Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 82
Filter
1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 759-768, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777023

ABSTRACT

Cyproheptadine (CPH), a first-generation antihistamine, enhances the delayed rectifier outward K current (I) in mouse cortical neurons through a sigma-1 receptor-mediated protein kinase A pathway. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of CPH on neuronal excitability in current-clamped pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex slices. CPH (10 µmol/L) significantly reduced the current density required to generate action potentials (APs) and increased the instantaneous frequency evoked by a depolarizing current. CPH also depolarized the resting membrane potential (RMP), decreased the delay time to elicit an AP, and reduced the spike threshold potential. This effect of CPH was mimicked by a sigma-1 receptor agonist and eliminated by an antagonist. Application of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block I channels hyperpolarized the RMP and reduced the instantaneous frequency of APs. TEA eliminated the effects of CPH on AP frequency and delay time, but had no effect on spike threshold or RMP. The current-voltage relationship showed that CPH increased the membrane depolarization in response to positive current pulses and hyperpolarization in response to negative current pulses, suggesting that other types of membrane ion channels might also be affected by CPH. These results suggest that CPH increases the excitability of medial prefrontal cortex neurons by regulating TEA-sensitive I channels as well as other TEA-insensitive K channels, probably I and inward-rectifier Kir channels. This effect of CPH may explain its apparent clinical efficacy as an antidepressant and antipsychotic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyproheptadine , Pharmacology , Female , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Pharmacology , Membrane Potentials , Physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex , Physiology , Pyramidal Cells , Physiology , Receptors, sigma , Metabolism , Tetraethylammonium , Pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687928

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether the methanol extract of Berberis amurensis Rupr. (BAR) augments penile erection using in vitro and in vivo experiments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ex vivo study used corpus cavernosum strips prepared from adult male New Zealand White rabbits. In in vivo studies for intracavernous pressure (ICP), blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and increase of peak ICP were continuously monitored during electrical stimulation of Sprague-Dawley rats.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) in isolated endotheliumintact rabbit corus cavernosum, BAR relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one, a soluble guanylyl cclase inhibitor. BAR significantly relaxed penile smooth muscles dose-dependently in ex vivo, and this was inhibited by pretreatment with L-NAME H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one. BAR-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, P<0.01), a nonselective K channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, P<0.01), a voltage-dependent K channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (P<0.01), a large and intermediate conductance Ca sensitive-K channel blocker, respectively. BAR induced an increase in peak ICP, ICP/MAP ratio and area under the curve dose dependently.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAR augments penile erection via the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate system and Ca sensitive-K (BK and IK) channels in the corpus cavernosum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Berberis , Chemistry , Blood Pressure , Cyclic GMP , Metabolism , Epoprostenol , Pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Indomethacin , Pharmacology , Male , Models, Biological , Muscle Relaxation , Muscle, Smooth , Physiology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Penile Erection , Phenylephrine , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Pressure , Rabbits
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 223-229, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796033

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.


Resumo Fundamentos: Embora a jabuticaba apresente importantes efeitos biológicos, suas ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular ainda não foram esclarecidas. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos do extrato de jabuticaba (EHJ) sobre o músculo liso vascular (MLV) em artérias isoladas. Métodos: Aortas (sem endotélio) de ratos foram montadas em banho de órgãos isolados para registro de tensão isométrica. Foram verificados o efeito relaxante, a influência dos canais de K+ e das fontes de Ca2+ intra- e extracelular sob a resposta estimulada pelo EHJ. Resultados: Artérias pré-contraídas com fenilefrina apresentaram relaxamento concentração-dependente (0,380 a 1,92 mg/mL). O tratamento com bloqueadores de canais de K+ (tetraetilamônio, glibenclamida, 4-aminopiridina) prejudicaram o relaxamento pelo EHJ. A contração estimulada com fenilefrina também foi prejudicada pelo tratamento prévio com EHJ. A inibição da Ca2+ATPase do reticulo sarcoplasmático não alterou o relaxamento pelo EHJ. Além disso, o EHJ inibiu a contração causada pelo influxo de Ca2+ estimulado por fenilefrina e KCl (75 mM). Conclusão: O EHJ induz vasodilatação independente do endotélio. Ativação dos canais de K+ e inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através da membrana estão envolvidas no efeito relaxante do EHJ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 248-254, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255951

