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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 351-356, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Most prenatal screening programs for toxoplasmosis use immunoassays in serum samples of pregnant women. Few studies assess the accuracy of screening tests in dried blood spots, which are of easy collection, storage, and transportation. The goals of the present study are to determine the performance and evaluate the agreement between an immunoassay of dried blood spots and a reference test in the serum of pregnant women from a population-based prenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the immunoassays Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM and Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil)in dried blood spots with the enzymelinked fluorescent assay (ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lyon, France) reference standard in the serum of pregnant women from Minas Gerais Congenital Toxoplasmosis Control Program. Results The dried blood spot test was able to discriminate positive and negative results of pregnant women when comparedwith the reference test, with an accuracy of 98.2% for immunoglobulin G (IgG), and of 95.8% for immunoglobulin M (IgM). Conclusion Dried blood samples are easy to collect, store, and transport, and they have a good performance,making this a promisingmethod for prenatal toxoplasmosis screening programs in countries with continental dimensions, limited resources, and a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis, as is the case of Brazil.


Resumo Objetivo A maioria dos programas de triagem pré-natal para toxoplasmose utiliza imunoensaios em amostras de soro de gestantes. Poucos estudos avaliam a acurácia dos testes de triagem em amostras de sangue seco, que são de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o desempenho e avaliar a concordância entre um imunoensaio em sangue seco e um teste de referência em soro de gestantes de um programa de rastreamento pré-natal de base populacional para toxoplasmose no Brasil. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal para comparar os imunoensaios Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM e Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) em sangue seco com o padrão de referência ensaio fluorescente ligado a enzimas (enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lion, França) no soro de gestantes do Programa de Controle de Toxoplasmose Congênita de Minas Gerais. Resultados O exame em sangue seco foi capaz de discriminar os resultados positivos e negativos das gestantes quando comparado ao teste de referência, com acurácia de 98,2% para imunoglobulina G (IgG), e de 95,8% para imunoglobulina M (IgM). Conclusão O sangue seco apresenta bom desempenho e é uma amostra de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte, o que o torna um método promissor para programas de triagem pré-natal de toxoplasmose em países com dimensões continentais, recursos limitados, e alta prevalência de toxoplasmose, como é o caso do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00276020, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278628

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación buscó determinar el subregistro de casos de tuberculosis (TB) en la Región Cajamarca, Perú, en los años 2017 y 2018, mediante el método de captura recaptura, asimismo estimar la tasa de incidencia a través de este método, evaluar la exhaustividad de los sistemas de vigilancia, y describir las características epidemiológicas de la TB en el periodo estudiado. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en la Región Cajamarca; se analizaron dos sistemas de vigilancia: el Sistema de Información Gerencial de Tuberculosis (SIGTB) y el Sistema Epidemiológico de Tuberculosis (SIEPI-TB), en base al número de casos registrados en cada sistema se aplicó el método de captura y recaptura para obtener una estimación de casos reales, validando los datos con un modelo log-lineal en el entorno estadístico R. Los mayores subregistros en los sistemas fueron: 40,7% en el 2017 y 25,6% en el 2018; se encontró que las tasas de incidencia estimadas en ambos años fueron superiores a las reportadas por los sistemas oficiales, el sistema de vigilancia más exhaustivo fue el SIEPI-TB. Los resultados indican la existencia de un preocupante subregistro y la necesidad de monitoreo de los sistemas de vigilancia de tuberculosis.


This study sought to determine the underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Cajamarca Region, Peru in 2017 and 2018 through the capture-recapture method and to estimate the TB incidence rate using this method, assess the exhaustiveness of surveillance systems, and describe the epidemiological characteristics of TB in this period. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed in the Cajamarca Region; the surveillance systems were analyzed were the TB Management Information System (SIGTB) and the TB Epidemiological System (SIEPI-TB). Based on the number of cases recorded in each system, the capture-recapture method was applied to obtain an estimation of real cases, validating the data with a log-linear model in the R statistical environment. The largest underreporting rates in the systems were 40.7% in 2017 and 25.6% in 2018; the estimated incidence rates in both years were higher than those reported by the official systems, the most exhaustive surveillance system was SIEPI-TB. The results indicate the existence of worrisome underreporting and the need to monitor the TB surveillance systems.


