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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921648

ABSTRACT

The rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and kept in separate cages for inducing depressive disorder, which was judged by behavioral indicators. The number and morphology of neurons in hippocampal CA3 area and prefrontal cortex were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA), dopamine(DA), norepinephrine(NE), glutamic acid(GLU), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-18(IL-18), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Western blot were conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of related molecules in NLRP3 pathway. The results showed that compared with the model group, acidic polysaccharides from Poria at the low-, medium-, and high-doses(0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) all improved the depression-like behavior of rats, increased the number of neurons and the levels of BDNF, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, DA, and NE in the hippocampus, and reduced GLU and serum IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. The mRNA expression levels of ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 and the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in each medication group were down-regulated, whereas the protein expression levels of pro-caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18 were up-regulated. All these have indicated that acidic polysaccharides from Poria exerted the antidepressant effect possibly by regulating neurotransmitters and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Depression/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Neurotransmitter Agents , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Poria , Rats
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878887

ABSTRACT

In this study, the antioxidant property changes in fermented Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(FZSS) with Poria cocos were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Then the content determination of active ingredients and ~1H nuclear magnetic resonance(~1H-NMR) spectroscopy were also used to investigate the mechanism of FZSS with P. cocos in enhancing the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the content of active ingredients such as total phenols, total saponins and total polysaccharides were significantly increased during the fermentation time. The results of ~1H-NMR metabonomics showed that the contents of amino acids such as leucine, lysine, valine and alanine, nitrogen compounds such as creatine, creatinine, and betaine, and secondary metabolites, for instance, jujuboside A and spinosin were higher after fermentation, and above components showed positive correlation with antioxidant capacity in Pearson correlation analysis. Therefore, it was inferred that the enhancement of antioxidant activity of FZSS may be the result of the joint action of various chemical components. This study preliminarily clarified the mechanism of FZSS in enhancing the antioxidant activity, and provided new research ideas for the product development and utilization of FZSS.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Poria , Semen , Wolfiporia , Ziziphus
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774546

ABSTRACT

HPLC specific chromatograms of Poria were established, and the concentrations of 10 triterpenoids(16α-hydroxydehydrotrametenolic acid, poricoic acid B, dehydrotumulosic acid, poricoic acid A, polyporenic acid C, poricoic acid AM, 3-O-acetyl-16α-hydroxydehydrotrametenolic acid, dehydropachymic acid, pachymic acid, and dehydrotrametenolic acid) were simultaneously determined. Chromatographic analysis was conducted on a Welch Ultimate XB C_(18) column(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm). Acetonitrile solution(contain 3% tetrahydrofuran)(A) and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(B) were used as the mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the injection volume was 20 μL. The experimental data were analyzed by the SPSS 22.0 and GraphPad Prism 7.0. The established triterpenoids fingerprints were specific, and the 10 components were well separated and showed good linearity(r≥0.999 6) within the concentration ranges tested. The mean recoveries were between 98.53%-103.8%(RSD 1.7%-2.7%). The method was specific and repeatable, and could be used for identification and quality evaluation of Poria. The results showed that the contents of 10 triterpenoids were positively correlated with each other. The contents of 10 triterpenoids of samples collected from producing areas were higher than that collected from markets. The total contents of 10 triterpenoids of samples collected from Hubei and Yunnan province were slightly higher than that from Anhui province, but the contents of samples from Anhui province were varied in smaller ranges.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Materia Medica , Poria , Chemistry
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776914

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that the property of drug is mainly associated with the body's substance and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the drug property of Poria, called Fuling (FL) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in terms of its effects on the substance and energy metabolism in rat models of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndromes, compared with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, called Fuzi (FZ) in TCM, with hot property, and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, called Zhimu (ZM) in TCM, with cold property, as reference drugs, respectively. The appearance score, toe and rectal temperatures of the animals treated were assessed at different time points. Several indices in vivo correlated with substance and energy metabolism (glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxydase, and Na-K-ATPase), endocrine system (triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid), nervous system (acetylcholin esterase), and cyclic nucleotide system were determined. The changes in appearance score and indices in vivo suggested the successful establishment of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndrome models. FZ reversed the decreased levels of indices (substance and energy metabolism and endocrine system) and alleviated the syndrome of cold-deficiency model, and ZM showed obviously therapeutic effect on heat-deficiency syndrome (appearance score, substance and energy metabolism, and endocrine system). FL could alleviate cold-deficiency syndrome and raise the decreased levels of glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase and triiodothyronine in cold-deficiency model, but had no significant effect on heat-deficiency syndrome. Drug property of FL was inferred as trending to "flat and warm", which still need further study. It was advisable to adopt both cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency models to study the drugs with "flat" property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Male , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Yin Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812336

