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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Porcupines , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Animals, Wild
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243063, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285598

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é classificado como uma espécie de praga agrícola. Alimenta-se de plantas e colheitas; portanto, é responsável por enormes perdas financeiras em todo o mundo. O estudo atual foi realizado para avaliar a composição da dieta do porco-espinho de crista indiano nos distritos de Bagh, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJ&K). Assim, amostras fecais foram coletadas e examinadas em diferentes locais de amostragem. Lâminas de referência do material coletado na área de estudo foram preparadas para identificação dos componentes da dieta em pellets fecais. Um total de 80 amostras fecais foi coletado e processado. As frequências relativas percentuais (P.R.F.) foram calculadas para cada espécie de planta recuperada de pelotas. Os dados revelaram que o porco-espinho indiano consumiu 31 espécies de plantas em sua dieta, entre elas Zea mays (34,31 ± 7,76) foi a espécie mais selecionada, seguida por Rumex obtusifolius (15,32 ± 2,57) e Melia azedarach (12,83 ± 4,79). O estudo revelou que a maior diversidade de (n = 20) espécies de plantas foi consumida no verão, enquanto o mínimo (n = 13) espécies foi utilizado durante o inverno. Entre as partes das plantas, o caule foi muito consumido na primavera (57,2%) em relação à semente no outono (36,7%), enquanto a espiga e a folha foram as partes menos recuperadas da matéria fecal., O índice de diversidade de Berger-Parker mostrou alimentos altamente diversificados (10,92) no verão do ano em comparação com o outono (2,95). Este estudo fornece uma linha de base para a preferência alimentar dessa praga na área de estudo. Com base nas descobertas atuais, uma investigação detalhada sobre avaliação de danos, exploração, uso de habitat e gerenciamento de porco-espinho de crista indiano em AJ&K foi recomendada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Porcupines , Ecosystem , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Feeding Behavior
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Porcupines , Pakistan , Trees , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 3-6, jan./mar. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379086

ABSTRACT

O interesse pelo estudo de animais silvestres vem crescendo consideravelmente nos últimos anos, seja em decorrência do risco de extinção ou visando o controle de doenças, especialmente as zoonoses. A ordem Rodentia apresenta o maior número de espécies da classe Mammalia. Apesar de ampla distribuição e importância, dados sobre sua anatomia vascular renal são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o aparecimento de variação numérica na artéria renal esquerda em Sphiggurusvillosus com enfoque nas possibilidades de implicações clínico-cirúrgicas, como, anastomoses cirúrgicas, estudos imaginológicos, nefrectomias e planejamento pré-operatório para redução de riscos e complicações como hemorragia. O cadáver foi devidamente formolizado no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Morfologia de Animais Domésticos e Selvagens e posteriormente dissecado. O rim esquerdo apresentou três artérias renais, uma cranial, uma intermediaria e outra caudal, ambas posicionadas em nível de L2 emergindo de forma impar lateralmente da aorta abdominal. A primeira artéria, mais cranial, apresentou 10,52 mm de comprimento e se dirigiu diretamente para o hilo renal, emitindo ramo para adrenal, diafragma e musculatura sublombar. A segunda artéria, intermediária, mediu 7,77 mm, emitiu ramo cranial e caudal para o hilo renal e ramo ureteral. A terceira artéria, caudal, mediu 10,11 mm e se dirigiu para o hilo renal. A veia renal esquerda era única e apresentou 9,25 mm de comprimento, posicionada em nível de L1. Este é o primeiro relato de artéria renal tripla em mamífero silvestre.


