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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243801, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278545

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study presents a four-year follow-up of an introduced population of Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, from initial stages to an established population. This introduction occurred on a small impacted stream of Vila do Abraão, the main village of Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The population size increased during the study, and presented a relationship to environmental factors, especially with rainfall. On the initial stages of introduction prevailed the smaller specimens, but on the overall, predominated the intermediate size classes. After less than a year, P. acuta becomes established on this stream and was possibly affecting the other species found on the stream. The information presented here is useful to understand the invasion process of invasive snails, as well as directing conservation efforts.


Resumo Neste estudo é apresentado um acompanhamento de quatro anos de uma população de Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, desde os estágios iniciais da introdução até seu pleno estabelecimento. Esta introdução ocorreu em um pequeno riacho impactado da Vila do Abraão, o principal vilarejo da Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). A população cresceu durante o estudo, e apresentou uma relação com os fatores ambientais, especialmente a pluviosidade. Nos estágios iniciais de introdução prevaleceram os exemplares menores, contudo no panorama geral, predominaram as classes de tamanho intermediárias. Em menos de um ano de introdução, P. acuta se estabeleceu neste riacho, e possivelmente está afetando as demais espécies encontradas no rio. A informação apresentada aqui é importante para a compreensão do processo de invasão de moluscos invasores no Brasil, assim como no direcionamento de esforços de conservação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Brazil , Population Density
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285617

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Pakistan , Population Density
3.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 92-122, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365867

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo del artículo es analizar las prácticas y representaciones espaciales de niños/as residentes de un edificio de gran altura y densidad habitacional del centro de la capital chilena. Con un diseño cualitativo, crítico-etnográfico, y un modelo colaborativo, se contó con la participación de 5 niños/as de 10 a 13 años, y 6 adultos/as de 25 a 55 años, de diversas nacionalidades y tiempos de residencia. El análisis de contenido constató que la composición física y dinámicas relacionales en el edificio, han restringido severamente las posibilidades de despliegue espacial de niños/as residentes en este, contribuyendo a su histórica invisibilización y encierro. A pesar de esto, se encontraron prácticas de resistencia y resignificación del espacio por parte de los niños/as, que crean comunidad en un marco urbano que no la favorece.


Abstract (analytical) The objective of this article is to analyze the spatial practices and representations of children living in a high-rise building in the center of the Chilean capital. With a qualitative, critical-ethnographic design and a collaborative model, 5 children from 10 to 13 years old and 6 adults from 25 to 55 years old, of different nationalities and residence times, participated in both studies. The content analysis found that the physical composition and relational dynamics in the building have severely restricted the possibilities of spatial deployment of children residing in the building, contributing to their historical invisibility and confinement. In spite of this, practices of resistance and resignification of space were found on the part of the children, who create community in an urban framework that does not favor it.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo do artigo é analisar as práticas e representações espaciais das crianças que vivem em um prédio alto e densamente povoado no centro da capital chilena. Com um desenho qualitativo, crítico etnográfico e um modelo colaborativo, 5 crianças de 10 a 13 anos e 6 adultos de 25 a 55 anos, de diferentes nacionalidades e durações de residência, participaram dos estudos. A análise de conteúdo constatou que a composição física e a dinâmica relacional no edifício restringiram severamente as possibilidades de implantação espacial das crianças que vivem no edifício, contribuindo para sua invisibilidade e confinamento histórico. Apesar disso, foram encontradas práticas de resistência e resignificação do espaço por parte das crianças, que criam comunidade em uma estrutura urbana que não a favorece.


Subject(s)
Child , Population Density , Urban Area
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237849, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) was previously accepted to be a subspecies of M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). However, it was later suggested that they are geographically isolated from each other. Although hybridological studies and differences in certain external characteristics support the idea that M. dahli is a separate species, there are still doubts on its species status, and the exact range of its distribution is not known. In this paper, we provide some taxonomic information about the species, and compare these with the information given in previous studies. We argue that some differences exist among Armenian population regarding external measurements. Recent studies indicate that M. dahli is currently only distributed in Turkey, as an endemic mammal species. We provide predictions about the distribution of M. dahli, and report the estimated population size to its maximum value. Food preference studies for this species, conducted under laboratory conditions, are also introduced for the first time. We discuss the ecological data obtained from field studies, and emphasize that the habitat of M. dahli is about to disappear. Consequently, the protection status of this species should urgently be changed to the CR category and conservation studies must be carried out immediately.