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that the property of drug is mainly associated with the body's substance and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the drug property of Poria, called Fuling (FL) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in terms of its effects on the substance and energy metabolism in rat models of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndromes, compared with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, called Fuzi (FZ) in TCM, with hot property, and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, called Zhimu (ZM) in TCM, with cold property, as reference drugs, respectively. The appearance score, toe and rectal temperatures of the animals treated were assessed at different time points. Several indices in vivo correlated with substance and energy metabolism (glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxydase, and Na-K-ATPase), endocrine system (triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid), nervous system (acetylcholin esterase), and cyclic nucleotide system were determined. The changes in appearance score and indices in vivo suggested the successful establishment of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndrome models. FZ reversed the decreased levels of indices (substance and energy metabolism and endocrine system) and alleviated the syndrome of cold-deficiency model, and ZM showed obviously therapeutic effect on heat-deficiency syndrome (appearance score, substance and energy metabolism, and endocrine system). FL could alleviate cold-deficiency syndrome and raise the decreased levels of glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase and triiodothyronine in cold-deficiency model, but had no significant effect on heat-deficiency syndrome. Drug property of FL was inferred as trending to "flat and warm", which still need further study. It was advisable to adopt both cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency models to study the drugs with "flat" property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Male , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Yin Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305308

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The present study is concerning qualitative and quantitative detection of Poria cocos quality based on FT-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The Poria cocos polysaccharides contents were determined by UV. Transmission mode was used in the collection of NIR spectral samples. The pretreatment method was first derivation and vector normalization. Then principal component analysis (PCA) was used to build classification model and partial least square (PLS) to build the calibration model.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The results showed that conventional criteria such as the R, root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) are 0.944 0, 0.072 1 and 0.076 2, respectively. The misclassified sample is 0 using the qualitative model built by PCA.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The prediction models based on NIR have a better performance with high precision, good stability and adaptability and can be used to predict the polysaccharose content of Poria cocos rapidly, which can provide a fast approach to discriminate the different parts of Poria cocos.</p>


Subject(s)
Fungal Polysaccharides , Least-Squares Analysis , Poria , Chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Methods
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155590

ABSTRACT

Poria cocos is a well-known traditional Chinese traditional medicine (TCM) that grows around roots of pine trees in China, Korea, Japan, and North America. Poria cocos has been used in Asian countries to treat insomnia as either a single herb or part of an herbal formula. In a previous experiment, pachymic acid (PA), an active constituent of Poria cocos ethanol extract (PCE), increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate whether or not PCE and PA modulate sleep architectures in rats as well as whether or not their effects are mediated through GABA(A)-ergic transmission. PCE and PA were orally administered to individual rats 7 days after surgical implantation of a transmitter, and sleep architectures were recorded by Telemetric Cortical encephalogram (EEG) upon oral administration of test drugs. PCE and PA increased total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep as well as reduced numbers of sleep/wake cycles recorded by EEG. Furthermore, PCE increased intracellular chloride levels, GAD65/67 protein levels, and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits of GABA(A) receptors in primary cultured hypothalamic neuronal cells. These data suggest that PCE modulates sleep architectures via activation of GABA(A)-ergic systems. Further, as PA is an active component of PCE, they may have the same pharmacological effects.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Cocos , Electroencephalography , Ethanol , Eye Movements , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Humans , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neurons , North America , Pinus , Poria , Rats , Receptors, GABA-A , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310929

