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1.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 39(91): 41-48, 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554951

ABSTRACT

La microtomografía es un estudio que utiliza la ra-diación X para obtener imágenes de tamaños de mi-lésimas de milímetros y de alta resolución. Las imá-genes 2D son procesadas por diferentes softwares para lograr obtener volúmenes capaces de ser ana-lizados tridimensionalmente. La microtomografía es el estudio de elección a la hora de evaluar caracte-rísticas muy pequeñas con gran precisión. La obtu-ración endodóntica buscar lograr un sellado que no tenga espacios vacíos dentro de la masa de obtura-ción. Esto es importante debido a que los poros pue-den permitir, si están en contacto con la pared den-tinaria, la entrada de microorganismos al conducto radicular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el procedimiento para el análisis y visualización de los espacios vacíos dentro de la obturación endodónti-ca, utilizando la microtomografía de rayos x, y esta-blecer un protocolo para ser utilizado por cualquier investigador(AU)


Microtomography is a study that uses X-radiation to obtain high-resolution images of sizes of thousandths of millimeters. The 2D images are processed by different software to obtain volumes capable of being analyzed three-dimensionally. Microtomography is the study of choice when evaluating very small features with great precision. Endodontic filling seeks to achieve a seal that does not have voids within the filling obturation. This is important because the voids can allow, if they are in contact with the dentin wall, the entry of microorganisms into the root canal. The objective of this work was to describe the procedure for the analysis and visualization of voids within the endodontic filling using microtomography and to establish the protocol to be used by any researcher (AU)


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation/adverse effects , Clinical Protocols , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Porosity , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Leakage/prevention & control
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3724-3737, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007988

ABSTRACT

Gelatin microspheres were discussed as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering, with the advantages of its porosity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and biosafety highlighted. This review discusses how bone regeneration is aided by the three fundamental components of bone tissue engineering-seed cells, bioactive substances, and scaffold materials-and how gelatin microspheres can be employed for in vitro seed cell cultivation to ensure efficient expansion. This review also points out that gelatin microspheres are advantageous as drug delivery systems because of their multifunctional nature, which slows drug release and improves overall effectiveness. Although gelatin microspheres are useful for bone tissue creation, the scaffolds that take into account their porous structure and mechanical characteristics might be difficult to be created. This review then discusses typical techniques for creating gelatin microspheres, their recent application in bone tissue engineering, as well as possible future research directions.


Subject(s)
Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Gelatin/chemistry , Microspheres , Bone and Bones , Porosity
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 487-495, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study tests the efficacy of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP), carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), baicalin (BA) and silver titanate (ST) in a wound dressings to fight infection, promote healing and provide superior biocompatibility.@*METHODS@#The antibacterial activity of BA and ST was evaluated in vitro using the inhibition zone method. BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were prepared and characterized. The biocompatibility of BA/ST/BSP/CMC was assessed using the cell counting kit-8 assay. The therapeutic effect of BA/ST/BSP/CMC was further investigated using the dorsal skin burn model in Sprague-Dawley rats.@*RESULTS@#The wound dressing had good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus through BA and ST, while the combination of BSP and CMC played an important role in promoting wound healing. The BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were prepared using a freeze-drying method with the concentrations of BA and ST at 20 and 0.83 mg/mL, respectively, and the optimal ratio of 5% BSP to 4% CMC was 1:3. The average porosity, water absorption and air permeability of BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were measured to be 90.43%, 746.1% and 66.60%, respectively. After treatment for 3 and 7 days, the healing rates of the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group and BA/BSP/CMC group were significantly higher than those of the normal saline (NS) group and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) group (P < 0.05). Interleukin-1β expression in the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group at 1 and 3 days was significantly lower than that in the other three groups (P < 0.05). After being treated for 3 days, vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the BA/BSP/CMC group and BA/ST/BSP/CMC group was significantly higher than that in the NS group and SSD group (P < 0.05). Inspection of histological sections showed that the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group and BA/BSP/CMC group began to develop scabbing and peeling of damaged skin after 3 days of treatment, indicating accelerated healing relative to the NS group and SSD group.@*CONCLUSION@#The optimized concentration of BA/ST/BSP/CMC dressing was as follows: 6 mg BSP, 14.4 mg CMC, 0.5 mg ST and 12 mg BA. The BA/ST/BSP/CMC dressing, containing antibacterial constituents, was non-cytotoxic and effective in accelerating the healing of burn wounds, making it a promising candidate for wound healing. Please cite this article as: Gong YR, Zhang C, Xiang X, Wang ZB, Wang YQ, Su YH, Zhang HQ. Baicalin, silver titanate, Bletilla striata polysaccharide and carboxymethyl chitosan in a porous sponge dressing for burn wound healing. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(5): 487-495.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chitosan/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Porosity , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Wound Healing , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Bandages , Burns/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Silver Sulfadiazine/pharmacology
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 44-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the preparation of decellularized small intestinal submucosa (dSIS) sponge scaffolds with chelated strontium (Sr) ions at different pH values, and to select the appropriate pH values for synthesizing Sr/dSIS scaffolds using the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the scaffolds as evaluation indexes.@*METHODS@#(1) Sr/dSIS scaffolds preparation and grouping: After mixing dSIS solution and strontium chloride solution in equal volumes, adjusting pH of the solution to 3, 5, 7, and 9 respectively, porous scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying method after full reaction at 37℃, which were named Sr/dSIS-3, -5, -7, and -9 respectively, and the dSIS scaffolds were used as the control group. (2) Physicochemical property evaluation: The bulk morphology of the scaffolds was observed in each group, the microscopic morphology analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, and the porosity and pore size determined, the surface elements analyzed by energy spectroscopy, the structure of functional groups analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, the chelation rate determined by atomic spectrophotometry, the water absorption rate detected by using specific gravity method, and the compression strength evaluated by universal mechanical testing machine.(3) Biocompatibility evaluation: The cytotoxicity and proliferative effect to bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of each group were evaluated by Calcein-AM/PI double staining method.@*RESULTS@#Scanning electron microscopy showed that the scaffolds of each group had an interconnected three-dimensional porous structure with no statistical difference in pore size and porosity. Energy spectrum analysis showed that strontium could be detected in Sr/dSIS-5, -7 and -9 groups, and strontium was uniformly distributed in the scaffolds. Functional group analysis further supported the formation of chelates in the Sr/dSIS-5, -7 and -9 groups. Chelation rate analysis showed that the Sr/dSIS-7 group had the highest strontium chelation rate, which was statistically different from the other groups (P < 0.05). The scaffolds in all the groups had good water absorption. The scaffolds in Sr/dSIS-5, -7 and -9 groups showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The scaffolds in all the groups had good biocompatibility, and the Sr/dSIS-7 group showed the best proliferation of BMSCs.@*CONCLUSION@#When pH was 7, the Sr/dSIS scaffolds showed the highest strontium chelation rate and the best proliferation effect of BMSCs, which was the ideal pH value for the preparation of the Sr/dSIS scaffolds.


