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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 616-623, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357185

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A hiperinsuflação manual é utilizada em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal e pediátrica para promover um flow bias expiratório, porém não há consenso sobre os benefícios da técnica. Assim faz-se necessária uma revisão que apresente suas evidências. Este estudo objetiva revisar a literatura sobre a manobra de hiperinsuflação manual em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal e pediátrica, para analisar as evidências dessa técnica em relação às formas de aplicação (associadas ou não a outras técnicas), sua segurança, o desempenho dos ressuscitadores manuais e a influência da experiência do fisioterapeuta, além de avaliar a qualidade metodológica dos artigos encontrados. Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMedⓇ, Scopus, CINAHL e SciELO. Dois pesquisadores selecionaram os artigos de forma independente. Verificaram-se os estudos duplicados, avaliados por títulos, resumos e, então, leitura na íntegra. Analisou-se a qualidade dos artigos pela escala PEDro. Foram incluídos seis artigos, sendo dois com alta qualidade metodológica. Os principais resultados trouxeram informações sobre a contribuição da válvula de pressão positiva expiratória final no aumento dos volumes pulmonares e a utilização das compressões torácicas para otimizar o flow bias expiratório, a influência negativa da experiência do operador no aumento do pico de fluxo inspiratório, o desempenho de diferentes ressuscitadores manuais durante a realização da técnica e a segurança na aplicação, com manutenção da estabilidade hemodinâmica e aumento da saturação periférica de oxigênio. Os estudos disponíveis apontam para um efeito positivo da manobra de hiperinsuflação manual realizada em crianças internadas em unidades de terapia intensiva. Registro PROSPERO: CRD42018108056.


ABSTRACT Manual hyperinflation is used in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units to promote expiratory flow bias, but there is no consensus on the benefits of the technique. Thus, a review that presents supporting evidence is necessary. This study aims to review the literature on the manual hyperinflation maneuver in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units to analyze the evidence for this technique in terms of the forms of application (associated with other techniques or not), its safety, the performance of manual resuscitators and the influence of the physical therapist's experience, in addition to evaluating the methodological quality of the identified articles. A search was performed in the following databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMedⓇ, Scopus, CINAHL and SciELO. Two researchers independently selected the articles. Duplicate studies were assessed, evaluated by title and abstract and then read in full. The quality of the articles was analyzed using the PEDro scale. Six articles were included, two of which had high methodological quality. The main results provided information on the contribution of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve to increasing lung volumes and the use of chest compressions to optimize expiratory flow bias, the negative influence of operator experience on the increase in peak inspiratory flow, the performance of different manual resuscitators when used with the technique and the safety of application in terms of maintaining hemodynamic stability and increasing peripheral oxygen saturation. The available studies point to a positive effect of the manual hyperinflation maneuver in children who are admitted to intensive care units. Registration PROSPERO: CRD42018108056.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Respiration, Artificial , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lung Volume Measurements
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 211-226, maio 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1284546

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Neonatos pré-termos apresentam singularidades anátomo-fisiológicas predispondo-os a complicações respiratórias como a Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório Aguda. Caracterizada pelo déficit de surfactante pulmonar e consequente insuficiência respiratória, aumentando a necessidade de suporte ventilatório invasivo e não invasivo.Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da ventilação não invasiva em recém-nascidos prematuros com Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório Aguda. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa no qual utilizou-se das bases de dados: SciELO, LILACS, PEDro, MEDLINE e Bireme. Os critérios de inclusão foram estudos relacionadosatemática em portuguêseinglês completos e com publicação entre 2015 a 2020.Resultados:Nos seteestudos sintetizados houve a utilização dos sistemas de suporte ventilatório: pressão positiva em vias aéreas a dois níveis: cânulas nasais aquecidas, umidificadas e de alto fluxo; ventilação de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas nasal, e a ventilação por pressão positiva intermitente nasal. Dois estudos que utilizaram cânulas nasais apontaram efeitos menos benéficos; e um relatou desfechos semelhantes aos demais, além de provocar menor dano nasal. Conclusões: Aventilação não invasiva tevegrande redução do número de falhas de extubação dos pacientes, principalmente naqueles que receberam a ventilação pressão positiva nas vias aéreas nasaise a ventilação por pressão positiva intermitente nasal (AU).


