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Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894


Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.

Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.

Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939828


Superchilling is an emerging technology for meat preservation; however, the temperature changes during the process have been commonly ignored. Thus, the effects of temperature fluctuations on meat quality during superchilling are yet to be evaluated. In our study, pork loins and salmon fillets were stored for several days (0, 8, 15, 23, and 30 d) under different temperature fluctuations based on -3.5 ℃ as the target temperature. The results showed that after 15 d of superchilling storage, the values of total volatile basic nitrogen, total viable count, and lipid oxidation were significantly (P<0.05) altered in the ±2.0 ℃ fluctuation group compared with the constant temperature group. On the contrary, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the ±1.0 ℃ fluctuation group and the constant temperature group after 30 d of storage. In addition, irregular temperature changes significantly accelerated the modulation of various indicators. In brief, temperature fluctuations and irregular temperature changes accelerated the destruction of muscle structural integrity, increased the water loss, gradually widened the water loss channels, and thereby reduced the edibility by accelerating the spoilage of meat.

Animals , Lipid Metabolism , Pork Meat , Red Meat , Salmon , Swine , Temperature
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 9(2): 182-188, 2022. il^c27
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1415952


La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial que va en aumento y se ve reflejada en la falta de eficacia de los tratamientos de infecciones bacterianas con antibióticos en humanos y en animales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la resistencia a los antibióticos de cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas en carne de cerdo expendida en los mercados municipales de la ciudad de Guatemala. Se identificaron los antibióticos que presentaron mayor resistencia y mayor sensibilidad in vitro frente a las cepas de E. coli aisladas a partir de 76 muestras de carne de cerdo. Se realizó un muestreo aleatorio simple con afijación proporcional por mercado. Para la identificación de las cepas de E. coli se utilizó la prueba de IMViC y para evaluar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos se utilizó la prueba de Kirby Bauer empleando 9 antibióticos. Se aisló E. coli en el 55% (42/76) de las muestras. La resistencia en las 42 cepas aisladas fue: tetraciclina (83%) neomicina (50%) y sulfametoxasole + trimetoprim (50%). 83% de las cepas (35/42) fueron resistentes a 2 antibióticos y 50% (21/42) a 3 antibióticos o más. Se obtuvo mayor sensibilidad con ceftriaxona (91%), amikacina (83%), gentamicina (65%) y ácido nalidíxico (65%). Se concluye que existe resistencia a los antibióticos evaluados, lo que constituye un riesgo para la salud pública ya que se encuentra en cepas aisladas en un alimento para consumo humano.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health threat that is increasing and is reflected in the lack of efficacy of bacterial infection treatments with antibiotics in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance to antibiotics of Escherichia coli strains isolated from pork in the municipal markets of Guatemala City. Antibiotics with the highest resistance and those with the highest sensitivity in vitro against the strains of E. coli were evaluated. A simple random sampling was carried out with proportional allocation by market, and 76 samples were collected. IMViC test was used to identify the E. coli strains, and antibiotics resistance was evaluated using the Kirby Bauer with nine different antibiotics. E. coli was isolated in 55% (42/76) of the samples. Resistance was evaluated in the 42 isolates. Antibiotic resistance was detected to tetracycline (83%), neomycin (50%), and sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (50%). All isolates presented resistance to at least one antibiotic; it was determined that 83% (35/42) showed resistance to two antibiotics and 50% (21/42) showed resistance to three antibiotics or more. The sensitivity obtained was higher for ceftriaxone (91%), amikacin (83%), gentamicin (65%), and nalidixic acid (65%). In conclusion, antibiotic resistance was detected, which constitutes a risk to public health since it is found in isolated strains in food for human consumption.

Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Kanamycin Resistance/drug effects , Tetracycline Resistance/drug effects , Trimethoprim Resistance/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Pork Meat/microbiology , Ceftriaxone , Gentamicins , Neomycin , Nalidixic Acid , Food Microbiology , Enrofloxacin , Guatemala
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 8-16, May. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343314