Subject(s)
Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials , Strontium/pharmacology , Ions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Tissue Engineering/methods , Porosity
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 930-941, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970414

ABSTRACT

As an excellent hosting matrices for enzyme immobilization, metal-organic framework (MOFs) provides superior physical and chemical protection for biocatalytic reactions. In recent years, the hierarchical porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) have shown great potential in enzyme immobilization due to their flexible structural advantages. To date, a variety of HP-MOFs with intrinsic or defective porous have been developed for the immobilization of enzymes. The catalytic activity, stability and reusability of enzyme@HP-MOFs composites are significantly enhanced. This review systematically summarized the strategies for developing enzyme@HP-MOFs composites. In addition, the latest applications of enzyme@HP-MOFs composites in catalytic synthesis, biosensing and biomedicine were described. Moreover, the challenges and opportunities in this field were discussed and envisioned.


Subject(s)
Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Porosity , Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry , Biocatalysis , Catalysis
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 783-792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare customized porous silicone orbital implants using embedded 3D printing and assess the effect of surface modification on the properties of the implants.@*METHODS@#The transparency, fluidity and rheological properties of the supporting media were tested to determine the optimal printing parameters of silicone. The morphological changes of silicone after modification were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, and the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of silicone surface were evaluated by measuring the water contact angle. The compression modulus of porous silicone was measured using compression test. Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) were co-cultured with porous silicone scaffolds for 1, 3 and 5 days to test the biocompatibility of silicone. The local inflammatory response to subcutaneous porous silicone implants was evaluated in rats.@*RESULTS@#The optimal printing parameters of silicone orbital implants were determined as the following: supporting medium 4% (mass ratio), printing pressure 1.0 bar and printing speed 6 mm/s. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the silicone surface was successfully modified with polydopamine and collagen, which significantly improved hydrophilicity of the silicone surface (P < 0.05) without causing significant changes in the compression modulus (P > 0.05). The modified porous silicone scaffold had no obvious cytotoxicity and obviously promoted adhesion and proliferation of PAOECs (P < 0.05). In rats bearing the subcutaneous implants, no obvious inflammation was observed in the local tissue.@*CONCLUSION@#Poprous silicone orbital implants with uniform pores can be prepared using embedded 3D printing technology, and surface modification obviously improves hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the silicone implants for potential clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Swine , Silicon , Orbital Implants , Endothelial Cells , Porosity , Silicones , Printing, Three-Dimensional
7.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1314-1318, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the influence of microstructure on performance of triply-periodic minimal surface (TPMS) bone scaffolds.@*METHODS@#The relevant literature on the microstructure of TPMS bone scaffolds both domestically and internationally in recent years was widely reviewed, and the research progress in the imfluence of microstructure on the performance of bone scaffolds was summarized.@*RESULTS@#The microstructure characteristics of TPMS bone scaffolds, such as pore shape, porosity, pore size, curvature, specific surface area, and tortuosity, exert a profound influence on bone scaffold performance. By finely adjusting the above parameters, it becomes feasible to substantially optimize the structural mechanical characteristics of the scaffold, thereby effectively preempting the occurrence of stress shielding phenomena. Concurrently, the manipulation of these parameters can also optimize the scaffold's biological performance, facilitating cell adhesion, proliferation, and growth, while facilitating the ingrowth and permeation of bone tissue. Ultimately, the ideal bone fusion results will obtain.@*CONCLUSION@#The microstructure significantly and substantially influences the performance of TPMS bone scaffolds. By deeply exploring the characteristics of these microstructure effects on the performance of bone scaffolds, the design of bone scaffolds can be further optimized to better match specific implantation regions.


