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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 375-382, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356443


Introduction: The literature converges regarding the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests between postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 5 of elective procedures. In this period, they have great sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for severe and anastomotic complications about two days before the first clinical sign. The few studies on colorectal urgency suggest that, despite the different initial values according to the surgical indication, following POD 3, the level of CRP is similar to that of elective procedures. However, given the heterogeneity of the studies, there is no consensus on the cutoff values for this use. Objective: To validate the use and propose a PO CRP cut-off value in urgent colorectal procedures as an exclusion criterion for complications of anastomosis or the abdominal cavity. Method: Retrospective analysis of the medical records of 308 patients who underwent urgent colorectal surgical procedures between January 2017 and December 2019. The following data were considered: age, gender, surgical indication, type of procedure performed, complications, CRP levels preoperatively and from POD 1 to 4, and the severity of the complications. We compared the CRP levels and the percentage variations between the preoperative period and PODs 1 to 4 as markers of severe complications using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The levels of CRP on POD4, and their percentage drops between PODs 2 to 4 and PODs 3 to 4, were better to predict severe complications. A cutoff of 7.45mg/dL on POD 4 had 91.7% of sensitivity and NPV. A 50% drop between PODs 3 and 4 had 100% of sensitivity and NPV. Conclusion: Determining the level of CRP is useful to exclude severe complications, and it could be a criterion for hospital discharge in POD 4 of emergency colorectal surgery. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Emergencies , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectum/surgery
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1612, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355511


ABSTRACT Background: Although considered a safe procedure, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has a non-negligible risk of major postoperative complications related to it, with special attention to gastric leaks. Aim: Evaluate the clinical value of the methylene blue test (MBT) in predicting the occurrence of post-SG leaks. Methods: Retrospective study that included 1136 patients who underwent SG with intraoperative MBT between 2012 and 2016. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were calculated to determine the clinical correlation between the MBT and the occurrence of postoperative leaks. Staple line oversewing was performed in all patients who presented positive MBT. Results: Laparoscopic SG was performed in 97.0% of cases; open in 2.3%, and robotic in 0.7%. MBT was positive in 19 cases (1.67%). One positive MBT occurred during an open SG and the other 18 at laparoscopy. Moreover, there were nine cases (0.8%) of postoperative leaks, among which, only two presented positive MBT. MBT diagnostic value was evaluated through the calculation of sensitivity (22.0%), specificity (98.0%), PPV (11.0%) and NPV (99.0%). There were no cases of allergic reaction or any other side effect with the use of the methylene blue solution. Conclusion: MBT showed high specificity and negative predictive value, thus presenting an important value to rule out the occurrence of postoperative leaks.

RESUMO Racional: Embora considerada procedimento seguro, a gastrectomia vertical (GV) apresenta risco não desprezível de complicações pós-operatórias importantes relacionadas a ela, com atenção especial para fístulas gástricas Objetivo: Avaliar a aplicabilidade clínica do teste do azul de metileno (TAM) na predição da ocorrência de fístulas após a GV. Método: Estudo retrospectivo que incluiu 1136 pacientes operados entre 2012 e 2016 com aplicação do TAM intraoperatório. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) foram calculados na tentativa de determinar a correlação clínica entre os resultados do TAM e a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias. Sobressutura da linha de grampos foi realizada em todos os pacientes que apresentaram TAM positivo. Resultados: GV laparoscópica foi realizada em 97,0% dos casos; por laparotomia em 2,3% e roboticamente em 0,7%. TAM foi positivo em 19 casos (1,67%). Um dos casos positivos ocorreu na laparotomia e os outros 18 na laparoscopia. Ainda, houve nove casos (0,8%) de fístulas pós-operatórias, dentre os quais, apenas dois apresentaram TAM positivo. O valor diagnóstico do TAM foi avaliado através dos cálculos de sensibilidade (22,0%), especificidade (98,0%), VPP (11,0%) e VPN (99,0%). Não houve casos de reação alérgica ou qualquer outro efeito colateral advindo do uso da solução de azul de metileno. Conclusão: TAM mostrou alta especificidade e VPN, apresentando importância em descartar a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gastrectomy , Methylene Blue
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780


Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: (N° NCT03018522).

Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: (n° NCT03018522)

Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(11): 769-771, Nov. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144170


Abstract The placement of a suburethral sling is standard treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The transobturator technique (TOT) emerged as an alternative to minimize the risks of the blind insertion of needles, leading to a lower rate of perforation complications compared with the retropubic approach. We present a case of injury to a branch of the left obturator artery following the placement of a urethral sling using TOT, followed by intense bleeding and hemodynamic instability, which was treated with embolization.