Interest in the study of wild animals has grown considerably in recent years, either due to the risk of extinction or to control diseases, especially zoonoses. The order Rodentia has the largest number of species in the Mammalia class. Despite its wide distribution and importance, data on its renal vascular anatomy are scarce in the literature. The aim of this paper is to report the appearance of numerical variation in the left renal artery in porcupine focusing on the possibilities of clinical and surgical implications, such as surgical anastomoses, imaging studies, nephrectomies and preoperative planning to reduce risks and complications such as bleeding. The animal was duly formalized in the Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Morphology of Domestic and Wild Animals and subsequently dissected. The left kidney had three renal arteries, one cranial, one intermediate, and one caudal, both positioned at L2 level, emerging unevenly laterally from the abdominal aorta. The first more cranial artery was 10.52 mm long and directed directly into the renal hilum, emitting a branch to the adrenal, diaphragm and sub lumbar muscles. The second intermediate artery measured 7.77 mm, emitting a cranial and caudal branch to the renal hilum and ureteral branch. The third caudal artery measured 10.11 mm and headed straight for the renal hilum. The left renal vein was unique, measured 9.25 mm long, and positioned at L1 level. This is the first report of triple renal artery in wild mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Renal Veins/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Dissection/veterinary , Anatomic Variation , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 953-958, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011294

ABSTRACT

O emprego conjunto da laserterapia e da ozonioterapia em feridas apresenta alto potencial benéfico para os pacientes, uma vez que contribui para o manejo da dor, tem ação anti-inflamatória e acelera o processo de cicatrização. Este relato de caso tem como objetivo apresentar o uso de terapias alternativas na cicatrização de ferida em exemplar de Coendou prehensilis. Um ouriço-cacheiro, fêmea, adulto, com peso de 4kg foi encaminhado para atendimento médico veterinário com histórico de ter sido atacado por um cão. Inicialmente o ouriço passou pelo procedimento de higienização e desbridamento da ferida, para a retirada das bordas necróticas. Adicionalmente, foram administrados clindamicina (10mg/kg), por via intramuscular (IM), uma vez por dia (SID), tramadol (4mg/kg, IM, SID), flunixin (0,3mg/kg, SID), por via subcutânea (SC), e ferrodextrano (25mg/kg, IM, SID). Apesar da terapia instituída, observou-se reincidência de crescimento necrótico tecidual, o que levou à eleição do tratamento da ferida com as técnicas de laserterapia e ozonioterapia. O emprego das terapias alternativas como adjuvante promoveu uma cicatrização satisfatória da ferida, com ausência de sinais de sensibilidade local e de infecção, bem como ausência de crescimento de bordas necróticas. O tratamento adjuvante foi eficaz e pode ser empregado em outras situações para cicatrização de ferida em mamíferos silvestres.(AU)


The use of therapy with laser beam and ozone in wounds has a high beneficial potential for patients, since it contributes to the management of pain, has an anti-inflammatory action and accelerates the cicatricial process. Due to this casuistry importance, the case report aims to present alternative therapy use for wound healing on a Coendou prehensilis. Thus, a female of C. prehensilis weighing 4kg, was sent to veterinary care. At first there was a hygiene process and debridement for necrotic edge removal. Furthermore, injected clindamycin (10mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM), once a day (SID), tramadol (4mg/kg, IM, SID), flunixin (0.3mg/kg, SID), administered subcutaneously (SC) and iron dextran (25mg/kg, IM, SID). In spite of the established therapy, tissue necrotic growth was observed, which lead the wound treatment as healing by second intention, initiating an alternative therapy with laser beam and ozone. As a result, the healing was satisfactory due to the elected techniques, without signs of pain and infection. The adjuvant treatment with physiotherapy had advantageous effect and could be applied to wound healing in wild mammal animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Wound Healing , Porcupines/injuries , Ozone/therapeutic use , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Physical Therapy Specialty/methods , Laser Therapy/veterinary
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(4): 1221-1226, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-946456

ABSTRACT

Uma fêmea, adulta, de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou spinosus, F. Cuvier, 1823), foi atendida com histórico de trauma medular. No exame neurológico, foi constatada paraplegia com nocicepção preservada e sinais compatíveis com choque espinhal. Exame radiográfico e mielografia apontaram presença de fratura e luxação vertebral torácica entre T10-11. O paciente foi submetido à técnica de estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada, com pinos de Steinmann e fios de cerclagem. A técnica utilizada mostrou-se eficaz na estabilização da fratura/luxação vertebral e na recuperação dos sinais neurológicos. O paciente apresentou recuperação progressiva da deambulação. Para o conhecimento dos autores, este é o primeiro relato utilizando estabilização vertebral segmentar modificada para o tratamento de fratura/luxação vertebral torácica em Coendou spinosus.(AU)