BACKGROUND: Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) such as MyoD, Myf6 and Myf5 play a vital role in the growth and development of muscles. Jeju Native Pig (JNP) is the top ranker in Korea amongst the indigenous livestock reared for meat purpose. Few studies covering transcript abundance of the MRFs and related to their co-expression with Pax7 in JNP have been conducted. Despite having better quality pork, JNP does not have a comparative growth rate with respect to western breeds. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objective to study the relative transcript levels of MRFs in the postnatal myogenesis of longissimus dorsi muscles in JNP and Berkshire breeds. RESULTS: Relative transcript levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and blot expression analysis through Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry was performed to analyze their expressions at cellular levels. ToppCluster aided in the analysis of gene ontology of biological processes. The quantitative transcript levels of MyoD and Pax7 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Berkshire than in JNP. Myotube formation was observed under the co-expression of MyoD and Pax7. ToppCluster helped in the understanding of the linking of biological processes of the MRFs with the different signaling pathways. MyBPH had significantly (P < 0.05) high transcript levels during the chosen age groups in JNP than Berkshire. CONCLUSIONS: The current study can be helpful in understanding the genetic basis for myogenesis in postnatal stage. Moreover, it can act as stepping stone for the identification of marker genes related to body growth and meat quality in JNP.

Animals , Swine , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Muscle Development/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Genetic Markers , Blotting, Western , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/genetics , PAX7 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology , Pork Meat
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 781-790, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143415


The intensification of pig production and advances in the sanitary control of herds profoundly changed the profile of risk attributed to pork consumption. In the actual scenario, most microorganisms related to macroscopic lesions observed in the post mortem inspection are not transmitted by food, while foodborne bacteria of importance to consumer health do not cause macroscopic lesions. In Brazil, the "Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento" requested a scientific opinion on the prioritizing of pathogens potentially transmitted by unprocessed pork. After conducting a qualitative risk assessment, only Salmonella enterica was classified as of high risk to consumers. The present study was part of the validation step of the risk assessment and aimed to investigate the frequency of S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes and hygienic-sanitary indicators in pig carcasses of pigs rose under intensive production and slaughtered under the Federal Inspection System in three slaughterhouses located in Southern Brazil. Additionally, the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated pathogens was also investigated. A total of 378 carcasses were sampled by superficial sponges before the chilling step in three slaughterhouses. Samples were investigated for the presence of the three aforementioned pathogens and subjected to enumeration of Colony Formation Units (log of total aerobic mesophiles (TAM) and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella strains were tested by disc diffusion test for resistance to eleven antimicrobials. There were significantly statistical differences (p<0.0001) on the median counts of both indicators between the slaughterhouses. The median of TAM was very close for Slaughterhouses A and B: 1.573 log and 1.6014 log, respectively. While in Slaughterhouse C, a higher TAM median was detected (2.216 log A similar profile was observed regarding to Enterobacteriaceae, and medians were calculated as follow: -0.426 log in Slaughterhouse A; 0.2163 log in B; and 0.633 log in C. Regarding the pathogens investigated, L. monocytogenes was not detected and only one carcass from Slaughterhouse C was positive for Y. enterocolitica. Thus, the results suggest a very low prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in the sampled population. A total of 65 (17.2%) carcasses were positive for S. enterica, with a difference in frequencies between slaughterhouses and slaughter days. The prevalence of Salmonella positive carcasses was higher in the Slaughterhouse C (25.4%; CI 95% 19-32%) in comparison with A (9.5%; CI 95% 9-14%) and B (18.3%; CI 95% 12-24%). There was no significantly statistical association between Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella isolation on carcass surface (p=0.69). The slaughtering day, nested within the slaughterhouse, explains 31.3% of Salmonella prevalence variability. S. Typhimurium (38.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by S. Infantis (30.1%). Among the 61 Salmonella strains tested for resistance to antimicrobials, 18 (31.6%) were full-susceptible. No strain displayed resistance to azithromycin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime and meropenem. The highest resistance frequency was displayed to tetracycline (54.1%), followed by ampicillin (50.82%), nalidixic acid (42.62%) and chloramphenicol (42.62). Multi-resistance was detected in 52.54% of the, strains. In conclusion, S. enterica is more prevalent in pre-chill pig carcasses than Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes and thus should be prioritized in monitoring and control programs at slaughter. Salmonella serovars varied among slaughterhouses and present significant differences in their resistance to antimicrobials. Slaughterhouses that present higher medians of TAM or Enterobacteriaceae in a monitoring period may have higher S. enterica prevalences as well. However, there is a high variation of S. enterica prevalence among slaughter days, which cannot be always related to the hygienic indicators counts observed on a given day.(AU)