Esta pesquisa procurou aferir a subnotificação de casos de tuberculose (TB) na Região de Cajamarca, nos anos 2017 e 2018 usando o método de captura-recaptura, também para estimar a taxa de incidência através deste método, avaliar a abrangência dos sistemas de vigilância e descrever as características epidemiológicas da tuberculose no período estudado. Um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo foi realizado na Região de Cajamarca; foram analisados dois sistemas de vigilância: o Sistema de Informação de Gestão da Tuberculose (SIGTB) e o Sistema Epidemiológico da Tuberculose (SIEPI-TB). Com base no número de casos registrados em cada sistema, o método de captura-recaptura foi aplicado para obter uma estimativa de casos reais, validando os dados com um modelo log-linear no ambiente estatístico R. As maiores subnotificações nos sistemas foram: 40,7% em 2017 e 25,6% em 2018; verificou-se que as taxas de incidência estimadas em ambos os anos foram mais altas do que as relatadas pelos sistemas oficiais, e que o sistema de vigilância mais abrangente foi o SIEPI-TB. Os resultados indicam a existência de uma subnotificação preocupante e a necessidade de monitoramento dos sistemas de vigilância da TB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Peru/epidemiology , Brazil , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Disease Notification
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020763, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142941

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as características dos óbitos por COVID-19 no estado de Rondônia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com dados do Sistema Estratégia de Informatização do Sistema Único de Saúde Vigilância Epidemiológica (E-SUS-VE), notificados entre 1º de janeiro e 20 de agosto de 2020. Foram aplicados testes estatísticos (qui-quadrado e procedimento de Marascuilo), considerando-se como diferenças significantes quando os testes apresentaram p-valor <0,05. Resultados: Foram notificados 184.146 casos suspeitos, dos quais 49.804 foram confirmados como COVID-19, e 1.020 evoluíram para óbito (letalidade 2,1%). Observaram-se diferenças significantes estatisticamente entre as faixas etárias e a letalidade (p-valor <0,001); maior letalidade quanto maior a idade (procedimento de Marascuilo, significativo na comparação entre maiores de 60 anos com as demais faixas etárias); maior óbito no sexo masculino (letalidade de 2,7%); e maior letalidade entre as pessoas de cor preta (3,0%). Conclusão: Em Rondônia, observou-se maior letalidade entre idosos, homens e pessoas pardas e pretas.


Objetivo: Describir las características de los óbitos debidos a COVID-19 en Rondônia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con datos del Sistema de Estrategia de Computación del Sistema Unificado de Salud de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (E-SUS-VE), notificados entre el 1 de enero y el 20 de agosto de 2020. Se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas (procedimiento Chi-cuadrado y Marascuilo), considerando significativas cuando las pruebas presentaron valor p<0,05. Resultados: se notificaron 184.146 casos sospechosos, con 49.804 confirmados como COVID-19 y 1.020 muertes (letalidad 2,1%). Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos de edad y letalidad (valor p <0,001); a mayor edad mayor letalidad (procedimiento de Marascuilo, significativo en la comparación entre mayores de 60 años con los otros grupos de edad); mayor óbito en el sexo masculino (letalidad del 2,7%); y mayor letalidad entre la raza negra (3,0%). Conclusión: En Rondônia, hubo una mayor letalidad entre los adultos mayores, hombres y pardos y negros.