Resumo Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) foi previamente aceito como uma subespécie de M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). No entanto, mais tarde, foi sugerido que eles estão geograficamente isolados um do outro. Embora estudos hibridológicos e diferenças em certas características externas apoiem ​​a ideia de que M. dahli é uma espécie separada, ainda há dúvidas sobre o status de sua espécie, e a extensão exata de sua distribuição não é conhecida. Neste artigo, fornecemos algumas informações taxonômicas sobre as espécies e as comparamos com as informações fornecidas em estudos anteriores. Argumentamos que existem algumas diferenças entre a espécie armênia em relação às medidas externas. Estudos recentes indicam que M. dahli está atualmente distribuído apenas na Turquia como uma espécie endêmica de mamífero. Fornecemos previsões sobre a distribuição de M. dahli e relatamos o tamanho estimado da população em seu valor máximo. Estudos de preferência alimentar para essa espécie, conduzidos em condições de laboratório, também são introduzidos pela primeira vez. Discutimos sobre os dados ecológicos obtidos em estudos de campo e enfatizamos que o habitat de M. dahli está prestes a desaparecer. Consequentemente, o status de proteção dessa espécie deve ser alterado com urgência para a categoria CR, e estudos de conservação devem ser realizados imediatamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Diet , Gerbillinae , Population Density
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243114, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) is an estuarine gastropod of tropical occurrence, which lives mainly on trunks of mangrove tree species. This study aimed to evaluate the population attributes of this species, such as abundance, space-time distribution, sex ratio and recruitment in mangroves in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected monthly throughout 2018, on trunks of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L. at two heights and on two horizontal levels. Specimens that were on the marine grass Spartina alterniflora Loisel were also collected. After counting, biometrics and sexing, the specimens were returned alive to the environment. The average size and weight of L. angulifera was higher (p<0.05) in places with taller and less sparse trees and the vertical distribution on the trunks showed a preference for strata close to the soil. Both results are related to shading and protection against desiccation. Females were more abundant than males, at an approximate sex ratio F: M of 1.4: 1. Recruits were observed throughout the period, showing continuous reproduction of the species with a recruitment peak in spring (September to November). The study revealed the importance of keep the mangroves intact to allow the maintenance of the natural stocks of the species.


Resumo Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) é um gastrópode estuarino, de ocorrência tropical, que vive principalmente sobre troncos de espécies arbóreas de mangue. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os atributos populacionais dessa espécie, como abundância, distribuição espaço-temporal, razão sexual e recrutamento em manguezais do estado da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente ao longo de 2018, em troncos do mangue vermelho Rhizophora mangle L. em duas alturas e em dois níveis horizontais. Também foram coletados espécimes que estavam na grama marinha Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Após contagem, biometria e sexagem, os espécimes foram devolvidos vivos ao ambiente. O tamanho e peso médios de L. angulifera foram maiores (p<0,05) em locais com árvores mais altas e menos esparsas e a distribuição vertical nos troncos mostrou preferência por estratos próximos ao solo. Ambos os resultados estão relacionados ao sombreamento e proteção contra a dessecação. As fêmeas foram mais abundantes que os machos, em uma proporção sexual aproximada F: M de 1,4: 1. Recrutas foram observados ao longo do período, mostrando reprodução contínua da espécie, com um pico de recrutamento na primavera (setembro a novembro). O estudo revelou a importância de manter os manguezais intactos para permitir a manutenção dos estoques naturais da espécie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rhizophoraceae , Gastropoda , Trees , Brazil , Population Density
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 969-976, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153452

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a predatory arthropod with potential for conservation biological control. In addition to being considered a bioindicator of environmental quality, this arthropod provides an important service for agriculture by reducing insect-pest populations. In this work we seek to understand how the plants Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees and Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) and their different clump sizes affect the population density, spatial distribution and determination of the minimum number of samples to estimate its population density during the winter. Among the evaluated host plants, S. angustifolium and A. bicornis presented higher population density than E. retusa, but we observed that the clump diameter significantly influences the population density and the minimum number of samples. We observed a gregarious behavior in plants of A. bicornis and E. retusa. For S. angustifolium, a uniform distribution was observed.