An female, adult Paraguayan hairy dwarf porcupine (Coendou spinosus, F. Cuvier, 1823) was referred to the Veterinary Hospital with clinical history of spinal cord injury. In the neurological examination, paraplegia with preserved nociception compatible with signs of spinal shock were observed. Radiographic and myelographic examinations showed evidence of a vertebral dislocation and fracture between the 10th and 11th thoracic vertebrae. The patient underwent surgical stabilization of the lesion using the modified segmental vertebral stabilization technique with Steinmann pins and cerclage wires. Under the conditions reported in this case, the technique was effective in stabilizing vertebral fracture/dislocation and in recovering neurological functions. The patient presented progressive recovery from ambulation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report that performed modified segment stabilization for thoracic vertebral fracture/luxation treatment in Coendou spinosus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fractures, Bone , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Spinal Cord , Organic Matter Stabilization
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(12): 1215-1220, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842037

ABSTRACT

Coendou prehensilis é um mamífero da ordem Rodentia, que é composta por cinco subordens: Sciuromorfos, a qual pertencem os esquilos; Castorimorfos, onde encontramos os castores; Myomorfos, a qual encontramos os ratos; Anomaluromorfos, Lebre-saltadora, e os Histricomorfos, onde observamos a capivara. Utilizamos nesta pesquisa o ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou prehensilis) sendo um macho e uma fêmea, ambos adultos. Estes animais foram encontrados em óbito por atropelamento nas rodovias da região de Pirassununga-SP e cedidos para o Laboratório de Anatomia do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo FZEA/USP devido a permissão do Ibama para estudar os animais (Registro SISBIO no. 43274-1), os quais foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e dissecados na região do períneo. Os resultados mostraram que a única característica que nos permite diferenciar machos de fêmeas, é o espaço entre o ânus e as genitais dos animais, sendo que o macho apresenta essa distância maior que a fêmea. O períneo é uma região extra cavitária de delimitação losangular, sendo essa delimitação feita pelos ossos interpubiano, púbico e pelos processos do púbis e ísquio. O períneo do Coendou prehensílis macho é composto por cinco principais músculos, sendo três encontrados dispostos no diafragma urogenital superficial, (Músculos isquiocavernosos, M. bulbocavernoso e Mm. Bulboesponjosos) e dois no diafragma pélvico (M. levantador do ânus e M. retrator do pênis). O períneo da fêmea é composto pelos músculos (isquiocavernoso, o bulboesponjoso, levantador do ânus e esfíncter anal externo). Conclui-se que ambos os sexos possuem os músculos isquiocavernosos, Mm. Bulboesponjosos, M. levantador do ânus e esfíncter anal externo, além de que o estudo da região perineal dos animais é de grande importância, pois através do entendimento da função e localização de cada músculo, podemos contribuir para futuras pesquisas sobre reprodução e comportamento animal durante a cópula auxiliando para um melhor entendimento do potencial reprodutivo de roedores da família Erethizontidae, além de contribuir na base do desenvolvimento da biotecnologia aplicada à reprodução visando até mesmo à reprodução desses animais em cativeiro além do meio ambiente livre.(AU)