Objective: To describe the characteristics of deaths due to COVID-19 in the state of Rondônia. Methods: This was a descriptive study, with data from the Brazilian National Health System Epidemiological Surveillance System Computerization Strategy (E-SUS-VE, notified between January 1 and August 20, 2020. Statistical tests (Chi-square and Marascuilo procedure) were applied, where differences were considered to be significant when p< 0.05. Results 184,146 suspected cases were reported, of which 49,804 were confirmed as COVID-19, and 1,020 died (lethality 2.1%). Statistically significant differences were observed between age groups and lethality (p-value <0.001); lethality was greater as age increased (Marascuilo procedure, significant in the comparison between the over 60s and the other age groups); death was higher among males (2.7% lethality); and lethality was higher among Black people (3.0%). Conclusion: Lethality was greater among the elderly, males and people of brown and black skin color in Rondônia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mortality/trends , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , National Health Programs , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Population Surveillance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Age Factors , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors/statistics & numerical data
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(5): 368-376, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139717

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Prenatal toxoplasmosis remains a neglected disease worldwide and few government programs focusing on its prevention are available. Success in these programs has been extensively reported in the literature, yet the strategies used for their implementation, as a model for such actions in different communities, have not been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe the aspects of prenatal care strategies in 13 municipalities within the regional healthcare unit of Araçatuba, in the northwestern region of the state of São Paulo in 2017, focusing on congenital toxoplasmosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study on prenatal healthcare within the Brazilian National Health System, in 13 participating municipalities. METHODS: Data on serological tests, referral clinics, notifications, healthcare strategies, health education and drugs for infected children were requested through a questionnaire that was sent via e-mail to people responsible for healthcare services in these municipalities. RESULTS: Major differences relating to diagnoses, reference outpatient clinics, notifications, health education and healthcare and drugs for infected children were reported among the prenatal strategies of these 13 municipal healthcare services. CONCLUSION: The lack of standardized prenatal strategy in the study area may compromise the prevention of infection. However, our identification of each aspect of prenatal care corroborates the need to implement a healthcare surveillance program relating to congenital toxoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/prevention & control , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys
8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(1,n.esp): 239-245, ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1116875

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as ações estratégicas de coordenação do cuidado, monitoramento e vigilância dos casos de COVID-19 na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: Estudo do tipo relato de experiência, desenvolvido num território da Estratégia Saúde da Família da Sede do município de Sobral ­ Ceará, Brasil. Resultados: Papel da Atenção Primária à Saúde na coordenação do cuidado, vigilância e monitoramento de casos COVID-19 no território sanitário, e no ordenamento da Rede de Atenção à Saúde; a importância do isolamento social horizontal e o isolamento dos casos positivos no próprio lar, para o controle da COVID-19; a potencialidade do uso de ferramentas de tecnologias digitais no território, para divulgação das ações, disseminação de informações pelas redes sociais e a prática do teleatendimento; efetividade do trabalho em equipe e em rede no desenvolvimento das ações de controle da pandemia. Conclusão: A Atenção Primária à Saúde tem papel estratégico nas ações de combate ao COVID-19 no território, sobretudo na redução da transmissão comunitária, na resposta às demandas e monitoramento dos casos e na vigilância em cada fase da pandemia. (AU)