Introduction:Pre-term neonates have anatomophysiologicalsingularities predisposing them to respiratory complications such as Acute Respiratory Discomfort Syndrome. It is characterized by a deficit in pulmonary surfactant and consequent respiratory failure, increasing the need for invasive and non-invasive ventilatory support.Objective:To analyze the effects of non-invasive ventilation in premature newborns with Acute Respiratory Discomfort Syndrome. Methodology:In this integrative review, we used the following databases: SciELO, LILACS, PEDro, MEDLINE, and Bireme. Inclusion criteria were studies wrote in Portuguese and English and published between 2015 and 2020. Results:In the seven synthesized studies, ventilatory support systems were used: positive airway pressure at two levels: heated, humidified, and high-flow nasal cannulas; positive pressure ventilation in the nasal airways; and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Two studies that used nasal cannulas showed less beneficial effects, and one reported similar outcome to the others, in addition to causing less nasal damage. Conclusions:Non-invasive ventilation had a significant reduction in the number of extubation failures in patients, especially in those who received positive pressure ventilation in the nasal airways and ventilation by positive intermittent nasal pressure (AU).


Introducción:Los neonatos pretérmino presentan singularidades anatomofisiológicasque predisponen a complicaciones respiratorias como el Síndrome de Malestar Respiratorio Agudo. Se caracteriza por un déficit de surfactante pulmonar y la consiguiente insuficiencia respiratoria, aumentando la necesidad de soporte ventilatorio invasivo y no invasivo. Objetivo:Analizar los efectos de la ventilación no invasiva en recién nacidos prematuros con Síndrome de Malestar Respiratorio Agudo. Metodología:En esta revisión integradora se utilizaron las siguientes bases de datos: SciELO, LILACS, PEDro, MEDLINE y Bireme. Los criterios de inclusión fueron estudios escritos en portugués y en inglés y publicados entre 2015 y 2020.Resultados:En los siete estudios sintetizados se utilizaron sistemas de soporte ventilatorio: presión positiva en la vía aéreaen dos niveles: cánulas nasales calentadas, humidificadas y de alto flujo; ventilación con presión positiva en la vía aérea nasal; y ventilación con presión positiva intermitente. Dos estudios que utilizaron cánulas nasales mostraron efectos menos beneficiosos, y uno informó de un resultado similar al de los otros, además de causar menos daño nasal. Conclusiones:La ventilación no invasiva tuvo una reducción significativa en el número de fracasos de extubación en los pacientes, especialmente en aquellos que recibieron ventilación con presión positiva en las vías aéreas nasales y ventilación por presión nasal positiva intermitente (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Infant, Premature , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200360, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154677

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association that protective mechanical ventilation (MV), based on VT and maximum distending pressure (MDP), has with mortality in patients at risk for ARDS. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in an ICU and including 116 patients on MV who had at least one risk factor for the development of ARDS. Ventilatory parameters were collected twice a day for seven days, and patients were divided into two groups (protective MV and nonprotective MV) based on the MDP (difference between maximum airway pressure and PEEP) or VT. The outcome measures were 28-day mortality, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. The risk factors associated with the adoption of nonprotective MV were also assessed. Results: Nonprotective MV based on VT and MDP was applied in 49 (42.2%) and 38 (32.8%) of the patients, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression showed that protective MV based on MDP was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.73) and lower ICU mortality (hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.85), after adjustment for age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, and vasopressor use, as well as the baseline values for PaO2/FiO2 ratio, PEEP, pH, and PaCO2. These associations were not observed when nonprotective MV was based on the VT. Conclusions: The MDP seems to be a useful tool, better than VT, for adjusting MV in patients at risk for ARDS.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação da ventilação mecânica (VM) protetora, com base no VT e na pressão de distensão máxima (PDM), com a mortalidade em pacientes com fator de risco para SDRA. Métodos: Este estudo de coorte prospectivo foi conduzido em uma UTI e incluiu 116 pacientes em VM que apresentavam pelo menos um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de SDRA. Os parâmetros ventilatórios foram coletados duas vezes ao dia durante sete dias, e os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (VM protetora e VM não protetora) com base na PDM (diferença entre pressão máxima de vias aéreas e PEEP) ou no VT. Os desfechos foram mortalidade em 28 dias, mortalidade na UTI e mortalidade hospitalar. Os fatores de risco associados com a adoção da VM não protetora também foram avaliados. Resultados: A VM não protetora com base no VT e na PDM ocorreu em 49 (42,2%) e em 38 (32,8%) dos pacientes, respectivamente. A regressão multivariada de Cox mostrou que a VM protetora com base na PDM associou-se a menor mortalidade hospitalar (hazard ratio = 0,37; IC95%: 0,19-0,73) e em UTI (hazard ratio = 0,40; IC95%, 0,19-0,85), após ajuste para idade, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, uso de vasopressor e valores basais de PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, pH e PaCO2. Essas associações não foram observadas quando a VM não protetora foi baseada no VT. Conclusões: A PDM parece ser uma ferramenta útil, melhor do que o VT, para o ajuste da VM em pacientes sob risco para SDRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Positive-Pressure Respiration
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879281