Resumo Sling de uretra média é o tratamento padrão para a incontinência urinária de esforço. A abordagem transobturatória (TOT) surgiu como alternativa para minimizar os riscos da inserção às cegas das agulhas com taxa de complicações perfurativas menores quando comparadas à abordagem retropúbica. Apresentamos um caso de lesão em ramo da artéria obturatória esquerda após sling TOT que evoluiu com sangramento intenso e instabilidade hemodinâmica, sendo tratado com embolização.

Humans , Female , Arteries/injuries , Shock/diagnosis , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/surgery , Suburethral Slings/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Shock/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 452-459, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131316


Resumo Fundamento Os pacientes em pós-operatório (PO) de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM) internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) apresentam risco de complicações que aumentam o tempo de permanência e a morbimortalidade. Portanto, é fundamental o reconhecimento precoce desses riscos para otimizar estratégias de prevenção e desfecho clínico satisfatório. Objetivo Analisar o desempenho de índices de gravidade na predição de complicações em pacientes no PO de CRM durante a permanência na UTI. Métodos Estudo transversal, com análise retrospectiva de prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos submetidos à CRM isolada e admitidos na UTI de um hospital cardiológico, em São Paulo, Brasil. As áreas sob as curvas receiver operating characteristic (AUC) com intervalo de confiança de 95% foram analisadas para verificar a acurácia dos índices European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroScore), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) e Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) na predição de complicações. Resultados A casuística foi composta por 366 pacientes (64,58±9,42 anos; 75,96% sexo masculino). As complicações identificadas foram respiratórias (24,32%), cardiológicas (19,95%), neurológicas (10,38%), hematológicas (10,38%), infecciosas (6,56%) e renais (3,55%). O APACHE II apresentou satisfatório desempenho para a predição de complicações neurológicas (AUC 0,72) e renais (AUC 0,78). Conclusão O APACHE II se destacou na previsão das complicações neurológicas e renais. Nenhum dos índices teve bom desempenho na predição das outras complicações analisadas. Portanto, os índices de gravidade não devem ser utilizados indiscriminadamente com o objetivo de predizer todas as complicações frequentemente apresentadas por pacientes após CRM. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):452-459)

Abstract Background Patients in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting - CABG) surgery admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of complications which increase the length of stay and morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early recognition of these risks is essential to optimize prevention strategies and a satisfactory clinical outcome. Objective To analyze the performance of severity indices in predicting complications in patients in the postoperative of CABG during the ICU stay. Methods A cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of patients aged ≥ 18 years who underwent isolated CABG and were admitted to the ICU of a cardiology hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) with a 95% confidence interval were analyzed to verify the accuracy of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroScore), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) indices in predicting complications. Results The sample consisted of 366 patients (64.58 ± 9.42 years; 75.96% male). The complications identified were: respiratory (24.32%), cardiovascular (19.95%), neurological (10.38%), hematological (10.38%), infectious (6.56%) and renal (3.55%). APACHE II showed satisfactory performance for predicting neurological (AUC 0.72) and renal (AUC 0.78) complications. Conclusion APACHE II excelled in predicting neurological and renal complications. None of the indices performed well in predicting the other analyzed complications. Therefore, severity indices should not be used indiscriminately in order to predict all complications frequently presented by patients after CABG. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):452-459)

Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality , Myocardial Revascularization
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 631-641, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138682


Resumen: En los últimos años, la obesidad severa en adolescentes ha aumentado a nivel mundial y Chile no es la excepción a este fenómeno. Es conocido que esta condición aumenta exponencialmente los riesgos para la salud y se asocia a mortalidad prematura. Desde el año 2008, diversas guías de tratamiento de obesidad pediátrica han incluido a la cirugía bariátrica como una estrategia de tratamiento para adolescentes obesos severos seleccionados. Estos procedimientos han mostrado ser seguros y eficaces en adultos. Un cuerpo emergente de evidencia demuestra que, en centros especializados, en el corto y mediano plazo se obtendrían resultados similares en adolescentes. Sin embargo, en este grupo de pacientes, la cirugía bariátrica tiene implícitos otros riesgos inherentes a la etapa de desarrollo en que se encuentran, y los resultados y complicaciones especialmente de largo plazo en gran medida son aún desconocidos. Por lo anterior y para el logro de los resultados esperados, es muy importante que la selección de pacientes, la cirugía y el seguimiento, sean realizados por equipos multidisciplinarios calificados, en centros hospitalarios que cuenten con la infraestructura adecuada, siendo imprescin dible la adherencia de por vida al seguimiento médico y nutricional. El objetivo de este documento es presentar la postura de la Rama de Nutrición de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (SOCHIPE) frente a las diversas aristas a considerar para la adecuada indicación de estos procedimientos en adolescentes obesos severos.