Resumo Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) é um artrópode predador com potencial para controle biológico de conservação. Além de ser considerado um bioindicador da qualidade ambiental, esse artrópode fornece um importante serviço para a agricultura, reduzindo as populações de insetos-praga. Neste trabalho buscamos entender como as plantas Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees e Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) e seus diferentes tamanhos de touceira afetam a densidade populacional, distribuição espacial e a determinação do número mínimo de amostras para estimar sua densidade populacional durante o inverno. Entre as plantas hospedeiras avaliadas, S. angustifolium e A. bicornis apresentaram maior densidade populacional que E. retusa, observamos que o diâmetro da touceira influencia significativamente a densidade populacional e o número mínimo de amostras. Observamos um comportamento gregário nas plantas de A. bicornis e E. retusa. Para S. angustifolium, uma distribuição uniforme foi observada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Spiders , Predatory Behavior , Population Density , Sample Size , Agriculture
8.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1566, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347450

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Habana fue el territorio más complejo a nivel nacional en el enfrentamiento al primer brote de la COVID-19. Su condición de capital, la densidad poblacional, la escasa delimitación geográfica entre sus municipios, el elevado flujo intermunicipal e interprovincial de personas, sumado a que es la provincia que mayor número de viajeros recibe procedentes del extranjero, confirieron a este territorio particularidades en el enfrentamiento a la pandemia. Objetivo: Determinar las principales características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes cubanos residentes en La Habana afectados por la COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal. La muestra quedó formada por 431 pacientes, mayores de un año, de alta epidemiológica de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Para la recolección de información se aplicó un cuestionario a través de una entrevista. Resultados: La edad promedio de la muestra fue de 45 años. Más de la mitad de los casos evolucionaron de modo sintomático (no grave o grave). La fiebre fue la manifestación clínica más frecuente. Los individuos incluidos en la muestra, con grupo sanguíneo O, o con antecedentes de asma, mostraron menos riesgo de presentar formas sintomáticas de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la edad constituye el principal factor de riesgo para desarrollar formas sintomáticas (no graves o graves) de la COVID-19. De modo contrario, el grupo sanguíneo O y el antecedente de asma son factores de protección para estas formas de evolución clínica(AU)


Introduction: Havana city was the most complex territory at the national level facingthe first outbreak of COVID-19. Its condition of capital, the population density, the limited geographical delimitation between its municipalities, the high inter-municipal and inter-provincial flow of people, added to the fact that it is the province that receives the largest number of travelers from abroad, conferred particularities on this territory. Objective: To determine the main clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients affected by COVID-19 living in Havana. Methods: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample contained 431 patients, older than one year, with epidemiological discharge from the SARS-CoV-2 infection. To collect information, a questionnaire was applied through an interview. Results: The average age of the sample was 45 years. More than half of the cases evolved in a symptomatic way (not serious or serious). Fever was the most frequent clinical manifestation. The individuals included in the sample, with blood group O or with a background of asthma, showed less risk of presenting symptomatic forms of the disease. Conclusions: The results suggest that age is the main risk factor for developing symptomatic forms (not severe or severe) of COVID-19. On the contrary, blood group O and a history of asthma are protective factors for these forms of clinical evolution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Group Antigens , Adaptation, Psychological , Population Density , Protective Factors , COVID-19 , Clinical Evolution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1023-1033, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153816

ABSTRACT

Resumo A vulnerabilidade é um fator chave no enfrentamento da COVID-19 tendo em vista que pode influenciar no agravamento da doença. Desse modo, ela deve ser considerada no controle da COVID-19, prevenção e promoção da saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a distribuição espacial da incidência de casos de COVID-19 em uma metrópole brasileira e sua associação com indicadores de vulnerabilidade social. Estudo ecológico. Foi utilizada a análise de varredura espacial (scan) para identificar aglomerados de COVID-19. As variáveis para identificação da vulnerabilidade foram inseridas em um modelo de Regressão Espacial Geograficamente Ponderado (GWR) para identificar sua relação espacial com os casos de COVID-19. A incidência de COVID-19 em Fortaleza foi de 74,52/10 mil habitantes, com notificação de 3.554 casos, sendo pelo menos um caso registrado em cada bairro. A regressão espacial GWR mostrou relação negativa entre incidência de COVID-19 e densidade demográfica (β=-0,0002) e relação positiva entre incidência de COVID-19 e percentual de ocupados >18 anos trabalhadores autônomos (β=1,40), assim como, renda domiciliar per capita máxima do quinto mais pobre (β=0,04). A influência dos indicadores de vulnerabilidade sobre a incidência evidenciou áreas que podem ser alvo de políticas públicas a fim de impactar na incidência de COVID-19.


