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Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(1): e43, ene.-mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254247


Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar comparativamente las características de porosidad entre el cemento Portland, MTA Angelus® y Biodentine Septodont®, observados con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Materiales y métodos: Se prepararon los cementos según las indicaciones del fabricante y se empaquetaron en tubos cilíndricos de polietileno con un diámetro interno de 10 mm y una altura de 5 mm. Se analizó la porosidad de las muestras mediante el microscopio electrónico de barrido. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la prueba Kruskal-Wallis. El nivel de significancia se estableció en 0,05 Resultados: Se observó la descripción de la media de los valores del diámetro de los poros, y el tamaño mayor correspondió al cemento Portland (11,07). Existen diferencias significativas entre las medias del diámetro de los poros con un p = 0,05. Se identificó que el MTA Angelus® tiene la mayor cantidad de poros, le sigue el Biodentine Septodont® y, por último, el Portland. Se comparó la cantidad de poros entre los tres cementos y no se encontraron diferencias significativas, con un p = 0,09. Conclusión: Los análisis realizados en los cementos endodónticos dieron como resultado que el cemento Portland tiene mayor diámetro de poro a diferencia de los otros dos, lo cual implica que tanto el Biodentine Septodont® como el MTA Angelus® tienen mejores propiedades de resistencia y permeabilidad para evitar la microfiltración, y por tanto son mejores para la solución de casos clínicos. (AU)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the porosity characteristics of Portland cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus® and Biodentine Septodont® by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Cements were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and packed in cylindrical polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 10 mm and a height of 5 mm. The porosity of the samples was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskall Wallis test. The level of significance was established at 0.05. Results: The largest size mean diameter valus was found with Portland cement (11.07). There were significant differences between the mean pore diameters (p = 0.05). MTA Angelus® had the largest number of pores, followed by Biodentine Septodont®, and finally, Portland. There were no significant differences in the pores of the three cements (p = 0.09). Conclusion: The results of this comparative analysis of endodontic cements showed that Portland cement has a larger pore diameter than MTA Angelus® and Biodentine Septodont®, demonstrating that these latter two cements present better resistance and permeability properties, and thereby prevent microleakage. (AU)

Microscopy, Electron , Porosity , Dental Cements , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 9-15, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180725


Abstract Aiming to evaluate cortical bone microarchitecture and osteonal morphology after irradiation, twelve male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were divided: control group (no radiation-NIr); and 3 irradiated groups, sacrificed after: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) and 21 (Ir21d) days. A single radiation dose of 30 Gy was used. Computed microtomography analyzed the cortical microarchitecture: cortical thickness (CtTh), bone volume (BV), total porosity (Ct.Po), intracortical porosity (CtPo-cl), channel/pore number (Po.N), fractal dimension (FD) and degree of anisotropy (Ct.DA). After scan, osteonal morphology was histologically assessed by means: area and perimeter of the osteons (O.Ar; O.p) and of the Haversian canals (C.Ar; C.p). Microtomographic analysis were performed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey and Dunnet tests. Osteon morphology analyses were performed by Kruskal-Wallis, and test Dunn's. Cortical thickness was significant difference (p<0.010) between the NIr and irradiated groups, with thicker cortex at Ir7d (1.15±0.09). The intracortical porosity revealed significant difference (p<0.001) between irradiated groups and NIr, with lower value for Ir7d (0.29±0.09). Bone volume was lower in Ir14d compared to control. Area and perimeter of the osteons were statistically different (p<0.0001) between NIr and Ir7d. Haversian canals also revealed lower values (p<0.0001) in Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) compared to NIr and irradiated groups. Cortical microarchitecture was affected by radiation, and the effects appear to be time-dependent, mostly regarding the osteons morphology at the initial days. Cortex structure in Ir21d revealed similarities to control suggesting that microarchitecture resembles normal condition after a period.

Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar a microarquitetura óssea cortical e a morfologia dos osteons após irradiação, foram utilizados doze coelhos machos da Nova Zelândia. Os animais foram divididos: grupo controle (sem radiação-NIr); e 3 grupos irradiados, sacrificados após: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) e 21 (Ir21d) dias. Foi utilizada uma dose única de radiação de 30 Gy. A microtomografia computadorizada analisou a microarquitetura cortical: espessura cortical (CtTh), volume ósseo (BV), porosidade total (Ct.Po), porosidade intracortical (CtPo-cl), número de canal/ poro (Po.N), dimensão fractal (DF) e grau de anisotropia (Ct.DA). Após a varredura, a morfologia dos osteosn foi avaliada histologicamente por meio de: Área e perímetro do osteon (O.Ar; O.p) e dos canais de Havers (C.Ar; C.p). A análise microtomográfica foi realizada por ANOVA, seguida pelos testes de Tukey e Dunnet. As análises morfológicas do osteon foram realizadas por Kruskal-Wallis e testadas por Dunn. A espessura cortical foi diferente (p<0,010) entre os grupos controle e irradiados, com córtex mais espesso no Ir7d (1,15±0,09). A porosidade intracortical revelou diferenças significativas (p<0,001) entre os grupos irradiados e o controle, com menor valor para Ir7d (0,29±0,09). O volume ósseo foi menor no Ir14d em relação ao controle. Área e perímetro do osteon foi diferente (p<0,0001) entre o controle e Ir7d. Os canais haversianos também revelaram valores mais baixos (p<0,0001) em Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) em relação ao controle e demais grupos irradiados. A microarquitetura cortical é afetada pela radiação e os efeitos parecem ser dependentes do tempo, principalmente em relação à morfologia dos osteons nos dias iniciais. A estrutura cortical em Ir21d revelou semelhanças com o controle, sugerindo que a microarquitetura se assemelha à condição normal após um período.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Haversian System , Bone and Bones , Porosity , Fractals
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1018-1027, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921841


Spinal fusion is a standard operation for treating moderate and severe intervertebral disc diseases. In recent years, the proportion of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage in spinal fusion surgery has gradually increased. In this paper, the research progress of molding technology and materials used in three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage at present is summarized. Then, according to structure layout, three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cages are classified into five types: solid-porous-solid (SPS) type, solid-porous-frame (SPF) type, frame-porous-frame (FPF) type, whole porous cage (WPC) type and others. The optimization process of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage and the advantages and disadvantages of each type are analyzed and summarized in depth. The clinical application of various types of 3D printed interbody fusion cage was introduced and summarized later. Lastly, combined with the latest research progress and achievements, the future research direction of three-dimensional printing interbody fusion cage in molding technology, application materials and coating materials is prospected in order to provide some reference for scholars engaged in interbody fusion cage research and application.

Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Porosity , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Spinal Fusion
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921834


In order to establish a bone scaffold with good biological properties, two kinds of new gradient triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) scaffolds, i.e., two-way linear gradient G scaffolds (L-G) and D, G fusion scaffold (N-G) were designed based on the gyroid (G) and diamond (D)-type TPMS in this study. The structural mechanical parameters of the two kinds of scaffolds were obtained through the compressive simulation. The flow property parameters were also obtained through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in this study, and the permeability of the two kinds of scaffolds were calculated by Darcy's law. The tissue differentiation areas of the two kinds of scaffolds were calculated based on the tissue differentiation theory. The results show that L-G scaffold has a better mechanical property than the N-G scaffold. However, N-G scaffold is better than the L-G scaffold in biological properties such as permeability and cartilage differentiation areas. The modeling processes of L-G and N-G scaffolds provide a new insight for the design of bone scaffold. The simulation in this study can also give reference for the prediction of osseointegration after the implantation of scaffold in the human body.

Bone and Bones , Humans , Permeability , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921829


At present, acellular matrix is an effective replacement material for the treatment of skin damage, but there are few systematic evaluation studies on its performance. The experimental group of this study used two decellularization methods to prepare the matrix: one was the acellular matrix which sterilized with peracetic acid first (0.2% PAA/4% ethanol solution) and then treated with hypertonic saline (group A), the other was 0.05% trypsin/EDTA decellularization after γ irradiation (group B); and the control group was soaked in PBS (Group C). Then physical properties and chemical composition of the three groups were detected. Hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining showed that the acellular effect of group B was good. The porosity of group A and B were both above 84.9%. In group A, the compressive modulus of elasticity was (9.94 ± 3.81) MPa, and the compressive modulus of elasticity was (12.59 ± 5.50) MPa in group B. There was no significant difference between group A or B and group C. The total content of collagen in acellular matrix of group A and B was significantly lower than that of group C (1. 662 ± 0.229) mg/g, but there was no significant difference in the ratio of collagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ between group B and group C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that there was no significant difference in microstructure. Qualitative detection of fibronectin and elastin in each group was basically consistent with that in group C. Therefore, acellular matrix of group B had better performance as scaffold material. The experimental results show that the acellular matrix prepared by γ-ray sterilization and decellularization of 0.05% Trypsin enzyme/EDTA could be used for the construction of tissue-engineered skin. It could also provide reference for the preparation and mounting of heterogeneous dermal acellular matrix. It was also could be used for electrostatic spinning or three-dimensional printed tissue engineered skin scaffold which could provide physical and chemical parameters for it.