Abstract: In recent years, severe obesity in adolescents has been rising worldwide, and Chile is no exception to this phenomenon. This condition exponentially increases health risks and it is associated with prema ture mortality. Since 2008, several guidelines on pediatric obesity treatment have included bariatric surgery as a treatment strategy for certain severely obese adolescents. These procedures have proven to be safe and efficient in adults. Recent evidence shows that, when done in specialized centers, the re sults would be similar in adolescents in the short and medium term. Nonetheless, in this group of pa tients, bariatric surgery has risks related to their stage of development, and data on long-term results and complications are still lacking. Therefore, to achieve the expected results, the patient selection, surgery, and follow-up must be carried out by qualified multidisciplinary teams, in hospitals centers that have the appropriate infrastructure, It is essential for the patients a life-long adherence to medi cal and nutritional monitoring. The objective of this document is to present the position statement of the Nutrition Branch of the Chilean Society of Pediatrics on the different issues to be considered for the adequate indication of these procedures in severely obese adolescents.

Humans , Adolescent , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Chile , Treatment Outcome , Patient Selection , Bariatric Surgery/standards , Pediatric Obesity/complications
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e875, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126748


Introducción: El neonato que se interviene quirúrgicamente está expuesto al desarrollo de infecciones. El lactato sérico ha sido recomendado como criterio diagnóstico de sepsis. Objetivo: Determinar la magnitud de asociación del valor del lactato sérico con la sepsis en el neonato intervenido quirúrgicamente. Métodos: Estudio entre 2013 y 2016, en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario William Soler, en 307 neonatos intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Las variables se agruparon en: clínicas (edad gestacional, peso al nacer, causa de la intervención quirúrgica, localización de la infección) y paraclínicas (microorganismo causal, lactato sérico). Se aplicó la prueba de correlación lineal de Pearson parcial y se estimó odds ratio con el control de la variable infección (sí y no) para identificar la correlación entre los valores de lactato sérico en el preoperatorio y en el posoperatorio. Resultados: De los neonatos 63 tenían bajo peso (20,52 por ciento) y 55 eran pretérminos (17,92 por ciento). En los neonatos infectados 20,83 por ciento fueron operados por afecciones digestivas (n= 35); las infecciones sistémicas alcanzaron 67,74 por ciento (n= 42), ocasionadas en 45,24 por ciento por Cándida sp. La velocidad de cambio de los valores del lactato sérico en los infectados (p= 0,001) significó que por cada unidad en mmol/L que ascendió el lactato preoperatorio, en el posoperatorio se incrementó 0,489 mmol/L y estos cambios fueron debidos en 16,9 por ciento a los valores del lactato preoperatorio. Conclusiones: El lactato sérico está asociado a la infección en los neonatos intervenidos quirúrgicamente y es un biomarcador de sepsis útil en los cuidados intensivos neonatales(AU)

Introduction: The newborn undergoing a surgery is exposed to the development of infections. The serum lactate has been recommended as a diagnostic criterion of sepsis. Objective: To determine the magnitude of association of the value of serum lactate with sepsis in the newborn undergoing a surgery. Methods: Study conducted from 2013 to 2016 in William Soler Pediatric Teaching Hospital, to 307 newborns whom underwent surgery. The variables were grouped in: clinical (gestational age, birth weight, cause of surgical intervention, location of the infection) and paraclinical (causative microorganisms, serum lactate). The partial Pearson's test of linear correlation was applied and it was estimated the odds ratio with the control of the variable infection (yes and no) to identify correlation between serum lactate values in the preoperative and postoperative results. Results: Of the newborns, 63 were under weight (20.52 percent) and 55 were preterm infants (17.92 percent). In the infected newborns, 20.83 percent were operated due to digestive conditions (n= 35); systemic infections reached 67.74 percent (n= 42), caused in 45.24 percent by Candida sp. The rate of change of the values of serum lactate in infected subjects (p= 0.001) meant that for each unit in mmol/L in which increased the preoperative lactate, the postoperative increased 0.489 mmol/L; and these changes were due in a 16.9 percent to the values of preoperative lactate. Conclusions: The serum lactate is associated to the infection in newborns that underwent surgery and is a useful biomarker of sepsis in neonatal intensive care(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Sodium Lactate/therapeutic use , Biomarkers
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(1): 58-62, mar. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125783