Abstract Vulnerability is a crucial factor in addressing COVID-19 as it can aggravate the disease. Thus, it should be considered in COVID-19 control and health prevention and promotion. This ecological study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of COVID-19 cases in a Brazilian metropolis and its association with social vulnerability indicators. Spatial scan analysis was used to identify COVID-19 clusters. The variables for identifying the vulnerability were inserted in a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model to identify their spatial relationship with COVID-19 cases. The incidence of COVID-19 in Fortaleza was 74.52/10,000 inhabitants, with 3,554 reported cases and at least one case registered in each neighborhood. The spatial GWR showed a negative relationship between the incidence of COVID-19 and demographic density (β=-0,0002) and a positive relationship between the incidence of COVID-19 and the percentage of self-employed >18 years (β=1.40), and maximum per capita household income of the poorest fifth (β=0.04). The influence of vulnerability indicators on incidence showed areas that can be the target of public policies to impact the incidence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Comorbidity , Incidence , Bayes Theorem , Age Factors , Population Density , Cities/epidemiology , Suburban Health/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Housing/standards , Income , Middle Aged
10.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1368188

ABSTRACT

In 2020, as COVID-19 spread worldwide, prestigious entities published faulty predictions about the level of dissemination, especially when describing African countries and others with "weak healthcare systems." How could the best fall so short, even when using well-known epidemiological variables to predict the behavior of a hygiene-related malady? It might have been due to insufficient data since COVID-19 was a novelty, still poorly understood. The current study aimed to analyze how two variables ­population density and percentage of people with access to improved sanitation ­affected the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Mozambique by February 2021, almost one year since the first case in the country. All data were publicly available: population density in Census 2017, access to sanitation in the Mozambique Public Expenditure Review 2014, and the number of COVID-19 cases in the Ministry of Health's COVID-19 daily bulletin (no. 332). JASP 0.13.1.0 allowed correlating all variables, and MicrosoftExcel™ was chosen to perform fitting analysis to model the algebraic relationship between the number of cases and the other variables. The cases showed a positive correlation (r = 0.663) with density, and their relationship was consistent with a cubic function. Sanitation coverage also showed a positive correlation (r = 0.679), but the most straightforward algebraic representation was a quadratic function. The impact of population density on the number of COVID-19 cases was intuitive, but the logic points towards the highest number of cases where sanitation facilities lacked the most. Thus, the influence of other factors outweighed the effect of sanitation, or people tend to be careless before the sense of security where the sanitation is better. Nevertheless, these findings can support predictions and decision-making, and the population needs to abide by the Government's recommendations.


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Population Density , COVID-19
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Regional disparities in the working conditions of medical doctors have not been fully assessed in Japan. We aimed to clarify these differences in hospital characteristics: doctors' workload, wages, and popularity among medical students by city population sizes.@*METHODS@#We targeted 423 teaching hospitals certified by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine and assessed the working conditions of physicians specializing in internal medicine. We calculated their workload (the annual number of discharged patients per physician) and retrieved data on junior residents' monthly wages from the Resinavi Book which is popular among medical students in Japan to know the teaching hospital's information and each hospital's website. Furthermore, we explored the interim matching rate of each hospital as its popularity among medical students. Next, we classified cities in which all hospitals were located into eight groups based on their population size and compared the characteristics of these hospitals using a one-way analysis of variance.@*RESULTS@#The average workload was 110.3, while the average workload in hospitals located in most populated cities (≥ 2,000,000) was 88.4 (p < 0.05). The average monthly wage was 351,199 Japanese yen, while that in most populated cities was 305,635.1 Japanese yen. The average popularity (matching rate) was 101.9%, and the rate in most populated areas was 142.7%, which was significantly higher than in other areas.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hospitals in most populated areas had significantly lower workloads and wages; however, they were more popular among medical students than those in other areas. This study was the first to quantify the regional disparities in physicians' working conditions in Japan, and such disparities need to be corrected.