Acellular Dermis , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Matrix , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879289


Cryogels are a type of hydrogel material which are fabricated by cryopolymerization at subzero temperature. Due to their unique macroporous structure, shape memory properties and injectability, cryogels have gained significant interest in the fields of tissue engineering for encouraging the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. In this review, the basic concepts relevant to cryogels are introduced, and then the fabrication principle, the process parameters and the unique properties of cryogel are discussed. Next, the latest advances of cryogels as three-dimensional scaffold for various tissue engineering applications are given. Finally, this review summarizes the current limitations of cryogels, and strategies to further improve their properties for tissue engineering. The purpose of this article is to provide a reference guide for the researchers in related fields.

Cryogels , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210023, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289854


Abstract Introduction Personal protective equipment is mandatory to protect patients and professionals from diseases, especially in the dental environment. The risk of gloves micro-perforations is imminent when using sharp instruments or cleaning them up during lengthy clinical procedures. Objective This study evaluated the integrity of sterile and non-sterile gloves before clinical use and clarified whether friction with disinfectant solution modifies surface morphology and integrity. Material and method Samples of gloves from four different brands were divided into two groups: (1) Sterile surgical gloves (n=260) and (2) Non-sterile gloves (n=260). They were scissored and placed in Ostby's arch so that three solutions - distilled water, ethanol 70°, ethanol 96° - were rubbed with a cotton swab. After 30s, 5, 10, and 15 minutes of solution rubbing, samples were verified by a Scanning Electron Microscope. The pore sizes were measured by Image J software. Result Regardless of the brands, all gloves have been significantly affected by solutions and assessment periods. In general, remarkable changes were evident with ethanol 70° and 96°, and higher pore diameters were observed compared to distilled water. Conclusion Rubbing disinfectant solutions increases gloves' pores sizes, and time negatively influenced its quality.

Resumo Introdução Para proteger pacientes e profissionais de doenças, o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual é obrigatório, principalmente no ambiente odontológico. O risco de microperfurações das luvas é iminente ao usar instrumentos cortantes ou na tentativa de limpar as luvas durante longos procedimentos clínicos. Objetivo Este estudo avaliou a integridade das luvas cirúrgicas e de procedimento antes do uso clínico e esclareceu se o atrito com a solução desinfetante modifica a morfologia e integridade da superfície. Material e método Amostras de luvas de quatro marcas diferentes foram divididas em dois grupos: (1) Luvas cirúrgicas (n = 260) e (2) Luvas descartáveis não estéreis (n = 260). As luvas foram cortadas e colocadas em arco de Ostby, de modo que três soluções - água destilada, etanol 70 °, etanol 96 ° foram esfregadas com um cotonete. Após 30s, 5, 10 e 15 minutos de fricção das soluções, as amostras foram verificadas utilizando um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os tamanhos dos poros foram medidos pelo software Image J. Resultado Independentemente das marcas, todas as luvas foram significativamente afetadas por soluções e períodos de avaliação. Em geral, maiores alterações foram evidenciadas com o uso do etanol 70° e 96°, e maiores diâmetros dos poros foram observados quando comparados à água destilada. Conclusão Esfregar soluções desinfetantes aumenta o tamanho dos poros das luvas e o tempo influenciou negativamente sua qualidade.

Hand Disinfection , Gloves, Protective , Containment of Biohazards , Gloves, Surgical , Latex , Porosity , Dentists
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180865


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether a low body mass index (BMI) has a significant relationship with mandibular bone porosity progression by conducting a mandibular inferior cortex (MIC) classification in elderly Japanese people. Material and Methods: A total of 266 study subjects, aged 70 at baseline, were recruited for this study, conducted from 1998 to 2007. The subjects were divided into two groups according to changes in the MIC on serial panoramic radiographs during this nine-year study period: a no change group (MIC-NC) and a change group (MIC-C). All subjects in the MIC-C showed changes trending toward greater fragility. We evaluated the BMI at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the MIC condition during the nine-year period (0: MIC-NC, 1: MIC-C) and BMI (kg/m2) adjusted for gender, current health status (CHS), and smoking habit (SH) at baseline. Results: The mean and standard deviations of the BMI at baseline in the MIC-NC and MIC-C were 22.8 ± 2.1 and 21.8 ± 2.5 kg/m2 for males and 23.1 ± 2.9 and 21.9 ± 2.4 kg/m2 for females. There was a significant relationship between the MIC condition and the BMI in both males (p=0.04) and females (p=0.01). The logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the MIC condition over the nine-year period and the BMI (OR=0.84, p=0.003), which was adjusted depending on the gender (OR=5.18, p=0.000), CHS (OR=0.53, p=0.015), and SH (OR=4.15, p=0.002) at baseline. Conclusion: A low BMI carries a risk of developing mandibular bone porosity by measuring the MIC condition in panoramic radiographs.