ABSTRACT

Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv4.1, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3) encoded by the members of the KCND/Kv4 (Shal) channel family mediate the native, fast inactivating (A-type) K(+) current (IA) described both in heart and neurons. This IA current is specifically blocked by short scorpion toxins that belong to the α-KTx15 subfamily and which act as pore blockers, a different mode of action by comparison to spider toxins known as gating modifiers. This review summarizes our present chemical and pharmacological knowledge on the α-KTx15 toxins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Potassium Channel Blockers , Chemistry , Scorpion Venoms , Chemistry , Scorpions , Shal Potassium Channels
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333670

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of allitridum on rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) in HEK293 cell line.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HEK293 cells were transiently transfected with HERG channel cDNA plasmid pcDNA3.1 via Lipofectamine. Allitridum was added to the extracellular solution by partial perfusion after giga seal at the final concentration of 30 µmol/L. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the HERG currents and gating kinetics before and after allitridum exposure at room temperature.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The amplitude and density of IHERG were both suppressed by allitridum in a voltage-dependent manner. In the presence of allitridum, the peak current of IHERG was reduced from 73.5∓4.3 pA/pF to 42.1∓3.6 pA/pF at the test potential of +50 mV (P<0.01). Allitridum also concentration-dependently decreased the density of the IHERG. The IC50 of allitridum was 34.74 µmol/L with a Hill coefficient of 1.01. Allitridum at 30 µmol/L caused a significant positive shift of the steady-state activation curve of IHERG and a markedly negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of IHERG, and significantly shortened the slow time constants of IHERG deactivation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Allitridum can potently block IHERG in HEK293 cells, which might be the electrophysiological basis for its anti-arrhythmic action.</p>


Subject(s)
Allyl Compounds , Pharmacology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Sulfides , Pharmacology , Transfection
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243397

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of midazolam on human ether-a-go-go (hERG) K+ channels exogenously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) and the underlying molecular mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record WT, Y652A and F656C hERG K+ current expressed in HEK-293 cells.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Midazolam inhibited hERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner, the half-maximum block concentrations (IC50) values were (1.31 ± 0.32) µmol/L. The half-activation voltage (V1/2) were (2.32 ± 0.38) mV for the control and (-1.96 ± 0.83) mV for 1.0 µmol/L midazolam. The half-inactivation voltage (V1/2) was slightly shifted towards negative voltages from (-49.25 ± 0.69) mV in control to (-57.53 ± 0.53) mV after 1.0 µmol/L midazolam (P < 0.05). Mutations in drug-binding sites (Y652A or F656C) of the hERG channel significantly attenuated the hERG current blockade by midazolam.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Midazolam can block hERG K+ channel and cause the speed of inactivation faster. Mutations in the drug-binding sites (Y652 or F656) of the hERG channel were found to attenuate hERG current blockage by midazolam.</p>


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Midazolam , Pharmacology , Mutation , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 512-518, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731151

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a common opportunistic infection in renal transplant patients. Objective: To obtain a clinical and laboratory description of transplant patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and their response to treatment during a period ranging from 2005 to 2013 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Results: In 641 renal transplants, tuberculosis was confirmed in 12 cases. Of these, 25% had a history of acute rejection, and 50% had creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl prior to infection. The disease typically presented as pulmonary (50%) and disseminated (33.3%). The first phase of treatment consisted of 3 months of HZRE (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol) in 75% of the cases and HZME (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and ethambutol) in 25% of the cases. During the second phase of the treatment, 75% of the cases received isoniazid and rifampicin, and 25% of the cases received isoniazid and ethambutol. The length of treatment varied between 6 and 18 months. In 41.7% of patients, hepatotoxicity was associated with the beginning of anti-tuberculosis therapy. During a year-long follow-up, renal function remained stable, and the mortality rate was 16.7%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis in the renal transplant population studied caused diverse nonspecific symptoms. Pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were the most frequent forms and required prolonged treatment. Antituberculosis medications had a high toxicity and mortality. This infection must be considered when patients present with a febrile syndrome of unknown origin, especially during the first year after renal transplant. .