Subject(s)
Cities/statistics & numerical data , Geography , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Japan , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Population Density , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Workload/statistics & numerical data
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 361-369, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153350

ABSTRACT

The construction of reservoirs is a common practice in the world. These systems modify the hydric landscape and alter the flow of rivers, becoming lotic environments in lentic. Here we investigated the structure and spatial distribution of rotifers along a tropical reservoir. We sampled four points in the Pedra do Cavalo Reservoir, Bahia, Brazil, bimonthly, between August 2014 and June 2015. We registered more than 70 taxa distributed in 17 families, with the majority of species belonging to the Lecanidae, Brachionidae and Trichocercidae families. The species rarefaction curve did not achieve a total asymptote, indicating that species richness in the reservoir is higher than what was registered. Based in the species frequency of occurrence, we identified 48 rare species, 16 common species, five constant species and one frequent species. The highest beta diversity values were registered in riverine P1 (0.513) and intermediate P2 (0.503), although there were no significant differences between the sampling points. Despite the high abundance values in P1, P2 and P3 no significant differences were found between the studied points. Thus, this study substantially increases the knowledge on the rotifer community in the Paraguaçu River and contributes to future studies that focus on biodiversity, ecology and conservation in the Brazilian reservoir ecosystems.


A construção de reservatórios é uma prática comum no mundo. Esses sistemas modificam a paisagem hídrica e alteram o fluxo dos rios, tornando-se ambientes lóticos em lênticos. Aqui investigamos a estrutura e distribuição espacial de rotíferos ao longo de um reservatório tropical. Foram amostrados quatro pontos no Reservatório da Pedra do Cavalo, Bahia, Brasil, bimestralmente, entre agosto de 2014 e junho de 2015. Registramos mais de 70 táxons distribuídos em 17 famílias, com a maioria das espécies pertencentes às famílias Lecanidae, Brachionidae e Trichocercidae. A curva de rarefação das espécies não alcançou uma assíntota total, indicando que a riqueza de espécies no reservatório é superior à registrada. Com base na frequência de ocorrência das espécies, identificamos 48 espécies raras, 16 espécies comuns, cinco espécies constantes e uma espécie frequente. Os maiores valores de diversidade beta foram registrados no ribeirinho P1 (0,513) e no intermediário P2 (0,503), embora não houvesse diferenças significativas entre os pontos de amostragem. Apesar dos altos valores de abundância em P1, P2 e P3, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os pontos estudados. Assim, este estudo aumenta substancialmente o conhecimento sobre a comunidade de rotíferos no rio Paraguaçu e contribui para estudos futuros que enfocam biodiversidade, ecologia e conservação nos ecossistemas de reservatórios brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotifera/classification , Water Reservoirs/analysis , Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Seasons , Brazil , Population Density , Rivers
13.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(3): e1375, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139056

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El comportamiento no homogéneo de la cantidad de casos confirmados con COVID-19 en diferentes regiones de Cuba aún no se ha esclarecido, lo cual resultaría de utilidad para la toma de decisiones en futuras epidemias en el país. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia de la entrada de viajeros y la densidad poblacional sobre la distribución no homogénea de la cantidad de casos con COVID-19 por provincias en Cuba. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico, exploratorio, de grupos múltiples, comparando las provincias cubanas según variables del nivel global y agregado, relacionadas con la cantidad de casos con COVID-19, confirmados durante la epidemia en Cuba. Se aplicó el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple para seleccionar el modelo que mejor describe el comportamiento de los datos y el análisis de clúster para visualizar la agrupación de las provincias. Resultados: Se evidenció una correlación significativa entre la cantidad de casos con COVID-19 y la cantidad de viajeros con COVID-19, la cantidad total de viajeros que arribaron al país en marzo y los eventos de trasmisión. En el modelo de regresión resultaron significativas la densidad poblacional y las cantidades de viajeros total y con COVID-19. El análisis de clúster reveló la formación de cuatro grupos de provincias. Conclusiones: La cantidad de casos con COVID-19 por provincia se relaciona con la cantidad de viajeros que entraron al país, con y sin COVID-19, y la densidad poblacional. Se forman cuatro grupos de provincias por su similitud en los aspectos identificados en la regresión(AU)


Introduction: The non-homogeneous behavior of the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases in different regions of Cuba has not yet been clarified, which would be useful for decision-making in future epidemics in the country. Objective: To determine the influence of the arrival of travelers and the population density on the non-homogeneous distribution of the number of COVID-19 cases by provinces in Cuba. Methods: An ecological, exploratory, multiple group study was carried out, comparing Cuban provinces according to variables of the global and aggregate levels, related to the number of COVID-19 cases, confirmed during the epidemic in Cuba. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to select the model that best describes the behavior of the data and cluster analysis to visualize the grouping of the provinces. Results: A significant correlation was proved between the number of COVID-19 cases and the number of travelers with COVID-19, the total number of travelers who arrived in Cuba in March, and transmission events. In the regression model, the population density and the total number of travelers and those with COVID-19 were significant. The cluster analysis revealed the formation of four groups of provinces. Conclusions: The number of cases with COVID-19 by province is related to the number of travelers who arrived in the country, with and with no COVID-19, and the population density. Four groups of provinces are formed by their similarity in the aspects identified at regression(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Population Density , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Sanitary Control of Travelers , Cuba
14.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 246-251, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118846