Objective: To describe the strategic actions for the coordination of care, monitoring and surveillance of COVID-19 cases in Primary Health Care. Method: An experience report type study, developed in a territory of the Family Health Strategy at the Headquarters of the municipality of Sobral - Ceará, Brazil. Results: Role of Primary Health Care in the coordination of care, surveillance and monitoring of COVID-19 cases in the health territory, and in the organization of the Health Care Network; the importance of horizontal social isolation and the isolation of positive cases at home for the control of COVID-19; the potentiality of using digital technology tools in the territory, for the dissemination of actions, dissemination of information through social networks and the practice of call centers; effectiveness of teamwork and networking in the development of pandemic control actions. Conclusion: Primary Health Care has a strategic role in actions to combat COVID-19 in the territory, especially in reducing community transmission, in responding to demands and monitoring cases and in surveillance in each phase of the pandemic. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir las acciones estratégicas de coordinación del cuidado, monitorización y vigilancia de los casos de COVID-19 en la Atención Primaria a la Salud. Método: Estudio del tipo relato de experiencia, desarrollado en un territorio de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia de la Sede del municipio de Sobral ­ Ceará, Brasil. Resultados: Papel de la Atención Primaria a la Salud en la coordinación del cuidado, vigilancia y monitorización de casos de COVID-19 en el territorio sanitario, y en el ordenamiento de la Red de Atención a la Salud; la importancia del aislamiento social horizontal y el aislamiento de los casos positivos en el propio hogar para el control del COVID-19; la potencialidad del uso de herramientas de tecnologías digitales en el territorio, para la divulgación de las acciones, diseminación de informaciones por las redes sociales y la práctica dela atención domiciliaria remota; efectividad del trabajo en equipo y en red en el desarrollo de las acciones de control de la pandemia. Conclusión: La Atención Primaria a la Salud tiene un papel estratégico en las acciones de combate al COVID-19 en el territorio, sobretodo en la reducción de la transmisión comunitaria, en la respuesta a las demandas, en la monitorización de los casos y en la vigilancia en cada fase de la pandemia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Population Surveillance , Coronavirus Infections , Family Health Strategy , Empathy
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(5): 1955-1966, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100995

ABSTRACT

Resumo Avaliar o desempenho do Sistema Nacional de Notificações para a Vigilância Sanitária no que diz respeito ao registro de informações sobre danos à saúde relacionados com medicamentos (Notivisa-medicamento) a partir de atributos previamente selecionados. Realizou-se um estudo de avaliação em saúde de corte transversal, entre 2008 e 2013, que empregou oito atributos previstos em diretrizes para avaliação de sistemas de vigilância da saúde pública (simplicidade, aceitabilidade, representatividade, completude, validade, consistência, erro preditivo positivo e oportunidade). No período estudado, 63.512 registros foram identificados no Notivisa-medicamento, sendo a maioria classificados como graves (60,5%). O desempenho do Notivisa-medicamento foi considerado satisfatório para dois dos oito atributos (validade e erro preditivo positivo) e deficitário para os demais (simplicidade, aceitabilidade, representatividade, completude, consistência e oportunidade). É necessário discutir e implementar maneiras de como aprimorar o sistema com vistas a fornecer informações completas, oportunas e confiáveis para diferentes segmentos da sociedade brasileira, sobretudo os gestores de vigilância sanitária.


Abstract The scope of this paper is to assess the performance of the Brazilian Notification System for Health Surveillance, with respect to the registration of information on adverse drug-related effects on health (Notivisa/medication) based on previously selected attributes. A cross-sectional health evaluation study was conducted between 2008 and 2013 using eight attributes established by international guidelines to assess public health surveillance systems: simplicity, acceptability, representativeness, completeness, validity, consistency, positive predictive error and timeliness. In the study period, 63,512 registrations were identified in Notivisa/medication, the majority being considered severe (60.5%). The performance of Notivisa/medication was considered satisfactory with respect to two of the eight attributes (validity and positive predictive error) and deficient in six of the remaining attributes (simplicity, acceptability, representativeness, completeness, consistency and timeliness). Quality improvement strategies to remedy the system need to be discussed and implemented in order to provide complete, timely and reliable surveillance information for different segments of Brazilian society, especially health surveillance managers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population Surveillance , Pharmacovigilance , Time Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Health Surveillance
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2487-2492, Mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101070

ABSTRACT

Resumo Dados ganham cada vez mais importância e valor na busca de respostas para enfrentar a COVID-19 tanto para a ciência quanto para as autoridades sanitárias. Em virtude da dificuldade de realizar diagnóstico da infecção na população em geral, iniciativas apoiadas em tecnologias digitais vêm sendo desenvolvidas por governos ou empresas privadas para possibilitar rastreamentos de sintomas, contatos e deslocamentos de modo a apoiar estratégias de acompanhamento e avaliação na vigilância de contágios. A despeito da importância e necessidade dessas iniciativas, questionamentos acerca da quantidade e tipos de dados pessoais coletados, processados, compartilhados e utilizados em nome da saúde pública, bem como os concomitantes ou posteriores usos desses dados, suscitam questionamentos éticos, legais e técnicos. Desafios que apontam para a necessidade de novos modelos de governança de dados e de tecnologias, responsáveis e transparentes, para controlar o Sars-Cov2 e as futuras emergências de saúde pública.