A intensificação da produção de suínos e os avanços no controle sanitário dos rebanhos alterou de forma importante o perfil de risco do consumo de carne suína. No cenário atual, a maioria dos microrganismos causadores de lesões macroscópicas detectáveis na inspeção post mortem não são transmissíveis por alimentos, enquanto bactérias de importância como causadoras de doenças transmitidas por alimentos não causam lesões macroscópicas. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento solicitou uma opinião científica sobre a priorização de patógenos potencialmente transmitidos pela carne suína in natura. Após conduzir uma avaliação de risco qualitativa, apenas Salmonella enterica foi classificada como de alto risco para o consumidor. O presente estudo foi parte da etapa de validação da avaliação de risco e objetivou: investigar a frequência de S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica e Listeria. monocytogenes; e enumerar indicadores higiênico-sanitários em carcaças de suínos abatidos sob inspeção federal em frigoríficos dedicados ao abate de suínos sob sistema intensivo de criação no sul do Brasil. Além disso, o perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos dos patógenos isolados foi investigado. A superfície de um total de 378 carcaças foi amostrada por esponjas, na etapa de pré-resfriamento em três matadouros frigoríficos (A, B, C). As amostras foram investigadas quanto à presença dos três patógenos acima mencionados e quanto à enumeração de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia (log de mesófilos aeróbios totais (MAT) e Enterobacteriaceae. As cepas isoladas de Salmonella foram testadas quanto à resistência a onze antimicrobianos pela técnica de disco difusão. As medianas de contagem de ambos os indicadores apresentaram diferença significativa (p<0,0001) entre matadouros-frigoríficos. A mediana de MAT foi bastante próxima para A e B (1,573 log e 1,6014 log, respectivamente), enquanto em C uma mediana de MAT mais elevada foi determinada (2,216 log Um perfil semelhante foi observado em relação a Enterobacteriaceae, sendo as medianas calculadas para A, B e C, respectivamente: -0,426 log; 0,2163 log; e 0,633 log Em relação aos patógenos investigados, L. monocytogenes não foi detectada e apenas uma carcaça, do Matadouro C, foi positiva para Y. enterocolitica. Portanto, os resultados sugerem uma prevalência muito baixa desses patógenos na população amostrada. Em um total de 65 (17,2%) carcaças houve isolamento de S. enterica, com diferença nas frequências observadas entre matadouros e dias de abate. A prevalência de carcaças positivas para S. enterica foi maior no Matadouro C (25,4%; IC95% 19-32%) em comparação com A (9,5%; IC95% 9-14%) e B (18,3%; IC95% 12-24%). Não houve associação estatística entre o número de Enterobacteriaceae e o isolamento de S. enterica na superfície das carcaças (p=0,69). O dia de abate agrupado por frigorífico explica 31,3% da variação na prevalência de Salmonella. O sorovar mais frequente de S. enterica foi Typhimurium (38,1%) seguido de S. Infantis (30,1%). Entre as 61 cepas de S. enterica testadas quanto à resistência a antimicrobianos, 18 (31,6%) foram totalmente suscetíveis aos antimicrobianos testados. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência a azitromicina, ceftazidima, cefotaxima e meropenem. As maiores frequências de resistência foram demonstradas contra tetraciclina (54,1%), ampicilina (50,8%), ácido nalidíxico (42,62%) e cloranfenicol (42,62%). Em 52,54% das cepas foi detectada multi-resistência. Em conclusão, S. enterica é mais prevalente em carcaças suínas no pré-resfriamento do que Y. enterocolitica e L. monocytogenes. Portanto, S. enterica deve ser priorizada em programas de monitoramento e controle ao abate. Os sorovares de Salmonella variam entre matadouros e apresentam diferenças significativas na resistência a antimicrobianos. Matadouros de suínos que apresentam medianas de MAT e Enterobacteriaceae num período de monitoramento podem apresentar também prevalências mais de altas de presença de S. enterica. Entretanto, há uma alta variabilidade na frequência de S. enterica entre dias de abate, e nem sempre há relação entre essa frequência e a contagem de indicadores higiênico-sanitários determinados num determinado dia.(AU)

Animals , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pork Meat/microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Abattoirs , Sus scrofa
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 337-343, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289235