Coendou prehensilis is a mammal that belongs to the Rodentia order, which consists of five suborders: Sciuromorfos, to which the squirrels belongs; Castorimorfos where we have the beavers; Myomorfos, which include the mice; Anomaluromorfos, Hare jumper, and Hystricomorfos, where we have the capybara. We used the porcupine clerk in the research (Coendou prehensilis), one male and one female, both adults. These animals were transferred to the Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo (FZEA/USP), originating from roadaccidents in Pirassununga, SP (Registration n. 43274-1 SISBIO). The animals were fixed with 10% formaldehyde and dissected in the perineum region. The results showed that the only feature which allows us to differentiate males from females is the space between anus and the genitals of the animals; the male has a larger space than the female. The perineum is an extra cavity region with lozenge definition, and this definition is formed by interpubic bones, the pubic and processes of the pubic and ischium. The male Coendou prehensilis perineum consists of five major muscles, three arranged on the urogenital diaphragm surface (ischiocavernosus muscles, M. bulbocavernosus and Mm. bulboesponjosos) and two in the pelvic diaphragm (M. levator ani and M. penis retractor). The female's perineum is composed by ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, levator ani and external anal sphincter muscles. We conclude that both sexes have the ischiocavernosus muscles, Mm. bulboesponjosos, M. levator ani and external anal sphincter, and it is very important to study the perineal region of the animals, because understanding the function and location of each muscle we can contribute to future research on reproduction and animal behavior during copulation, helping to a better knowledge about reproductive potential of Erethizontidae rodents, and to contribute in the applied biotechnology development of reproduction, what can be helpful even in captivity reproduction of these animals besides the ones in free environment.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Perineum/anatomy & histology , Porcupines/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 879-883, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755800

ABSTRACT

Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ixodidae/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Tick Infestations/microbiology , Animals, Wild , Armadillos , Base Sequence , Birds , Brazil , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Mephitidae , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Porcupines , Periplasmic Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1481-1494, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753705

ABSTRACT

Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn=-2.9), transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011) in semi-deciduous (δn=-0.87) and tropical dry (δn=-0.89) forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs), of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85) followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas) to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines’ habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conservation and management have to be taken urgently. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1481-1494. Epub 2014 December 01.


Los cambios de uso del suelo por actividades humanas, han sido de las principales causas de la degradación, reducción y fragmentación de los hábitats y poblaciones de fauna silvestre. En el Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, el hábitat del puercoespín tropical Sphiggurus mexicanus, se encuentra sometido a cambios de cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo, que están causando la reducción y fragmentación de su hábitat. Debido a ello, estimamos las tasas de cambio de la cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo (δn), y evaluamos la disponibilidad del hábitat y de corredores vegetales potenciales para los posibles movimientos del puercoespín tropical y evitar su aislamiento. En el área de estudio el tipo de vegetación con mayor valor de tasa de cambio fue la sabana (δn=-2.9), transformado en pastizal inducido. Adicionalmente, observamos puercoespínes (desde 2011) en selva mediana subperennifolia (δn=-0.87) y selva baja caducifolia (δn=-0.89), los cuales han sido transformados en áreas de cultivo, selva baja espinosa y pastizal inducido. Caracterizamos la vegetación del hábitat del puercoespín, registrando un total de 64 especies vegetales (44 árboles, nueve bejucos, siete hierbas y cuatro arbustos), de los cuales, el bejuco Bunchosia lanceolata, presentó los valores más altos de importancia (41.85), seguidos por los árboles Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), y Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). El análisis de evaluación de hábitat y corredores potenciales mostró que solo 1 501.93ha pueden considerarse como hábitats adecuados con condiciones estructurales (de cobertura, superficie y distancias a áreas transformadas) para mantener poblaciones viables de S. mexicanus; y 293.6ha como corredores. La destrucción del hábitat del puerco espín en el área de estudio está incrementándose por la tala excesiva, por lo tanto, es prioritario emprender acciones para la conservación y manejo del taxón y su hábitat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Porcupines/classification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Mexico , Population Dynamics , Porcupines/physiology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 297-299, Apr.-June 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-679412

ABSTRACT

Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine visceral leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors.