La ascitis quilosa posoperatoria (AQP) se debe a acumulación de líquido rico en triglicéridos en la cavidad peritoneal tras una lesión en la cisterna del quilo o en sus afluentes. Es infrecuente verla después de una hepatectomía. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 44 años con adenocarcinoma a 16 cm del margen anal T3N1, con metástasis que ocupaba casi la totalidad del lóbulo hepático derecho. Luego de quimioterapia se realizó hepatectomía derecha, observándose al cuarto día postoperatorio líquido del drenaje endotorácico de aspecto lechoso, con triglicéridos 223 mg/dL y 77 mg/dL de triglicéridos séricos. Se inició dieta sin grasas, hiperproteica, con ácidos grasos de cadena media y octreótide (100 microgramos subcutáneos cada 8 horas), con resolución del cuadro. En conclusión, la complicación quilosa puede tratarse exitosamente con un abordaje menos agresivo, sin suprimir la ingesta oral, utilizando octreótide subcutáneo, dieta exenta de grasas, suplementada con proteínas y ácidos grasos de cadena media.

Postoperative chylous ascites is an intraperitoneal collection of lymphatic fluid enriched with long-chain triglycerides that results from injury of the cisterna chyli or its main tributaries. This complication is rare after liver resections. Here, we report on the case of a 44 year-old man with a T3N1 rectal adenocarcinoma 16 cm above the anal margin, with metastatic compromise of almost the entire right liver lobe. Following chemotherapy, he underwent right liver resection. On postoperative day four, the thoracic drain evidenced milky fluid containing triglyceride 223 mg/dL with serum triglycerides 77 mg/dL. A fat-free diet was indicated with fat-free protein supplements, medium chain triglycerides and octreotide (100 μg subcutaneously every 8 hours), with complete resolution. In conclusion, postoperative chylous complications may be treated successfully by a less aggressive approach, with oral diet, subcutaneous octreotide, fat-free diet supplemented with proteins and medium chain fatty acids.

Humans , Male , Adult , Chylous Ascites/complications , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 3-8, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137143


Abstract Background: The elderly population is an especially heterogeneous group of patients with a rising number of surgical interventions being performed in the very elderly patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between different age strata and functional status with the surgical outcome of the elderly patient. Methods: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU), between 2006 and 2013. A total of 2331 surgical patients' ≥ 65 years old were included. Patients were grouped according to age: Older Elderly Group (OEG: 65‒85 years old); Very Elderly Group (VEG > 85 years old). Demographic and perioperative data were recorded. Revised Cardiac Risk Index, APACHE II and SAPS II scores were calculated and postoperative complications were documented. Variables were compared on univariate analysis. Results: The incidence of the VEG was 5.4%. This group had a higher proportion of non-elective surgery (22.4% vs. 11.2%, p < 0.001), higher APACHE II (12.0 vs. 10.0, p < 0.001) and SAPS II (26.6 vs. 22.2, p < 0.001) scores, higher incidence of organ failure (24.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.048) and a higher mortality rate during SICU (14.0% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.026) and hospital stay (9.3% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.012). Conclusion: We found that very elderly patients represented a significant proportion of patients admitted to the SICU. They had higher severity scores with a higher prevalence of organ failure and were more likely to undergo non-elective surgery. They had worse outcomes in regarding mortality during SICU and hospital stay.

Resumo Introdução: A população idosa envolve um grupo muito heterogêneo de doentes, com um crescente número de doentes muito idosos a serem propostos para cirurgia. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a relação entre diferentes grupos etários e estados funcionais com os resultados cirúrgicos do doente idoso. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte realizado em uma Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Cirúrgica (UCIC) que incluiu um total de 2331 doentes cirúrgicos com idade ≥ 65 anos, entre 2006 e 2013. Os doentes foram agrupados de acordo com a idade: doentes idosos (65-85 anos); doentes muito idosos (DMI > 85 anos). Dados demográficos e perioperatórios foram registrados. Índice de Risco Cardíaco Revisto, scores de APACHE e SAPS II foram calculados e complicações pós-operatórias, documentadas. As variáveis foram comparadas em análise univariada. Resultados: A incidência de DMI foi de 5,4%. Este grupo foi mais frequentemente submetido à cirurgia não eletiva (22,4%vs.11,2%; p< 0,001), apresentou scores maiores de APACHE II (12,0vs.10,0; p< 0,001) e SAPS II (26,6 vs. 22,2; p< 0,001), maior incidência de insuficiência do órgão (24,6%vs.17,6%; p= 0,048) e uma mortalidade superior na UCIC (14,0%vs.5,2%; p= 0,026) e no hospital (9,3% vs.5,0%; p= 0,012). Discussão: Os piores resultados nos DMI podem refletir uma maior vulnerabilidade a complicações pós-operatórias, possivelmente relacionadas com múltiplas comorbilidades e uma reserva fisiológica diminuídas. Conclusão: Os doentes muito idosos representaram uma porção importante dos doentes admitidos na UCIC, tinham scores de gravidade mais elevados e maior prevalência de falência orgânica e foram mais frequentemente submetidos a cirurgias não eletivas. Tinham piores resultados relativamente à mortalidade durante a permanência na UCIC e no hospital.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Critical Illness , Age Distribution , Correlation of Data , Functional Status , Intensive Care Units
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 483-492, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056757