Subject(s)
Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Tissue Engineering/methods , Bone and Bones , Porosity
8.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1142-1148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the preparation and properties of the novel silica (SiO 2)/hydroxyapatite (HAP) whiskers porous ceramics scaffold.@*METHODS@#The HAP whiskers were modified by the SiO 2 microspheres using the Stöber method. Three types of SiO 2/HAP whiskers were fabricated under different factors (for the No.1 samples, the content of tetraethoxysilane, stirring time, calcination temperature, and soaking time were 10 mL, 12 hours, 560℃, and 0.5 hours, respectively; and in the No.2 samples, those were 15 mL, 24 hours, 650℃, and 2 hours, respectively; while those in the No.3 samples were 20 mL, 48 hours, 750℃, and 4 hours, respectively). The phase and morphology of the self-made HAP whisker and 3 types of SiO 2/HAP whiskers were detected by the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Taken the self-made HAP whisker and 3 types of SiO 2/HAP whiskers as raw materials, various porous ceramic materials were prepared using the mechanical foaming method combined with extrusion molding method, and the low-temperature heat treatment. The pore structure of porous ceramics was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Its porosity and pore size distribution were measured. And further the axial compressive strength was measured, and the biodegradability was detected by simulated body fluid. Cell counting kit 8 method was used to conduct cytotoxicity experiments on the extract of porous ceramics.@*RESULTS@#The SiO 2 microspheres modified HAP whiskers and its porous ceramic materials were prepared successfully, respectively. In the SiO 2/HAP whiskers, the amorphous SiO 2 microspheres with a diameter of 200 nm, uniform distribution and good adhesion were attached to the surface of the whiskers, and the number of microspheres was controllable. The apparent porosity of the porous ceramic scaffold was about 78%, and its pore structure was composed of neatly arranged longitudinal through-holes and a large number of micro/nano through-holes. Compared with HAP whisker porous ceramic, the axial compressive strength of the SiO 2/HAP whisker porous ceramics could reach 1.0 MPa, which increased the strength by nearly 4 times. Among them, the axial compressive strength of the No.2 SiO 2/HAP whisker porous ceramic was the highest. The SiO 2 microspheres attached to the surface of the whiskers could provide sites for the deposition of apatite. With the content of SiO 2 microspheres increased, the deposition rate of apatite accelerated. The cytotoxicity level of the prepared porous ceramics ranged from 0 to 1, without cytotoxicity.@*CONCLUSION@#SiO 2/HAP whisker porous ceramics have good biological activity, high porosity, three-dimensional complex pore structure, good axial compressive strength, and no cytotoxicity, which make it a promising scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Animals , Durapatite , Porosity , Vibrissae , Apatites , Ceramics , Silicon Dioxide
9.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(86): 1-12, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413026

