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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 954-961, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effects of 3-phosphate dependent protein kinase 1-protein kinase B (PDK1-Akt) signaling pathway on the transcription, expression and function of cardiac hyperpolarized activated cyclic nucleotide gated 4 (HCN4) ion channels. Methods: Atrial myocytes were obtained from healthy male wild-type C57 mice and heart-specific PDK1 knockout mice (PDK1-KO) by enzymolysis. Then the atrial myocytes were divided into blank control group and PDK1-KO group. In further studies, the isolated atrial myocytes were cultured and further divided into drug control group (treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) and PDK1 knockdown group (treated with 1 μg/ml PDK1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference plasmid), SC79 group (treated with 8 μmol/ml SC79), GSK2334470 group (treated with 10 nmol/L GSK2334470) and PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group (8 μmol/ml SC79 and 1 μg/ml PDK1 shRNA interference plasmid). Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of PDK1 and HCN4, Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of PDK1, Akt and HCN4, the whole cell patch clamp was used to detecte the current density of HCN, and immunofluorescence was used to detecte the expression of HCN4 protein on atrial cells. Results: (1) the expression levels of HCN4 mRNA (1.46±0.03 vs. 0.99±0.01, P<0.001) and protein (1.14±0.02 vs. 1.00±0.06, P=0.017) in PDK1-KO group were higher than those in blank control group. The HCN current density in PDK1-KO group was higher than that in blank control group((-17.47±2.00) pA/pF vs. (-12.15±2.25) pA/pF, P=0.038). (2) The functions of PDK1 shRNA and specific Akt agonist SC79 were verified by comparing the PDK1 knockdown group and SC79 group with the drug control group. The results showed that the expression levels of PDK1 mRNA and protein in PDK1 knockdown group were lower than those in drug control group, and the expression level of phosphorylated Akt (Thr 308) protein in SC79 group was higher than that in drug control group. (3) The expression levels of HCN4 mRNA (3.61±0.46 vs. 1.00±0.08, P<0.001) and protein (2.33±0.11 vs. 1.00±0.05, P<0.001) in GSK2334470 group were higher than those in drug control group. (4) To reduce the effect of drug-miss target, the cultured atrial myocytes were transfected with shRNA plasmid of PDK1 and intervened with SC79. The results showed that the expression of HCN4 mRNA in PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that in the drug control group (1.76±0.11 vs. 1.00±0.06, P<0.001), and PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group (1.76±0.11 vs. 1.33±0.07, P=0.003). In PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group, the mRNA expression level was also higher than that in the drug control group (1.33±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.06, P<0.001). The expression level of HCN4 protein in PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that in drug control group (1.15±0.04 vs. 1.00±0.05, P=0.003). As for the The expression level of HCN4 protein, there was no significantly statistical difference between the PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group and the drug control group (P>0.05), but PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group was lower than PDK1 knockdown group (0.95±0.01 vs. 1.15±0.04, P<0.001). In patch clamp experiments, the results showed that the HCN current density was (-13.27±1.28) pA/pF in the drug control group, (-18.76±2.03) pA/pF in the PDK1 knockdown group, (-13.50±2.58) pA/pF in the PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group; the HCN current density of PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that of drug control group (P<0.001), but there was no significant difference between PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group and drug control group (P>0.05). (5) The results of immunofluorescence showed that the brightness of green fluorescence of PDK1 knockdown group was higher than that of drug control group, indicating that the expression of HCN4 localized on cell membrane was increased. However, the green fluorescence of PDK1 knockdown+SC79 group was lighter than that of PDK1 knockdown group, suggesting that the expression of HCN4 in PDK1-knockdown cell membrane decreased after further activating Akt. Conclusion: PDK1-Akt signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of HCN4 ion channel transcription, expression and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels , Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954519

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 279-286, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(−/−)-NP). RESULTS: During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(−/−)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. CONCLUSION: Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Action Potentials/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e5765, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888990