Introdução: A tuberculose é uma infecção oportunista comum em pacientes transplantados renais. Objetivo: Oferecer uma descrição clínica e laboratorial de pacientes transplantados com diagnóstico de tuberculose e sua resposta ao tratamento durante o período entre 2005 e 2013 no Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo. Resultados: Em 641 transplantes renais, a tuberculose foi confirmada em 12 pacientes. Destes, 25% tinham histórico de rejeição aguda e 50% apresentaram níveis de creatinina superiores a 1,5 mg/dl antes da infecção. A patologia geralmente se apresentava como pulmonar (50%) e disseminada (33,3%). A primeira fase do tratamento consistiu de três meses de HZRE (isoniazida, pirazinamida, rifampicina e etambutol) em 75% dos casos e HZME (isoniazida, pirazinamida, moxifloxacina e etambutol) em 25% dos pacientes. Durante a segunda fase do tratamento, 75% dos pacientes receberam isoniazida e rifampicina e 25% isoniazida e etambutol. A duração do tratamento variou entre seis e 18 meses. Em 41,7% dos pacientes, hepatotoxicidade foi associada ao início do tratamento da tuberculose. Durante o seguimento de um ano a função renal manteve-se estável e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 16,7%. Conclusão: A tuberculose foi responsável por diversos sintomas inespecíficos na população de transplantados renais estudada. Tuberculose pulmonar e disseminada foram as formas mais frequentes de acometimento e necessitaram de tratamento prolongado. Medicamentos contra a tuberculose apresentaram alta toxicidade e mortalidade. Esta infecção deve ser considerada quando o paciente apresenta síndrome febril de origem desconhecida, especialmente durante o primeiro ano após o transplante renal. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Locus Coeruleus/drug effects , Narcotics/pharmacology , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Barium/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Enkephalin, Methionine/pharmacology , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Ion Channel Gating/physiology , Locus Coeruleus/cytology , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Protein Subunits , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/deficiency , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Potassium Channels/deficiency , Potassium Channels/genetics
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149985

ABSTRACT

Aminopyridines are potassium channel blockers that increase the excitability of nerve cells and axons; therefore, they are widely used to treat different neurological disorders. Here we present a patient with idiopathic downbeat nystagmus and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia who was treated with the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). During treatment with 4-AP, the LUTS improved. This improvement was monitored by using uroflowmetry and the International Prostate Symptom Score. A significant improvement of symptoms was observed in relation to the voided volume. This included an improved emptying of the bladder without an increase in residual urine. In animal studies, both nonselective K+ channel blockade and selective voltage-sensitive potassium blockade by 4-AP resulted in increased contraction on rat detrusor strips. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical observation of the mode of action of 4-AP in urological symptoms in humans.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine , Aminopyridines , Animals , Axons , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Potassium , Potassium Channel Blockers , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 129-134, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333125

ABSTRACT

Endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) has protective effect on the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury and arrhythmia, but the electrophysiological mechanism is unclear yet. In this study, the sinoatrial node (SAN) samples from New Zealand rabbits were prepared, and intracellular recording technique was used to elucidate the effect of AEA on the action potential (AP) of SAN pacemaker cells of rabbits and the mechanism. Different concentrations of AEA (1, 10, 100, 200, 500 nmol/L) were applied cumulatively. For some SAN samples, cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist AM251, cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor antagonist AM630, potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) and nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME) were used before AEA treatment, respectively. We found that: (1) AEA (100, 200 and 500 nmol/L) not only shortened AP duration (APD), but also decreased AP amplitude (APA) (P < 0.05). (2) AM251, but not AM630, abolished the effect of AEA on APD shortening. (3) TEA and L-NAME had no influence on the AEA effect. These findings suggest that anandamide can decrease APA and shorten APD in SAN pacemaker cells of rabbits, which may be mediated by activation of CB1 receptors, and is related to blockade of calcium channels but not potassium channels and NO.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Arachidonic Acids , Pharmacology , Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists , Pharmacology , Endocannabinoids , Pharmacology , Indoles , Pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pharmacology , Rabbits , Sinoatrial Node , Cell Biology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267240