Alguns estudos relatam o encontro de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em estados da região Norte do Brasil. Na presente investigação, os autores descrevem o isolamento de Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi em um porco-espinho (Coendou sp.) encontrado em Brasília, Distrito Federal, região Centro-oeste do Brasil. Durante um estudo de leishmaniose visceral canina conduzido na cidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal, um porco-espinho foi encontrado morto em via pública. O animal foi identificado e fragmentos de pele íntegra e baço foram coletados para isolamento do parasito em cultura. Esse relato da ocorrência de L. hertigi em outra região do Brasil pode contribuir para evidenciar a distribuição desse parasita no país. Vale ressaltar a necessidade de estudos para compreensão do papel L. hertigi na patologia e patogênese da leishmaniose e a sua sobrevivência em mamíferos e possíveis vetores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Porcupines/parasitology , Brazil , Leishmania/classification
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312449

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study nematode parasites morphology of Hystrix javanica (H. javanica), both through the feces and internal organs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Feces were observed by direct smear method, internal organs were observed after dissecting the host. Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with 70% warm alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Specimens for SEM examination were postfixed in cacodylate buffer and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated through a graded series of alcohol and freeze dried. The specimens were attached to stubs with double cello-tape, coated with gold and observed with a JSM5310 LV electron microscope. Figures were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to Olympus compound microscope, other figures were photographs of scanning electron microscope images. Measurements were given in micrometers as the mean followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The nematode species found in the intestine of H. javanica are Gireterakis girardi and a new species, Trihuris landak. The new species differs with previously reported species from Hystrix because of having stylet and short cervical alae. The pattern of bacillary band is closed to Trichuris trichiurus, the species that infect human, but differs because the surface of its vulva is not covered with densely spine.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The species of nematodes found on H. javanica were Gireterakis girardi and a new species Trichuris landak n.sp. Those two species are newly recorded in Indonesia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascaridida , Physiology , Ascaridida Infections , Parasitology , Feces , Parasitology , Female , Indonesia , Intestines , Parasitology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovum , Physiology , Porcupines , Parasitology , Species Specificity , Trichuriasis , Parasitology , Trichuris , Classification , Physiology
12.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(3): 657-666, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498904

ABSTRACT

DNA extraction protocols are as varied as DNA sources. When it comes to endangered species, it is especially important to pay attention to all details that ensure the completion of the study goals and effectiveness in attaining useful data for conservation. Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) is a secretive arboreal porcupine endemic to certain ecosystems of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A multidisciplinary study (including genetic data) was performed to create a management plan for the conservation of this species. Individuals from natural populations of the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Sergipe were sampled. To obtain a reliable and abundant amount of starting material, non-destructive methods were tested, extracting DNA from the bristles and quills that comprise most of this animal’s hide. This method has also been innovative in adapting a DNA extraction protocol traditionally used for plants. Digestion using proteinase K was followed by protein precipitation with CTAB, a chloroform-isoamyl alcohol cleaning and DNA precipitation with isopropyl alcohol. This protocol supplies good-quality DNA for genetic analysis with molecular markers based on PCR.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial/isolation & purification , Porcupines/genetics , Brazil , DNA , Animal Structures/metabolism , Genetic Techniques , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
14.
Mycobiology ; : 149-152, 2000.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729323

ABSTRACT

Dried specimens of the genus Inocybe collected from mountain areas throughout the Korean country from 1982 to 1998 and preserved in NIAST were investigated. Out of them, Inocybe hystrix were confirmed as an unrecorded species in Korea. In 1991 Lee et al., previously recorded Inocybe kasukayamensis only with its scientific name and korean common name. In this study we report it with full descriptions of morphological characteristics and diagnosis of micro-structures of this species.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Korea , Porcupines
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29122

ABSTRACT

We reviewed 48 skin bicpsies obtained from 48 patients with epidermal nevus during a 10 year period from January 1981 to December 1990. The results are summarized as follows : 1) Of our 48 patients, 23 were male and 25 were female, and male to female ratio was 1 to 1.1. 2) The average of the patients was 19.8 years at the time of diagnois. 3) Lesions were present at birth in 45.7 percent of patients, and most of the remainder de veloped in childhood. The mean age of onset was 7.7 years. 4) The clinical varieties of the nevi in 48 patients were classified according to caicegories of nevus verrucosus, including systematized epidermal nevus, nevu, unius lateris, ichthyosis hystrix, epidermal nevus syndrome and inflammatory linear veirucous epidermal nevus. The most common type was nevus verrucosus(88.6%). 5) A large variety of histopathologic changes can be seen in epidermal nevi. The most common histopathologic .ype was nonspecific(31.3%), follows by common(12.5%), epidermolytic hyperkertosis(12.5%), and acanthosis nigricans(10.4%). 6) The most commonly affected area was head and neck(48.5%) followed by trunk(28.6%), upper limb(11.4%) and lower limb(2.9%).