Male , Female , Aged , Osteoporosis/pathology , Aging , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Mandible , Bone and Bones , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Porosity , Japan
Braz. dent. j ; 31(4): 385-391, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132314


Abstract The present study evaluated the odontogenic potential of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) exposed to chitosan scaffolds containing calcium aluminate (CHAlCa) associated or not with low doses of simvastatin (SV). Chitosan scaffolds received a suspension of calcium aluminate (AlCa) and were then immersed into solutions containing SV. The following groups were established: chitosan-calcium-aluminate scaffolds (CHAlCa - Control), chitosan calcium-aluminate with 0.5 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV0.5), and chitosan calcium-aluminate with 1.0 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV1.0). The morphology and composition of the scaffolds were evaluated by SEM and EDS, respectively. After 14 days of HDPCs culture on scaffolds, cell viability, adhesion and spread, mineralized matrix deposition as well as gene expression of odontogenic markers were assessed. Calcium aluminate particles were incorporated into the chitosan matrix, which exhibited regular pores homogeneously distributed throughout its structure. The selected SV dosages were biocompatible with HDPCs. Chitosan-calcium-aluminate scaffolds with 1 µM SV induced the odontoblastic phenotype in the HDPCs, which showed enhanced mineralized matrix deposition and up-regulated ALP, Col1A1, and DMP-1 expression. Therefore, one can conclude that the incorporation of calcium aluminate and simvastatin in chitosan scaffolds had a synergistic effect on HDPCs, favoring odontogenic cell differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition.

Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o potencial odontogênico de células da polpa dental humana (HDPCs) em contato com scaffolds de quitosana contendo aluminato de cálcio (CHAlCa) associado ou não à baixas dosagens de sinvastatina (SV). Scaffolds de quitosana receberam uma suspensão de aluminato de cálcio e foram imersos em soluções contendo a droga. Foram estabelecidos três grupos experimentais: scaffolds de quitosana e aluminato de cálcio (CHAlCa - controle), scaffolds de quitosana-aluminato de cálcio com 0.5 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV0.5), e quitosana-aluminato de cálcio com 1.0 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV1.0). A morfologia e composição foram avaliados por MEV e EDS, respectivamente. Após 14 dias do cultivo das HDPCs sobre os scaffolds, foram avaliados a viabilidade celular, adesão e espalhamento, deposição de matriz mineralizada e expressão gênica de marcadores odontogênicos. Observou-se que as partículas de aluminato de cálcio foram incorporadas à matriz de quitosana, a qual exibiu poros regulares distribuídos por toda sua estrutura. As dosagens selecionadas de sinvastatina foram biocompatíveis com as HDPCs. A concentração de 1 µM de SV induziu intensa expressão de fenótipo odontoblástico pelas HDPCs, demonstrando aumento da deposição de matriz mineralizada e maior expressão de ALP, Col1A1 e DMP-1. Portanto, podemos concluir que a incorporação de aluminato de cálcio e sinvastatina em scaffolds de quitosana apresentou um efeito sinérgico nas HDPCs, favorecendo a diferenciação celular e deposição de matriz mineralizada.

Humans , Chitosan , Calcium , Porosity , Calcium Compounds , Aluminum Compounds , Simvastatin
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 909-913, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124875


Porous titanium alloy scaffold was widely used in treating bone defect caused by traumatic injury and osteomyelitis, which was incapable of self-healing. The implantation of scaffold produced stress shielding thereby forming osteolysis. The objective of this study was to analysis trabecular morphological features of osseointegrated bone. 14 New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups, surgery group and healthy control group. 7 rabbits in surgery group were selected to perform 3D printed porous titanium alloy scaffold implantation surgery with preload at the defect of femoral condyle for osseointegration. The other 7 rabbits in control group were feed free. After 90 days healing, femoral condyles were extracted to perform micro-CT scanning with hydroxyapatite calibration phantom. Mean bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), BS/TV (bone surface area ratio), Tb.Th (thickness of trabeculae), Tb.N (number of trabeculae), Tb.Sp (trabecular separation) and DA (degree of anisotropy) were calculated from micro-CT images. The results revealed that osseointegration inside and at the surface of scaffolds worked well from grey values of micro-CT images. After 12 weeks healing, mean bone mineral densities (BMD) in surgery group and healthy control group were calculated as 800±20mg/cm3 and 980±90mg/cm3, respectively. This revealed that the strength of trabeculae in surgery group might lower than that in the healthy group. Trabecular morphological parameters test showed that trabecular morphological parameters at the surface of scaffolds in the surgery group deteriorated significantly. It was found from micro-CT images that ingrowth bone was filled with pores of scaffold. Overall, the effect of osseointegration was promoted through the change of mechanical micro-environment in the scaffold region. Overall, preload could improve osseointegration effect in the long-term after surgery. However, the trabecular morphology in the surgery group was deteriorated, which might bring secondary fracture risk again.