Abstract Data has become increasingly important and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies are being developed by governments and private companies to enable the tracking of the public's symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, initiatives designed to support infection surveillance and monitoring are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions abound regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or posterior use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control SARS-COV2, as well as in future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Global Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Privacy , Health Records, Personal , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Confidentiality , Social Media , Data Anonymization
12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200019, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092605

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Caracterizar padrões espaçotemporais de indicadores operacionais de controle da hanseníase no estado da Bahia no período de 2001 a 2014. Metodologia: Estudo ecológico, de base populacional, com distribuição e autocorrelação espacial de indicadores operacionais da hanseníase. Resultados: No período de 2001 a 2007, 42,7% (n = 178) dos municípios apresentaram percentual de cura inferior a 75%, ampliando para 61,4% (n = 291) de 2009 a 2014. De 2001 a 2007, 32,5% (n = 54) dos municípios notificaram mais de 10% do total de casos de recidiva do estado, com aumento para 36,9% (n = 75) dessa situação no período de 2008 a 2014. De 2001 a 2014, em 38% (n = 159) dos municípios, o indicador de avaliação do grau de incapacidade física (GIF) no momento do diagnóstico se encontrava conforme o parâmetro regular de desempenho. Já no período de 2009 a 2014, houve aumento de municípios com alta ocorrência de GIF2 no momento do diagnóstico, atingindo 55,3% (n = 230) dos municípios. A maioria dos municípios do estado da Bahia apresentou desempenho insatisfatório na execução das ações de controle previstas para a hanseníase, com pouca mudança ou relativa piora nos padrões de indicadores operacionais ao longo da série histórica. Conclusão: O contexto operacional do estado da Bahia sinaliza graves dimensões de vulnerabilidade institucional, o que implica necessariamente a ampliação e a qualificação da rede de vigilância e atenção à saúde nas diferentes regiões e contextos analisados do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


ABSTRACT: Objective: To characterize spatiotemporal patterns of operational indicators for leprosy control in the state of Bahia from 2001 to 2014. Methods: This is a population-based ecological study, with spatial distribution and autocorrelation of operational indicators for leprosy control. Results: From 2001 to 2007, 42.7% (n=178) of the municipalities presented a cure rate lower than 75%, increasing to 61.4% (n =291) from 2009 to 2014. Between 2001 and 2007, 32.5% (n=54) of the municipalities reported more than 10% of the total number of relapses in the state, increasing to 36.9% (n=75) between 2008 and 2014. From 2001 to 2014, 38% (n=159) of the municipalities presented an assessment index of disability grading at the time of diagnosis within the regular performance parameter. Between 2009 and 2014, the number of municipalities with a high incidence of grade 2 disability (G2D) at the time of diagnosis increased, reaching 55.3% (n=230) of the municipalities. Most municipalities in the state of Bahia showed poor performance in the implementation of planned actions for leprosy control, with little change or relative worsening in the patterns of operational indicators throughout the historical series. Conclusion: The operational context in Bahia indicates significant institutional vulnerability, leading to the need for expansion and qualification of the surveillance and health care network in the different regions and conditions analyzed in the public health system (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Leprosy/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Population Surveillance , Incidence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Cities , Disability Evaluation , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Leprosy/epidemiology
13.
Clinics ; 75: e1508, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that infection or inflammation is a major contributor to early spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the development and causes of maternal infection associated with maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sPTB. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component, the Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP), conducted from April 2011 to July 2012 in 20 Brazilian referral obstetric hospitals. Women with preterm birth (PTB) and their neonates were enrolled. In this analysis, 2,682 women undergoing spontaneous preterm labor and premature pre-labor rupture of membranes were included. Two groups were identified based on self-reports or prenatal or hospital records: women with at least one infection factor and women without any maternal infection (vulvovaginitis, urinary tract infection, or dental infection). A bivariate analysis was performed to identify potential individual risk factors for PTB. The odds ratios (ORs) with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: The majority of women with sPTB fulfilled at least one criterion for the identification of maternal infection (65.9%), and more than half reported having urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Approximately 9.6% of women with PTB and maternal infection were classified as having periodontal infection only. Apart from the presence of a partner, which was more common among women with infectious diseases (p=0.026; OR, 1.28 [1.03-1.59]), other variables did not show any significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal infection was highly prevalent in all cases of sPTBs, although it was not clearly associated with the type of PTB, gestational age, or any adverse neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190507, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092191