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Female , Head , Humans , Ichthyosis , Male , Nevus , Parturition , Porcupines , Skin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157322

ABSTRACT

A 4-year-old boy have had widespread, multiple, dark brownish, verrucous ]papular plaques on the neck, left chest, right side of abdomen, back and penile skin since birth. Clinical features and light and electron microscopic findings were consistent with ichthyosis hystrix. The patient was successfully treated with systemic administration of etretinate and vitamin E.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Acitretin , Child , Child, Preschool , Etretinate , Humans , Ichthyosis , Male , Neck , Parturition , Porcupines , Skin , Thorax , Vitamin E , Vitamins
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72343

ABSTRACT

Ichthyosis hystrix is characterized by extensive bilateral systemic involvement of thick hyperkeratotic verrucous papules forming confluent plaques or linear arrangement and is currently classified into a systematized epidermal nevi, which was once conaidered as an extreme variant of congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Here is presented a case with typical clinical features and characteristic histopathologic findings of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Our patient exhibited no skeletal or CNS abnormalities reported to be associated with this condition. Marked improvement was obtained with oral administration of etretinate.


Subject(s)
Acitretin , Administration, Oral , Eating , Etretinate , Flushing , Humans , Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic , Hypertrophy , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital , Ichthyosis , Mandible , Nevus , Porcupines , Sclerosis , Sweat , Sweating , Sweating, Gustatory , Young Adult
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72342

ABSTRACT

Frey syndrome is characterized by sweating and flushing on the auriculotemporal region in respense to gustatory stimuli following surgery, trauma or irfection of the parotid areas. A 22-year-old man had received a surgery for sclerosis and hypertrophy of the left mandible. Two months after operation gustatory sweating occurred, whenever he eats, on the malar area without any detectable flushing or sensory impairment. Sweating starts in 30 seconds during food intake and is clearly visible with naked eyes within 2 minutes. This syndrome is encountered uncommonly to the dermatologic practitioners but more cases might be discovered if more attention could be given to this condition.


Subject(s)
Acitretin , Administration, Oral , Eating , Etretinate , Flushing , Humans , Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic , Hypertrophy , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital , Ichthyosis , Mandible , Nevus , Porcupines , Sclerosis , Sweat , Sweating , Sweating, Gustatory , Young Adult
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190625

ABSTRACT

Ichthyosis hystrix is a localized variant of Bullous Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma by Broq, and also, localized form of Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis according to Frost and Van Scott's classification of ichthyosi-form dermatoses. Clinically it is generally considered to be widespread systematized epidermal nevus, and demonstrating an autosomal dominant pattem of inheritance, and characterized by verrucous scale at or shortly after birth with particular involve- ment of flexural areas. A case of 21 year old girl with ichthyosis hystrix was reported, The skin lesion showed multiple rice to pea sized linear verrucous papules on left forearm, neck, axilla and upper chest. The skin biopsy was done, the finding shows remarked laminated hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis, and vacuoliization on malpighian layer. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinicaI apperance and histopathologicaI finding. The method of treatment is 0. 05% Vitamin A acid ointment application and show marked improvement.


Subject(s)
Axilla , Biopsy , Classification , Diagnosis , Female , Forearm , Humans , Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic , Ichthyosis , Neck , Nevus , Papilloma , Parturition , Peas , Porcupines , Skin , Skin Diseases , Thorax , Tretinoin , Vitamin A , Vitamins , Wills , Young Adult
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