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1.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 362-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935955

ABSTRACT

The liver is abundant in blood supply and receives 25% of the cardiac output via the hepatic artery and portal vein. Circulatory disorders may cause hepatic injury, resulting in congestive hepatopathy(CH) and ischemic hepatitis(IH). Hepatic congestion arising from increased hepatic venous pressure and decreased cardiac output is the common pathophysiological basis of both CH and IH. In addition, extensive arteriovenous shunts affect portal pressure and cardiac function, leading to alterations of hepatic blood supply. The current review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic interventions of the above diseases, in order to provide reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hepatic Artery , Liver , Liver Diseases , Portal Pressure , Portal Vein
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 21-29, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935904

ABSTRACT

The Baveno VII workshop held in October 2021 was featured by the subject of personalized care in portal hypertension. The workshop focused on the following 9 topics including: the relevance and indications for measuring the hepatic venous pressure gradient as a gold standard; the use of non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of compensated advanced chronic liver disease and clinically significant portal hypertension; the impact of etiological and of non-etiological therapies in the course of cirrhosis; the prevention of the first episode of decompensation; the management of the acute bleeding episode; the prevention of further decompensation; as well as the diagnosis and management of splanchnic vein thrombosis and other vascular disorders of the liver. This essay provides a compilation and summary of recommendations regarding the abovementioned topics, and presents the most recent research proceedings and the corresponding consensus to our readers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Portal Pressure
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 218-226, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289302

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión portal es un síndrome caracterizado por el incremento en el gradiente de presión portal, definido por la diferencia entre la presión de la porta y la vena cava inferior. Esta presión depende del flujo venoso y la resistencia vascular. En los pacientes cirróticos estas dos variables están alteradas de manera suprafisiológica, inicialmente por la lesión estructural dependiente de fibrosis y los nódulos de regeneración y posteriormente por cambios dinámicos vasculares que causan vasoconstricción intrahepática y vasodilatación esplácnica, lo cual explica las manifestaciones sistémicas de la cirrosis. La importancia de la hipertensión portal radica en la frecuencia y severidad de las complicaciones asociadas, especialmente la hemorragia variceal y otras como ascitis, peritonitis bacteriana espontanea, síndrome hepatorrenal y encefalopatía hepática. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión actualizada sobre el uso de las pruebas diagnósticas invasivas y no invasivas disponibles para el estudio de la hipertensión portal y su aplicación en la práctica clínica.


Abstract Portal hypertension is characterized by an increase in the portal pressure gradient, which is defined as the difference between the portal venous pressure and the pressure within the inferior vena cava. Such a pressure depends on venous flow and vascular resistance. In patients with cirrhosis, both variables are altered, initially due to fibrosis-dependent structural injury and regeneration nodules, and subsequently by vascular dynamic changes that cause intrahepatic vasoconstriction and splanchnic vasodilation, which explains the systemic manifestations of cirrhosis. The importance of portal hypertension lies in the frequency and severity of associated complications, especially variceal hemorrhage, but also ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. The objective of this article is to carry out an updated review on the use of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests available for the study of portal hypertension and their application in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vena Cava, Inferior , Fibrosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hypertension, Portal , Portal Pressure , Methods
4.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(2): e1581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of choice for patients with schistosomiasis with previous episode of varices is bleeding esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy (EGDS) in association with postoperative endoscopic therapy. However, studies have shown varices recurrence especially after long-term follow-up. Aim: To assess the impact on behavior of esophageal varices and bleeding recurrence after post-operative endoscopic treatment of patients submitted to EGDS. Methods: Thirty-six patients submitted to EGDS were followed for more than five years. They were divided into two groups, according to the portal pressure drop, more or less than 30%, and compared with the behavior of esophageal varices and the rate of bleeding recurrence. Results: A significant reduction on the early and late post-operative varices caliber when compared the pre-operative data was observed despite an increase in diameter during follow-up that was controlled by endoscopic therapy. Conclusion: The drop in portal pressure did not significantly influence the variation of variceal calibers when comparing pre-operative and early or late post-operative diameters. The comparison between the portal pressure drop and the rebleeding rates was also not significant.