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Intra-domiciliary contacts are a group with the highest risk of developing leprosy. METHODS A cross-sectional study of intra-domiciliary contacts of new leprosy cases was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. RESULTS Among 190 contacts, 63% were invited to visit the health unit, and 54.2% received the BCG vaccine. The prevalence of leprosy among the contacts was 4.7%. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of leprosy among the contacts was high and similar to that found previously. There were failures in surveillance actions carried out by health units. Never-before treated cases were found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Leprosy/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leprosy/prevention & control , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.2): e20200350, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1125936

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. Methods: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. Results: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. Final consideratios: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


RESUMEN Objetivo: informar la experiencia de telemonitorización de los Hogares para Ancianos frente a las infecciones por coronavirus y COVID-19. Métodos: informe descriptivo de la experiencia que tuvo lugar entre el 18 de marzo y el 25 de abril de 2020, a través de la telemonitorización de las instituciones de Salvador, Ba, siguiendo un guión previamente preparado para el primer contacto y seguimiento. La telemonitorización fue realizada por profesores y alumnos del Programa de Posgrado de la Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidade Federal da Bahía. Resultados: 32 instituciones fueron seguidas durante cuatro semanas. Algunas instalaciones y dificultades aparecieron durante el monitoreo. Consideraciones finales: como los Hogares para Ancianos son colectivos, sus residentes son vulnerables a la transmisión de infecciones. Además, la diversidad de estructuras y las necesidades de recursos económicos, sociales y humanos de estos lugares revela su fragilidad y la urgencia de las políticas públicas que abordan tales diversidades.


RESUMO Objetivo: relatar a experiência de telemonitoramento de Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos frente às infecções por coronavírus e COVID-19. Métodos: relato descritivo da experiência ocorrida entre 18 de março e 25 de abril de 2020, através de telemonitoramento das instituições de Salvador, Ba, seguindo um roteiro previamente elaborado para primeiro contato e de seguimento. O telemonitoramento foi realizado por docentes da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal da Bahia e discentes do Programa de Pós-Graduação dessa escola, durante quatro semanas. Resultados: foram acompanhadas 32 instituições durante quatro semanas. Algumas facilidades e dificuldades se apresentaram no decorrer do monitoramento. Considerações finais: como as Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos são domicílios coletivos, seus residentes são vulneráveis a transmissão de infecções. Ademais, a diversidade de estruturas e necessidades econômicas, sociais e de recursos humanos desses locais revela sua fragilidade e urgência de políticas públicas que atendam tais diversidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Skills , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 423-429, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286538