La malla de aleación de titanio poroso se usó ampliamente en el tratamiento de defectos óseos causados por lesiones traumáticas y osteomielitis. El implante de la malla generó una protección contra el estrés, formando así osteolisis. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las características morfológicas trabeculares del hueso osteointegrado. Se dividieron 14 conejos (Neozelandeses) en dos grupos, grupo cirugía y grupo control saludable. Se seleccionaron 7 conejos en el grupo de cirugía para realizar una implantación de mallas de aleación de titanio poroso, impresas en 3D con precarga en el defecto del cóndilo femoral para la osteointegración. Los 7 conejos restantes del grupo control se mantuvieron sin alimentación. Después de 90 días de curación, se extrajeron los cóndilos femorales para realizar una exploración por micro-CT con un espectro de calibración de hidroxiapatita. Se calcularon a partir de imágenes de micro-CTDensidad mineral ósea media (DMO), fracción de volumen óseo (BV / TV), BS / TV (relación de área de superficie ósea), Tb.Th (espesor de trabéculas), Tb.N (número de trabéculas), Tb.Sp (trabecular separación) y DA (grado de anisotropía). Los resultados revelaron que la osteointegración dentro y en la superficie de los andamios funcionó bien a partir de los valores grises de las imágenes de micro-CT. Después de 12 semanas de curación, las densidades medias de minerales óseos (DMO) en el grupo cirugía y en el grupo control sano se calcularon como 800 ± 20 mg/cm3 y 980 ± 90 mg/cm3, respectivamente. Esto reveló que la fuerza de las trabéculas en el grupo de cirugía podría ser menor que la del grupo sano. La prueba de parámetros morfológicos trabeculares mostró que en el grupo de cirugía, la superficie de las mallas, se deterioraron significativamente. Se descubrió a partir de imágenes de microCT que el hueso en crecimiento estaba lleno de poros de andamio. En general, el efecto de la osteointegración se promovió mediante el cambio del microambiente mecánico en la región de la malla. En general, la precarga podría mejorar el efecto de osteointegración a largo plazo después de la cirugía. Sin embargo, la morfología trabecular en el grupo de cirugía se deterioró, lo que podría traer un nuevo riesgo de fractura secundaria.

Animals , Rabbits , Bone Diseases/surgery , Osseointegration/physiology , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants , Titanium/chemistry , Porosity , Alloys , X-Ray Microtomography , Femur/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811128


Distal radius fractures (DRFs) are one of the most common fractures seen in elderly people. Patients with DRFs have a high incidence of osteoporosis and an increased risk of subsequent fractures, subtle early physical performance changes, and a high prevalence of sarcopenia. Since DRFs typically occur earlier than vertebral or hip fractures, they reflect early changes of the bone and muscle frailty and provide physicians with an opportunity to prevent progression of frailty and secondary fractures. In this review, we will discuss the concept of DRFs as a medical condition that is at the start of the fragility fracture cascade, recent advances in the diagnosis of bone fragility including emerging importance of cortical porosity, fracture healing with osteoporosis medications, and recent progress in research on sarcopenia in patients with DRFs.

Aged , Diagnosis , Fracture Healing , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Porosity , Prevalence , Radius Fractures , Radius , Sarcopenia
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828206


As a new potential bone graft material, tissue engineered bone effectively compensates for the defects of today's bone repair materials. Meanwhile, mesoporous silica nanomaterials(MSNs) have been widely recognized due to their large specific surface area, good biocompatibility, and capability of further processing and modification. They have promising application prospects in bone tissue engineering. For the basic scientific research results that have been carried out in the early stage, the basic characteristics of mesoporous silica nano biomaterials and their application advantages, research status and development prospects in bone tissue engineering are reviewed. As for the research status, there are two aspects--as a carrier or as a component of engineering scaffolds. For the first aspect, different kinds of loaded drugs and different loading methods are reviewed. For the second, microstructure and mechanical properties of various complex scaffolds containing MSNs and the molecular and cellular behavior of seeded cells on these scaffolds are reviewed. The research of MSNs in bone cements and metal ions doped MSNs in bone tissue engineering are also included. The future development of MSNs in bone tissue engineering is also discussed.