RESUMO Racional: O tratamento de escolha para pacientes com hipertensão portal esquistossomótica com sangramento de varizes é a desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia (DAPE) associada à terapia endoscópica. Porém, estudos mostram aumento do calibre das varizes em alguns pacientes durante o seguimento em longo prazo. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da DAPE e tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório no comportamento das varizes esofágicas e recidiva hemorrágica, de pacientes esquistossomóticos. Métodos: Foram estudados 36 pacientes com seguimento superior a cinco anos, distribuídos em dois grupos: queda da pressão portal abaixo de 30% e acima de 30% comparados com o calibre das varizes esofágicas no pós-operatório precoce e tardio além do índice de recidiva hemorrágica. Resultados: Após a DAPE houve diminuição significativa no calibre das varizes esofágicas que, durante o seguimento aumentaram de calibre e foram controladas com tratamento endoscópico. A queda da pressão portal não influenciou significativamente o comportamento do calibre das varizes no pós-operatório precoce nem tardio nem os índices de recidiva hemorrágica. Conclusão: A queda na pressão portal não influenciou significativamente a variação dos calibres das varizes ao comparar os diâmetros pré e pós-operatórios precoces ou tardios. A comparação entre a queda de pressão do portal e as taxas de ressangramento também não foi significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Recurrence , Splenectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Portal Pressure , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
5.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 157-159, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150024

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión portal se define como la alteración patológica en el gradiente de presión a nivel del sistema portal, es decir, la diferencia entre la presión de la vena porta y la vena cava inferior. El valor normal es entre 1-5 mm Hg y se considera hipertensión cuando es mayor de 10 mm Hg. En este artículo, se describe el caso de una paciente de 5 años con un cuadro de hipertensión portal secundario a várices esofágicas y trombosis de la vena porta, confirmado por endoscopia de vías digestivas alta y angioresonancia magnética. La paciente fue atendida en la Fundación Clínica Infantil Club Noel de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia, entre los meses de diciembre del 2018 y febrero del 2019.


Abstract Portal hypertension is defined as the pathological increase in the portal pressure gradient, which is the difference between the pressure of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Normally portal vein pressure ranges between 1-5 mmHg and is considered hypertension when it is higher than 10 mmHg. In this study the case of a 5-year-old patient that suffers from secondary portal hypertension to portal venous thrombosis and esophageal varices is presented. The diagnostic is confirmed by an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and by a magnetic angioresonance. The patient was treated at the Fundacion Clinica Infantil Club Noel located in Cali, Colombia, between the months of December 2018 and February 2019.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Portal Vein , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Venous Thrombosis , Hypertension , Hypertension, Portal , Pressure , Vena Cava, Inferior , Portal Pressure , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Endoscopy
6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 210-217, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, greater assessment accuracy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to ascertain prognosis has become important in decompensated cirrhosis due to portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the ratio of the portal pressure gradient (PPG) pre-TIPS (pre-PPG) to albumin (PPA), which influence ascites formation in cirrhotic patients in the 6-months after TIPS placement, and is a metric introduced in our study. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 58 patients with decompensated cirrhosis admitted to an academic hospital for the purpose of TIPS placement. We collected the following data: demographics, laboratory measures, and PPG during the TIPS procedure. Then we analyzed the association between the above data and ascites formation post-TIPS in cirrhosis patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with ascites and 28 without ascites were evaluated. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were adjusted for the following variables: to determine prognosis; Child-Pugh scores, lymphocyte count, platelet count, hemoglobin level, albumin level and pre-PPG or PPA. The outcome showed that PPA was better than pre-PPG and albumin for predicting ascites according to area under receiver operating characteristic curves and a statistical model that also showed PPA’s influence 6-months post-TIPS. CONCLUSIONS: The combined measurement of pre-PPG and albumin, defined as PPA, may provide a better way to predict post-TIPS ascites in decompensated cirrhosis, which underlines the need for a large clinical trial in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites , Cohort Studies , Demography , Fibrosis , Hypertension, Portal , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Models, Statistical , Platelet Count , Portal Pressure , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Serum Albumin
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 170-174, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950518