Resumen Introducción: El valor nutritivo de las proteínas derivadas de la carne magra de cerdo ha cambiado ostensiblemente con la tecnificación en la producción y la posibilidad de obtener productos que conserven un alto valor nutritivo. No obstante, en nuestro medio su consumo se ha estigmatizado por un posible aumento de riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto del consumo de la carne magra de cerdo sobre algunos parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de seguimiento a un grupo de 47 personas sanas que consumieron 200 gramos de carne magra de cerdo durante un periodo de ocho semanas, durante las cuales se valoraron parámetros bioquímicos, antropométricos, nutricionales y de riesgo cardiovascular. Resultados: Se observó que, tanto a las cuatro como a las ocho semanas, los niveles de colesterol LDL y triglicéridos no variaron. No obstante, los niveles de colesterol HDL y los micronutrientes zinc, hierro y vitamina B12 aumentaron en plasma luego de ocho semanas de consumo de carne magra de cerdo. De igual forma, marcadores metabólicos, como la adiponectina y el IGF-1, incrementaron luego de ocho semanas de consumo. Conclusiones: De acuerdo con estas observaciones la carne magra de cerdo puede mejorar el aporte de algunos micronutrientes y parámetros metabólicos sin que se haya evidenciado un efecto adverso sobre ciertos parámetros de riesgo cardiovascular en individuos sanos.

Abstract Introduction: The nutritional value of proteins derived from lean pork meat has essentially changed with the introduction of technology in the production and the possibility of obtaining products that retain a high nutritional value. However, its consumption has been stigmatised in this country due to a possible increase in cardiovascular risk. Objective: To evaluate the impact of consuming lean pork meat on some anthropometric and biochemical parameters of cardiovascular risk. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted on a population of 47 healthy subjects that consumed 200 grammes of lean pork meat for a period of 8 weeks. An evaluation was made of some biochemical, anthropometric, nutritional and cardiovascular risk parameters. Results: No changes were observed in the LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels. However, the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol, as well as those of micronutrients such as zinc, iron and vitamin B12, increased after 8 weeks of consuming lean pork meat. Furthermore, metabolic markers, like adiponectin and IGF-1, also increased after eight weeks of consumption. Conclusions: According to these observations, lean pork meat may improve the supply of some micronutrients, as well as some metabolic parameters, with no evidence of any adverse effects on certain cardiovascular risk factors in healthy individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Biochemical Phenomena , Anthropometry , Pork Meat , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Vitamin B 12 , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): 1-6, 20200000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117759


Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de desempenho, características de carcaças e viabilidade econômica de fêmeas suínas alimentadas com diferentes níveis de inclusão do farelo de algodão (FA) nas rações. Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas suínas, com peso vivo médio de 48,20 ± 5,44 kg (fase de crescimento) e de 87,62 ± 6,72 kg (fase de terminação). O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% de inclusão de farelo de algodão), seis repetições, um animal por unidade experimental. Na fase de crescimento os parâmetros de desempenho não foram influenciados significativamente, na fase de terminação e total houve uma redução do ganho de peso e consumo de ração. Para as características de carcaça os animais apresentaram redução na espessura de toucinho e um aumento na área de olho de lombo até o nível de 13,5% de inclusão de FA. Quanto ao peso dos órgãos houve um aumento do peso do coração, fígado e rins. Conclui-se que é possível incluir o FA até o nível de 30%, sem afetar as características de desempenho na fase de crescimento, e de até 13,5% sem comprometer o rendimento de carcaças.(AU)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economic viability parameters in female pigs fed with different levels of cottonseed meal (CM) in the diets. Twenty-four crossbred female pigs were used, with live weight of 48.20 ± 5.44 kg (growth phase), and 87.62 ± 6.72 kg (finish phase). A completely randomized block design with four treatments (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion of cottonseed meal) was used with six replication, one animal per experimental unit. The performance parameters were not significant in the growth phase; the finish and total phase presented a reduction of weight gain and feed intake. For the carcass characteristics, the animals presented a reduction in backfat thickness, and an increase in the loin area up to 13.5% CM inclusion level. The organs showed weight increase for the heart, liver, and kidneys. It can be concluded that CM can be included in up to 30% without affecting the performance characteristics in the growth phase, and up to 13.5% without compromising the carcass characteristics.(AU)