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar con microto-mografía los poros existentes entre el cemento de resina, poste de fibra y paredes del conducto en los distintos tercios radiculares en premolares inferio-res. Se utilizaron 15 premolares inferiores unirra-diculares humanos recientemente extraídos. Se les realizó el tratamiento endodóntico, y se obturó con conos de gutapercha y cemento endodóntico a base de resina. Una vez desobturados se procedió a la ce-mentación de los postes. Cada muestra se posicionó en un accesorio personalizado y se escaneó utilizan-do un Microtomógrafo. Con el software CTAn v.1.12 (Bruker-microCT) se analizaron las microtomografías para obtener el volumen de interés (VOI) que permi-tió calcular el área de superficie (mm2) y volumen de cada poro (mm3) entre la dentina y el poste a nivel co-ronal, medio y apical. Los datos fueron analizados me-diante las pruebas estadísticas de Friedman o ANOVA de medidas repetidas. El volumen de los poros entre los tres tercios radiculares mediante la prueba de Friedman, encontró una diferencia global significativa (F = 30,00; p < 0,05). El tercio en donde los poros presentaron un mayor volumen (mm3) fue el tercio coronal (mediana: 0,29250), seguido por los tercios medio (mediana: 0,03200), y apical (mediana: 0,00140). La comparación de la superficie de los poros entre los 3 tercios brindó un resultado análogo al de la comparación del volumen. La mayor superficie (mm2) correspondió al tercio coronal (media ± DE = 1,66377 ± 0,27175), seguido por los tercios medio (media ± DE = 1,16210 ± 0,20343) y apical (media ± DE = 0,41074 ± 0,12641). La microtomografía permitió realizar un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de los poros en toda la muestra, sin deterioro de la misma. Se puede concluir que el tercio coronal presenta más poros que el tercio apical con la técnica de cementación utilizada. En cuanto a la superficie y volumen de los poros, los resultados encontrados son similares a los reporta-dos por diversos autores (AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate with microtomography the existing pores between the resin cement, fiber post and canal walls in the different in thirds of the canal, in single-root lower premolars. Fifteen recently extracted human single root lower premolars were used, endodontically treated, and filled with gutta-percha cones and resin-based endodontic cement. Once unfilled, the posts were cemented. Each sample was positioned on a custom fixture and scanned using a Microtomograph. Each sample was evaluated using CTAn v.1.12 software (Bruker-microCT) to obtain the surface area (mm2), volume of interest (mm3) of each pore between dentin and post at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Data were analyzed using Friedman's tests or repeated measures ANOVA. The volume of the pores between the three root thirds using the Friedman test, a significant global difference was found (F = 30.00; p < 0.05). The third in which the pores presented a greater volume (mm3) was the coronal third (means: 0.29250), followed by the middle (means: 0.03200) and apical (means: 0.00140) thirds. The comparison of the pore surface between the 3 thirds gave an analogous result to that of the volume comparison. The largest surface area (mm2) corresponded to the coronal third (mean ± SD 1.66377 ± 0.27175), followed by the middle (mean ± 1.16210 ± 0.20343) and apical (mean ± 0.41074 ± 0.12641) thirds.Microtomography allowed a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pores in the entire sample without deterioration. It can be concluded that the coronal third has more pores than the apical third with the cementation technique used. Regarding the surface and volume of the pores, the results found are similar to those reported by various authors (AU)


