p=0.008). However, mortality did not differ significantly according to thrombus location (OR, 0.788; 95% CI, 0.486–1.276; p=0.332).CONCLUSION: EVT seems to be technically feasible for acute M2 occlusion. Direct comparative studies between EVT and medical treatment are needed further to find specific beneficiary group after EVT in patient with M2 occlusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Humans , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Population Characteristics , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis
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