El objetivo de este estudio ha sido evaluar los parámetros de rendimiento, características de caparazón y la viabilidad económica de hembras porcinas alimentadas con diferentes niveles de inclusión de harina de algodón (HA) en las raciones. Se utilizaron veinticuatro hembras porcinas, con peso vivo promedio de 48,20 ± 5,44 kg (fase de crecimiento) y 87,62 ± 6,72 kg (fase de terminación). El diseño fue en bloques aleatorios, con cuatro tratamientos (0%, 10%, 20% y 30% de inclusión de harina de algodón), seis repeticiones, un animal por unidad experimental. En la fase de crecimiento, los parámetros de rendimiento no se vieron significativamente influenciados; en la fase de terminación y total, hubo una reducción en el aumento de peso y la ingesta de pienso. Para las características de caparazón, los animales mostraron una reducción en el espesor del tocino y un aumento en el área del ojo del lomo, hasta el nivel del 13,5% de la inclusión de HA. En cuanto al peso de los órganos, hubo un aumento en el peso del corazón, hígado y riñones. Se concluye que es posible incluir HA hasta el nivel de 30%, sin afectar las características de rendimiento en la fase de crecimiento, y de hasta un 13,5% sin comprometer el rendimiento de los caparazones.(AU)

Animals , Female , Swine , Cottonseed Oil , Pork Meat , Animal Feed , Weight Gain
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1298-1313, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977386


Resumen El pejelagarto es una especie importante para la acuicultura en el sureste de México. Se han realizado varios estudios sobre nutrición y fisiología digestiva; sin embargo, el uso de microcápsulas para la alimentación de larvas que permitan mejorar el crecimiento y la supervivencia no ha sido realizado. En este sentido, se evaluaron cuatro alimentos microencapsulados en el crecimiento y supervivencia de larvas de pejelagarto (Atractosteus tropicus). Los tratamientos consistieron en cuatro dietas experimentales y un control: 1) Microcápsula con base en harina de pescado (DP), 2) Microcápsula con base en una combinación de harina de cerdo y pollo (Re), 3) Microcápsula con base en Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng), 4) Microcápsula con base en un preparado enzimático, pancreatina (PE) el tratamiento control 5) Nauplios de Artemia (Na). Los resultados de las dietas indican que las larvas alimentadas con Nauplios (Na) tuvieron el mayor crecimiento y supervivencia (3.93 cm, 0.19 g y 82 % respectivamente). Mientras que en el caso de las larvas alimentadas con las dietas microencapsuladas, los mejores valores de supervivencia se observaron con las dietas Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) y preparado enzimático (PE) (20.0 y 19.2 % respectivamente). Nuestros resultados demuestran que el uso de microencapsulados para la alimentación de larvas de A. tropicus es factible, aunque se requieren más investigaciones para optimizar su diseño y elaboración para mejorar el crecimiento y supervivencia de los organismos.

Abstract Tropical gar is an important species for aquaculture purposes in Southeast Mexico. Several studies regarding nutrition and digestive physiology have been done; however, the use of microcapsules for larvae feeding to improve growth and survival has not been conducted. In this sense, four microencapsulated diets were evaluated with respect to the growth and survival of tropical gar Atractosteus tropicus larvae. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets and one control diet 1) fish meal, 2) a combination of pork and poultry meals, 3) Nannochloropsis gaditana meal, 4) enzyme preparation and the control treatment 5) Artemia nauplii. The evaluation indicated that the larvae fed the Artemia nauplii obtained the greatest growth and survival (3.93 cm, 0.19 g y 82 % respectively), which justifies a correct culture system operation. While larvae fed microencapsulated diets best values in survival were observed with diets Nannochloropsis gaditana and enzyme preparation (20.0 and 19.2 %). Our results showed that microencapsulated could be used to feed A. tropicus in feasibly form. However, more information concerning to optimize the design and manufacturing are required to improve the growth and survival of organisms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1298-1313. Epub 2018 September 01.

Animals , Fishes , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Chickens , Seafood , Cell Encapsulation , Pork Meat
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 25(2): 81-89, jul.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844774