ABSTRACT

Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10-9-10-5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10-7.5-10-5 M). The present outcome was not modified by 10-6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors), 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker), 10-5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor), 10-5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) or 10-5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor). Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (P<0.05) by 10-5 M L-NAME (a direct inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), 10-7 M ODQ (an inhibitor of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase), 10-6 M KT 5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G), 10-2 M TEA (a Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker and non-specific voltage-activated K+ channel blocker) and 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin (blockers of small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively), and was blocked by 8×10-2 M potassium (a high concentration) and removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that the direct vasorelaxant effect by clobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Amphetamines/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/drug effects , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/metabolism , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 525-534, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122518

ABSTRACT

Prolonged P-wave duration has been observed in diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used. P-wave durations were obtained using surface electrocardiography and sizes of the left atrium were determined using echocardiography. Cardiac inward rectifier K+ currents (I(k1)), Na+ currents (I(Na)), and action potentials were recorded from isolated left atrial myocytes using patch clamp techniques. Left atrial tissue specimens were analyzed for total connexin-40 (Cx40) and connexin-43 (Cx43) expression levels on western-blots. Specimens were also analyzed for Cx40 and Cx43 distribution and interstitial fibrosis by immunofluorescent and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. The mean P-wave duration was longer in T2DM rats than in controls; however, the mean left atrial sizes of each group of rats were similar. The densities of I(k1) and I(Na) were unchanged in T2DM rats compared to controls. The action potential duration was longer in T2DM rats, but there was no significant difference in resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude compared to controls. The expression level of Cx40 protein was significantly lower, but Cx43 was unaltered in T2DM rats. However, immunofluorescent labeling of Cx43 showed a significantly enhanced lateralization. Staining showed interstitial fibrosis was greater in T2DM atrial tissue. Prolonged P-wave duration is not dependent on the left atrial size in rats with T2DM. Dysregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 protein expression, as well as fibrosis, might partly account for the prolongation of P-wave duration in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Action Potentials , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43/metabolism , Connexins/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrosis/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , In Vitro Techniques , Membrane Potentials , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 537-544, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748218

ABSTRACT

Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Diethylpropion/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1307-1315, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185890

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to investigate TRESK expression in the dorsal horn and L5 dorsal rot ganglion (DRG). RESULTS: The SNL group showed significantly higher expression of TRESK in the ipsilateral dorsal horn under pain, but low expression in L5 DRG. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that immunoreactivity of TRESK was mostly restricted in neuronal cells, and that synapse markers GAD67 and VGlut2 appeared to be associated with TRESK expression. We were unable to find a significant association between TRESK and calcineurin by double immunofluorescence. CONCLUSION: TRESK in spinal cord neurons may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain following injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperalgesia , Ligation , Neuralgia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Nociceptors , Pain/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn/metabolism , Spinal Nerves/injuries
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 512-518, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731151

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis is a common opportunistic infection in renal transplant patients. Objective: To obtain a clinical and laboratory description of transplant patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and their response to treatment during a period ranging from 2005 to 2013 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Results: In 641 renal transplants, tuberculosis was confirmed in 12 cases. Of these, 25% had a history of acute rejection, and 50% had creatinine levels greater than 1.5 mg/dl prior to infection. The disease typically presented as pulmonary (50%) and disseminated (33.3%). The first phase of treatment consisted of 3 months of HZRE (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol) in 75% of the cases and HZME (isoniazid, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and ethambutol) in 25% of the cases. During the second phase of the treatment, 75% of the cases received isoniazid and rifampicin, and 25% of the cases received isoniazid and ethambutol. The length of treatment varied between 6 and 18 months. In 41.7% of patients, hepatotoxicity was associated with the beginning of anti-tuberculosis therapy. During a year-long follow-up, renal function remained stable, and the mortality rate was 16.7%. Conclusion: Tuberculosis in the renal transplant population studied caused diverse nonspecific symptoms. Pulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis were the most frequent forms and required prolonged treatment. Antituberculosis medications had a high toxicity and mortality. This infection must be considered when patients present with a febrile syndrome of unknown origin, especially during the first year after renal transplant. .