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an analytical method for the fingerprint of triterpenoid constituents of Poria by HPLC and compare the fingerprints of different medicinal parts of Poria in order to provide basis for controlling Poria quality.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The HPLC chromatographic conditions were Waters Symmetry C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm), 0.1% phosphoric acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) as gradient mobile phases, flow rate being 1.0 mL x min(-1), column temperature at 30 degrees C, The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm; The cluster analysis was carried on by SPSS 15.0.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The HPLC fingerprints of triterpenoid constituents of Poria were set up. There were 16 common peaks in different medicinal parts. The results of method validation met technical requirement of fingerprints; Triterpenoid constituents in White Poria and Poria cum Radix Pini were different from Poria. The content of pachymic acid was the highest in Poria. The effect of habitat on the quality was no obvious difference.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is stable, reliable, reproducible, and can be used as an effective means of Poria quality evaluation.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cluster Analysis , Poria , Chemistry , Triterpenes
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199230

ABSTRACT

This study was investigated to know whether pachymic acid (PA), one of the predominant triterpenoids in Poria cocos (Hoelen) has the sedative-hypnotic effects, and underlying mechanisms are mediated via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Oral administration of PA markedly suppressed locomotion activity in mice. This compound also prolonged sleeping time, and reduced sleep latency showing synergic effects with muscimol (0.2 mg/kg) in shortening sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital, both at the hypnotic (40 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) doses. Additionally, PA elevated intracellular chloride levels in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. Moreover, Western blotting quantitative results showed that PA increased the amount of protein level expression of GAD65/67 over a broader range of doses. PA increased alpha- and beta-subunits protein levels, but decreased gamma-subunit protein levels in GABA(A) receptors. The present experiment provides evidence for the hypnotic effects as PA enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABA(A)-ergic mechanisms in rodents. Taken together, it is proposed that PA may be useful for the treatment of sleep disturbed subjects with insomnia.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cocos , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Locomotion , Mice , Muscimol , Neurons , Pentobarbital , Poria , Rats , Receptors, GABA-A , Rodentia , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the symmetry and parallelism of the skeletal and soft-tissue poria by three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) imaging. METHODS: The locations of the bilateral skeletal and soft-tissue poria in 29 patients with facial asymmetry (asymmetric group) and 29 patients without facial asymmetry (symmetric group) were measured in 3D reconstructed models of CT images by using a 3D coordinate system. The mean intergroup differences in the anteroposterior and vertical angular deviations of the poria and their anteroposterior and vertical parallelism were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The symmetric and asymmetric groups showed significant anteroposterior angular differences in both the skeletal and the soft-tissue poria (p = 0.007 and 0.037, respectively; Mann-Whitney U-test). No significant differences in the anteroposterior and vertical parallelism of the poria were noted (p < or = 0.05; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: In general, the skeletal poria are parallel to the soft-tissue poria. However, patients with facial asymmetry tend to have asymmetric poria.


Subject(s)
Facial Asymmetry , Humans , Poria
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321372

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Organic Chemicals , Poria , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287586

ABSTRACT

With the combined applications of steam distillation, water extraction and alcohol precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography over macroporous resin, a splitted-fractions method of the chemical constituents of Poria cocos was established. The unoverlapping property of the fractions of P. cocos was qualitatively analysed by using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. With angle cosine, squared euclidean distance and the overlapping analysis of peak area of crude herbs, the unoverlapping property of the fractions of P. cocos was half-quantitatively analysed. The chemical components of P. cocos was divided into the fractions of polysaccharide, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, alcohol eluate from macroporous resin and water eluate from macroporous resin. Non similarity degree among each chemical fraction was above 80% and main chemical components were identified. The established method for splitting fractions of P. cocos has good stability and repeatability and all chemical components in P. cocos could be completely divided into six fractions. It is the first time that the author half-quantitatively analyse the unoverlapping property of the chemical fractions of P. cocos.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cluster Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Poria , Chemistry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294110