Las infecciones asociadas a procedimientos neuroquiró;ºrgicos son complicaciones graves que contribuyen a la morbimortalidad de los pacientes neurocríticos, así como tambín a la prolongació;n de la estancia en la UTI y/o en el hospital. El diagnó;stico es complejo ya que no se dispone de gold standard y se apoya en la sospecha clínica, las alteraciones físico-químicas del líquido cefalorraquídeo y el aislamiento microbiano. El tratamiento debe ser precoz y guiado por la epidemiología local. La duració;n dependerá del microorganismo causal, su sensibilidad y la disponibilidad de tratamientos antibió;ticos efectivos en el sitio de la infecció;n. La implementació;n de medidas de prevenció;n con evidencia demostrada minimiza el riesgo de infecció;n. Esta puesta al día intersociedades SADI-SATI presenta datos epidemioló;gicos (internacionales y locales), mó;©todos diagnó;sticos, tratamiento, y pautas de prevenció;n, considerando las publicaciones más relevantes de los ó;ºltimos aó;±os sobre el tema.

Infections associated with neurosurgical procedures are serious complications that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of neurocritical patients, as well as to the prolongation of the stay in the ICU and the hospital. The diagnosis is complex since there is no gold standard, so it is based on clinical suspicion, CSF physical-chemical examination, and microbial isolation. Treatment should be initiated early, guided by local epidemiology. The duration will depend on the causative microorganism, its sensitivity and the availability of antibiotic treatments that are effective at the site of infection. The implementation of preventive measures with proven efficacy minimizes the risk of infection. This SADI-SATI intersociety update reviews relevant data recently published on this area at the national at international level regarding epidemiology, diagnostic methodologies, therapeutic approaches, and prevention guidelines.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/etiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cerebral Ventriculitis/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Risk Factors , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Cerebral Ventriculitis/diagnosis , Cerebral Ventriculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 622-625, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057467


Abstract Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction with non-specific clinical features that can mimic other clinical conditions with hyper metabolic state such as malignant hyperthermia. Perioperatively anesthesia providers come across such scenarios, which are extremely challenging with the need for urgent intervention. Objective: To illustrate the need for early intervention and consultation for added assistance to approach and rule out malignant hyperthermia and other possible causes during such a scenario. Case report: A 63-year-old male underwent an uneventful elective flexible cystoscopy and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Postoperatively he developed symptoms raising suspicion for malignant hyperthermia. Immediately malignant hyperthermia protocol was initiated that included administration of dantrolene and consultation of malignant hyperthermia association hotline along with other diagnostic and interventional management aimed at patient optimization. While early administration of dantrolene helped in hemodynamically stabilizing the patient, the consultation with other providers and malignant hyperthermia association hotline along with repeated examinations and lab works helped in ruling out malignant hyperthermia as the possible diagnosis. The patient later recovered in the intensive care unit where he was treated for the bacteremia that grew in his blood cultures. Conclusions: Sepsis shares clinical symptoms that mimic malignant hyperthermia. While sepsis rapidly progresses to secondary injuries, malignant hyperthermia is life threatening. Providing ideal care requires good clinical judgment and a high level of suspicion where timely and appropriate care such as early administration of dantrolene and consultation of malignant hyperthermia association hotline for added assistance can influence positive outcomes.