Introdução: A tuberculose é uma infecção oportunista comum em pacientes transplantados renais. Objetivo: Oferecer uma descrição clínica e laboratorial de pacientes transplantados com diagnóstico de tuberculose e sua resposta ao tratamento durante o período entre 2005 e 2013 no Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo. Resultados: Em 641 transplantes renais, a tuberculose foi confirmada em 12 pacientes. Destes, 25% tinham histórico de rejeição aguda e 50% apresentaram níveis de creatinina superiores a 1,5 mg/dl antes da infecção. A patologia geralmente se apresentava como pulmonar (50%) e disseminada (33,3%). A primeira fase do tratamento consistiu de três meses de HZRE (isoniazida, pirazinamida, rifampicina e etambutol) em 75% dos casos e HZME (isoniazida, pirazinamida, moxifloxacina e etambutol) em 25% dos pacientes. Durante a segunda fase do tratamento, 75% dos pacientes receberam isoniazida e rifampicina e 25% isoniazida e etambutol. A duração do tratamento variou entre seis e 18 meses. Em 41,7% dos pacientes, hepatotoxicidade foi associada ao início do tratamento da tuberculose. Durante o seguimento de um ano a função renal manteve-se estável e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 16,7%. Conclusão: A tuberculose foi responsável por diversos sintomas inespecíficos na população de transplantados renais estudada. Tuberculose pulmonar e disseminada foram as formas mais frequentes de acometimento e necessitaram de tratamento prolongado. Medicamentos contra a tuberculose apresentaram alta toxicidade e mortalidade. Esta infecção deve ser considerada quando o paciente apresenta síndrome febril de origem desconhecida, especialmente durante o primeiro ano após o transplante renal. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Locus Coeruleus/drug effects , Narcotics/pharmacology , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Barium/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Enkephalin, Methionine/pharmacology , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Ion Channel Gating/physiology , Locus Coeruleus/cytology , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Protein Subunits , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/deficiency , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Potassium Channels/deficiency , Potassium Channels/genetics
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 205-211, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618049

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (Ito) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM + TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg-1·day-1). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of Ito was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated Ito reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced Ito of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Trimetazidine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/blood , Glucose/analysis , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin
10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 317-324, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117227

ABSTRACT

Hyperoxic ventilation induces detrimental effects on the respiratory system, and ambient oxygen may be harmful unless compensated by physiological anti-oxidants, such as vitamin C. Here we investigate the changes in electrolyte transport of airway epithelium in mice exposed to normobaric hyperoxia and in gulonolacton oxidase knock-out (gulo[-/-]) mice without vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation. Short-circuit current (Isc) of tracheal epithelium was measured using Ussing chamber technique. After confirming amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption (DeltaIsc,amil), cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion (DeltaIsc,forsk) was induced by forskolin. To evaluate Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion, ATP was applied to the luminal side (DeltaIsc,ATP). In mice exposed to 98% PO2 for 36 hr, DeltaIsc,forsk decreased, DeltaIsc,amil and DeltaIsc,ATP was not affected. In gulo(-/-) mice, both DeltaIsc,forsk and DeltaIsc,ATP decreased from three weeks after Vit-C deprivation, while both were unchanged with Vit-C supplementation. At the fourth week, tissue resistance and all electrolyte transport activities were decreased. An immunofluorescence study showed that the expression of cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) was decreased in gulo(-/-) mice, whereas the expression of KCNQ1 K+ channel was preserved. Taken together, the CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion of airway epithelium is susceptible to oxidative stress, which suggests that supplementation of the antioxidant might be beneficial for the maintenance of airway surface liquid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/metabolism , Biological Transport/drug effects , Chlorides/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/antagonists & inhibitors , Colforsin/pharmacology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Hyperoxia/physiopathology , Ion Transport/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Knockout/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen/adverse effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Sodium , Sugar Acids/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(3): 571-575, Aug. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-493576