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilation is an importmant life-sustaining treatment for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Its clinical outcomes depend on patients' characteristics of lung recruitment. Estimation of lung recruitment characteristics is valuable for the determination of ventilatory maneurvers and ventilator parameters. There is no easily-used, bedside method to assess lung recruitment characteristics. The present paper proposed a method to estimate lung recruitment characteristics from the static pressure-volume curve of lungs. The method was evaluated by comparing with published experimental data. Results of lung recruitment derived from the presented method were in high agreement with the published data, suggesting that the proposed method is capable to estimate lung recruitment characteristics. Since some advanced ventilators are capable to measure the static pressure-volume curve automatedly, the presented method is potential to be used at bedside, and it is helpful for clinicians to individualize ventilatory manuevers and the correpsonding ventilator parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Ventilators, Mechanical
5.
Clinics ; 76: e2242, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pneumothorax is a catastrophic event associated with high morbidity and mortality, and it is relatively common in neonates. This study aimed to investigate the association between ventilatory parameters and the risk of developing pneumothorax in extremely low birth weight neonates. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed 257 extremely low birth weight neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2012 and December 2017. A comparison was carried out to evaluate the highest value of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), and driving pressure (DP) in the first 7 days of life between neonates who developed pneumothorax and those who did not. The primary outcome was pneumothorax with chest drainage necessity in the first 7 days of life. A matched control group was created in order to adjust for cofounders associated with pneumothorax (CRIB II score, birth weight, and gestational age). RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in PEEP, PIP, and DP values in the first 7 days of life between extremely low birth weight neonates who had pneumothorax with chest drainage necessity and those who did not have pneumothorax, even after adjusting for potential cofounders. CONCLUSIONS: Pressure-related ventilatory settings in mechanically ventilated extremely low birth weight neonates are not associated with a higher risk of pneumothorax in the first 7 days of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1580-1585, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134482

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los pulmones son el sitio predominante en la infección por COVID-19. Esta puede conducir al síndrome distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA). Frente a su sintomatología severa, la ventilación mecánica (VM), y sus valores de mecánica ventilatoria aparecen como una herramienta fundamental. Un complemento, para analizar el estado de avance de esta patología es la radiografía de tórax (RT), aunque en ocasiones esta depende de la experiencia del equipo de salud. Así el objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar la relación de las medidas de mecánica ventilatoria y radiográficas con el tiempo de conexión a VM en pacientes COVID-19. Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó a 23 pacientes en VM. Se recolectó información de variables de mecánica ventilatoria; PEEP, presión plateau, presión de distensión y compliance estática. Desde la RT se midió, altura y ancho pulmonar, ángulo costodiafragmático y espacio intercostal. Los resultados indicaron que las variables de mecánica ventilatoria tales como el PEEP y el plateau se relacionaron significativamente con el tiempo de conexión a VM (r=0,449; p=0,035 y r=0,472; p=0,026), mientras que las variables radiográficas construidas en base al ángulo costodiafragmático y el espacio intercostal presentaron similares comportamientos (r= 0,462; p=0,046 y r=-0,543; p=0,009). En conclusión, la presión resultante de la programación del ventilador mecánico junto a cambios estructurales observados en la RT, se relacionan con el tiempo de conexión a VM.


SUMMARY: The lungs are the predominant site of COVID-19 infection. This can lead to severe acute respiratory síndrome (ARDS). In view of its severe symptoms, mechanical ventilation (MV) and its ventilatory mechanics values appear as a fundamental tool. Chest radiography (CR) is a complement to analyze the state of progress of this pathology, although this sometimes depends on the experience of the health team. Thus, the aim of this research was to explore the relationship of ventilatory mechanics and radiographic measures with connection time to MV in COVID-19 patients. Retrospective study, which included 23 patients on MV. Information on ventilatory mechanics variables was collected; PEEP, plateau pressure, distension pressure and static compliance. And from CR, lung height and width, costodiaphragmatic angle and intercostal space were measured. The results indicated that ventilatory mechanics variables such as PEEP and plateau were significantly related to connection time to MV (r = 0.449; p = 0.035 and r = 0.472; p = 0.026), while the radiographic variables Constructed on the basis of the costodiaphragmatic angle and the intercostal space, they showed similar behaviors (r = 0.462; p = 0.046 and r = -0.543; p = 0.009). In conclusion, the pressure resulting from mechanical ventilator programming, together with the structural changes observed in CR, are related to the connection time to MV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Radiography, Thoracic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pressure , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 348-353, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138515

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: El coronavirus ha emergido este año como causa de neumonía viral. Una de las principales características es su rápida transmisión y su potencial severidad. El objetivo de este estudio de serie de casos es describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con confirmación de enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) admitidos en diferentes unidades de cuidados intensivos de la Argentina con requerimiento de ventilación mecánica. Métodos: Estudio de serie de casos, descriptivo-prospectivo, multicéntrico realizado entre el 01 de abril y el 08 de mayo de 2020. Se incluyeron los datos de los pacientes mayores a 18 años, que ingresaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos con requerimiento de ventilación mecánica por falla respiratoria aguda con diagnóstico positivo de COVID-19 Resultados: Se registraron las variables de 47 pacientes de 31 unidades cuidados intensivos, 78.7% hombres de una mediana de edad de 61 años, con un SAPS II de 43, un índice de Charlson de 3. El modo ventilatorio inicial fue volume control - continuous mandatory ventilation con volumen corriente menor a 8mL/kg en el 100% de los casos, con una mediana de presión positiva al final de la espiración de 10,5cmH2O. A la fecha de cierre del estudio, 29 pacientes fallecieron, 8 alcanzaron el alta, y 10 pacientes continúan internados al cierre del estudio. El SAPS II fue mayor entre los fallecidos (p = 0.046). El índice de Charlson se asoció con mayor mortalidad (OR = 2,27 IC95% 1,13 - 4,55; p = 0,02). Conclusión: Los pacientes con COVID-19 y ventilación mecánica de esta serie presentan variables clínicas similares a las descriptas a la fecha en otros reportes internacionales. Nuestros hallazgos proporcionan datos que permitirían de alguna manera predecir los resultados.


Abstract Objective: A novel coronavirus emerged this year as a cause of viral pneumonia. The main characteristics of the virus are rapid transmission, high contagion capacity and potential severity. The objective of this case series study is to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) admitted to different intensive care units in Argentina for mechanical ventilation. Methods: A descriptive, prospective, multicenter case series study was conducted between April 1 and May 8, 2020. Data from patients older than 18 years who were admitted to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Results: The variables for 47 patients from 31 intensive care units were recorded: 78.7% were men (median age of 61 years), with a SAPS II score of 43 and a Charlson index score of 3. The initial ventilatory mode was volume control - continuous mandatory ventilation with a tidal volume less than 8mL/kg in 100% of cases, with a median positive end-expiratory pressure of 10.5cmH2O. At the end of the study, 29 patients died, 8 were discharged, and 10 remained hospitalized. The SAPS II score was higher among patients who died (p = 0.046). Charlson comorbidity index was associated with higher mortality (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.13 - 4.55, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 and on mechanical ventilation in this series presented clinical variables similar to those described to date in other international reports. Our findings provide data that may predict outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tidal Volume , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 374-380, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138513

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a diminuição da pressão arterial provocada pela elevação da pressão parcial positiva final corresponde à variação da pressão de pulso como indicador de fluido-responsividade. Métodos: Estudo de caráter exploratório que incluiu prospectivamente 24 pacientes com choque séptico ventilados mecanicamente e submetidos a três etapas de elevação da pressão parcial positiva final: de 5 para 10cmH2O (nível da pressão parcial positiva final 1), de 10 para 15cmH2O (nível da pressão parcial positiva final 2) e de 15 para 20cmH2O (nível da pressão parcial positiva final 3). Alterações da pressão arterial sistólica, da pressão arterial média e da variação da pressão de pulso foram avaliadas durante as três manobras. Os pacientes foram classificados como responsivos (variação da pressão de pulso ≥ 12%) e não responsivos a volume (variação da pressão de pulso < 12%). Resultados: O melhor desempenho para identificar pacientes com variação da pressão de pulso ≥ 12% foi observado no nível da pressão parcial positiva final 2: variação de pressão arterial sistólica de -9% (área sob a curva de 0,73; IC95%: 0,49 - 0,79; p = 0,04), com sensibilidade de 63% e especificidade de 80%. A concordância foi baixa entre a variável de melhor desempenho (variação de pressão arterial sistólica) e a variação da pressão de pulso ≥ 12% (kappa = 0,42; IC95%: 0,19 - 0,56). A pressão arterial sistólica foi < 90mmHg no nível da pressão parcial positiva final 2 em 29,2% dos casos e em 41,6,3% no nível da pressão parcial positiva final 3. Conclusão: Variações da pressão arterial em resposta à elevação da pressão parcial positiva final não refletem de modo confiável o comportamento da variação da pressão de pulso para identificar o status da fluido-responsividade.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate whether the decrease in blood pressure caused by the increase in the positive end-expiratory pressure corresponds to the pulse pressure variation as an indicator of fluid responsiveness. Methods: This exploratory study prospectively included 24 patients with septic shock who were mechanically ventilated and subjected to three stages of elevation of the positive end-expiratory pressure: from 5 to 10cmH2O (positive end-expiratory pressure level 1), from 10 to 15cmH2O (positive end-expiratory pressure level 2), and from 15 to 20cmH2O (positive end-expiratory pressure level 3). Changes in systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure variation were evaluated during the three maneuvers. The patients were classified as responsive (pulse pressure variation ≥ 12%) or unresponsive to volume replacement (pulse pressure variation < 12%). Results: The best performance at identifying patients with pulse pressure variation ≥ 12% was observed at the positive end-expiratory pressure level 2: -9% systolic blood pressure variation (area under the curve 0.73; 95%CI: 0.49 - 0.79; p = 0.04), with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 80%. Concordance was low between the variable with the best performance (variation in systolic blood pressure) and pulse pressure variation ≥ 12% (kappa = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.19 - 0.56). The systolic blood pressure was < 90mmHg at positive end-expiratory pressure level 2 in 29.2% of cases and at positive end-expiratory pressure level 3 in 41.63% of cases. Conclusion: Variations in blood pressure in response to the increase in positive end-expiratory pressure do not reliably reflect the behavior of the pulse pressure as a measure to identify the fluid responsiveness status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock, Septic/therapy , Blood Pressure/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Fluid Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 822-830, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139377

ABSTRACT

The aim of mechanical ventilation is to substitute physiological respiratory function. The boom of mechanical ventilation came during the XVIII century with the development of Reanimation Societies in Europe, who promoted the use of positive pressure ventilation modes. This type of ventilation caused new complications due to excessive positive pressure in the airway. Therefore, during the XIX century negative pressure ventilation predominated, which became essential during the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Positive pressure ventilation was relegated to operating rooms until 1952, when it was imposed over negative pressure ventilation during the Copenhagen polio epidemic. Björn Ibsen contributed significantly to this change of ventilation paradigm, which led to the latest ventilation strategies and the development of the actual intensive care units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units , Positive-Pressure Respiration
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 843-852, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129488

ABSTRACT

Foi comparada a ventilação controlada à pressão com ou sem pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP), em coelhos, distribuídos em três grupos, denominados GP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão), GPP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão com PEEP) e GE (grupo ventilação espontânea - grupo controle). Os animais foram anestesiados com isoflurano, em circuito com reinalação de gases, durante duas horas. As médias de pressão arterial média (PAM) e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) permaneceram discretamente abaixo dos valores normais em todos os grupos. Houve diminuição significativa da PAM e da PAS no grupo submetido à PEEP (GPP) ao longo do tempo. A pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono arterial (PaCO2) foi maior no GPP quando comparado aos outros grupos no último momento, gerando acidemia respiratória após uma hora de procedimento. A concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2) apresentou médias discretamente elevadas no grupo não tratado com PEEP (GP) e no grupo controle, enquanto o GPP apresentou maiores médias, possivelmente, relacionadas à diminuição do volume corrente neste grupo. Com base nesses resultados, foi possível concluir que a utilização da PEEP levou à acidemia, que se agravou ao longo do tempo anestésico. Ademais, a anestesia prolongada com isoflurano promove depressão cardiorrespiratória, independentemente do modo ventilatório empregado.(AU)


Pressure controlled ventilation with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was compared in rabbits, which were divided into three groups denominated GP (pressure cycled ventilation group), GPP (pressure cycled ventilation with PEEP group) and GE (spontaneous ventilation group - control group). The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane in a gas rebreathing circuit for two hours. The means of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained slightly below normal values ​​in all groups. There was a significant decrease in MAP and SBP in the group submitted to PEEP (GPP) over time. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was higher in GPP when compared to the other groups, inducing respiratory acidosis after one hour. The end-expired carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) presented slightly elevated means in the GP, while the GPP presented higher means, possibly related to the decrease in tidal volume in this group. Based on these results it was concluded that the use of PEEP led to acidemia that worsened over anesthetic time. In addition, prolonged isoflurane anesthesia promotes cardiorespiratory depression, regardless the ventilatory mode employed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Ventilation , Hemodynamics , Isoflurane , Tidal Volume , Anesthesia
11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 250-253, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249902

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La ventilación mecánica simultánea a varios pacientes con un solo ventilador podría disminuir el déficit de esos dispositivos para atender a los enfermos con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda por Covid-19. Objetivo: Comunicar los resultados de un ejercicio de ventilación mecánica con un ventilador en un simulador de pulmón, y simultáneamente en dos y cuatro simuladores. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la presión positiva al final de la espiración, presión media de la vía aérea y presión pico programadas, registradas y medidas, excepto al ventilar simultáneamente cuatro simuladores de pulmón. Conclusiones: La ventilación mecánica simultánea debe ser instaurada por personal médico con experiencia en el procedimiento, restringirse a dos pacientes y ser realizada en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.


Abstract Introduction: Simultaneous mechanical ventilation of several patients with a single ventilator might reduce the deficit of these devices for the care of patients with acute respiratory failure due to Covid-19. Objective: To communicate the results of a mechanical ventilation exercise with a ventilator in a lung simulator, and simultaneously in two and four. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between positive end-expiratory pressure, mean airway pressure, and programmed, recorded and measured peak pressure, except when simultaneously ventilating four lung simulators. Conclusions: Simultaneous mechanical ventilation should be implemented by medical personnel with experience in the procedure, be restricted to two patients and carried out in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Equipment Design , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 81-91, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138475

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las prácticas habituales de uso y titulación del modo presión soporte (PC-CSV - pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation) en pacientes bajo ventilación mecánica y analizar las formas de reconocimiento de sobreasistencia y subasistencia. Secundariamente, comparar las respuestas según profesión en relación al diagnóstico de sobreasistencia y subasistencia. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta online utilizando la herramienta Survey Monkey. Se incluyeron a médicos, enfermeros y kinesiólogos de Argentina que tuvieran acceso al uso de PC-CSV en su práctica habitual. Resultados: Se recolectaron 509 encuestas desde octubre a diciembre 2018. El 74,1% de ellas correspondió a kinesiólogos. Un 77,6% refirió utilizar PC-CSV para iniciar la fase de soporte parcial. Un 43,8% selecciona el valor de presión de soporte inspiratorio basándose en volumen corriente. El principal objetivo de la selección de PEEP fue disminuir el trabajo respiratorio. El volumen corriente alto fue la variable primordial de detección de sobreasistencia, mientras que el uso de músculos accesorios fue la más elegida para subasistencia. Se observaron diferencias entre médicos y kinesiólogos en relación a las formas de detección de sobreasistencia. Conclusión: El modo más utilizado para la fase de soporte parcial es PC-CSV. La variable más elegida para titular la presión de soporte inspiratorio es volumen corriente y el principal objetivo de la PEEP es disminuir el trabajo respiratorio. La sobreasistencia es detectada prioritariamente por un volumen corriente elevado, mientras que la subasistencia mediante el uso de músculos accesorios. Se halló diferencias entre profesiones en relación a los criterios de detección de sobreasistencia.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify common practices related to the use and titration of pressure-support ventilation (PC-CSV - pressure control-continuous spontaneous ventilation) in patients under mechanical ventilation and to analyze diagnostic criteria for over-assistance and under-assistance. The secondary objective was to compare the responses provided by physician, physiotherapists and nurses related to diagnostic criteria for over-assistance and under-assistance. Methods: An online survey was conducted using the Survey Monkey tool. Physicians, nurses and physiotherapists from Argentina with access to PC-CSV in their usual clinical practice were included. Results: A total of 509 surveys were collected from October to December 2018. Of these, 74.1% were completed by physiotherapists. A total of 77.6% reported using PC-CSV to initiate the partial ventilatory support phase, and 43.8% of respondents select inspiratory pressure support level based on tidal volume. The main objective for selecting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level was to decrease the work of breathing. High tidal volume was the primary variable for detecting over-assistance, while the use of accessory respiratory muscles was the most commonly chosen for under-assistance. Discrepancies were observed between physicians and physiotherapists in relation to the diagnostic criteria for over-assistance. Conclusion: The most commonly used mode to initiate the partial ventilatory support phase was PC-CSV. The most frequently selected variable to guide the titration of inspiratory pressure support level was tidal volume, and the main objective of PEEP was to decrease the work of breathing. Over-assistance was detected primarily by high tidal volume, while under-assistance by accessory respiratory muscles activation. Discrepancies were observed among professions in relation to the diagnostic criteria for over-assistance, but not for under-assistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Argentina , Tidal Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Health Care Surveys , Internet
13.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1287, fev.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1053240

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar se o emprego de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI) com pressão positiva predispõe o aparecimento de lesão renal aguda (LRA) em pacientes críticos. Método: coorte prospectiva de abordagem quantitativa desenvolvido em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) de um hospital público. Os pacientes elegíveis foram selecionados por conveniência. Para a coleta de dados aplicou-se questionário constituído de itens sobre variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais. As informações foram extraídas do prontuário durante o período de 15 dias. A análise dos dados foi descritiva e inferencial. Consideraram-se significativos resultados com p≤0,05. Resultados: dos 79 pacientes avaliados, a hipertensão arterial esteve entre as comorbidades mais incidentes (29,1%). Entre os pacientes analisados, 59,5% necessitaram de VMI com PEEP ≥10 cmH2 O. Do total de pacientes, 91,1% evoluíram com disfunção renal, segundo a classificação KDIGO. Como desfecho, 34,2% dos pacientes evoluíram a óbito. Pacientes que usaram PEEP >5 cmH2 0 mostraram significativa predisposição à disfunção renal (p≤0,05). Conclusão: a ventilação mecânica invasiva com pressão positiva (PEEP) foi um fator que contribuiu para o agravo da função renal em diferentes gradações. Constatou-se que pacientes em VMI com PEEP >5 cmH2 O estão mais predispostos ao aparecimento da LRA em UTI, em razão da tendência à idade avançada, a sobrepeso, tempo prolongado de ventilação mecânica e ainda hipertensão arterial.(AU)


Objective: to verify whether the use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with positive pressure predisposes to the appearance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. Method: prospective cohort of quantitative approach developed in intensive care unit (ICU) of a public hospital. Eligible patients were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, a questionnaire consisting of items on clinical and laboratory variables was applied. The information was extracted from the medical records during a period of 15 days. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential. Significant results with p≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: hypertension was among the most incident comorbidities (29.1%) of the 79 patients evaluated. Among the patients analyzed, 59.5% required IMV with PEEP ≥10 cmH2 O. Of the total number of patients, 91.1% evolved with renal dysfunction, according to the KDIGO classification. As an outcome, 34.2% of patients died. Patients who used PEEP >5 cmH2 0 showed significant predisposition to renal dysfunction (p≤0.05). Conclusion: invasive mechanical ventilation with positive pressure (PEEP) was a factor that contributed to aggravate renal function in different gradations. It was found that patients receiving IMV with PEEP >5 cmH2 O are more predisposed to the onset of AKI in the ICU, due to the tendency to advanced age, overweight, long time of mechanical ventilation and also hypertension. (AU)


Objetivo: comprobar si el uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) con presión positiva predispone a la lesión renal aguda (LRA) en pacientes críticos. Método: cohorte prospectiva con enfoque cuantitativo desarrollado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de un hospital público. Los pacientes elegibles fueron seleccionados mediante muestreo por conveniencia. La recogida de datos fue realizada por medio de una encuesta de preguntas sobre las variables clínicas y de laboratorio. La información fue extraida del registro médico durante el período de 15 días. El análisis de datos fue descriptivo e inferencial. Los resultados con p≤0.05 fueron considerados significativos. Resultados: de los 79 pacientes evaluados, la hipertensión arterial se encontraba entre las comorbilidades más incidentes (29,1%). Entre los pacientes analizados, el 59.5% requirió VMI con PEEP ≥10 cmH2 O. Del número total de pacientes, el 91.1% tuvo disfunción renal, según la clasificación KDIGO. Como resultado, el 34,2% de los pacientes falleció. Los pacientes que usaron PEEP> 5 cmH2 O mostraron predisposición significativa a la disfunción renal (p≤0.05). Conclusión: la ventilación mecánica invasiva con presión positiva (PEEP) fue un factor que contribuyó al empeoramiento de la función renal en diferentes grados. Se encontró que los pacientes en IMV con PEEP> 5 cmH2 O están más predispuestos a la LRA en la UCI, debido a la edad, al sobrepeso, al tiempo prolongado de ventilación mecánica e incluso a la hipertensión arterial. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Acute Kidney Injury , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units
14.
Clinics ; 75: e1894, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101090

ABSTRACT

This review aims to verify the main epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory-related, and therapeutic aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill pediatric patients. An extensive review of the medical literature on COVID-19 was performed, mainly focusing on the critical care of pediatric patients, considering expert opinions and recent reports related to this new disease. Experts from a large Brazilian public university analyzed all recently published material to produce a report aiming to standardize the care of critically ill children and adolescents. The report emphasizes on the clinical presentations of the disease and ventilatory support in pediatric patients with COVID-19. It establishes a flowchart to guide health practitioners on triaging critical cases. COVID-19 is essentially an unknown clinical condition for the majority of pediatric intensive care professionals. Guidelines developed by experts can help all practitioners standardize their attitudes and improve the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190481, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136849

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory failure due to influenza require ventilatory support. However, mechanical ventilation itself can exacerbate lung damage and increase mortality. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe a feasible and protective ventilation protocol, with limitation of the tidal volume to ≤6 mL/kg of the predicted weight and a driving pressure ≤15 cmH2O after application of the alveolar recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration. RESULTS: Initial improvement in oxygenation and respiratory mechanics were observed in the four cases submitted to the proposed protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the mechanical ventilation strategy applied could be optimized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial , Tidal Volume , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Middle Aged
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with single lung ventilation (OLV) for lung cystadenomas.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for lung cystadenomas in our hospital from February, 2018 to February, 2019 were randomized into conventional ventilation groups (group N, =33) and inverse ventilation group (group R, =33). Hemodynamics and respiratory parameters of the infants were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed at 15 min after two lung ventilation (TLV) (T), OLV30 min (T), OLV60 min (T), and 15 min after recovery of TLV (T). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected before and after surgery to detect the expression level of advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE).@*RESULTS@#Sixty-three infants were finally included in this study. At T and T, Cdyn, PaO and OI in group R were significantly higher ( < 0.05) and Ppeak, PaCO and PA-aO were significantly lower than those in group N ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in HR or MAP between the two groups at T and T ( > 0.05). The level of RAGE significantly increased after the surgery in both groups ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in R group than in N group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for pulmonary cystadenoma, appropriate IRV combined with PEEP does not affect hemodynamic stability and can increases pulmonary compliance, reduce the peak pressure, and improve oxygenation to provide pulmonary protection.


Subject(s)
Cystadenoma , Therapeutics , Humans , Infant , Lung , One-Lung Ventilation , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Thoracoscopy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study summarizes and compares clinical and laboratory characteristics of 34 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China from Jan. 22 to Mar. 5, 2020.@*METHODS@#A total of 34 patients were divided into two groups, including those who required noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 11 patients. Clinical features of COVID-19 patients were described and the parameters of clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The rates of the acute cardiac and kidney complications were higher in IMV cases than those in NIV cases. Most patients had lymphocytopenia on admission, with lymphocyte levels dropping progressively on the following days, and the more severe lymphopenia developed in the IMV group. In both groups, T lymphocyte counts were below typical lower limit norms compared to B lymphocytes. On admission, both groups had higher than expected amounts of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which over time declined more in NIV patients. The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Data showed that the rates of complications, dynamics of lymphocytopenia, and changes in levels of platelet, hemoglobin, BUN, D-dimer, LDH and IL-6, and prothrombin time in these ICU patients were significantly different between IMV and NIV cases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Blood Urea Nitrogen , China , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Heart Diseases , Virology , Hemoglobins , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6 , Blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Lymphopenia , Virology , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with single lung ventilation (OLV) for lung cystadenomas.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for lung cystadenomas in our hospital from February, 2018 to February, 2019 were randomized into conventional ventilation groups (group N, =33) and inverse ventilation group (group R, =33). Hemodynamics and respiratory parameters of the infants were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis was performed at 15 min after two lung ventilation (TLV) (T), OLV30 min (T), OLV60 min (T), and 15 min after recovery of TLV (T). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected before and after surgery to detect the expression level of advanced glycation end product receptor (RAGE).@*RESULTS@#Sixty-three infants were finally included in this study. At T and T, Cdyn, PaO and OI in group R were significantly higher ( < 0.05) and Ppeak, PaCO and PA-aO were significantly lower than those in group N ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in HR or MAP between the two groups at T and T ( > 0.05). The level of RAGE significantly increased after the surgery in both groups ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in R group than in N group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In infants undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with OLV for pulmonary cystadenoma, appropriate IRV combined with PEEP does not affect hemodynamic stability and can increases pulmonary compliance, reduce the peak pressure, and improve oxygenation to provide pulmonary protection.


Subject(s)
Cystadenoma , General Surgery , Humans , Infant , Lung , General Surgery , One-Lung Ventilation , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
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