Subject(s)
Porosity , Post and Core Technique , Cementation/instrumentation , X-Ray Microtomography , Bicuspid , Analysis of Variance , Resin Cements , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Fibric Acids
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 557-564, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of three different crosslinkers on the biocompatibility, physical and chemical properties of decellularized small intestinal submucosa (SIS) porous scaffolds.@*METHODS@#The SIS porous scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying method and randomly divided into three groups, then crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodi-imide (EDC) and procyanidine (PA) respectively. To evaluate the physicochemical property of each sample in different groups, the following experiments were conducted. Macroscopic morphologies were observed and recorded. Microscopic morphologies of the scaffolds were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and representative images were selected. Computer software (ImageJ) was used to calculate the pore size and porosity. The degree of crosslinking was determined by ninhydrin experiment. Collagenase degradation experiment was performed to assess the resistance of SIS scaffolds to enzyme degradation. To evaluate the mechanical properties, universal mechanical testing machine was used to determine the stress-strain curve and compression strength was calculated. Human bone marrow mesenchymal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds after which cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were assessed.@*RESULTS@#All the scaffolds remained intact after different crosslinking treatments. The FESEM images showed uniformed interconnected micro structures of scaffolds in different groups. The pore size of EDC group[(161.90±13.44) μm] was significantly higher than GA group [(149.50±14.65) μm] and PA group[(140.10±12.06) μm] (P < 0.05). The porosity of PA group (79.62%±1.14%) was significantly lower than EDC group (85.11%±1.71%) and GA group (84.83%±1.89%) (P < 0.05). PA group showed the highest degree of crosslinking whereas the lowest swelling ratio. There was a significant difference in the swelling ratio of the three groups (P < 0.05). Regarding to the collagenase degradation experiment, the scaffolds in PA group showed a significantly lower weight loss rate than the other groups after 7 days degradation. The weight loss rates of GA group were significantly higher than those of the other groups on day 15, whereas the PA group had the lowest rate after 10 days and 15 days degradation. PA group showed better mechanical properties than the other two groups. More living cells could be seen in PA and EDC groups after live/dead cell staining. Additionally, the proliferation rate of hBMCSs was faster in PA and EDC groups than in GA group.@*CONCLUSION@#The scaffolds gained satisfying degree of crosslinking after three different crosslinking treatments. The samples after PA and EDC treatment had better physicochemical properties and biocompatibility compared with GA treatment. Crosslinking can be used as a promising and applicable method in the modification of SIS scaffolds.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry , Porosity , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Weight Loss
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 31-39, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of porous surface morphology of zirconia on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.@*METHODS@#According to different manufacturing and pore-forming methods, the zirconia specimens were divided into 4 groups, including milled sintering group (M-Ctrl), milled porous group (M-Porous), 3D printed sintering group (3D-Ctrl) and 3D printed porous group (3D-Porous). The surface micromorphology, surface roughness, contact angle and surface elements of specimens in each group were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), 3D laser microscope, contact angle measuring device and energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, respectively. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on 4 groups of zirconia discs. The cell morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells on zirconia discs was eva-luated on 1 and 7 days by SEM. The cell proliferation was detected on 1, 3 and 5 days by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). After osteogenic induction for 14 days, the relative mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type Ⅰ collagen (Colla1), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OCN) in MC3T3-E1 cells were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#The pore size [(419.72±6.99) μm] and pore depth [(560.38±8.55) μm] of 3D-Porous group were significantly larger than the pore size [(300.55±155.65) μm] and pore depth [(69.97±31.38) μm] of M-Porous group (P < 0.05). The surface of 3D-Porous group appeared with more regular round pores than that of M-Porous group. The contact angles of all the groups were less than 90°. The contact angles of 3D-Ctrl (73.83°±5.34°) and M-Porous group (72.7°±2.72°) were the largest, with no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Cells adhered inside the pores in M-Porous and 3D-Porous groups, and the proliferation activities of them were significantly higher than those of M-Ctrl and 3D-Ctrl groups after 3 and 5 days' culture (P < 0.05). After 14 days' incubation, ALP, Colla1, Runx2 and OCN mRNA expression in 3D-Porous groups were significantly lower than those of M-Ctrl and 3D-Ctrl groups (P < 0.05). Colla1, Runx2 and OCN mRNA expressions in M-Porous group were higher than those of 3D-Porous group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The porous surface morphology of zirconia can promote the proliferation and adhesion but inhibit the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Ceramics , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Porosity , Zirconium
12.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 20-25, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical effect of porous tantalum Jumbo cup on acetabular reconstruction in revision of total hip arthroplasty.@*METHODS@#From September 2014 to December 2017, 18 patients(18 hips) with acetabular defect were reconstructed by porous tantalum Jumbo cup technology, including 6 males and 12 females;the age ranged from 54 to 76 years old with an average of(63.8±15.3) years. There were 6 cases of paprosky typeⅡA, 8 cases of typeⅡB, 2 cases of typeⅡC and 2 cases of type Ⅲ a. Harris score and visual analogue scale (VAS) were performed before and after operation. Imaging examination was performed to evaluate the position of hip rotation center and prosthesis, and to judge whether acetabular loosening, displacement and complications existed.@*RESULTS@#All cases were followed up for 13 to 49 months, with an average of 20.6 months. Harris score increased from 54.6±4.7 to 86.5±3.2 one year after operation(P<0.01), and VAS score decreased from 6.8±0.7 to 0.8±0.6 one year after operation (P<0.01). The transverse coordinate of hip rotation center was (3.52±0.72) cm before operation and (3.47±0.54) cm after operation (P>0.05). The longitudinal coordinate of hip rotation center was improved from (3.02±0.84) cm before operation to (2.35±0.53) cm after operation (P<0.01). During the follow-up period, the Jumbo cup was well fixed without loosening and displacement, the acetabular cup had bone ingrowth in varying degrees, and no light transmission line and osteolysis around the acetabular cup were found. No complications such as infection and nerve injury occurred.@*CONCLUSION@#The method of reconstructing acetabular bone defect with porous tantalum Jumbo cup is simple and easy, the early stability of acetabulum is good, and the short-term follow-up effect is good.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acetabulum/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Follow-Up Studies , Hip Prosthesis , Porosity , Prosthesis Failure , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Tantalum , Treatment Outcome
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 58-73, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929039

ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials are very attractive for use in neural tissue engineering and biosensor coatings. CNT scaffolds are excellent mimics of extracellular matrix due to their hydrophilicity, viscosity, and biocompatibility. CNTs can also impart conductivity to other insulating materials, improve mechanical stability, guide neuronal cell behavior, and trigger axon regeneration. The performance of chitosan (CS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite scaffolds could be optimized by introducing multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). CS/PEG/CNT composite scaffolds with CNT content of 1%, 3%, and 5% (1%=0.01 g/mL) were prepared by freeze-drying. Their physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite scaffolds had a highly connected porous structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy proved that the CNTs were well dispersed in the CS/PEG matrix and combined with the CS/PEG nanofiber bundles. MWCNTs enhanced the elastic modulus of the scaffold. The porosity of the scaffolds ranged from 83% to 96%. They reached a stable water swelling state within 24 h, and swelling decreased with increasing MWCNT concentration. The electrical conductivity and cell adhesion rate of the scaffolds increased with increasing MWCNT content. Immunofluorescence showed that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells grown in the scaffolds had characteristics similar to nerve cells. We measured changes in the expression of nerve cell markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that PC12 cells cultured in the scaffolds expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and class III β‍-tubulin (TUBB3) proteins. Preliminary research showed that the prepared CS/PEG/CNT scaffold has good biocompatibility and can be further applied to neural tissue engineering research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Axons , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Porosity , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
14.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(1): e43, ene.-mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254247

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar comparativamente las características de porosidad entre el cemento Portland, MTA Angelus® y Biodentine Septodont®, observados con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Materiales y métodos: Se prepararon los cementos según las indicaciones del fabricante y se empaquetaron en tubos cilíndricos de polietileno con un diámetro interno de 10 mm y una altura de 5 mm. Se analizó la porosidad de las muestras mediante el microscopio electrónico de barrido. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la prueba Kruskal-Wallis. El nivel de significancia se estableció en 0,05 Resultados: Se observó la descripción de la media de los valores del diámetro de los poros, y el tamaño mayor correspondió al cemento Portland (11,07). Existen diferencias significativas entre las medias del diámetro de los poros con un p = 0,05. Se identificó que el MTA Angelus® tiene la mayor cantidad de poros, le sigue el Biodentine Septodont® y, por último, el Portland. Se comparó la cantidad de poros entre los tres cementos y no se encontraron diferencias significativas, con un p = 0,09. Conclusión: Los análisis realizados en los cementos endodónticos dieron como resultado que el cemento Portland tiene mayor diámetro de poro a diferencia de los otros dos, lo cual implica que tanto el Biodentine Septodont® como el MTA Angelus® tienen mejores propiedades de resistencia y permeabilidad para evitar la microfiltración, y por tanto son mejores para la solución de casos clínicos. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the porosity characteristics of Portland cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus® and Biodentine Septodont® by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Cements were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and packed in cylindrical polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 10 mm and a height of 5 mm. The porosity of the samples was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskall Wallis test. The level of significance was established at 0.05. Results: The largest size mean diameter valus was found with Portland cement (11.07). There were significant differences between the mean pore diameters (p = 0.05). MTA Angelus® had the largest number of pores, followed by Biodentine Septodont®, and finally, Portland. There were no significant differences in the pores of the three cements (p = 0.09). Conclusion: The results of this comparative analysis of endodontic cements showed that Portland cement has a larger pore diameter than MTA Angelus® and Biodentine Septodont®, demonstrating that these latter two cements present better resistance and permeability properties, and thereby prevent microleakage. (AU)


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron , Porosity , Dental Cements , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 9-15, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aiming to evaluate cortical bone microarchitecture and osteonal morphology after irradiation, twelve male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were divided: control group (no radiation-NIr); and 3 irradiated groups, sacrificed after: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) and 21 (Ir21d) days. A single radiation dose of 30 Gy was used. Computed microtomography analyzed the cortical microarchitecture: cortical thickness (CtTh), bone volume (BV), total porosity (Ct.Po), intracortical porosity (CtPo-cl), channel/pore number (Po.N), fractal dimension (FD) and degree of anisotropy (Ct.DA). After scan, osteonal morphology was histologically assessed by means: area and perimeter of the osteons (O.Ar; O.p) and of the Haversian canals (C.Ar; C.p). Microtomographic analysis were performed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey and Dunnet tests. Osteon morphology analyses were performed by Kruskal-Wallis, and test Dunn's. Cortical thickness was significant difference (p<0.010) between the NIr and irradiated groups, with thicker cortex at Ir7d (1.15±0.09). The intracortical porosity revealed significant difference (p<0.001) between irradiated groups and NIr, with lower value for Ir7d (0.29±0.09). Bone volume was lower in Ir14d compared to control. Area and perimeter of the osteons were statistically different (p<0.0001) between NIr and Ir7d. Haversian canals also revealed lower values (p<0.0001) in Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) compared to NIr and irradiated groups. Cortical microarchitecture was affected by radiation, and the effects appear to be time-dependent, mostly regarding the osteons morphology at the initial days. Cortex structure in Ir21d revealed similarities to control suggesting that microarchitecture resembles normal condition after a period.


Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar a microarquitetura óssea cortical e a morfologia dos osteons após irradiação, foram utilizados doze coelhos machos da Nova Zelândia. Os animais foram divididos: grupo controle (sem radiação-NIr); e 3 grupos irradiados, sacrificados após: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) e 21 (Ir21d) dias. Foi utilizada uma dose única de radiação de 30 Gy. A microtomografia computadorizada analisou a microarquitetura cortical: espessura cortical (CtTh), volume ósseo (BV), porosidade total (Ct.Po), porosidade intracortical (CtPo-cl), número de canal/ poro (Po.N), dimensão fractal (DF) e grau de anisotropia (Ct.DA). Após a varredura, a morfologia dos osteosn foi avaliada histologicamente por meio de: Área e perímetro do osteon (O.Ar; O.p) e dos canais de Havers (C.Ar; C.p). A análise microtomográfica foi realizada por ANOVA, seguida pelos testes de Tukey e Dunnet. As análises morfológicas do osteon foram realizadas por Kruskal-Wallis e testadas por Dunn. A espessura cortical foi diferente (p<0,010) entre os grupos controle e irradiados, com córtex mais espesso no Ir7d (1,15±0,09). A porosidade intracortical revelou diferenças significativas (p<0,001) entre os grupos irradiados e o controle, com menor valor para Ir7d (0,29±0,09). O volume ósseo foi menor no Ir14d em relação ao controle. Área e perímetro do osteon foi diferente (p<0,0001) entre o controle e Ir7d. Os canais haversianos também revelaram valores mais baixos (p<0,0001) em Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) em relação ao controle e demais grupos irradiados. A microarquitetura cortical é afetada pela radiação e os efeitos parecem ser dependentes do tempo, principalmente em relação à morfologia dos osteons nos dias iniciais. A estrutura cortical em Ir21d revelou semelhanças com o controle, sugerindo que a microarquitetura se assemelha à condição normal após um período.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Haversian System , Bone and Bones , Porosity , Fractals
16.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210023, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Personal protective equipment is mandatory to protect patients and professionals from diseases, especially in the dental environment. The risk of gloves micro-perforations is imminent when using sharp instruments or cleaning them up during lengthy clinical procedures. Objective This study evaluated the integrity of sterile and non-sterile gloves before clinical use and clarified whether friction with disinfectant solution modifies surface morphology and integrity. Material and method Samples of gloves from four different brands were divided into two groups: (1) Sterile surgical gloves (n=260) and (2) Non-sterile gloves (n=260). They were scissored and placed in Ostby's arch so that three solutions - distilled water, ethanol 70°, ethanol 96° - were rubbed with a cotton swab. After 30s, 5, 10, and 15 minutes of solution rubbing, samples were verified by a Scanning Electron Microscope. The pore sizes were measured by Image J software. Result Regardless of the brands, all gloves have been significantly affected by solutions and assessment periods. In general, remarkable changes were evident with ethanol 70° and 96°, and higher pore diameters were observed compared to distilled water. Conclusion Rubbing disinfectant solutions increases gloves' pores sizes, and time negatively influenced its quality.


Resumo Introdução Para proteger pacientes e profissionais de doenças, o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual é obrigatório, principalmente no ambiente odontológico. O risco de microperfurações das luvas é iminente ao usar instrumentos cortantes ou na tentativa de limpar as luvas durante longos procedimentos clínicos. Objetivo Este estudo avaliou a integridade das luvas cirúrgicas e de procedimento antes do uso clínico e esclareceu se o atrito com a solução desinfetante modifica a morfologia e integridade da superfície. Material e método Amostras de luvas de quatro marcas diferentes foram divididas em dois grupos: (1) Luvas cirúrgicas (n = 260) e (2) Luvas descartáveis não estéreis (n = 260). As luvas foram cortadas e colocadas em arco de Ostby, de modo que três soluções - água destilada, etanol 70 °, etanol 96 ° foram esfregadas com um cotonete. Após 30s, 5, 10 e 15 minutos de fricção das soluções, as amostras foram verificadas utilizando um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os tamanhos dos poros foram medidos pelo software Image J. Resultado Independentemente das marcas, todas as luvas foram significativamente afetadas por soluções e períodos de avaliação. Em geral, maiores alterações foram evidenciadas com o uso do etanol 70° e 96°, e maiores diâmetros dos poros foram observados quando comparados à água destilada. Conclusão Esfregar soluções desinfetantes aumenta o tamanho dos poros das luvas e o tempo influenciou negativamente sua qualidade.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Gloves, Protective , Containment of Biohazards , Gloves, Surgical , Latex , Porosity , Dentists
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether a low body mass index (BMI) has a significant relationship with mandibular bone porosity progression by conducting a mandibular inferior cortex (MIC) classification in elderly Japanese people. Material and Methods: A total of 266 study subjects, aged 70 at baseline, were recruited for this study, conducted from 1998 to 2007. The subjects were divided into two groups according to changes in the MIC on serial panoramic radiographs during this nine-year study period: a no change group (MIC-NC) and a change group (MIC-C). All subjects in the MIC-C showed changes trending toward greater fragility. We evaluated the BMI at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the MIC condition during the nine-year period (0: MIC-NC, 1: MIC-C) and BMI (kg/m2) adjusted for gender, current health status (CHS), and smoking habit (SH) at baseline. Results: The mean and standard deviations of the BMI at baseline in the MIC-NC and MIC-C were 22.8 ± 2.1 and 21.8 ± 2.5 kg/m2 for males and 23.1 ± 2.9 and 21.9 ± 2.4 kg/m2 for females. There was a significant relationship between the MIC condition and the BMI in both males (p=0.04) and females (p=0.01). The logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the MIC condition over the nine-year period and the BMI (OR=0.84, p=0.003), which was adjusted depending on the gender (OR=5.18, p=0.000), CHS (OR=0.53, p=0.015), and SH (OR=4.15, p=0.002) at baseline. Conclusion: A low BMI carries a risk of developing mandibular bone porosity by measuring the MIC condition in panoramic radiographs.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Aged , Osteoporosis/pathology , Aging , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Mandible , Bone and Bones , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Porosity , Japan
18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1018-1027, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921841