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is an endemic health problem affecting about four million people. The hepatosplenic form of the disease is characterized by periportal hepatic fibrosis, pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension and splenomegaly. Liver function is preserved, being varices bleeding the main complication of the disease. The surgical treatment used in the majority of centers for the prevention of rebleeding is esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy. Most authors reported better results with the association of surgical and postoperative endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the intra operative portal pressure decrease and esophageal varices behavior and rebleeding rates in patients submitted to surgical and postoperative endoscopic treatment after long-term follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective study of 36 patients with schistosomiasis with, at least, one previous bleeding from esophageal varices rupture submitted to esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy, added to endoscopic varices postoperative treatment was performed. Patients were stratified according to the intra operative portal pressure decrease in two groups: reduction below and above 30%. Long-term varices presence, size and bleeding recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: Regarding varices behavior, no significant influence was observed in both groups of portal pressure fall. Regarding bleeding recurrence, despite three times more frequent in the group with lower portal pressure fall, no significant difference was observed. All patients were submitted to postoperative endoscopic treatment. CONCLUSION: Esophageal varices banding, rather than portal pressure decrease, seems to be the main responsible factor for good results after combination of two therapies (surgery and endoscopy) for patients with portal hypertension due to schistosomiasis; further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A esquistossomose é um problema de saúde pública endêmico, afetando cerca de quatro milhões de pessoas. A forma hepato-esplênica da doença é caracterizada por fibrose peri-portal, hipertensão pré-sinusoidal e esplenomegalia. A função hepática está preservada, sendo o sangramento por varizes a principal complicação da afecção. O tratamento cirúrgico usado pela maioria dos serviços para prevenção do ressangramento é a desconexão ázigo-portal e esplenectomia. Muitos autores reportaram melhores resultados com a associação do tratamento cirúrgico e o tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a queda da pressão portal intraoperatória com o comportamento das varizes esofagianas e as taxas de ressangramento em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico e endoscópico pós-operatório após seguimento de longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 36 pacientes esquistossomóticos com pelo menos um episódio de sangramento prévio por ruptura de varizes esofagianas, submetidos a desconexão ázigo-portal e esplenectomia, associada a tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório das varizes. Os pacientes foram divididos de acordo com a queda da pressão portal intraoperatória em dois grupos: redução menor e maior que 30%. Foram avaliadas a presença de tamanho das varizes a longo prazo e a recorrência do sangramento. RESULTADOS: Levando-se em conta o comportamento das varizes, não foi observada influência significativa em ambos os grupos de queda de pressão portal. Com relação ao ressangramento das varizes, embora três vezes mais frequente no grupo com menor queda de pressão portal, não foi observada diferença estatística. Todos pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A ligadura elástica das varizes esofagianas, mais do que a queda da pressão portal, parece ser o principal fator responsável pelos bons resultados após a combinação das duas terapias (cirúrgica e endoscópica) para pacientes com hipertensão portal devido à esquistossomose. Estudos futuros serão necessário para confirmar esta hipótese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Schistosomiasis/surgery , Splenectomy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Portal Pressure/physiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Preoperative Period , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Middle Aged
8.
Gastrointestinal Intervention ; : 21-28, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739761

ABSTRACT

Pathologic increase in portal pressure can be caused by increased resistance to blood flow at the level of the portal vein (pre-hepatic), hepatic sinusoids (hepatic) or hepatovenous outflow (post-hepatic). This results in recruitment and dilatation of tiny portosystemic collateral pathways, diverting portal venous blood flow to low pressure systemic veins. Based on the location of the causative factor of portal venous resistance, different collateral pathways and shunts may develop, resulting in unique syndromes of portal hypertension and in-turn requiring unique treatment options. Knowledge of the common and less-common portosystemic collateral pathways have important implication for clinicians and interventionalists. The objective of this pictorial review is to illustrate the various collateral pathways using diagrammatic and conventional non-invasive and invasive radiologic examples. Additionally, we will briefly address minimally invasive interventional techniques used to treat the sequelae of portal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Dilatation , Hypertension, Portal , Portal Pressure , Portal Vein , Radiology, Interventional , Varicose Veins , Veins
9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 118-128, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713273