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the dymamic accumulation of triterpenic acids production in submerged cultivation mycelium of Poria cocos.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Liquid culture method of P. cocos was established and RP-HPLC was applied to determine the contents of three main triterpenic acids dehydrotumulosic acid (DTA), 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid (eDTA) and polyporenic acid C (PAC) in submerged cultivation mycelium P. cocos at different culture stages and the contents were compared with cultivated P. cocos. The HPLC method is as follows, column: Plastisil ODS (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm); mobile phase: ACN/0.5% phosphate (80:20); flow rate: 1.0 mL . min-1; detective wavelength: 242 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The maximum biomass occurred at the 8th d after inoluctation, however, the contents and yield of three compounds increased till the 17th day. The contents of three compounds were 1. 2% (DTA), 0. 42% (eDTA) and 1.0% (PAC) at the 17th day after inoculation, which were significantly higher than that in cultivated material [0.2% (DTA), 0. 12(eDTA) and 0. 16% (PAC) ]. Furthermore, a correlation analysis between the content ratios of three independent compounds was carried out. The results showed that DTA negatively correlated with eDTA and PAC, with R2 of 0. 857 6 and 0. 971 7, respectively, which suggested the role of DTA as an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of triterpenic acids in P. cocos.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The sum content of three main terpenoids in submerged cultivation mycelium P. cocos was 5. 55 times as that in cultivated material, which strongly suggested the possibility of fermentation in the production of medicinally important triterpenic acids in the future.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lanosterol , Mycelium , Chemistry , Poria , Chemistry , Triterpenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350651

ABSTRACT

The surface layer of the sclerotia of Poria cocos, named Fu-Ling-Pi, is used as a diuretic in traditional Chinese medicine to treat edema and urinary dysfunction. Recent studies have showed that the triterpenes (lanostane and 3,4-secolanostane skeletons) and polysaccharides (beta-pachyman) are the main components of Fu-Ling-Pi and they exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-tumor, antibacterial and antioxidant, etc. This review was focused on the chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical uses of this drug and it may provide scientific foundation for further development and utilization of Fulingpi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Structure , Poria , Chemistry , Wolfiporia
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption are considered a potential therapeutic target to the treatment of erosive bone diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Poria cocos Wolf (PCW), commonly used herbal medicine, has previously been reported to induce anti-inflammatory effect and anti-cancer effect, and to modulate immunologic responses. However, the effects of PCW on osteoclasts, and its detailed mechanisms are not proven. Therefore, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of PCW on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To analyze the effects of PCW on osteoclast differentiation, we examined osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) treated with or without of PCW by TRAP staining. The expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP and OSCAR mRNA was determined by RT-PCR and the protein levels of c-Fos, NFATc1, p38, ERK, JNK, Akt and IkappaB were assessed by western blot. Also, we evaluated the effect of PCW on bone resorption using hydroxyapatite plate. RESULTS: PCW significantly inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without any evidence of cytotoxicity. We founded that PCW strongly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation when added during the early stage of cultures, suggesting that PCW acts on osteoclast precursors to inhibit RANKL/RANK signaling. Among the RANK signaling pathways, PCW inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, also inhibited RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP and OSCAR. In addition, PCW suppressed the bone resorption of mature osteoclasts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PCW may be a potential novel drug for bone disorders by targeting the differentiation of osteoclasts as well as their functions.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Blotting, Western , Bone Diseases , Bone Marrow , Bone Resorption , Cocos , Durapatite , Herbal Medicine , Macrophages , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis , Phosphorylation , Poria , RNA, Messenger , Wolves
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356034

ABSTRACT

To establish a UPLC characteristic chromatographic profile analysis method to quickly assess Poria quality and provide basis fro controlling Poria quality. The UPLC characteristic chromatographic profiles of fifteen batches of Poria were determined by ACQUITY UPLC, with HSS T3 Column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 microm) eluted with the mobile phases of water containing 0.05% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient mode. The detection wavelength was set at 243 nm. The common mode of the UPLC characteristic chromatographic profile was set up. There were 20 common peaks, seven of which were identified, and the similar degrees of the fifteen samples to the common mode were between 0.787 and 0.974. The method was so time-saving that it can be used for the quality control of Poria.