Bone and Bones , Nanoparticles , Porosity , Silicon Dioxide , Tissue Engineering
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820823


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some commercial calamansicontaining beverages on the sound surface of bovine teeth as well as the dental erosion inhibitory effects of calcium.METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity of six kinds of commercially available calamansi beverages were determined. Further, 3% calcium was added to the calamansi beverage Oranssi in the experimental group to confirm its dental erosion inhibitory effect. Jeju Samdasoo was used in the negative control group and Coca-Cola in the positive control group. After immersing the sound teeth specimens for 10 min, surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers hardness number (VHN), and surface changes in specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope.RESULTS: The average pH of the commercial calamansi beverages was 2.54±0.22. After 10 min of treatment with each experimental beverage, the surface hardness difference (ΔVHN) was highest in the Coca-Cola group (−49.05±12.59), followed by the Oranssi calamansi group (−43.77±13.70), 3% calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group (−2.71±12.58), and Samdasoo group (14.03±20.79). There was no significant difference between the bottled water and calcium-added Oranssi calamansi groups or between the Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the surface hardness between the bottled water and CocaCola groups (P<0.05). On scanning electron microscopy, the Samdasoo group showed a smooth surface without any loss, but Coca-Cola and Oranssi calamansi groups showed a rough surface due to erosion. However, although fine cracks and porosities were seen in the calcium-added Oranssi calamansi group, surfaces in the group were much smoother than those in the Oranssi calamansi group.CONCLUSIONS: Calamansi beverages of low pH may cause corrosion of the tooth surface, and the addition of calcium to the calamansi beverages inhibits demineralization of the tooth surface. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the risk of dental erosion when drinking calamansi beverages of low pH.

Beverages , Calcium , Corrosion , Dental Enamel , Drinking , Drinking Water , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Porosity , Tooth
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200023, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1139425


Introduction: One of the most commonly used corrective methods for staining teeth is tooth bleaching. However, subclinical alterations may occur in the micromorphology of dental tissues during the bleaching procedure, such as increases in porosity and surface roughness. Consequently, dental enamel may become more permeable and susceptible to staining. Objective: To evaluate the influence of tooth polishing after in-office bleaching treatment on color stability. Material and method: Thirty-three extracted human molars were used. The teeth were cut in the mesiodistal direction to obtain two samples per tooth (total of 66). The samples were randomly divided into six groups (n=11). Before and after the bleaching treatment, the lightness of the samples and change in lightness (∆L) were determined with a digital spectrophotometer (Easy Shade). The samples were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three sessions weekly). Three groups were submitted to polishing with felt discs and polishing paste after each session. To simulate the oral conditions during the consumption of colored beverages, the samples were submitted to alternating cycles of immersion in staining solutions (coffee, red wine, and Coca Cola). Result: Polishing resulted in an increase of mean lightness of 4.49 in the red wine group, 2.73 in the coffee group, and 4.08 in the cola group. The difference was significant in the red wine group (p<0.022), but not in the coffee or cola group. Conclusion: Polishing after in-office bleaching using felt discs and polishing paste can reduce the degree of pigment impregnation in patient with red wine rich diet.

Introdução: Um dos métodos mais usados ​​para dentes pigmentados é o clareamento dental. Entretanto, alterações subclínicas podem ocorrer na micromorfologia dos dentes durante procedimentos de clareamento, como aumentos na porosidade e rugosidade superficial. Consequentemente, o esmalte dental pode se tornar mais permeável e suscetível a manchas. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do polimento dentário após o clareamento em consultório na estabilidade da cor. Material e método: Trinta e três molares humanos extraídos foram utilizados. Os dentes foram cortados na direção mesiodistal para obter duas amostras por dente (total de 66). As amostras foram divididas aleatoriamente em seis grupos (n = 11). Antes e após o tratamento clareador, a luminosidade das amostras e a alteração da luminosidade (∆L) foram determinadas com um espectrofotômetro digital (Easy Shade). As amostras foram clareadas com peróxido de hidrogênio 35% (três sessões com intervalos de 7 dias). Três grupos foram submetidos a polimento com discos de feltro e pasta de polimento após cada sessão. Para simular as condições orais durante o consumo de bebidas pigmentadas, as amostras foram submetidas a ciclos alternados de imersão em soluções (café, vinho tinto e Coca Cola). Resultado: O polimento resultou em um aumento da luminosidade média de 4,49 no grupo vinho tinto, 2,73 no grupo café e 4,08 no grupo cola. A diferença foi significativa no grupo vinho tinto (p <0,022), mas não no grupo café ou cola. Conclusão: O polimento após clareamento em consultório usando discos de feltro e pasta polidora pode reduzir o grau de impregnação em pacientes com dieta rica em vinho tinto.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Wine , Porosity , Color , Dental Enamel , Dental Polishing , Coffee , Dental Offices
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e004, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055523


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the structural, morphological and mechanical properties of two different lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics for CAD-CAM systems (IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM). Five methodologies were used for both ceramics: microstructure (n = 2) was analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological properties (n = 2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with and without hydrofluoric etching; porosity (n = 3) was assessed using 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); flexural strength was measured (n =1 0) using the three-point bending test; and bond strength was determined with self-adhesive resin cement (n = 10), using a microshear bond test. After performing all the tests, the data were analyzed using t-Student test and two-way ANOVA. All the tests used a significance level of α = 0.05. High peak positions corresponding to standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate with similar intensities were observed for both ceramics in the XRD analysis. Morphological analysis showed that the crystalline structure of the two ceramics studied showed no statistical difference after acid etching. Additionally, no significant differences were recorded in the number or size of the pores for the ceramics evaluated. Moreover, no differences in flexural strength were found for the ceramic materials tested, or in the bond strength to ceramic substrates for the resin cements. Based on the study results, no significant differences were found between the two CAD-CAM lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics tested, since they presented similar crystalline structures with comparable intensities, and similar total porosity, flexural strength and bond strength.