ResumenStaphylococcus aureus en la actualidad no solamente hace parte de los microorganismos nosocomiales sino también de enfermedades transmisibles por alimentos-ETAs.Objetivo:Cuantificar y caracterizar por metodología microbiológica convencional y análisis molecular Staphylococcus aureus presente en carne de res y cerdo.Método:Fueron utilizadas 160 muestras de carne molida de res y chuleta de cerdo, en 40 expendios de tres localidades de la ciudad de Cartagena: 1. Histórica y del caribe Norte (LH); 2. Industrial de la Bahía (LI); 3. De la Virgen y Turística (LV). Para la identificación microbiológica fue utilizada la técnica de recuento en placa y la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR).Resultados:La metodología microbiológica convencional identificó Staphylococcus aureus en el 100 % de las muestras. La técnica PCR confirmó la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en el 88 %. El 72 % de los expendios presento recuentos > 100 UFC/g, 27 % presentaron recuentos < 100 UFC/g. La localidad industrial de la Bahía presento (48,2 %), seguido de la localidad Histórica y del Caribe Norte con 34,4 %.Discusión:El 32,5 % de los expendios analizados comercializan carne molida y chuleta de cerdo no apta para el consumo humano, por presentar recuentos que sobrepasan los parámetros de referencia para Staphylococcus aureus en carnes crudas picadas y molidas (100 - 1000 UFC/g). Fue determinada la presencia del gen MecA que codifica las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a Meticilina (SARM) en dos muestras que por metodología molecular no corresponde a Staphylococcus aureus.

AbstractStaphylococcus aureus at present not only is part of nosocomial microorganisms but also of food - borne diseases.Objetive:quantify and characterize by conventional microbiological and molecular analysis methodology to Staphylococcus in beef and pork meat.Method:They were used 160 samples of ground beef and pork chop, 40 outlets in three locations in the city of Cartagena: 1. Historic North and Caribbean (LH) 2. Bay Industrial (LI) 3. Virgin and Tourism (LV). For microbiological identification was used the plate count technique and the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).Results:The conventional microbiological methods Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 100 % of samples, while the PCR confirmed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in 88 %. In 72 % of outlets were found counts > 100 CFU/g, 27 % had counts < 100 CFU/g. The highest percentage was found in the industrial town of Bay (48,2 %), followed by the Historical town and North Caribbean with 34,4 %. 32,5 % of analyzed are marketing outlets and ground pork chop unfit for human consumption meat, to present counts that exceed benchmarks for Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat chopped and ground (100-1000 CFU/g). It was determined the presence of the MecA gene encoding strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two samples by molecular methods is not for Staphylococcus aureus.

Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry , Meat/analysis , Cattle , Colombia , Pork Meat/analysis
Infectio ; 18(3): 93-99, jul.-set. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-729454


Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de formas parasitarias de Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) en diferentes tipos de carne de consumo humano comercializadas en Sincelejo-Sucre, mediante la amplificación del gen B1 por la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo que determinó la infección por Toxoplasma gondii , en 120 muestras de carnes de consumo humano, obtenidas en 2 tipos de expendios del municipio de Sincelejo. De cada sector se tomaron 60 muestras distribuidas así: 20 muestras de carne de res, 20 muestras de carne de cerdo y 20 muestras de carne de pollo. Estas muestras fueron sometidas a una extracción de ADN mediante el método de altas concentraciones de sales y a una PCR anidada para amplificar una región específica del material genómico de T. gondii correspondiente al gen B1. Resultados: Se detectó ADN de Toxoplasma gondii en el 32% de las carnes analizadas. Dentro de este porcentaje se encontraron en proporciones similares, formas parasitarias de T. gondii en carne de pollo (35%), cerdo (32,5%) y res (27,5%), por lo cual no se observó diferencia estadística al realizar el análisis por tipo de carne. Así mismo se encontró una frecuencia de formas parasitarias de T. gondii de 36,6% en las muestras recolectadas en el mercado público y 26,7% en las muestras recolectadas en los supermercados de cadena. Conclusiones: Esta investigación demuestra la alta frecuencia de formas parasitarias de T. gondii en diferentes tipos de carne de consumo humano comercializados en el municipio de Sincelejo, e indica un elevado riesgo de infección por el parásito en la población.

Objective: To determine the frequency of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in different types of meat that is sold for human consumption in Sincelejo-Sucre, by PCR for B1 gene amplification. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of meat for human consumption were obtained at 2 types of outlets (municipality public market and retail chain stores) in the city of Sincelejo. At each store, 60 samples of 3 different species were obtained: 20 beef samples, 20 pork samples and 20 chicken samples. These samples were submitted to DNA extraction procedures for tissues and to nested PCR to amplify B1 specific genomic region of T. gondii. Results: Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 32% of the analyzed meat. There were a slight higher frequency (36,6%) in samples collected at the municipality public market compared to retailed chain stores (26,7%) without statistical significance. The frequency of infection was similar between animal species: chicken (35%), pork (32,5%) and beef (27,5%). Conclusions: This work demonstrates a high frequency of T. gondii infection in different types of meat sold for human consumption in the town of Sincelejo, suggesting a high risk of infection by the parasite in the population.