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the effect of hypoxia on whole body ion fluxes and hematological parameters in two Amazonian teleosts: Serrasalmus eigenmanni and Metynnis hypsauchen. The increase of Na+ and Cl- effluxes on M. hypsauchen exposed to hypoxia may be related to an increase of gill ventilation and effective respiratory surface area, to avoid a reduction in the oxygen uptake, and/or with the decrease of pHe, that could inhibit Na+ and Cl- transporters and, therefore, reduce influx of these ions. Effluxes of Na+ and Cl- were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia for S. eigenmanni, possibly because in hypoxia this species would reduce gill ventilation and oxygen uptake, which would lead to a decrease of gill ion efflux and, consequently, reducing ion loss. The increase on hematocrit (Ht) during hypoxia in M. hypsauchen probably was caused by an increase of the red blood cell volume (MCV). For S. eigenmanni the increase on glucose possibly results from the usage of glucose reserve mobilization. Metynnis hypsauchen showed to be more sensitive to hypoxia than Serrasalmus eigenmanni, since the first presented more significant alterations on these osmoregulatory and hematological parameters. Nevertheless, the alterations observed for both species are strategies adopted by fishes to preserve oxygen supply to metabolizing tissues during exposure to hypoxia.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o efeito da hipoxia no fluxo iônico corporal e nos parâmetros hematológicos em duas espécies de teleósteos da Amazônia: Serrasalmus eigenmanni e Metynnis hypsauchen. O aumento dos efluxos de Na+ e Cl- em M. hypsauchen expostos à hipoxia pode estar relacionado ao aumento da ventilação branquial e da eficiência da área da superfície respiratória, a fim de evitar redução na captação de oxigênio; e/ou com a diminuição do pHe, que pode inibir os transportadores de Na+ e Cl- e, então, reduzir o influxo destes íons. Os efluxos de Na+ e Cl- foram menores em hipoxia do que em normoxia para a espécie S. eigenmanni, possivelmente porque esta espécie em hipoxia poderia reduzir a ventilação branquial e a captação de oxigênio, a qual levaria a uma diminuição do efluxo branquial de íons e, conseqüentemente, à redução da perda de íons. O aumento do hematócrito (Ht) durante hipoxia em M. hypsauchen provavelmente foi causado pelo aumento do volume das células vermelhas do sangue (MCV). Para a espécie S. eigenmanni, o aumento da glicose possivelmente foi resultado do uso da mobilização da reserva de glicose. A espécie Metynnis hypsauchen mostrou ser mais sensível à hipoxia do que a espécie Serrasalmus eigenmanni, uma vez que a primeira espécie apresentou mais alterações significativas em seus parâmetros osmorregulatórios e hematológicos. Contudo, as alterações observadas em ambas as espécies são estratégias adotadas pelos peixes a fim de preservar o suprimento de oxigênio para metabolização nos tecidos durante exposição à hipoxia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/metabolism , Fishes/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Sodium Channels/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Hypoxia/blood , Fishes/blood , Rivers
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Dec; 44(6): 458-69
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28636

ABSTRACT

A total of eighteen molecules of cholane derivatives (I-XVIII) (a series of steroids) have been included to predict their pharmacological effects, specific mechanisms of action, known toxicities, drug-likeness, etc, by using the statistics of multilevel neighbourhoods of atoms (MNA) descriptors for active and inactive fragments. The biological activity spectra for substances have been correlated on SAR base (structure-activity relationships data and knowledge base), which provides the different P(a) (possibility of activity) and P(i) (possibility of inactivity). Most of the probable activities have been characterized by P(a) and P(i) values, which depict that all the molecules have high value of teratogen activity. The Lipinski's thumb rule predicts that all the cholane derivatives have stronger preponderance for "cancer-like-drug" molecules and some of their related analogous have entered in the ANCI (American National Cancer Institute) database. Some selected bond distances and bond angles of interest have been taken into account and deviation of bond distances/bond angles, vis-a-vis the substitutional group and X-H...A intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonds has been discussed in detail. X-H...A intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the molecules have been described with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria. D-theta and d-theta. scatter plots for intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented for better understanding of packing interactions existing among these derivatives. There exists only one C-H...O intramolecular bifurcated hydrogen bond. while high tendency of intermolecular bifurcated hydrogen bonds based on a defined O-H...O has been observed, in which O atom acts as a prototype donor as well as acceptor. The frequency of occurrence of C-H...O hydrogen bonds is predominant (i.e. 85.7%) in intramolecular interactions, whereas in intermolecular interactions, frequency of occurrence for O-H...O interactions is 62.9%. Solvent-solute/solute-solvent interactions have also been investigated to understand more complicated processes that occur for biomolecules in aqueous solutions. The number of hydrogen donors in each derivative is less than 5, except for molecule XVIII and which has 91.3% of drug-likeness, instead of observed range of 96.5-99.39%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenicity Tests , Cholanes/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Embryo, Mammalian/drug effects , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Solvents , Teratogens/chemistry , Toxicity Tests
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(3): 393-403, Mar. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-421372