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the vasodilative effect of paeonol in rat mesenteric artery and the mechanisms responsible for it.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rats were anaesthetized and sacrificed. The superior mesenteric artery was removed, dissected free of adherent tissue and cut into 2.0 mm long cylindrical segments. Isometric tension of artery rings was recorded by a myograph system in vitro. Concentration-relaxation curves of paeonol (17.8 μ mol/L to 3.16 mmol/L) were recorded on artery rings precontracted by potassium chloride (KCl) and concentration-contraction curves of KCl, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) or calcium chloride (CaCl2) were recorded in the presence of paeonol (10(-4.5), 10(-3.8), 10(-3.5) mol/L) respectively. And also, concentration-relaxation curves of paeonol were recorded in the presence of different potassium channel inhibitors and propranolol on rings precontracted with KCl respectively. To investigate the role of intracellular Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) store, the contraction induced by NA (100 μ mol/L) and CaCl2 (2 mmol/L) in Ca(2+) free medium was observed in the presence of paeonol respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Paeonol relaxed artery rings precontracted by KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and the vasodilatation effect was not affected by endothelium denudation. Paeonol significant decreased the maximum contractions (Emax) induced by KCl, CaCl2, NA and 5-HT, as well as Emax induced by NA and CaCl2 in Ca(2+) -free medium, suggesting that paeonol dilated the artery via inhibiting the extracellular Ca(2+) influx mediated by voltage-dependent calcium channel, and receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-influx and release. Moreover, none of glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, barium chlorded and propranolol affected the paeonol-induced vasodilatation, indicating that the vasodilatation was not contributed to ATP sensitive potassium channel, calcium-activated potassium channel, inwardly rectifying potassium channel, and β-adrenoceptor.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Paeonol induces non-endothelium dependent-vasodilatation in rat mesenteric artery via inhibiting voltage-dependent calcium channel-mediated extracellular Ca(2+) influx and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx and release.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetophenones , Pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Pharmacology , Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Chloride , Pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Physiology , Extracellular Space , Metabolism , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Intracellular Space , Metabolism , Male , Mesenteric Arteries , Physiology , Norepinephrine , Pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Chloride , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Pharmacology , Vasoconstriction , Vasodilation
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2694-2698, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322128

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. The involvement of Cl(-) component in the bath solution was investigated. The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side. When the tissue was bathed in low Cl(-) solutions, the Isc increase was significantly inhibited. Finally, niflumic acid and DIDS, but not TEA or amiloride, significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes. Chloride is likely to be among the ions, the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP, suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.</p>


Subject(s)
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate , Pharmacology , Chloride Channels , Ciliary Body , Physiology , Colforsin , Pharmacology , Cyclic AMP , Physiology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Sodium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83998

ABSTRACT

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca2+-activated K+, inward rectifier K+ and ATP-sensitive K+ channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, alpha-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine/pharmacology , Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Ketanserin/pharmacology , Male , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Nifedipine/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/metabolism , Serotonin/pharmacology , Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Spiperone/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction , src-Family Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268951