ABSTRACT

The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis thrives near human settlements. Understanding its ecology could help planning management decisions about this species, especially in anthropogenic landscapes. Yet, there are no density estimations for this species throughout its distribution range in Bolivia. We estimated the density of D. marsupialis in a rural agricultural community, where agroforestry plantations and fallows cover most of the land. We counted individuals in line transects and used DISTANCE software to calculate density. We covered a total of 70.21 km in 143 night counts, obtaining 38 records of D. marsupialis. We estimated a density of 0.30 individuals ha-1 (SE = 0.062; range: 0.20 - 0.45 individuals ha-1), with a mean encounter rate of 0.54 individuals km-1. Encounter rate varied between habitats, with mean values of 0.20 in secondary forests and 0.64 in agroforestry plantations. Our density estimate is near the lower range of previously reported values for the common opossum in other countries. We argue that our results may reflect the response to the availability of food resources and predation pressure in agroforestry plantations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Human Settlements , Residence Characteristics , Population Density , Food Resources , Didelphis
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 1147-1156, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089472

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo tem como objetivo analisar tendências e distribuição das taxas de mortalidade por homicídios (TMH) segundo porte populacional dos municípios brasileiros entre 2000 e 2015. Trata-se de estudo ecológico dos óbitos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, com TMH padronizada pelo método direto e intervalo de 95% de confiança. A TMH no Brasil cresceu 6% (para 29,1/100 mil) no período, com aumento em municípios de pequeno (83%; 12,7 para 23,2/100 mil) e médio porte (52%; 19,7 para 30,1/100 mil); o que se verifica para ambos os sexos, diferentes idades, regiões e em eventos por arma de fogo. A TMH decresceu em municípios de grande porte metropolitanos (19%; 40,6 para 32,9/100 mil) e da região Sudeste (55%; 45,6 para 20,6/100 mil). O risco relativo-RR de cidades pequenas e médias em relação a grandes já é maior ou próximo de 1 em mulheres (RR 0,99; 1,03), pessoas com 60 ou mais anos (RR 1,43; 1,36) e homicídios por outros meios (RR 1,16; 1,18). As cidades de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro foram as que mais contribuíram para a redução das TMH, em especial nas cidades grandes (-37,6 e -22,3 homicídios/100 mil hab.). Municípios de porte pequeno e médio apresentam tendências consistentes de incremento de TMH mesmo considerando subgrupos populacionais.


Abstract The scope of this study is to analyze the trends and distribution of homicide mortality rates (HMR) according to the population size of Brazilian municipalities between 2000 and 2015. It is an ecological study of deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System, with HMR standardized by the direct method and 95% confidence interval. HMR in Brazil grew 6% (to 29.1/100,000) in the period, with an increase in small municipalities (83%; 12.7 to 23.2/100,000) and mediumsized cities (52%; 19.7% to 30.1/100,000); which is true for both sexes, different ages, regions and firearm-related events. HMR decreased in major cities (19%; 40.6% to 32.9/100,000) and the Southeast region (55%; 45.6% to 20.6/100,000). The relative risk (RR) of small and medium-sized cities in relation to large cities is already greater than or close to 1 among women (RR 0.99; 1.03), people aged 60 years or older (RR 1.43; 1.36) and homicides by other means (RR 1.16; 1.18). The cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro contributed the most to the reduction of HMR, especially in large cities (-37.6 and -22.3 homicides/100,000 inhabitants). Small and medium-sized municipalities have consistent trends of an increase in HMR even considering population subgroups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Mortality/trends , Population Density , Homicide/trends , Time Factors , Brazil , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 407-420, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055827