Resumo Justificativa: A sepse é uma disfunção orgânica fatal com características clínicas inespecíficas que podem imitar outras condições clínicas com quadro hipermetabólico, como a hipertermia maligna. Os cenários são extremamente desafiadores para a anestesia perioperatória e requerem intervenção urgente. Objetivo: Ilustrar a necessidade de intervenção e consulta precoces para uma assistência adicional na abordagem e exclusão de hipertermia maligna e outras possíveis causas durante tal cenário. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 63 anos, submetido à cistoscopia eletiva com cistoscópio flexível e biópsia transretal da próstata guiada por ultrassom sem intercorrências. No pós-operatório, o paciente desenvolveu sintomas que levantaram a suspeita de hipertermia maligna. O protocolo de hipertermia maligna foi imediatamente iniciado, inclusive a administração de dantrolene e uma consulta pela linha direta da associação de hipertermia maligna, juntamente com outros diagnósticos e manejos intervencionistas com vistas ao aprimoramento do paciente. Enquanto a administração precoce de dantrolene ajudou na estabilização hemodinâmica do paciente, a consulta com outros anestesistas e com a Associação de Hipertermia Maligna, juntamente com repetidos exames físicos e laboratoriais, ajudou a excluir a hipertermia maligna como o possível diagnóstico. O paciente recuperou-se mais tarde na unidade de terapia intensiva, onde recebeu tratamento para a bacteremia detectada em suas hemoculturas. Conclusões: A sepse compartilha sintomas clínicos que mimetizam a hipertermia maligna. Enquanto a sepse progride rapidamente para lesões secundárias, a hipertermia maligna é uma ameaça à vida. Proporcionar o tratamento ideal requer um bom julgamento clínico e um alto nível de suspeita quanto aos cuidados oportunos e apropriados, como a administração precoce de dantrolene e a consulta pela linha direta da Associação de Hipertermia Maligna para assistência adicional, que podem resultar em desfechos positivos.

Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Malignant Hyperthermia/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Time Factors , Acute Disease , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Cystoscopy/methods , Dantrolene/administration & dosage , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Malignant Hyperthermia/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 319-321, May-June 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013418


Abstract Prone position though is commonly used for better access to surgical site, but may be associated with a variety of complications. Perioperative Visual Disturbances or loss is rare but a devastating complication that is primarily associated with spine surgeries in prone position. In this case we report a 42 year old ASA-II patient who developed anisocoria with left pupillary dilatation following lumbar microdiscectomy in prone position. Following further evaluation of the patient, segmental pupillary palsy of the left pupillary muscles was found to be the possible cause of anisocoria. Anisocoria partially improved but persisted till follow up.

Resumo O posicionamento em decúbito ventral, embora comumente usado para melhorar o acesso ao local cirúrgico, pode estar associado a uma variedade de complicações. Distúrbios ou perda visual no Perioperatório é uma complicação rara, mas devastadora, que está principalmente associada à cirurgia de coluna vertebral em decúbito ventral. Relatamos aqui o caso de um paciente de 42 anos de idade, ASA - II, que desenvolveu anisocoria com dilatação pupilar esquerda após microdiscetomia lombar em decúbito ventral. Após uma avaliação adicional do paciente, observamos que a paralisia segmentar dos músculos pupilares esquerdos seria a possível causa de anisocoria. A anisocoria melhorou parcialmente, mas persistiu até o acompanhamento.

Humans , Female , Adult , Anisocoria/etiology , Mydriasis/etiology , Prone Position , Diskectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Diskectomy/adverse effects , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 242-252, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013413


Abstract Background and objectives: Patients undergoing lung resection surgery are at risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. Determination of cytokine levels allows the detection of an early inflammatory response. We investigated any temporal relationship among perioperative inflammatory status and development of acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury on outcome and analyzed the feasibility of cytokines to predict acute kidney injury. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 174 patients scheduled for elective lung resection surgery with intra-operative periods of one-lung ventilation periods. Fiberoptic broncho-alveolar lavage was performed in each lung before and after one-lung ventilation periods for cytokine analysis. As well, cytokine levels were measured from arterial blood samples at five time points. acute kidney injury was diagnosed within 48 h of surgery based on acute kidney injury criteria. We analyzed the association between acute kidney injury and cardiopulmonary complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, intensive care unit re-admission, and short-term and long-term mortality. Results: The incidence of acute kidney injury in our study was 6.9% (12/174). Acute kidney injury patients showed higher plasma cytokine levels after surgery but differences in alveolar cytokines were not detected. Although no patient required renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury patients had higher incidence of cardiopulmonary complications and increased overall mortality. Plasma interleukin-6 at 6 h was the most predictive cytokine of acute kidney injury (cut-off point at 4.89 pg.mL-1). Conclusions: Increased postoperative plasma cytokine levels are associated with acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery in our study, which worsens the prognosis. Plasma interleukin-6 may be used as an early indicator for patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar apresentam risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda pós-operatória. A determinação dos níveis de citocinas permite detectar uma resposta inflamatória precoce. Investigamos a relação temporal entre o estado inflamatório perioperatório e o desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar. Além disso, avaliamos o impacto da lesão renal aguda no desfecho e analisamos a viabilidade das citocinas para prever este tipo de lesão. Métodos: No total, foram analisados prospectivamente 174 pacientes agendados para cirurgia eletiva de ressecção pulmonar com períodos intraoperatórios de ventilação monopulmonar. Lavado bronco-alveolar com fibra óptica foi realizado em cada pulmão antes e após os períodos de ventilação monopulmonar para análise das citocinas. Os níveis de citocina foram medidos a partir de amostras de sangue arterial em cinco momentos. A lesão renal aguda foi diagnosticada dentro de 48 horas após a cirurgia, com base nos critérios para sua verificação. Analisamos a associação entre lesão renal aguda e complicações cardiopulmonares, tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e de internação hospitalar, reinternação em unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade a curto e longo prazos. Resultados: A incidência de lesão renal aguda no estudo foi de 6,9% (12/174). Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda apresentaram níveis mais altos de citocinas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, mas não foram detectadas diferenças nas citocinas alveolares. Embora nenhum paciente tenha precisado de terapia renal substitutiva, os com lesão renal aguda apresentaram maior incidência de complicações cardiopulmonares e aumento da mortalidade geral. A interleucina-6 plasmática em seis horas foi a citocina mais preditiva de lesão renal aguda (ponto de corte em 4,89 pg.mL-1). Conclusões: O aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de citocinas no pós-operatório está associado à lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar no estudo, o que piora o prognóstico. A interleucina-6 plasmática pode ser usada como um indicador precoce para pacientes com risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cytokines/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/methods , Incidence , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , One-Lung Ventilation , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 315-318, May-June 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013411