Ceramics/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Glass/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Porosity , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Flexural Strength
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e020, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089398


Abstract: This in vitro study aimed to assess the effects of different pretreatments used to adapt glass-fiber posts cemented to root canals with different resin cements, regarding porosity percentage and bond strength. Twelve bovine incisor roots were prepared with Largo drills. After post space preparation, the specimens were randomized into two types of pretreatment groups (n = 3): water-wet bonding and ethanol-wet bonding. After the post were cemented, the roots were stored in 100% humidity at room temperature for 7 days. The samples were scanned by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Images were reconstructed by NRecon software, and CTAn software was used to analyze the porosity percentage (%) at the luting interface. Evaluation of the push-out bond strength was performed by serially cutting the roots, and submitting the slices to testing. Additionally, the resin cement post-gel shrinkage values (%) were measured using the strain-gauge method (n = 10). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (a = 0.05). The roots prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ U200 had significantly lower porosity in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). The group prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ ARC presented better bond strength results in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). RelyX™ ARC (0.97%) produced a higher post-gel shrinkage value than RelyX™ U200 (0.77%). Canals pretreated with ethanol-wet bonding presented better outcomes in regard to porosity percentage and push-out bond strength.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Root/drug effects , Post and Core Technique , Dentin-Bonding Agents/pharmacology , Resin Cements/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Materials Testing , Cattle , Porosity , Dental Bonding , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity , X-Ray Microtomography , Glass
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 30-36, sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053564


Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonconventional, dimorphic yeast with multiple biotechnological applications. Considering the size of Y. lipolytica cells and a plethora of its morphological forms (spherical cells or hyphae and pseudohyphae), it is highly difficult to select a suitable carrier for this useful microorganism. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is currently considered one of the most promising immobilization carriers. In the current study, the usefulness of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs as a carrier for Y. lipolytica immobilization was investigated. Static and agitated cultures were conducted in media supplemented with oil or emulsion to improve carrier porosity. Results: It was found that the application of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs correlated with significantly higher efficiency of Y. lipolytica immobilization and hence higher yield than the yield achieved with an unmodified carrier. Increased efficiency of immobilization correlated with BC porosity-related parameters, which, in turn, depended on the size of oil droplets introduced into the culture medium. Moreover, changes in porosity-related parameters caused by the addition of oil or emulsion to the medium were observed when the cultures were conducted only under static conditions and not under agitated conditions. Conclusion: The application of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs as carriers significantly increased the efficiency of Y. lipolytica immobilization as compared to unmodified BC. The addition of oil or emulsion to the culture medium can be a simple but effective method to modify the porosity of BC-based carriers.

Cellulose/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism , Immobilization , Polymers , Yeasts , Biotechnology , Plant Oils , Porosity , Yarrowia/chemistry , Nanostructures , Emulsions
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 368-373, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011563