ABSTRACT

The present review deals with Ca2+-independent, K+-carried transient outward current (Ito), an important determinant of the early repolarization phase of the myocardial action potential. The density of total Ito and of its fast and slow components (Ito,f and Ito,s, respectively), as well as the expression of their molecular correlates (pore-forming protein isoforms Kv4.3/4.2 and Kv1.4, respectively), vary during postnatal development and aging across species and regions of the heart. Changes in Ito may also occur in disease conditions, which may affect the profile of cardiac repolarization and vulnerability to arrhythmias, and also influence excitation-contraction coupling. Decreased Ito density, observed in immature and aging myocardium, as well as during several types of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, may be associated with action potential prolongation, which favors Ca2+ influx during membrane depolarization and limits voltage-dependent Ca2+ efflux via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Both effects contribute to increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (the main source of contraction-activating Ca2+ in mammalian myocardium), which, in addition to the increased Ca2+ influx, should enhance the amount of Ca2+ released by the SR during systole. This change usually takes place under conditions in which SR function is depressed, and may be adaptive since it provides partial compensation for SR deficiency, although possibly at the cost of asynchronous SR Ca2+ release and greater propensity to triggered arrhythmias. Thus, Ito modulation appears to be an additional mechanism by which excitation-contraction coupling in myocardial cells is indirectly regulated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Action Potentials/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Homeostasis/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Sep; 43(9): 795-801
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58290

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vitro influence of mibefradil, a calcium channel blocker, and pinacidil, a potassium channel opener, on pregnant goat myometrial spontaneous rhythmic contractility and contractions induced with the agonist, oxytocin. Longitudinal strips from the distal region of uterus, collected from goats at midgestation, were mounted in an organ bath for recording isometric contractions. Mibefradil (10(-8)-10(-4) M) or pinacidil (10(-10)-10(-4) M), added cumulatively to the bath at an increment of 1 log unit, caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous rhythmic contractions of isolated uterine strips. The rhythmic contraction was, respectively, abolished at 100 and 10 microM concentrations of mibefradil and pinacidil. In a concentration-dependent manner, mibefradil (1 and 10 microM) antagonized the contractions elicited with oxytocin (10(-5)-10(-2) IU). Pretreatment of uterine strips with glibenclamide (10 microM), a selective KATP channel blocker, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve of pinacidil with a concomitant decrease in its pD2 value. Pinacidil (0.3, 1 and 3 microM), in a concentration-related manner, antagonized the oxytocin (10(-5)-10(-2) IU)-induced contractile response. The inhibition of spontaneous rhythmic contractions and antagonism of oxytocin-induced contraction by mibefradil in the pregnant goat myometrium may be related to the antagonism of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, while by pinacidil suggests that KATP channel could be a therapeutic target for tocolysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glyburide/pharmacology , Goats , Humans , Mibefradil/pharmacology , Myometrium/drug effects , Oxytocin/pharmacology , Pinacidil/pharmacology , Potassium/chemistry , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Uterine Contraction/drug effects , Uterus/drug effects
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(3): 345-352, mar. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-394809