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of K(Ca)3.1 channel in the proliferation and migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells of the proliferative phenotype.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured with tissue adhesion method. The morphological characteristics of the fist and ninth passages of VSMCs were observed with light and electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The expressions of K(Ca)3.1 channel mRNA and protein in the cells were detected using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, respectively. MTT and transwell assay were employed to assess the effect of the K(Ca)3.1 channel blocker TRAM-34 on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The first and ninth passages of VSMCs showed morphological characteristics of contractile and proliferative phenotypes, respectively. Compared with the first- passage cells, the ninth-passage VSMCs exhibited significantly increased K(Ca)3.1 channel mRNA and protein expressions with enhanced cell proliferation and migration (P<0.01), which was inhibited by the application of TRAM-34 (P<0.01). TRAM-34 produced no obvious effect on the first-passage VSMCs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Upregulated expression of K(Ca)3.1 channel can promote the proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs of the proliferative phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels , Metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727560

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the direct effects of melatonin on bladder activity and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the detrusor activity of melatonin in the isolated rat bladder. We evaluated the effects of melatonin on the contractions induced by phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), bethanechol (BCh), KCl, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) in 20 detrusor smooth muscle samples from Sprague-Dawley rats. To determine the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory responses to melatonin, melatonin-pretreated muscle strips were exposed to a calcium channel antagonist (verapamil), three potassium channel blockers [tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and glibenclamide], a direct voltage-dependent calcium channel opener (Bay K 8644), and a specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor (KN-93). Melatonin pretreatment (10(-8)~10(-6) M) decreased the contractile responses induced by PE (10(-9)~10(-4) M) and Ach (10(-9)~10(-4) M) in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin (10(-7) M) also blocked contraction induced by high KCl ([KCl]ECF; 35 mM, 70 mM, 105 mM, and 140 mM) and EFS. Melatonin (10(-7) M) potentiated the relaxation response of the strips by verapamil, but other potassium channel blockers did not change melatonin activity. Melatonin pretreatment significantly decreased contractile responses induced by Bay K 8644 (10(-11)~10(-7) M). KN-93 enhanced melatonin-induced relaxation. The present results suggest that melatonin can inhibit bladder smooth muscle contraction through a voltage-dependent, calcium-antagonistic mechanism and through the inhibition of the calmodulin/CaMKII system.


Subject(s)
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester , 4-Aminopyridine , Acetylcholine , Animals , Benzylamines , Bethanechol , Calcium Channels , Contracts , Melatonin , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Nocturia , Phenylephrine , Phosphotransferases , Potassium Channel Blockers , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Relaxation , Sulfonamides , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Verapamil
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110117

ABSTRACT

Cinnamyl alcohol (CAL) is known as an antipyretic, and a recent study showed its vasodilatory activity without explaining the mechanism. Here we demonstrate the vasodilatory effect and the mechanism of action of CAL in rat thoracic aorta. The change of tension in aortic strips treated with CAL was measured in an organ bath system. In addition, vascular strips or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for biochemical experiments such as Western blot and nitrite and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) measurements. CAL attenuated the vasoconstriction of phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-precontracted aortic strips in an endothelium-dependent manner. CAL-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) M), methylene blue (MB; 10(-5) M) and 1 H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolole-[4,3-a] quinoxalin-10one, (ODQ; 10(-6) or 10(-7) M) in the endothelium-intact aortic strips. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 10(-8) or 10(-9) M) did not affect the vasodilatory effect of CAL. The phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and generation of nitric oxide (NO) were stimulated by CAL treatment in HUVECs and inhibited by treatment with L-NAME. In addition, cGMP and PKG1 activation in aortic strips treated with CAL were also significantly inhibited by L-NAME. Furthermore, CAL relaxed Rho-kinase activator calpeptin-precontracted aortic strips, and the vasodilatory effect of CAL was inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor glibenclamide (Gli; 10(-5) M) and the voltage-dependent K+ channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 2 x 10(-4) M). These results suggest that CAL induces vasorelaxation by activating K+ channels via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway and the inhibition of Rho-kinase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/drug effects , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/pharmacology , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Male , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/agonists , Propanols/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , rho-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351168