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate physical properties of endodontic sealers (AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Endofill), by conventional and micro-CT tests. Dimensional stability was evaluated after immersion of materials in distilled water for 30 days. Solubility and volumetric change were evaluated after 7 and 30 days of immersion in distilled water. Solubility was evaluated by means of mass loss and volumetric change was assessed by micro-CT. Porosity was evaluated under a microscope after 7 days of immersion in distilled water, and by using micro-CT after setting and immersion in distilled water for 7 and 30 days. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey's test with 5% significance level. MTA Fillapex presented the highest solubility (p<0.05), showing values above the ISO/ADA recommendations. MTA Fillapex presented higher volumetric and dimensional changes, followed by Endofill and AH Plus (p<0.05). Dimensional stability of the MTA Fillapex and AH Plus did not follow ISO/ADA standards. The highest total porosity was observed for MTA Fillapex (p<0.05). Endofill had higher total porosity than AH Plus according to microscope evaluation (p<0,05), and both sealers were similar in micro-CT assessment (p>0,05). In conclusion, MTA Fillapex presented higher solubility, dimensional and volumetric change besides porosity compared to the other evaluated sealers. The assessed physical properties of sealers are related, and the different tests provided complementary data. Micro-CT is a valuable method for assessment of physical properties of endodontic materials.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar propriedades físicas de cimentos endodônticos (AH Plus, MTA Fillapex e Endofill), por meio de testes convencionais e micro-CT. A estabilidade dimensional foi avaliada após imersão dos materiais em água destilada por 30 dias. A solubilidade e a alteração volumétrica dos materiais foram avaliadas após 7 e 30 dias de imersão em água destilada. A solubilidade foi avaliada por meio de perda de massa e a alteração volumétrica foi avaliada por micro-CT. A porosidade foi avaliada por microscopia após 7 dias de imersão em água destilada e por micro-CT após a presa e imersão em água destilada por 7 e 30 dias. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes ANOVA e Tukey, com nível de significância de 5%. MTA Fillapex apresentou a maior solubilidade (p<0,05), com valores acima das recomendações ISO/ADA. As alterações volumétricas e dimensionais foram maiores para MTA Fillapex, seguido por Endofill e AH Plus (p<0,05). MTA Fillapex e AH Plus não cumpriram os padrões ISO/ADA em relação à estabilidade dimensional. Uma maior porosidade total foi observada para MTA Fillapex (p <0,05). Endofill apresentou maior porosidade total que o AH Plus pela avaliação em microscopia (p<0,05), e ambos os cimentos foram semelhantes na avaliação por micro-CT (p>0,05). Em conclusão, MTA Fillapex apresentou maior solubilidade, alteração dimensional e volumétrica, além de maior porosidade em relação aos demais cimentos avaliados. As propriedades físicas avaliadas estão relacionadas, e os diferentes testes forneceram dados complementares. Micro-CT é um método valioso para avaliação das propriedades físicas dos materiais endodônticos.

Root Canal Filling Materials , Oxides , Solubility , Materials Testing , Water , Porosity , Calcium Compounds , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins , X-Ray Microtomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761913


BACKGROUND: Urinary tract is subjected to a variety of disorders such as urethral stricture, which often develops as a result of scarring process. Urethral stricture can be treated by urethral dilation and urethrotomy; but in cases of long urethral strictures, substitution urethroplasty with genital skin and buccal mucosa grafts is the only option. However a number of complications such as infection as a result of hair growth in neo-urethra, and stone formation restrict the application of those grafts. Therefore, tissue engineering techniques recently emerged as an alternative approach, aiming to overcome those restrictions. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive coverage on the strategies employed and the translational status of urethral tissue engineering over the past years and to propose a combinatory strategy for the future of urethral tissue engineering. METHODS: Data collection was based on the key articles published in English language in years between 2006 and 2018 using the searching terms of urethral stricture and tissue engineering on PubMed database. RESULTS: Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into urothelial and smooth muscle cells to be used for urologic application does not offer any advantage over autologous urothelial and smooth muscle cells. Among studied scaffolds, synthetic scaffolds with proper porosity and mechanical strength is the best option to be used for urethral tissue engineering. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells in combination with autologous cells seeded on a prevascularized synthetic and biodegradable scaffold can be said to be the best combinatory strategy in engineering of human urethra.

Cicatrix , Data Collection , Hair , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mouth Mucosa , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Porosity , Skin , Tissue Engineering , Transplants , Urethra , Urethral Stricture , Urinary Tract
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761909


BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been widely used in research and clinical applications. β-TCP is a biomaterial commonly used in bone tissue engineering to treat bone defects, and its multifunctionality can be achieved by co-doping different metal ions. Magnesium doping in biomaterials has been shown to alter physicochemical properties of cells and enhance osteogenesis. METHODS: A series of Mg-doped TCP scaffolds were manufactured by using cryogenic 3D printing technology and sintering. The characteristics of the porous scaffolds, such as microstructure, chemical composition, mechanical properties, apparent porosity, etc., were examined. To further study the role of magnesium ions in simultaneously inducing osteogenesis and angiogenesis, human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human umblical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in scaffold extracts to investigate cell proliferation, viability, and expression of osteogenic and angiogenic genes. RESULTS: The results showed that Mg-doped TCP scaffolds have the advantages of precise design, interconnected porous structure, and similar compressive strength to natural cancellous bone. hBMSCs and HUVECs exhibit high proliferation rate, cell morphology and viability in a certain amount of Mg²⁺. In addition, this concentration of magnesium can also increase the expression levels of osteogenic and angiogenic biomarkers. CONCLUSION: A certain concentration of magnesium ions plays an important role in new bone regeneration and reconstruction. It can be used as a simple and effective method to enhance the osteogenesis and angiogenesis of bioceramic scaffolds, and support the development of biomaterials and bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

Biocompatible Materials , Biomarkers , Bone and Bones , Bone Marrow , Bone Regeneration , Cell Proliferation , Compressive Strength , Endothelial Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ions , Magnesium , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Osteogenesis , Porosity , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Veins