Subject(s)
Acetonitriles , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Phosphoric Acids , Chemistry , Poria , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260689

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a spectral assay for determination of pachyman sulfate (PS) in rat plasma and to study the pharmacokinetics after intraperitoneal and intravenous administrations of PS.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The spectral probe azur A (AA) was used to measure the concentration of PS in rat plasma, since AA could combine the sulfate groups in PS molecules and consequently induced the color change in solution. The optimal wavelengths, concentrations of plasma and AA in reaction system were determined by spectral scanning and serial tests. The plasma PS concentrations were measured at different time after intraperitoneal and intravenous administrations at the dosage of 60 and 20 mg x kg(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal detecting wavelength was 620 nm. The maximum concentration of plasma and the optimal concentration of AA were 1.25% and 8.24 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) in reaction system, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0-10 mg x L(-1) with a correlation coefficiency of 0.995 9. The mean recovery was 100. 55%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-group and inter-group were all less than 5%. After intraperitoneal and intravenous administrations, the corresponding elimination half-lives were 319.09 min and 204.85 min, respectively. The elimination of PS in blood matched the open model of one compartment and first-order elimination. The bioavailability of PS via intraperitoneal injection was 69.12%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The spectral probe AA was convenience, sensitive, accurate and steady to use for measuring the concentration of PS in the blood of rats; this made the research work of PS-pharmacokinetics easy and concise.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Glucans , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Male , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spectrophotometry , Methods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269721

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters.</p><p><b>METHODOLOGY</b>The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in NS-treated group and those in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Significant therapeutic efficacy was observed in the group receiving Xianhuayin.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Xianhuayin is effective in the reversal of DMBA-induced premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of golden hamsters.</p>


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Amomum , Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Carcinogens , Carthamus tinctorius , Cell Nucleus , Cricetinae , Desmosomes , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Glycyrrhiza , Hyperplasia , Intercellular Junctions , Intermediate Filaments , Keratins , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mouth Mucosa , Pathology , Mouth Neoplasms , Philodendron , Poria , Precancerous Conditions , Random Allocation , Sodium Chloride
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231533

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of Poria cocos (Pcs) in preventing acute rejection of rats after renal transplantation and its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rat orthotopic renal transplantation model was performed with Wistar rat as donor and SD rat as donee. All donees were divided into 4 groups, 10 in each group, before transplantation. They were treated respectively with normal saline 5 mL x kg(-1) x d(-1) (A), Pcs 25 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) (B), Pcs 50 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) (C) and ciclosporin A (CsA) 5 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) (D) by intragastric administration. The renal allograft survival time (ST) was recorded, and the serum levels of creatinine (SCr), interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, as well as the pathologic changes were observed one week after transplantation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ST of the renal graft in Groups C and D was significantly longer with pathologic change evidently less than those in Groups A and B (P<0.01), and the ST in Group C was shorter that in Group D (P<0.05). Changes of renal function and urine volume were identified to the pathological change of graft, the initiating time of renal dysfunction was later in Groups C and D than that in Groups A and B. Serum levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma and CD4+ percentage in Group C were significantly lower than those in Groups A and B, but higher than those in Group D respectively (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while CD8+ percentage in Group C was significantly lower than that in Group A (P<0.05), but insignificantly different to that in Groups B and D (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Pcs shows good dosage-dependent effect in suppressing acute rejection of renal transplantation, but the effect is inferior to that of CsA.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclosporine , Therapeutic Uses , Graft Rejection , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Materia Medica , Therapeutic Uses , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 494-497, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353368

ABSTRACT

To establish a method for simultaneous determination of dehydrotumulosic acid, polyporenic acid C, 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydropachymic acid and pachymic acid in Poria, a RP-HPLC method detected by UV wavelengths switch had been developed, including 210 nm (48-55 min) for pachymic acid and 241 nm (0-48 min) for dehydrotumulosic acid, polyporenic acid C, 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydropachymic acid, separately. The system consisting of a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.05% phosphate acid as the mobile phase was adopted; The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The linear response range was 30.5-610.0 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 6) for dehydrotumulosic acid, 12.66-253.2 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 5) for polyporenic acid C, 2.99-59.7 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 7) for 3-epi-dehydrotumulosic acid, 6.13-122.5 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 5) for dehydropachymic acid and 11.3-226.0 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.9995) for pachymic acid. The average recoveries of these compounds were 98.5% (RSD = 1.9%), 99.4% (RSD = 1.7%), 97.9% (RSD = 1.2%), 96.7% (RSD = 2.5%) and 97.9% (RSD = 2.3%), respectively. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible for quality control of Poria.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lanosterol , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Poria , Chemistry , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Methods , Triterpenes
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