Abstract Background: Trigeminocardiac reflex is a physiological phenomenon that may occur in head and neck surgery, and is usually benign. However, it may present with exaggerated responses with severe morbidity. Case report: Male patient, 26 years old, candidate for surgical treatment of zygomatic-orbital complex fracture. The surgery with bilateral nasal packing placed at the end of the procedure was uneventful. After being admitted to the post-anesthesia care unity, the patient complained of shortness of breath and nausea. Pulse oximetry fell below 90% in ambient air, and 100% O2 was then offered through a Hudson mask. He showed no improvement in oximetry and presented with worsening dyspnea, diffuse wheezing, reduced heart rate, and blood pressure. Atropine was given, which raised the heart rate, but without resolution of hypotension and bronchospasm. Our suspicion was of a trigeminal-cardiac reflex, and then the removal of the nasal packing was done with complete remission of the signs and symptoms. Discussion: Florian Kratschmer (1870) was the first to describe the influences of nasal mucosal reflexes on respiration and circulation, which became known as Kratschmer's reflex. It is a reflex arc whose afferent originates in the nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve. The clinical presentation of trigeminocardiac reflex is the occurrence of sudden bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. Conclusion: Trigeminocardiac reflex may be a protective neurogenic, oxygen-conserving response with low morbidity, however, exacerbated in certain situations. The interaction between surgeon and anesthesiologist, together with a careful monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate are fundamental for diagnosis and treatment.

Resumo Justificativa: O reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco é um fenômeno fisiológico passível de ocorrer em cirurgias da cabeça e pescoço, e normalmente é benigno. Contudo, pode apresentar respostas exageradas, com grave morbidade. Relato de caso: Paciente masculino, 26 anos, candidato a tratamento cirúrgico de fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. Ato cirúrgico sem intercorrências com tamponamento nasal bilateral ao final. Após admitido na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, queixou-se de "falta de ar" e náusea. A oximetria de pulso caiu abaixo 90% em ar ambiente e foi ofertado então O2 a 100% sob máscara de Hudson. Não houve melhora da oximetria e apresentou piora da dispneia, com sibilos difusos, redução da frequência cardíaca e da pressão arterial. Administrada atropina, que elevou a frequência cardíaca, mas sem resolução da hipotensão arterial e broncoespasmo. Aventamos a hipótese de reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco e então foi feita a remoção do tamponamento nasal com remissão completa dos sinais e sintomas. Discussão: Florian Kratschmer (1870) foi o primeiro a descrever as influências de reflexos da mucosa nasal na respiração e na circulação, o que ficou conhecido como reflexo de Kratschmer. Trata-se de um arco reflexo cuja aferência é originária nas terminações nervosas do nervo trigêmeo. A apresentação clínica do reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco é a ocorrência de súbita bradicardia, hipotensão, apneia e hipermotilidade gástrica. Conclusão: O reflexo trigêmino-cardíaco pode ser uma resposta neurogênica protetora, oxigênio-conservadora, de baixa morbidade, contudo exacerbada em determinadas situações. A interação entre cirurgião e anestesiologista, aliada à monitoração criteriosa da pressão arterial e do ritmo cardíaco, é fundamental para o diagnóstico e o tratamento.