Animals , Parasites , Toxoplasmosis , Chickens , Red Meat , Pork Meat , Infections , Meat
Investig. segur. soc. salud ; 11: 33-42, 2009. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-610086


Introducción: La Yersinia enterocolitica es una bacteria entérica, causante de patología, que se encuentra en productos refrigerados como derivados de carne de cerdo, agua contaminada, leche cruda, huevos y mariscos. Esta bacteria soporta temperaturas de congelación, por lo cual es un patógeno contaminante de alimentos de consumo masivo. Objetivo: Establecer la presencia de Y enterocolitica patógena en carne de cerdo y en el queso de cabeza distribuido en Bogotá. Método: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de la detección de Y. enterocolitica, en nuestras de laboratorio de carne de cerdo y queso de cabeza procedentes de las plazas de mercado y expendios ubicados en las jurisdicciones de las empresas sociales del Estado, Centrooriente, Chapinero, Usaquén, Hospital del Sur, Suba, Usme y Rafael Uribe. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 205 muestras (97 de queso de cabeza y 108 de carne de cerdo cruda). Se encontró Y. enterocolítica patógena en el 48,1% de las muestras de carne de cerdo cruda y en el 50,6% de los quesos de cabeza. De las 95 muestras positivas por PCR, olamente se recuperaron por cultivo 6. Conclusiones: Se encontró que la presencia de Y. enterocolitica patógena en materia prima y en producto terminado (queso de cabeza) es elevada, y ha sido subestimada; por lo tanto, los consumidores tienen un riesgo adicional en salud pública que se debe seguir monitoreando.Palabras clave: Yersinia enterocolítica, carne, productos de la carne, PCR.

Introduction: Yersinia enterocolitica are enteric bacteria which cause pathologies that range from soft diarrheas to pseudo-appendicitis. In some cases they can produce extra-intestinal skin and ocular manifestations. It can be found in refrigerated products such as pork meat byproducts, contaminated water, raw milk, eggs and seafood. These bacteria withstand freezing temperatures and are a food contaminating pathogen for mass consumption products. Aim: To establish the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork meat and head cheese distributed in the city of Bogota. Method: 25 g of each sample were weighted and placed in 225 ml of PBS in order to identify the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Then they wereincubated at 4ºC for 14 days and were PCR Tagman tested to detect pathogenic serotypes of this bacterium. Positive results were confirmed through agar CIN, Mc Conkey and fast biochemical tests. Design: A descriptive and prospective study was conduced to detect Yersinia enterocolitica in pork meat samples coming from the market places and stores located in the jurisdictions of ESE, Centro Oriente, Chapinero, Usaquen, Hospital del Sur, Suba, Usme and Rafael Uribe. Results: A total of 205 samples were analyzed, 97 samples of head cheese and 108 of raw pork meat. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 48.1% of the raw pork meat samples and 50.6 % of the pork head cheese samples. 6 out of 95 PCR positive samples were recovered by cultivation. Other species of Yersinia were detected in 22 samples. Conclusions: It was found that there is a high presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in raw meat and finished product (pork head cheese) and has been underestimated. Thus, consumers have an additional public health risk that must continue to be monitored. The PCR Taqman test to detect athogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is a safe, effective, sensible and specific tool to detect this microorganism in pork meat and pork head cheese.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Yersinia enterocolitica , Pork Meat , Meat Products , Bacteria , Water , Public Health , Prospective Studies , Agar , Environmental Pollutants , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Food , Head , Laboratories , Meat
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 3(2): e33121, fev.12, 1943. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1391126


Os autores pesquisaram salmonelas em gânglios mesentéricos de 100 porcos aparentemente normais e obtiveram 15% de casos positivos. As salmonelas isoladas, classificadas de acordo com o esquema de Kauffmann-White (Bergey, 1939), foram: S. schottmülleri, 4; S. derby, 3; S. cholerae suis, var. Kunzendorf, 2; S. newport, 1; S. anatis, 5. O meio de tetrationato-verde brilhante de Kauffmann é de grande valor como meio de enriquecimento para as salmonelas (AU).

Salmonella , Carrier State , Pork Meat