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of mito chondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate(5-HD) on chronic hypoxic pulmonary artery hypertension (CHPAH) rats and its underlying mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight male SD rats were equally divided into 4 groups randomly (n=12): normal group, hypoxia group, hypoxia + 5-HD group, hypoxia + Diazoxide group. Except the first group, the other three groups were put into hypoxic [O2 (10.0% +/- 0.3%] and nonrmobaric chamber for four weeks to establish chronic hypoxic model and received different interference. When the interference completed, right heart catheter was used to detect the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of each rat and PKC-alpha mRNA expression in pulmonary arteries was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein expression by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(mPAP was much higher in hypoxia group than that in normal group (P < 0.01) while in hypoxia + 5-HD group and hypoxia + diazoxide were decreased significantly compared to hypoxia group (P < 0.01). (2) The protein and mRNA levels of PKC-alpha in the hypoxic group were higher than those in normal group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>5-HD plays a protective role on CHPAH. The mechanism of its effect may be attributed to inhibiting MitoK(ATP).</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Decanoic Acids , Pharmacology , Hydroxy Acids , Pharmacology , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Metabolism , Hypoxia , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Metabolism , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels , Protein Kinase C-alpha , Genetics , Metabolism , Pulmonary Artery , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 12-18, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353336

ABSTRACT

Due to the complicated pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmia, the safe and effective therapeutic strategies for cardiac arrhythmia remain an urgent medical problems in the recent years. In this paper, we introduced the research practice of anti-arrhythmic agents targeting on potassium ion channel. The research progress of anti-arrhythmic agents in up-to-date literatures were also reviewed and prospected.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hydantoins , Imidazolidines , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Molecular Structure , Piperazines , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Potassium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Potassium Channels
19.
Clinics ; 66(2): 321-325, 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to determine whether the intraperitoneal administration of glibenclamide as a K ATP channel blocker could have an effect on the antinociceptive effects of antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Three antidepressant drugs, amitriptyline as a dual-action, nonselective inhibitor of noradrenaline and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and maprotiline as a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, were selected, and the effect of glibenclamide on their antinociceptive activities was assessed in male Swiss mice (25-30 g) using a formalin test. DISCUSSION: None of the drugs affected acute nociceptive responses during the first phase. Amitriptyline (5, 10 mg/ kg), maprotiline (10, 20 mg/kg) and fluvoxamine (20 and 30 mg/kg) effectively inhibited pain induction caused by the second phase of the formalin test. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) alone did not alter licking behaviors based on a comparison with the control group. However, the pretreatment of animals with glibenclamide (10 and 15 mg/kg) partially reversed the antinociceptive effects of fluvoxamine but not those of maprotiline. In addition, the highest dose of glibenclamide (15 mg/kg) partially prevented the analgesic effect of amitriptyline. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels have a major role in the analgesic activity of amitriptyline and fluvoxamine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Glyburide/pharmacology , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Models, Animal , Maprotiline/therapeutic use , Pain/chemically induced , Pain/drug therapy , Random Allocation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728317

ABSTRACT

We performed experiments using Aplysia neurons to identify the mechanism underlying the changes in the firing patterns in response to temperature changes. When the temperature was gradually increased from 11degrees C to 31degrees C the firing patterns changed sequentially from the silent state to beating, doublets, beating-chaos, bursting-chaos, square-wave bursting, and bursting-oscillation patterns. When the temperature was decreased over the same temperature range, these sequential changes in the firing patterns reappeared in reverse order. To simulate this entire range of spiking patterns we modified nonlinear differential equations that Chay and Lee made using temperature-dependent scaling factors. To refine the equations, we also analyzed the spike pattern changes in the presence of potassium channel blockers. Based on the solutions of these equations and potassium channel blocker experiments, we found that, as temperature increases, the maximum value of the potassium channel relaxation time constant, taun(t) increases, but the maximum value of the probabilities of openings for activation of the potassium channels, n(t) decreases. Accordingly, the voltage-dependent potassium current is likely to play a leading role in the temperature-dependent changes in the firing patterns in Aplysia neurons.


Subject(s)
Aplysia , Computer Simulation , Fires , Neurons , Potassium , Potassium Channel Blockers , Potassium Channels , Relaxation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL