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1.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e200727, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286885

ABSTRACT

A profilaxia pós-exposição sexual (PEPSexual), estratégia biomédica de prevenção ao HIV/Aids, foi implantada no Brasil em 2010. Considerando que os homens jovens constituem uma população com importante vulnerabilidade ao HIV, o estudo aborda as percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre comportamento sexual e a gestão de risco neste segmento, no contexto da busca e do uso da PEPSexual. A pesquisa foi realizada com abordagem qualitativa e segundo os referenciais conceituais de cuidado em saúde, masculinidades e juventudes. Participaram 19 profissionais de saúde, de cinco serviços especializados de cinco cidades brasileiras (São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, Porto Alegre e Fortaleza). Observa-se a centralidade de julgamentos e tentativas de controle da sexualidade dos jovens, baseadas no estereótipo da noção de desvio, o que gera impacto negativo na relação profissional-usuário e, consequentemente, apresenta-se como importante barreira tecnológica para o cuidado em saúde. (AU)


Sexual Post-exposure prophylaxis (SexualPEP); a medical treatment to prevent HIV/Aids, began to be used in Brazil in 2010. Considering that young men are particularly vulnerable to HIV, this study explores health professionals' perceptions of sexual behavior and risk management in this group in the context of seeking and using SexualPEP. We conducted a qualitative study using a conceptual framework based on health care, masculinities and youthfulness. Nineteen health professionals from five specialist services in five different cities (São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, Porto Alegre and Fortaleza) participated in the study. The findings reveal the centrality of judgments and attempts to control the sexuality of young people based on the stereotypical notion of deviation, negatively affecting professional-patient relations and consequently constituting a significant technological barrier to health care. (AU)


La profilaxis post-exposición sexual al VIH (PEPSexual), estrategia biomédica de prevención del VIH/Sida, se implantó en Brasil en 2010. Considerando que los hombres jóvenes constituyen una población con importante vulnerabilidad al VIH, el estudio aborda las percepciones de profesionales de salud sobre el comportamiento sexual y la gestión de riesgo en este segmento, en el contexto de la búsqueda y uso de la PEPSexual. La investigación se realizó con abordaje cualitativo y según los referenciales conceptuales de cuidado de salud, masculinidades y juventudes. Participaron 19 profesionales de salud, de cinco servicios especializados de cinco ciudades brasileñas (São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, Porto Alegre y Fortaleza). Se observa la centralidad de juicios y tentativas de control de la sexualidad de los jóvenes, con base en el estereotipo de la noción de desviación, lo que genera impacto negativo en la relación profesional-usuario y, consecuentemente, se presenta como importante barrera tecnológica para el cuidado de la salud. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV , Health Personnel , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Men , Interviews as Topic/methods , Adolescent , Men's Health
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 814-822, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129484

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se conhecer o perfil epidemiológico do paciente que buscou atendimento antirrábico pós-exposição associado a acidentes com gatos domésticos, em Belo Horizonte/MG, no período de 2007 a 2016. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória das fichas de notificação do atendimento antirrábico humano do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificações (Sinan). Nos resultados, observou-se que 37,4% das pessoas eram adultas do gênero feminino, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos, 88,7% residentes em área urbana, 26,1% de etnia branca e apenas 31,7% dos pacientes buscaram atendimento antirrábico com até 24 horas da exposição ao vírus rábico. Lesões por mordedura ocorreram em 75,6% dos casos notificados. Quanto às características dos ferimentos, 59,6% foram superficiais, 62,2% ocorreram em mãos/pés e 50,1% foram lesões únicas. Na faixa etária de zero a 10 anos, as regiões anatômicas mãos/pés e cabeça/pescoço/face totalizaram 58,35%. Ressalta-se a necessidade de adoção de ações socioeducativas junto à população, devido ao risco de transmissão de raiva pelo gato, principalmente em áreas em que o vírus rábico circula em populações de morcegos. Sugerem-se melhorias no preenchimento das fichas de notificação do Sinan para melhor compreender o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes que buscam o atendimento antirrábico e, assim, tornar mais eficaz a gestão desse serviço público.(AU)


The objective of this study was to know the epidemiological profile of the patient who sought post-exposure anti-rabies treatment associated with accidents with domestic cats in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. An exploratory analysis of the reports on human rabies of the Notification of Injury Information System was performed. In the results, it was observed that 37.4% of the individuals were female adults aged 20-59 years, 88.7% were urban residents, 26.1% were white, and only 31.7% sought anti-rabies care within 24 hours of exposure to the rabies virus. Bite lesions occurred in 75.6%. Regarding the type of wound, 59.6% were superficial; as for the anatomical location, 62.2% occurred in hands / feet and 50.1% were single lesions. It is necessary to adopt socio-educational actions among the population, due to the risk of transmission of the rabies by the cat, especially in areas where the rabies virus circulates in bat populations. Improvements in the completion of the SINAN notification sheets are suggested to better understand the epidemiological profile of patients seeking anti-rabies treatment and thus improve the management of this public service.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies/epidemiology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil/epidemiology
3.
Salud colect ; 16: e2463, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101896

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Buscamos identificar los desafíos para la implementación de la profilaxis posexposición sexual al VIH, a partir de analizar el accionar de las y los profesionales de la salud en un servicio de salud pública en Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Desde un enfoque cualitativo, con técnicas de observación etnográfica y entrevistas en profundidad, se encontró que los factores contextuales, organizacionales e individuales eran desafíos para implementar la profilaxis posexposición sexual al VIH. Las barreras para su implementación incluyeron el contexto histórico de la estructuración y la actuación del servicio, la falta de capacitación y/o educación continua en salud, y las concepciones de las y los profesionales de la salud (ideas sobre la estrategia en sí, y sobre las personas que buscan PEP). Se concluye que existe la necesidad de mayor atención al universo de servicios especializados en ITS/VIH/sida y a las y los profesionales que componen estos servicios, a fin de garantizar una mayor efectividad en el acceso a la estrategia a nivel local.


ABSTRACT This study seeks to identify challenges in the implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, based on an analysis of actions taken by healthcare professionals in the state-run health sector in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach that included ethnographic observations and in-depth interviews, we found that contextual, institutional, and individual factors represented challenges to the implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Barriers to implementation included the historical context structuring healthcare services and practices, the lack of training and/or continued education in health, and certain attitudes on the part of healthcare professionals (ideas regarding both the strategy itself as well as the individuals that seek PEP). We conclude that there is a need for greater attention to specialized services for STI/HIV/AIDS as well as the professionals that provide these services, in order to guarantee greater effective access to this strategy at the local level.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Unsafe Sex , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190247, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057280

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spatial distribution of inappropriate post-exposure human rabies procedures in Ceará, Brazil, between 2007 and 2015. METHODS: The ecological study population was based on the records of post-exposure human rabies procedures from the Notification Disease Information System. We analyzed the data using the Moran Index (I) and the Moran Local Index. RESULTS: There were 222,036 (95.8%) records with inappropriate post-exposure human rabies procedures. There was heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, with two significant clusters in the northeast and northwest regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help elaborate differentiated strategies to reduce unnecessary post-exposure human rabies procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Spatial Analysis
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 362-374, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886283

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the prophylactic and therapeutical effects of sildenafil in a model of acute radiation proctitis (ARP). Methods: All experimental procedures of this study was examined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analysis. Results: Our histopathological evaluations indicated significant increases in lesion severity, cryptic apsis, cryptitis, cryptic distortion, reactive atypia and infiltration depth of the control (proctitis) group. While the prophylaxis group and the treatment group had significantly lower scores. High-dose group showed similar results as prophylaxis group. Histopathological findings of the prophylaxis group was more significant than the treatment group. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β, FGF-2, TNF- α and HIF-1α increased in the control group especially in the epithelial and cryptic regions. On the contrary, sildenafil application caused significant decreases of inflammatory markers in all treatment groups, specifically better results in the prophylaxis group. Conclusion: The sildenafil has anti-inflammatory effects on ARP, as well as protective effects against ARP and the protective effect of sildenafil surpasses its therapeutic effect histopathologically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/drug therapy , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/drug therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Proctitis/pathology , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(3): 150-157, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The main goal of this study was to correlate migraine improvement, after prophylactic therapy, with cortical thickness changes. Methods Cortical thickness maps were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 19 patients with migraine before (first scan) and after (second scan) prophylactic treatment, and these were compared with controls using the FreeSurfer MRI tool. Cortical changes were correlated with the headache index (HI). Results Anincrease incortical thickness was found in the right cuneus and precuneus, somatosensory and superior parietal cortices in both patient scans, compared with the controls. No changes were observed in the left hemisphere. Following correction for multiple comparisons, no areas changed from the first to the second scan. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the HI improvement and cortical thickness changes in the left posterior cingulate, a region involved with nociception and, possibly, the development of chronic pain. Conclusion There were changes in cortical thickness in patients with migraine relative to controls in areas involved with vision and pain processing. Left posterior cingulate cortical changes correlated with headache frequency and intensity.


RESUMO Objetivos Correlacionar a melhora de pacientes enxaquecosos após tratamento preventivo com alterações na espessura do córtex cerebral. Métodos Espessura cortical foi determinada a partir de imagens de ressonância magnética (RM)em 19 pacientes com enxaqueca, antes (1ᵃ RM) e após (2ᵃ RM) o tratamento profilático, e comparada com controles, usando o programa FreeSurfer. Mudanças corticais foram correlacionadas com o índice de cefaleia (HI). Resultados O hemisfério direito apresentou aumento da espessura no córtex do cúneus e pré-cúneus, parietal superior e somatossensitivo na primeira RM e na segunda RM, em comparação aos controles. Após correção para comparações múltiplas, nenhuma região cortical se mostrou estatisticamente diferente entre a primeira e a segunda RM. A regressão mostrou correlação (negativa) significativa entre melhora do HI e mudanças na espessura cortical do cíngulo posterior esquerdo. Conclusão Existem alterações de espessura cortical em pacientes com enxaqueca em relação a controles em áreas envolvidas com processamento visual e com a dor. As alterações corticais no cíngulo posterior esquerdo variaram de acordo com a frequência e intensidade das crises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Gyrus Cinguli/pathology , Migraine Disorders/pathology , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Organ Size , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Case-Control Studies , Monte Carlo Method , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Gyrus Cinguli/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 682-688, maio-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911024

ABSTRACT

O estudo da profilaxia da raiva humana contribui para orientação quanto ao uso de vacinas e soros antirrábicos, servindo de base para a definição de estratégias de prevenção, controle e avaliação da doença. Objetivou-se avaliar o atendimento antirrábico humano pós-exposição e possíveis incompatibilidades com o protocolo do Ministério da Saúde, em agressões por cães, no município de Belo Horizonte. Analisaram-se as fichas de atendimento antirrábico do SINAN para comparação dos tratamentos prescritos com as Normas de Profilaxia antirrábica do Ministério da Saúde. As características dos atendimentos foram: quanto à exposição, 93,0% decorrentes de mordedura; quanto à localização da agressão, 35,5% ocorreram nos membros inferiores; quanto ao ferimento, 62,0% foram lesões únicas; quanto ao tipo de ferimento, 65,8% foram superficiais; quanto à condição do animal, 85,0% ocorreram por animais sadios; em 83,4% dos casos os animais eram observáveis; quanto ao tratamento, observação e vacina (57,3%). O tratamento foi inadequado em 32,7% das condutas. O número de tratamentos instituídos foi muito elevado, 75,7% dos casos. De todos os atendimentos 21,2% das indicações foram consideradas excessivas e 11,5% insuficientes. O sistema de vigilância apresenta falhas e existe a necessidade de corrigi-las para que as informações referentes à finalização dos casos sejam conclusivas.(AU)


The study of prophylaxis of human rabies contributes to guidance on the use of vaccines and anti-rabies serums, providing the basis for the definition of strategies for prevention, control and evaluation of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the service to early post-exposure human anti-rabies and possible incompatibilities with the Ministry of Health protocol attacks by dogs in the city of Belo Horizonte. The anti-rabies care records of SINAN were analyzed for comparison of treatments prescribed in the Prophylaxis of Rabies Standards of the Ministry of Health. The characteristics of the calls were about the exposure, 93.0% resulting from biting; the location of the assault, 35.5% occurred in the lower limbs; the injury, only 62.0% were injuries; the type of injury, 65.8% were superficial; the condition of the animal, 85.0% occurred in healthy animals; 83.4% of the cases the animals were observed; as treatment, observation and vaccine (57.3%). The treatment was inadequate in 32.7%. The number of established treatments was very high, 75.7% of cases. In all 21.2% of indications consultations were considered excessive and 11.5% insufficient. The surveillance system is faulty and there is a need to correct them so that the information regarding the completion of cases are conclusive.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Epidemiological Monitoring , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Rabies Vaccines/analysis , Rabies/epidemiology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7813, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974251

ABSTRACT

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH). The disease is characterized by subcutaneous and submucosal edema in the absence of urticaria due to the accumulation of bradykinin. This descriptive study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE referred to our Outpatient Clinic between December 2009 and November 2017. Fifty-one patients (38 F, 13 M) with a mean age of 32 years (range: 7-70 y) were included. Family history of HAE was reported in 70% (36/51) of the cases; 33/46 patients became symptomatic by 18 years of age. The median time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 13 years (3 mo-50 y). The most frequent triggering factors for attacks were stress (74.4%), trauma (56.4%), and hormonal variations (56%). The main symptoms were subcutaneous edema in 93.5% (43/46) of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms in 84.8% (39/46), and obstruction in the upper airways in 34.8% (16/46). Hospitalization occurred in 65.2%, of whom 13.3% had to be transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. Prophylactic treatment was instituted in 87% (40/46) of patients, and 56.5% (26/46) required additional treatment to control attacks. Owing to our data collection over a period of 8 years, a significant number of patients were identified by this HAE reference center. Despite early recognition and prophylactic treatment, a high percentage of patients were hospitalized. HAE is still diagnosed late, reinforcing the need for more reference centers specialized in diagnosis and educational projects for health professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/analysis , Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II/etiology , Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II/blood , Stress, Psychological/complications , Precipitating Factors , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Age of Onset , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II/prevention & control , Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II/drug therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Psychological Trauma/complications , Hospitalization , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry/methods
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 165-167, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.05 mL intracameral injection of moxifloxacin in patients who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implant. Methods: Retrospective study comprising patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implant between January 2009 and December 2013. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A followed standard endophthalmitis prevention protocol and group B followed the same protocol plus intracameral injection of 0.05 mL of moxifloxacin hydrochloride at 5.45 mg/mL, immediately after IOL implant. Results: Medical records from 7,195 eyes of 3,751 patients (median age: 67.8 ± 8.96, range: 48-83 years, 53.8% female) were evaluated. Group A included 3,515 eyes of 1,838 patients and group B included 3,680 eyes of 1,913 patients. The incidence of endophthalmitis in group A was 0.22% (8:3,515 eyes) and in group B was 0.03% (1:3,680 eyes, p=0.0198, Fischer's exact test). No toxicity or inflammation related to the use of moxifloxacin was observed. Conclusions: There was a 7.3-fold lower ratio of endophthalmitis in the group that received moxifloxacin intracameral injection. This study provides further evidence that moxifloxacin is an effective intracameral prophylactic antibiotic.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de moxifloxacina em pacientes que realizaram facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes submetidos a facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular entre janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2013. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo A seguiu o protocolo padrão de prevenção de endoftalmite e o grupo B seguiu o mesmo protocolo associado à injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de cloridrato de moxifloxacino a 5,45 mg/mL, imediatamente após o implante de lentes intra-oculares (LIO). Resultados: Foram avaliados registros clínicos de 7.195 olhos de 3.751 pacientes (mediana de idade de 67,8 ± 8,96, faixa de 48-83 anos, 53,8% de mulheres). O grupo A incluiu 3.515 olhos de 1.838 pacientes e o grupo B incluiu 3.680 olhos de 1.913 pacientes. A incidência de endoftalmite no grupo A foi de 0,22% (8:3.515 olhos) e no grupo B de 0,03% (1:3.680 olhos, p=0,0198, teste exato de Fischer). Não foi observada toxicidade ou inflamação relacionada com o uso de moxifloxacino intracameral. Conclusões: Houve uma proporção 7,3 vezes menor de endoftalmite no grupo que recebeu injeção de moxifloxacino. Este estudo fornece mais evidências que o moxifloxacino intracameral é um antibiótico profilático intracameral eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Time Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Moxifloxacin , Anterior Chamber/drug effects
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 481-487, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770123

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of leprosy has decreased in the world but the perspective of its elimination has been questioned. A proposed control measure is the use of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PEP) among contacts, but there are still questions about its operational aspects. In this text we discuss the evidence available in literature, explain some concepts in epidemiology commonly used in the research on this topic, analyze the appropriateness of implementing PEP in the context of Brazil, and answer a set of key questions. We argue some points: (1) the number of contacts that need to receive PEP in order to prevent one additional case of disease is not easy to be generalized from the studies; (2) areas covered by the family health program are the priority settings where PEP could be implemented; (3) there is no need for a second dose; (4) risk for drug resistance seems to be very small; (5) the usefulness of a serological test to identify a higher risk group of individuals among contacts is questionable. Given that, we recommend that, if it is decided to start PEP in Brazil, it should start on a small scale and, as new evidence can be generated in terms of feasibility, sustainability and impact, it could move up a scale, or not, for a wider intervention.


A ocorrência de hanseníase tem diminuído no mundo apesar de que a perspectiva de sua eliminação tem sido questionada. Uma proposta para o controle da endemia é a quimioprofilaxia pós-exposição entre contatos (post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, PEP), embora ainda existam dúvidas quanto aos seus aspectos operacionais e generalização de resultados. Nesse texto nós discutimos as evidências disponíveis na literatura, explicamos alguns conceitos epidemiológicos comumente encontrados em pesquisa sobre PEP e a implantação da PEP no contexto brasileiro. Nós argumentamos que: (1) a estimativa em diferentes estudos do numero de contatos necessário para receber PEP para prevenir um novo caso de hanseníase (number needed to treat, NNT) não é facilmente generalizável; (2) áreas cobertas pelo programa de saúde da família são as áreas prioritárias onde PEP poderia ser implantado; (3) não existe necessidade de segunda dose da quimioprofilaxia; (4) o risco de resistência à droga usada na PEP parece ser muito pequeno; (5) questionamos a necessidade de teste sorológico para identificar indivíduos entre os contatos que tenham maior risco de doença. Nós opinamos que, se houver uma decisão para se iniciar PEP no Brasil, essa intervenção deveria ser iniciada em pequena escala e, à proporção que novas evidências são geradas sobre a factibilidade, sustentabilidade e impacto da intervenção, a intervenção com PEP poderia ou não ser usada em larga escala.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Plan Implementation/standards , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Family Health , National Health Programs , Numbers Needed To Treat/standards , Risk Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data
12.
Interface comun. saúde educ ; 19(54): 467-478, Jul-Sep/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751530

ABSTRACT

Policies regarding post-sexual exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and the “treatment as prevention” strategy have strengthened preventive measures against HIV transmission. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of people with HIV/AIDS regarding prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in the context of serodiscordance. Two focus groups were conducted, with 13 HIV-positive participants who were in serodiscordant relationships: one group with people in stable partnerships and the other in non-stable relationships. Just over a third of participants were aware of PEP and “treatment as prevention”. There was a consensus that it is easier to use safe-sex practices in non-stable serodiscordant relationships, it is easier to use safe-sex practices. Some advantages of the new policies were mentioned, despite the concern that condom use might be neglected. The importance of healthcare teams’ actions among serodiscordant couples regarding prevention of sexual transmission of HIV was highlighted.


Políticas referentes à profilaxia pós-exposição sexual (PEP sexual) e a estratégia “tratamento como prevenção” reforçaram as ações preventivas da transmissão do HIV. Este estudo objetivou descrever percepções de pessoas com HIV/aids sobre a prevenção da transmissão do HIV no contexto da sorodiscordância. Foram conduzidos dois grupos focais com 13 participantes com relacionamentos sorodiscordantes: um com pessoas em parcerias estáveis e outro em parcerias não estáveis. Pouco mais de um terço dos participantes tinham conhecimento sobre a PEP e o “tratamento como prevenção”. Houve consenso de que há mais facilidade na adoção de práticas sexuais seguras nas parcerias sorodiscordantes não estáveis. Vantagens das novas políticas foram relatadas, não obstante o receio de que possa haver negligência quanto ao uso do preservativo. Destaca-se a relevância da atuação de equipes de saúde com casais sorodiscordantes quanto à prevenção da transmissão sexual do HIV.


Políticas referentes a la profilaxis post-exposición sexual (PEP sexual) y la estrategia de “tratamiento como prevención” reforzaron las acciones preventivas de la transmisión del VIH. El objetivo del estudio fue describir percepciones de personas con VIH/sida sobre la prevención de la transmisión del VIH en el contexto de la “suero discordancia”. Se realizaron dos grupos focales con 13 participantes con relaciones “suero discordantes”: uno con personas en relación estable y otro en relación no estable. Poco más de un tercio de los participantes tenía conocimiento sobre la PEP y el “tratamiento como prevención”. Hubo consenso de que hay más facilidad en la adopción de prácticas sexuales seguras en las relaciones “suero discordantes” no estables. Se relataron las ventajas de las nuevas políticas, a pesar del recelo de que pueda haber negligencia en lo que se refiere al uso del preservativo. Se destaca la relevancia de la actuación de equipos de salud con parejas “suero discordantes” a la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(8): 568-573, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757992

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic substance on survival of rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, describing histopathological and oxidative stress findings.METHODS:Forty rats (Ratus norvegicus) were distributed into five study groups (N=8): Sham group (ShG): normal standard animals; Sepse group (SepG): submitted a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); Pre group (PreG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection for five days before carrying out CLP; Post CLP group (PostG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection from the first day of CLP until death by sepsis; and Pre/Post group (Pre/PostG): administered copaiba oil once daily by subcutaneous injection for five days before carrying out CLP and from the first day of CLP until de death by sepsis. After the death of the animals, blood was collected for assessment of oxidative stress and histological analysis were performed. The Kaplan-Meier curves of surviving time were realized.RESULTS: Survival analysis demonstrated that animals treated with copaiba oil prior to the execution of the CLP (PreG and Pre/Post groups) had longer survival compared to the sepsis group (p<0.0001) whereas animals receiving copaiba only after the completion of CLP (PostG) showed no statistically significant difference compared to the sepsis group. However, when comparing the two groups in which was administered copaiba previously (PreG and Pre/PostG groups), there was no statistical significance between the groups (p=0.4672). There was no statistical difference between histopathological findings or the levels of oxidative stress.CONCLUSION: Prophylactic subcutaneous administration of copaiba increases survival of rats subjected to severe sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fabaceae/chemistry , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Cecum/surgery , Disease Models, Animal , Feces , Injections, Subcutaneous , Ligation , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Punctures , Peritonitis/etiology , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Survival Analysis , Sepsis/prevention & control , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Bol. venez. infectol ; 25(2): 118-125, jul.-dic. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-718903