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Influenza epidemics are of higher risk at the extremes of life and in people with comorbidities. Effective vaccination prevents the occurrence of serious cases and decreases mortality. Objective: To describe deaths from influenza with a history of timely vaccination, from the 2010 to the 2018 season in Mexico. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study where the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance System database was used. Results: From 2010 to 2018, 65 vaccinated individuals died from influenza, from which 55% of cases (n = 36) were due to type A (H1N1), 51% (n = 33) were females, median age was 57 years, 21 % (n = 14) did not meet the operational definition of influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory infection, 83% (n = 54) had at least one comorbidity, with the most common being diabetes mellitus and hypertension (32% each); 55% (n = 36) of deaths received antiviral treatment and only 8% (n = 5) had no comorbidities and received treatment with oseltamivir. Conclusions: Deaths from influenza with timely vaccination represent a very low percentage of the totality. Vaccination against influenza has been a specific prevention strategy that decreases disease burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Comorbidity , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1304-1310, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify tuberculosis-related health care and surveillance actions in Prison Health Units. Method: Cross-sectional study, of quantitative, exploratory and descriptive character. We visited 13 Teams of Prison Health, and nurses and technicians were interviewed regarding epidemiological surveillance instruments, physical structure and materials. Results: Search for respiratory symptoms in admission was reported by 6 (46.2%) of the teams, and the smear microscopy was the most requested test. The Logbook of Respiratory Symptoms and the Logbook for Monitoring Tuberculosis Cases were used in 7 (53.8%) institutions. Two of them (15.4%) had a location for sputum collection and 1 (7.7%) had a radiographer. The Directly Observed Therapy was reported in 7 (53.8%) units. Conclusion: Health care actions related to the search for respiratory symptoms and Directly Observed Therapy should be expanded, as well as surveillance actions and recording in official documents of the National Tuberculosis Control Program.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar acciones asistenciales y de control de la tuberculosis en Unidades de Salud en Prisiones. Método: Estudio transversal, de tipo cuantitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo. Se visitaron a 13 equipos de Salud en Prisiones, de los cuales participaron enfermeros y técnicos de enfermería de una entrevista sobre los instrumentos de control epidemiológico, la estructura física local y los materiales. Resultados: La búsqueda de sintomáticos respiratorios durante la admisión fue relatada por 6 (un 46,2%) equipos, siendo la baciloscopía el examen más solicitado. El Libro de Registro de Sintomáticos Respiratorios y el Libro de Registro de Seguimiento de los casos de Tuberculosis son utilizados en 7 (un 53,8%) instituciones. Dos (un 15,4%) de ellas contaban con un local para recolección de esputo y 1 (un 7,7%) tiene radiógrafo. El Tratamiento Directamente Observado se mencionó en 7 (un 53,8%) unidades. Conclusión: Las acciones asistenciales relacionadas con la búsqueda de sintomáticos respiratorios y el Tratamiento Directamente Observado deberían ser ampliadas, así como las acciones de control y registro en los documentos oficiales del Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar ações assistenciais e de vigilância relacionadas à tuberculose em Unidades de Saúde Prisional. Método: Estudo transversal, de caráter quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo. Foram visitadas 13 Equipes de Saúde Prisional e entrevistados enfermeiros e técnicos de enfermagem com relação à instrumentos de vigilância epidemiológica, estrutura física e materiais. Resultados: A busca de sintomáticos respiratórios na admissão foi relatada por 6(46,2%) equipes, sendo a baciloscopia o exame mais solicitado. O Livro de Registro de Sintomáticos Respiratórios e o Livro de Registro de Acompanhamento dos Caso de Tuberculose eram utilizados em 7(53,8%) instituições. Duas (15,4%) apresentavam local para coleta de escarro e 1(7,7%) possuía radiógrafo. O Tratamento Diretamente Observado foi referido em 7(53,8%) unidades. Conclusão: As ações assistenciais relacionadas à busca de sintomáticos respiratório e Tratamento Diretamente Observado deveriam ser ampliadas, bem como as ações de vigilância e registro nos documentos oficiais do Programa Nacional de Controle da Tuberculose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prisons/standards , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/therapy , Prisons/organization & administration , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Directly Observed Therapy , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
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