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Posthepatectomy liver failure is a serious complication and considered to be caused by increased portal pressure and flow. Splanchnic vasoactive agents and propranolol are known to decrease portal pressure. The aim of this study was to identify optimal candidates with potential for clinical use among somatostatin, terlipressin, and propranolol using rats with 90% hepatectomy. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham operation (n = 6), control (n = 20), propranolol (n = 20), somatostatin (n = 20), and terlipressin group (n = 20). Seven-day survival rates and portal pressure change were measured, and biochemical, histologic, and molecular analyses were performed. RESULTS: Portal pressure was significantly decreased in all 3 treatment groups compared to control. All treatment groups showed a tendency of decreased liver injury markers, and somatostatin showed the most prominent effect at 24 hours postoperatively. Histologic liver injury at 24 hours was significantly decreased in propranolol and terlipressin groups (P = 0.016, respectively) and somatostatin group showed borderline significance (P = 0.056). Hepatocyte proliferation was significantly increased after 24 hours in all treatment groups. Median survival was significantly increased in terlipressin group compared to control group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Terlipressin is considered as the best candidate, while somatostatin has good potential for clinical use, considering their effects on portal pressure and subsequent decrease in liver injury and increase in liver regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hepatectomy , Hepatocytes , Liver Failure , Liver Regeneration , Liver , Portal Pressure , Propranolol , Somatostatin , Survival Rate , Vasoconstrictor Agents
10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 222-228, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714601

ABSTRACT

A growing number of studies have explored endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided vascular catheterization. Potential clinical applications of EUS-guided portal venous access include angiography, measurement of the portosystemic pressure gradient, EUS-guided transhepatic intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation and portal vein sampling for the evaluation in gastrointestinal cancer. The following article reviews the different devices and techniques employed in these applications.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Portal Pressure , Portal Vein , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Ultrasonography , Vascular Access Devices
11.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 89-93, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787089

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is a disease with an uncertain etiology consisting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension and portal pressure increase in the absence of liver cirrhosis. In INCPH, patients exhibit normal liver functions and structures. The factors associated with INCPH include the following: Umbilical/portal pyremia, bacterial diseases, prothrombic states, chronic exposure to arsenic, vinyl chloride monomers, genetic disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Approximately 70% of patients present a history of major variceal bleeding, and treatment relies on the prevention of complications related to portal hypertension. Autoimmune disorders associated with INCPH are mainly systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. To the best of our knowledge, a case of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) associated with INCPH has not been reported thus far. Therfore, we report our experience of a patient with AS accompanied by INCPH, who showed perisplenic varices with patent spleno-portal axis and hepatic veins along with no evidence of cirrhosis on liver biopsy, and provide a brief literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Hepatic Veins , Hypertension, Portal , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Portal Pressure , Scleroderma, Systemic , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Varicose Veins , Vinyl Chloride
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1172-1176, out. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895347

ABSTRACT

Pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate portal blood flow, portal velocity and portal congestion index in 24 healthy sheep divided into groups (lambs, yearlings and ewes), according to age. Measurements were performed at the 11th right intercostal space using ideal insonation angle and uniform insonation method. Mean values obtained in each group were compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Portal velocity and portal blood flow were statistically similar between the groups (P>0.05). Mean portal velocity were 17.75; 17.13 and 16.75; while mean portal blood flow were 26.65; 31.04 and 24.32 for lambs, yearlings and ewes, respectively. Portal congestion index was statistically distinct between the groups and values for lambs, yearlings and ewes were 0.009; 0.058 and 0.09, respectively (P<0.01). Statistical differences were observed in portal vein diameter, portal vein area and portal congestion index between the groups, presumably due to influence of weight and not to age.(AU)


A ultrassonografia com Doppler pulsado foi utilizado para avaliar o fluxo sanguíneo portal, velocidade portal e índice de congestão portal em 24 ovinos saudáveis divididos em grupos (cordeiros, borregos e ovelhas), de acordo com a idade. As medições foram realizadas no 11o espaço intercostal direito utilizando ângulo de insonação ideal e método de inclusão uniforme. Os valores médios obtidos em cada grupo foram comparados com ANOVA, seguido pelo teste post-hoc de Tukey. A velocidade portal e o fluxo de sangue portal foram estatisticamente semelhantes entre os grupos (P>0,05). A velocidade portal média foram 17,75; 17,13 e 16,75; enquanto o fluxo de sangue portal médios foram 26,65; 31,04 e 24,32 para cordeiros, borregos e ovelhas, respectivamente. O índice de congestão portal foi estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos e os valores para cordeiros, novilhos e ovelhas foram 0,009; 0,058 e 0,09, respectivamente (P<0.01). Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas nos diâmetros da veia porta, na área da veia porta e nos índices de congestão portal entre os grupos, provavelmente devido à influência do peso e não pela idade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Portal Pressure/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed/veterinary , Liver Circulation/physiology , Liver/injuries
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 464-473, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88951

ABSTRACT

Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow. In addition, elastography for the liver and spleen covers a wider field beyond the original purpose of fibrosis assessment. These developments enhance the practical use of US in the evaluation of portal hemodynamic abnormalities. This article reviews the recent progress of US in the assessment of portal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Contrast Media , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Portal , Liver , Liver Diseases , Portal Pressure , Spleen , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 702-710, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response. METHODS: Sixty-four cirrhosis patients were randomly assigned to propranolol monotherapy (n=48) versus rifaximin and propranolol combination therapy (n=16). Baseline and post-treatment HVPG values, BT-related markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), serological data, and adverse event data were collected. HVPG response rate was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Combination therapy was associated with better HVPG response rates than monotherapy (56.2% vs 87.5%, p=0.034). In combination therapy, posttreatment BT-related markers were significantly decreased (LPS, p=0.005; LBP, p=0.005; IL-6, p=0.005; TNF-α, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Rifaximin combination therapy showed an additive effect in improving PHT compared to propranolol monotherapy. These pilot data suggest that the addition of rifaximin to NSBBs could be a good therapeutic option for overcoming the limited effectiveness of NSBBs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Translocation , Decontamination , Fibrosis , Hypertension, Portal , Interleukin-6 , Pilot Projects , Portal Pressure , Propranolol , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Venous Pressure
15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 138-142, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195336

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) offers access to many intra-abdominal vessels that until now have only been accessible to the surgeon and interventional radiologist. In addition to assisting with diagnostics, this unique access offers the potential for therapeutic intervention for a host of indications. To date, this has had the most clinical impact in the treatment of gastroesophageal varices, with EUS-guided coil and glue application growing in use worldwide. Although randomised controlled trial data is lacking, we discuss the growing body of literature behind EUS-guided therapy in the management of varices. EUS has also been used in specialized centres to assist in non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding. The treatment of bleeding from Dieulafoy lesions, tumours and pancreatic pseudoaneurysms has all been described. The potential applications of EUS have also extended to the placement of portal vein stents and porto-systemic shunts in animal models. As medicine continues to move to increasingly less invasive interventions, EUS-guided therapies offer substantial promise for the safe and effective delivery of targeted treatment for a widening array of vascular disorders.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Aneurysm, False , Endosonography , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hemorrhage , Models, Animal , Portal Pressure , Portal Vein , Stents , Ultrasonography , Varicose Veins
16.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 31(2): 135-145, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791309

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión portal en el curso natural de las enfermedades hepáticas es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes resultado del aumento de la resistencia vascular hepática que determina el desarrollo de otros sucesos responsables de la mayor mortalidad en pacientes con hepatopatías. En consecuencia, el conocimiento de la fisiopatología de la hipertensión portal y de sus causas representa un factor importante para su adecuado manejo y el de las demás complicaciones relacionadas. Es así como se cuentan con métodos diagnósticos de diferentes tipos para la detección temprana y adecuada de dicha entidad; lo cual, además, corresponde al objetivo de la presente revisión: dar una mirada a los métodos diagnósticos utilizados para la detección de hipertensión portal, disponibles en la actualidad.


Portal hypertension is one of the most frequent complications in the natural course of liver disease. It results from increased hepatic vascular resistance and determines the development of other events responsible for increased mortality in patients with liver disease. Consequently, knowledge of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and its causes is an important factor for handling it and related complications proper. Explanation of the various diagnostic methods for early and appropriate detection is one of the objectives of this review which will take a look at diagnostic methods available and in use for the detection of portal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Hypertension, Portal , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Portal Pressure
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 406-409, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96327