ABSTRACT

Estudio prospectivo diseñado con el fin de evaluar a los trabajadores de salud del Hospital Universitario de Caracas que notificaran exposición a fluidos corporales al Sistema de Vigilancia de Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana y Hepatitis Viral, desde los años 1991 hasta 1999. Las variables estudiadas fueron: fecha y sitio del accidente, categoría del personal, edad, género, fluido involucrado, tipo de exposición, instrumento utilizado, serología basal para Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana y hepatitis viral del paciente índice y del TS, tipo de profilaxis antirretroviral, efectos adversos y seroconversión al Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana. Se utilizó el método descriptivo serie de casos los cuales fueron analizados por Epi-info. Versión 5. Durante el período de estudio fueron evaluados 242 trabajadores de la salud con exposición a fluidos corporales, 65% accidentes fueron notificados los dos últimos años. Ciento sesenta y tres femeninos y 79 masculinos, edad promedio 43 años (rango de 21-65 años). Los trabajadores de la salud que notificaron exposición a fluidos corporales procedían principalmente de los servicios de medicina interna, emergencia y cirugía. El mayor número de los accidentes correspondió a los médicos, principalmente residentes de posgrado. Exposición de tipo parenteral fue observada en 197 casos (179 percutáneas, y 18 salpicaduras en mucosas). Exposición cutánea se observó en 14 y combinada (piel y mucosas) 23 casos. El instrumento utilizado en 179 exposiciones percutáneas fue aguja con lumen en 48%. El fluido corporal involucrado fue la sangre en el 73% de los casos. La fuente fue conocida en 65% de las exposiciones. La profilaxis antirretroviral posexposición fue indicada inicialmente en 52% de los TS. Los efectos adversos se presentaron en 40%, en 7 casos fue motivo de abandono de tratamiento. El seguimiento se realizó en el 80% de los casos. Un trabajador de salud presentó Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana ocupacional...


Prospective study designed to assess the health workers at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas to notify body fluid exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System and Viral Hepatitis, from the years 1991-1999. The variables studied were: date and place of the accident, staff category, age, gender, fluid involved, type of exposure, instrument used, and baseline serology for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Viral Hepatitis of health workers and index patient, type of prophylaxis antiretroviral, side effects and Human Immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion. Descriptive method was used series of cases which were analyzed by Epi-info. Version 5. During the study period were evaluated health workers 242 with body fluid exposure, 65% accidents were reported the past two years. 163 female and 79 male, mean age 43 years (range 21-65 years). Health workers who reported exposure to body fluids were mainly of Internal Medicine, Emergency and Surgery. The greatest numbers of injuries were doctors, mainly postgraduate residents. Parenteral exposure rate was observed in 197 cases (179 percutaneous, splash to mucous membranes 18). Dermal exposure was observed in 14 and combined (skin and mucosa) 23 cases. The instrument used in 179 percutaneous exposures was needle lumen in 48%. The body fluid blood was involved in 73% of cases. The source was known in 65% of exposures. Antiretroviral prophylaxis post exposure was initially indicated in 52% of the TS. Adverse events occurred in 40 %, in 7 cases was cause for withdrawals. The monitoring was performed in 80%. A case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus occupational in which it ruled out other risk factors


Subject(s)
Female , Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System , Body Fluid Compartments/virology , HIV , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Infectious Disease Medicine , Surveillance of the Workers Health
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 12(1): 45-48, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670387

ABSTRACT

O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) é importante causa de óbito no trauma e esse, na maioria das vezes, contraindica a principal farmacoterapia na prevenção e no tratamento do TEP: a anticoagulação. Relatamos um caso de paciente politraumatizado, com risco elevado de embolia pulmonar, submetido ao implante preventivo e temporário de filtro de veia cava inferior (FVC).


Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of death in trauma and that, on most cases, the main contraindication for pharmacotherapy in the prevention and treatment of PE: the anticoagulation. We report a case of multiple trauma patient at high risk of pulmonary embolism, preventive and implant subjected to temporary inferior vena cava filter (VCF).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/rehabilitation
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(6): 635-640, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665568

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Efficacy and effectiveness of varicella vaccine (VV) as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategy have shown discordant results for disease risk reduction, and more consistent results in their ability to attenuate the disease. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of VV as PEP among household contacts. Material and Methods: We followed up 33 children after household exposure to a varicella case, of which 15 received VV as PEP and 18 did not received VV. The presence and severity of the disease were clinically determined. Results: Secondary attack rate was 53% among vaccinated and 89% among non-vaccinated children. Overall effectiveness of VV as PEP was 40% (CI95% 1%-64%). The effectiveness for preventing moderate or severe disease was 63% (CI95% 8%-85%) in the entire group and 77% (CI95% 14%-94%) among children vaccinated during the first 3 days post exposure. Vaccine tolerance was acceptable, with a low number of adverse reactions, all of them mild. Conclusion: The results suggest that VV as PEP is effective among household contacts, especially for reducing the severity of the disease.