Humans , Male , Adult , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Reflex, Trigeminocardiac/physiology , Oxygen/metabolism , Blood Pressure/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 76-84, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985233


Abstract Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common complication following cardiac surgery. The incidence of cognitive dysfunction is more pronounced in patients receiving a cardiac operation than in those undergoing a non-cardiac operation. Clinical observations demonstrated that pulsatile flow was superior to nonpulsatile flow, and membrane oxygenator was superior to bubble oxygenator in terms of postoperative cognitive status. Nevertheless, cognitive assessments in patients receiving an on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery have yielded inconsistent results. The exact mechanisms of postoperative cognitive dysfunction following coronary artery bypass grafting remain uncertain. The dual effects, neuroprotective and neurotoxic, of anesthetics should be thoroughly investigated. The diagnosis should be based on a comprehensive cognitive evaluation with neuropsychiatric tests, cerebral biomarker inspections, and electroencephalographic examination. The management strategies for cognitive dysfunction can be preventive or therapeutic. The preventive strategies of modifying surgical facilities and techniques can be effective for preventing the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Investigational therapies may offer novel strategies of treatments. Anesthetic preconditioning might be helpful for the improvement of this dysfunction.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Electroencephalography , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 109-112, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977412


Abstract The report describes a case of peri-operative stroke that presented as diplopia and gait difficulty on 2nd post-operative day after routine orchidopexy under spinal anesthesia in an otherwise healthy young boy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed acute infarct in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, left half of medulla and left thalamus. A diagnosis of acute stroke (infarct) was made and patient was started on oral aspirin 75, following which his vision started improving after 2 weeks. Possible mechanisms of development of stroke in the peri-operative period are discussed, but, even after extensive investigations, the etiology of infarct may be difficult to determine. Acute infarct after elective non-cardiac, non-neurological surgery is rare; it may not be possible to identify the etiology in all cases. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose such unexpected complications even after routine surgical procedures in order to decrease the morbidity and long term sequelae.

Resumo O presente relato descreve um caso de acidente vascular cerebral perioperatório que resultou em diplopia e dificuldade de marcha no segundo dia após orquidopexia de rotina sob raquianestesia em um jovem, em outros aspectos, saudável. Ressonância magnética cerebral revelou infarto agudo em hemisférios cerebelares bilaterais, metade esquerda do bulbo e tálamo esquerdo. Um diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral agudo (infarto) foi feito e o paciente começou a receber tratamento com aspirina oral (75 mg.dia-1), após o qual sua visão começou a melhorar após duas semanas. Possíveis mecanismos de desenvolvimento de acidente vascular cerebral no período perioperatório são discutidos, mas, mesmo após extensas investigações, a etiologia do infarto pode ser difícil de determinar. O infarto agudo após cirurgia eletiva não cardíaca e não neurológica é raro; talvez não seja possível identificar a etiologia em todos os casos. Os médicos devem ter um elevado grau de suspeita para diagnosticar essas complicações inesperadas, mesmo após procedimentos cirúrgicos de rotina, para diminuir a morbidade e as sequelas em longo prazo.

Humans , Male , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Cerebellum/blood supply , Brain Infarction/diagnosis , Brain Infarction/drug therapy , Orchiopexy , Anesthesia, Spinal
Clinics ; 74: e837, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001824


OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using conventional culture methods (CM) and pediatric blood culture bottles (PBCBs) for vitreous sample culture of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital das Clinicas, HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BR, from January 2010 to December 2015, and it included 54 patients with clinically suspected acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Vitreous samples were obtained by vitreous tap or vitrectomy. Samples from January 2010 to December 2011 were cultivated in CM, whereas samples from January 2012 to December 2015 were inoculated in PBCBs. The measured outcome was the yield of positive cultures. RESULTS: Twenty cases were included in the CM group, and 34 cases were included in the PBCB group. The yield of positive cultures in PBCBs (64.7%) was significantly higher than that in conventional CM (35%, p=0.034). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans were the two most commonly found agents. CONCLUSION: PBCBs can be used successfully in clinically suspected endophthalmitis. The method showed a higher yield of positive cultures than the conventional method. This technique appears to have several advantages over the traditional method: it saves time, as only one medium needs to be inoculated; transportation to a laboratory is easier than in the traditional method, and there is no need to maintain a supply of fresh agar media. The use of PBCBs may be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis and is especially suitable for office settings and remote clinics.

Humans , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Culture Media/standards , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Blood Culture/instrumentation , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Blood Culture/methods