ABSTRACT

Spinal fusion is a standard operation for treating moderate and severe intervertebral disc diseases. In recent years, the proportion of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage in spinal fusion surgery has gradually increased. In this paper, the research progress of molding technology and materials used in three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage at present is summarized. Then, according to structure layout, three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cages are classified into five types: solid-porous-solid (SPS) type, solid-porous-frame (SPF) type, frame-porous-frame (FPF) type, whole porous cage (WPC) type and others. The optimization process of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage and the advantages and disadvantages of each type are analyzed and summarized in depth. The clinical application of various types of 3D printed interbody fusion cage was introduced and summarized later. Lastly, combined with the latest research progress and achievements, the future research direction of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage in molding technology, application materials and coating materials is prospected in order to provide some reference for scholars engaged in interbody fusion cage research and application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Porosity , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Spinal Fusion
19.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 960-968, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921834

ABSTRACT

In order to establish a bone scaffold with good biological properties, two kinds of new gradient triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) scaffolds, i.e., two-way linear gradient G scaffolds (L-G) and D, G fusion scaffold (N-G) were designed based on the gyroid (G) and diamond (D)-type TPMS in this study. The structural mechanical parameters of the two kinds of scaffolds were obtained through the compressive simulation. The flow property parameters were also obtained through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in this study, and the permeability of the two kinds of scaffolds were calculated by Darcy's law. The tissue differentiation areas of the two kinds of scaffolds were calculated based on the tissue differentiation theory. The results show that L-G scaffold has a better mechanical property than the N-G scaffold. However, N-G scaffold is better than the L-G scaffold in biological properties such as permeability and cartilage differentiation areas. The modeling processes of L-G and N-G scaffolds provide a new insight for the design of bone scaffold. The simulation in this study can also give reference for the prediction of osseointegration after the implantation of scaffold in the human body.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones , Permeability , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
20.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 911-918, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921829

ABSTRACT

At present, acellular matrix is an effective replacement material for the treatment of skin damage, but there are few systematic evaluation studies on its performance. The experimental group of this study used two decellularization methods to prepare the matrix: one was the acellular matrix which sterilized with peracetic acid first (0.2% PAA/4% ethanol solution) and then treated with hypertonic saline (group A), the other was 0.05% trypsin/EDTA decellularization after γ irradiation (group B); and the control group was soaked in PBS (Group C). Then physical properties and chemical composition of the three groups were detected. Hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining showed that the acellular effect of group B was good. The porosity of group A and B were both above 84.9%. In group A, the compressive modulus of elasticity was (9.94 ± 3.81) MPa, and the compressive modulus of elasticity was (12.59 ± 5.50) MPa in group B. There was no significant difference between group A or B and group C. The total content of collagen in acellular matrix of group A and B was significantly lower than that of group C (1. 662 ± 0.229) mg/g, but there was no significant difference in the ratio of collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ between group B and group C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that there was no significant difference in microstructure. Qualitative detection of fibronectin and elastin in each group was basically consistent with that in group C. Therefore, acellular matrix of group B had better performance as scaffold material. The experimental results show that the acellular matrix prepared by γ-ray sterilization and decellularization of 0.05% Trypsin enzyme/EDTA could be used for the construction of tissue-engineered skin. It could also provide reference for the preparation and mounting of heterogeneous dermal acellular matrix. It was also could be used for electrostatic spinning or three-dimensional printed tissue engineered skin scaffold which could provide physical and chemical parameters for it.


Subject(s)
Acellular Dermis , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Matrix , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
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