ABSTRACT

Terlipressin, a vasopressin agonist, is widely used to treat variceal bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome in patients with liver cirrhosis. Terlipressin increases systemic vascular resistance, particularly in the splanchnic area, thus decreasing portal pressure. Although terlipressin is associated with a lower incidence of severe cardiovascular complications than is vasopressin, terlipressin can induce serious ischemic complications including myocardial infarction, skin necrosis, and bowel ischemia in < 1% of patients. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with liver cirrhosis treated with terlipressin to control hepatorenal syndrome that developed into ischemic colitis. The patient improved upon cessation of terlipressin and provision of supportive care.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Colitis, Ischemic , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Incidence , Ischemia , Liver Cirrhosis , Myocardial Infarction , Necrosis , Portal Pressure , Skin , Vascular Resistance , Vasopressins
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 109-116, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Levels of serum apelin (s-apelin), an endogenous ligand for angiotensin-like receptor 1, have been shown to be related to hepatic fibrosis and hemodynamic abnormalities in preclinical studies. We investigated the clinical implications of s-apelin as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker for chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2012, 215 CLD patients were enrolled and underwent clinical data collection, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement, and liver biopsy. s-apelin was detected with a human total apelin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. All patients were prospectively observed during the median follow-up period of 23.0±12.9 months for decompensation and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients (19.5%) died during the follow-up period. s-apelin was significantly correlated with measurements of liver stiffness (R2=0.263, p<0.001) and collagen proportional area (R2=0.213, p<0.001) measured from liver biopsy tissue and HVPG (R2=0.356, p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression hazard model, s-apelin was a weakly significant predictor of decompensation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.002; p<0.001) and mortality (HR, 1.003; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: s-apelin showed a significant relationship with CLD severity. However, its significance as a noninvasive biomarker for disease severity and prognosis was weak.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension, Portal/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Liver/blood supply , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Portal Pressure , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies
19.
Singapore medical journal ; : 132-137, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296462

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is recommended for prognostic and therapeutic indications in centres with adequate resources and expertise. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of HVPG measurements at our centre before and after introduction of a standardised protocol, and the clinical relevance of the HVPG to variceal bleeding in cirrhotics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HVPG measurements performed at Singapore General Hospital from 2005-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for quality HVPG readings were triplicate readings, absence of negative pressure values and variability of ≤ 2 mmHg. The rate of variceal bleeding was compared in cirrhotics who achieved a HVPG response to pharmacotherapy (reduction of the HVPG to < 12 mmHg or by ≥ 20% of baseline) and those who did not.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>126 HVPG measurements were performed in 105 patients (mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 years; 55.2% men). 80% had liver cirrhosis and 20% had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). The mean overall HVPG was 13.5 ± 7.2 mmHg, with a significant difference between the cirrhosis and NCPH groups (p < 0.001). The proportion of quality readings significantly improved after the protocol was introduced. HVPG response was achieved in 28 (33.3%, n = 84) cirrhotics. Nine had variceal bleeding over a median follow-up of 29 months. The rate of variceal bleeding was significantly lower in HVPG responders compared to nonresponders (p = 0.025).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The quality of HVPG measurements in our centre improved after the introduction of a standardised protocol. A HVPG response can prognosticate the risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Cirrhosis , Portal Pressure , Physiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 50-54, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337050

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the predictive value of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) for early bleeding after esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) by analyzing the differences in HVPG in patients with and without post-EVL bleeding.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed with cirrhosis and esophageal varices and who had pre-EVL HVPG measurement data were surveyed. The study population included 105 patients from October 2010 to March 2014. Data of HVPG value, previous treatment history, endoscopic manifestation, and whether bleeding and serious complications occurred within 2 weeks after the ligation procedure were investigated as independent risk factors.</p><p><b>STATISTICAL METHODS</b>included the chi-square test and Wilcoxon test, logistic regression modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using the SPSS software version 16.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Only HVPG value was identified as an independent risk factor of early bleeding after EVL.According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of HVPG for early bleeding after EVL was 0.866; when HVPG was more than or equal to 16 mmHg, AUC was 0.838. The sensitivity was 90.9% and the specificity was 76.4%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HVPG is an independent factor of early bleeding after EVL and when HVPG cut-off value of more than or equal to 16 mmHg is used the predictive ability has certain accuracy and high sensitivity and specificity.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hypertension, Portal , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Portal Pressure , ROC Curve , Risk Factors
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