Introducción: Los estudios de eficacia y efectividad de la vacuna antivaricela (V AV) como profilaxis post exposición (PPE) han mostrado resultados disímiles en cuanto a la reducción del riesgo de enfermar, y algo más consistentes en su capacidad de atenuar la enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la VAV como PPE utilizada en contactos domiciliarios. Material y Métodos: Se realizó el seguimiento post exposición de 33 contactos domiciliarios de casos de varicela, de los cuales 15 recibieron VAV como PPE y 18 no la recibieron. Se determinó clínicamente el desarrollo de enfermedad y la intensidad de la misma. Resultados: La tasa de ataque secundario fue 53% en vacunados y 89% en no-vacunados, siendo la efectividad global de la VAV como PEP 40% (IC95% 1%-64%). La efectividad para prevenir enfermedad moderada o intensa fue 63% (IC95% 8-85%) en el grupo completo y 77% (IC95% 14-94%) en los niños vacunados durante los primeros tres días post exposición. La tolerancia a la vacuna fue aceptable, con un bajo número de reacciones adversas, todas leves. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que la VAV es efectiva como PPE en contactos domiciliarios, especialmente para reducir la intensidad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Chickenpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Chickenpox/prevention & control , /immunology , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Chile , Chickenpox Vaccine/immunology , Chickenpox/transmission , Family Characteristics
17.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2011 Sept; 65(9) 371-378
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145693

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the occurrence of needle stick injuries among various categories of health care workers (HCWs), the causal factors, and the circumstances under which these occur. 2. To explore the possibilities of measures to prevent these through improvement in knowledge, attitude, and practice. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two government tertiary level hospitals. Study sample comprised 107 HCWs, providing medical care in two government tertiary level hospitals of Chandigarh. Subjects were enquired about their exposure to needle prick injuries during patient management in the last 6 months and also the action taken following exposure. The statistical tools employed were: ratio, proportions, and other basic methods of data interpretation. Results: The study among 107 HCWs included 27 doctors (25.2%), 68 nurses (63.5%), and 12 paramedics (11.2%), with 87 (81.3%) being females. The prevalence of needle stick injury and exposure to blood was reported by 73 (68.2%) participants. The main factor ascribed for this exposure was heavy patient load (42.5%). The maximum accidents occurred during emergency care (30.1%). Most common action following exposure was cleaning with spirit (46.3%). Only 51 (47.7%) of HCWs admitted following universal precautions. Among those exposed, only 10 (13.7%) persons had undergone HIV testing. Conclusion: Two-thirds of HCWs were exposed to needle stick injuries. Lack of awareness about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was found.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel , Emergency Treatment/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Needlestick Injuries/complications , Nurses , Physicians , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Apr-June; 29(2): 178-180
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143805

ABSTRACT

Only sporadic reports of failure of post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies exist in the published literature. We are reporting such a case in a 3-year-old boy. The child had Category III dog bite on his right thigh. He presented with progressive ascending paralysis, finally developing quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis. Typical hydrophobia and aerophobia were absent. He received four doses of antirabies cell culture vaccine. He did not receive antirabies immunoglobulin. The boy succumbed on the 23 rd day of the dog bite. Diagnosis of rabies was confirmed in the laboratory by demonstration of Negri bodies, direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction either on impression smear of brain or a piece of brain taken during autopsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bites and Stings/complications , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Fatal Outcome , Hippocampus/pathology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Male , Microscopy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies/pathology , Rabies/therapy , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage
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