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo buscou conhecer quem são os gestores municipais de saúde e práticas realizadas no âmbito de gestão. Possuiu delineamento transversal. A metodologia contou com o envio de um questionário eletrônico às secretarias de saúde dos 497 municípios do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Destes, 297 retornaram (59,75%). Contudo, foram considerados na análise estatística apenas os questionários com mais de 50% de respostas válidas (n = 264). A análise contou com o cálculo da distribuição das variáveis e com testes de qui-quadrado, onde o porte populacional foi considerado variável independente. A maioria foi composta por mulheres, com escolaridade alta e distintas formações, média de idade de 43,76 anos, cor branca. A média de gastos com saúde foi de ≈20% das receitas. Houve consenso quanto na insuficiência dos recursos. Quanto ao porte populacional, 79,92% possuíam ≤ 20.000 habitantes. Diferenças significativas foram observadas na gestão de municípios de distintos portes, tanto nas prioridades, quanto nas dificuldades. O estudo permitiu conhecer parcialmente a realidade da gestão municipal. Além disso, os resultados sugeriram a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre a feminilização da gestão, avaliação de processos de trabalho e impactos da política de austeridade.


Abstract This study intended to gather who are the county health managers and the practices performed in management. It is based on a cross-sectional design. The methodology involved the use of electronic questionnaire, which was sent to the health departments of the 497 municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Of these, 297 were answered (59.75%). However, only those with more than 50% of valid answers (n = 264) were included in the statistical analysis. The analysis included the calculation of the distribution of variables and chi-square testes, taking population size as an independent variable. Most managers were women; graduated; from different professional backgrounds; average age of 43.76 years-old, and white. The average health expenditure in the municipalities was ≈ 20% of revenues. There was a consensus on the insufficiency of resources. With regards to population size, 79.92% presented with ≤ 20,000 inhabitants. Statistically significant differences were found in the management of municipalities of different sizes, both in terms of priorities and difficulties. The study allowed to partially understanding the reality of municipal management. These results indicate the need to further investigate the feminization of health management, working process assessment, and the impacts of economical austerity policy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Administrative Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Population Density , Cities , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/economics
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the quality of the infrastructure and work process of the Family Health Strategy in the municipalities of Ceará between 2012 and 2014. METHODS Cross-sectional study, using secondary data from the external evaluation of the 1st (2012) and 2nd (2014) cycle of the National Program for Improvement of Access and Quality of Primary Care in Ceará. A total of 20 composite indicators were used to verify the quality of infrastructure and work process. RESULTS Data from 183 (99.4%) of the 184 municipalities of Ceará were collected in both cycles. A total of 1,441 teams were evaluated for the infrastructure and 800 for the work process. Among the 20 composite indicators evaluated, 18 presented an improvement, but in a non-homogeneous way, ranging between 0.0 and 413.5%. We observed that the lower the initial value of the indicator, the greater the variation in quality between 2012 and 2014. The indicators of infrastructure and work process were influenced by the regional health system and population size of the municipality, being more evident the influence on the variables of the work process. CONCLUSIONS We identified that quality improvements related to infrastructure and work process occurred in the period of implementation of the program in the state of Ceará in an equitable manner, being influenced by population size and regional health system, showing the influence of the context in the implementation of public policies of this nature.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a qualidade da infraestrutura e do processo de trabalho da Estratégia Saúde da Família nos municípios do Ceará entre 2012 e 2014. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, utilizando dados secundários da avaliação externa do 1º (2012) e 2º (2014) ciclo do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica no Ceará. Vinte indicadores compostos foram utilizados para averiguar a qualidade da infraestrutura e do processo de trabalho. RESULTADOS Dados de 183 (99,4%) dos 184 municípios foram avaliados nos dois ciclos. Avaliaram-se 1.441 equipes para infraestrutura e 800 equipes para processo de trabalho. Dentre os 20 indicadores compostos avaliados, houve melhoria em 18, porém de forma não homogênea, variando de 0,0 a 413,5%. Observou-se que quanto menor o valor inicial do indicador, maior a variação na qualidade entre 2012 e 2014. Os indicadores da infraestrutura e do processo de trabalho foram influenciados pela região de saúde e porte populacional do município, sendo mais evidente a influência nas variáveis de processo de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES Identificou-se que melhorias da qualidade referentes à infraestrutura e ao processo de trabalho ocorreram no período de implantação do programa no estado do Ceará de forma equitativa, sendo influenciadas pelo porte populacional e pela região, demonstrando a influência do contexto na implementação de políticas públicas dessa natureza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care , Time Factors , Brazil , Program Evaluation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Cities , Quality Improvement
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 58, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the human resources for health and analyze the inequality in its distribution in Mexico. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on the National Occupation and Employment Survey (ENOE in Spanish) for the fourth quarter of 2018 in Mexico. Graduated physicians and nurses, and auxiliary/technician nurses with completed studies were considered as human resources for health. States were grouped by degree of marginalization. Densities of human resources for health per 1,000 inhabitants, Index of Dissimilarity (DI) and Concentration Indices (CI) were estimated as measures of unequal distribution. RESULTS The density of human resources for health was 4.6 per 1,000 inhabitants. We found heterogeneity among states with densities from 2.3 to 10.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. Inequality was higher in the states with a very low degree of marginalization (CI = 0.4) than those with high marginalization (CI = 0.1), and the inequality in the distribution of physicians (CI = 0.5) was greater than in graduated nurses (CI = 0.3) among states. In addition, 17 states showed a density above the threshold of 4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants proposed in the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health. That implies a deficit of nearly 60,000 human resources for health among the 15 states below the threshold. For all states, to reach a density equal to the national density of 4.6, about 12.6% of human health resources would have to be distributed among states that were below national density. CONCLUSIONS In Mexico, there is inequality in the distribution of human resources for health, with state differences. Government mechanisms could support the balance in the labor market of physicians and nurses through a human resources policy.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Describir los recursos humanos en salud y analizar la desigualdad en su distribución en México. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo del cuarto trimestre de 2018 en México. Se consideraron como recursos humanos en salud médicos y enfermeras con licenciatura, y personal de enfermería auxiliar/técnica con estudios concluidos. Se agrupó a los estados por grado de marginación y se estimó densidades de recursos humanos en salud por 1.000 habitantes, Índices de Disimilitud e Índices de Concentración (IC) como medidas de desigualdad en la distribución. RESULTADOS La densidad de recursos humanos en salud fue de 4,6 por 1.000 habitantes; se observó heterogeneidad entre los estados con que van 2,3 hasta 10,5 por 1.000 habitantes. La desigualdad fue mayor en los estados con muy bajo grado de marginación (IC = 0,4) que en los estados de muy alto grado (IC = 0,1), y fue mayor la desigualdad en la distribución de los médicos (IC = 0,5) que en las enfermeras profesionales (IC = 0,3) entre los estados. Para que todos los estados tuvieran una densidad igual a la nacional de 4,6, se tendrían que distribuir alrededor de 12,6% de los recursos humanos en salud entre los estados que estuvieron por debajo de la densidad nacional. Adicionalmente, 17 estados tuvieron una densidad superior al umbral de 4,5 por 1.000 habitantes propuesto en la Estrategia Global en Recursos Humanos para la Salud. Eso implica un déficit de casi 60 mil recursos humanos en salud entre los 15 estados por debajo del umbral. CONCLUSIONES En México existe desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos en salud, diferenciada en los estados. Mecanismos gubernamentales a través de una política de recursos humanos podrían incentivar el equilibrio en el mercado de laboral de los médicos y enfermeras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Physicians/supply & distribution , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/supply & distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Density , Age Distribution , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Geography , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Mexico , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190504, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101440

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The study of the landscape ecology, biological microhabitat, and epidemiological implications for the distribution of the main vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus contribute to the prevention and control actions regarding the diseases they transmit. METHODS: This study sought to assess data on positive properties of the vector control program activities from 1998 to 2010. An entomological survey was also carried out on a sample of buildings collecting larvae and pupae from containers between October and April (spring / summer) from 2002 to 2005. We assessed the physico-chemical data of the water in 20% of positive containers. The vegetation and urbanization were assessed with the aid of satellite images and microenvironments were classified as urbanized, woods, and shrubs. The data were analyzed using statistical and geoprocessing software. RESULTS: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonized all types of microhabitats and microenvironments, predominantly in the urbanized area, in isolation and in coexistence. The microhabitat of Ae. aegypti showed a temperature gradient greater than that of Ae. albopictus, and there was an association with urbanized areas for the first species and wooded areas for the last species. CONCLUSIONS: Landscape ecology and intra-urban differences favor different microclimates, which contribute to the coexistence of species in the urban environment in an area close to the forest, raising the risk of other arbovirus infections in urban areas. The ecological niche should be considered for Ae. albopictus. Entomological and virologic monitoring are suggested as arbovirus surveillance actions in urban infested centers near preserved forests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Aedes/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil , Population Density , Aedes/classification , Spatial Analysis , Animal Distribution , Mosquito Vectors/classification
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