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, redox balance, and physical integrity are key factors in tissue survival following potentially damaging conditions such as ischemia/reperfusion. Recent research has demonstrated that pharmacologically activated inner mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (mitoK ATP) are strongly cardioprotective under these conditions. Furthermore, mitoK ATP are physiologically activated during ischemic preconditioning, a procedure which protects against ischemic damage. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which mitoK ATP may be activated during preconditioning and the mitochondrial and cellular consequences of this activation, focusing on end-effects which may promote ischemic protection. These effects include decreased loss of tissue ATP through reverse activity of ATP synthase due to increased mitochondrial matrix volumes and lower transport of adenine nucleotides into the matrix. MitoK ATP also decreases the release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by promoting mild uncoupling in concert with K+/H+ exchange. Finally, mitoK ATP activity may inhibit mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during ischemia, which, together with decreased reactive oxygen release, can prevent mitochondrial permeability transition, loss of organelle function, and loss of physical integrity. We discuss how mitochondrial redox status, K+ transport, Ca2+ transport, and permeability transitions are interrelated during ischemia/reperfusion and are determinant factors regarding the extent of tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Potassium Channels/physiology , Biological Transport , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism
16.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 128-31, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634122

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the mechanism of arrhythmia in healed myocardial infarction (HMI), the changes of action potential duration (APD), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) of left ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone of HMI were investigated. Rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups: HMI group, in which animals were subjected to thoracotomy and ligation of the circumflex coronary and sham-operated group, in which rabbits underwent thoracotomy but no conorary ligation. 3 months after the operation, the whole myocyte patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK, and IK1 of ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone. Our results showed that the membrane capacitance was larger in HMI group than in sham-operated group. Action potential duration was significantly lengthened in HMI group and early afterdepolarization (EAD) appeared in HMI group. The densities of Ito, I(K, tail), and IK1 were reduced significantly in HMI group, from 6.72 +/- 0.42 pA/pF, 1.54 +/- 0.13 pA/pF and 25.6 +/- 2.6 pA/pF in sham-operated group to 4.03 +/- 0.33 pA/pF, 1.14 +/- 0.11 pA/pF and 17.6 +/- 2.3 pA/pF, respectively. It is concluded that the reduced densities of Ito, I(K, tail) and IK1 in ventricular myocytes of non-infarcted zone in HMI were responsible for the prolongation of APD and the presentation of EAD which played important roles in the development of malignant arrhythmia in HMI.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels/metabolism
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Nov; 40(11): 1314-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57417

ABSTRACT

Renewed interest on the research on the flavonoids is gaining more importance. Earlier literature on flavonoids indicated a significant anti-nociceptive action for flavones and mono-substituted flavones. However, they exhibited a ceiling effect. The present study was undertaken by new synthesizing six disubstituted flavones (DHFs) since poly substituted ones are expected to produce more potent effect. Their anti-nociceptive effect and the role of opioid involvement were studied using acetic acid induced abdominal constriction assay. All the six DHFs administered in elicited a dose related inhibition of abdominal constrictions indicating the presence of the anti-nociceptive response. However, these substances also showed a similar ceiling effect. Like other flavonoid substances, they also utilized opioid pathways. It is suggested that these newly synthesized DHFs can be included along with other flavonoids while attempting clinical trial for analgesic use.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Flavonoids/chemical synthesis , Male , Mice , Naloxone/pharmacology , Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacology , Nociceptors/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Receptors, Opioid/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 33(9): 1089-92, Sept. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-267969

ABSTRACT

In most of cells bradykinin (BK) induces intracellular calcium mobilization. In pancreatic beta cells intracellular calcium is a major signal for insulin secretion. In these cells, glucose metabolism yields intracellular ATP which blocks membrane potassium channels. The membrane depolarizes, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are activated and the intracellular calcium load allows insulin secretion. Repolarization occurs due to activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. The insulin secretion depends on the integrity of this oscillatory process (bursts). Therefore, we decided to determine whether BK (100 nM) induces bursts in the presence of a non-stimulatory glucose concentration (5.6 mM). During continuous membrane voltage recording, our results showed that bursts were obtained with 11 mM glucose, blocked with 5.6 mM glucose and recovered with 5.6 mM glucose plus 100 nM BK. Thus, the stimulatory process obtained in the presence of BK and of a non-stimulatory concentration of glucose in the present study suggests that BK may facilitate the action of glucose on beta cell secretion


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Calcium/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Electrophysiology , Glucose/analysis , Insulin/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Potassium Channels/metabolism
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 May; 38(5): 447-51
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58738

ABSTRACT

The nociceptive effect was measured using withdrawal latency in tail flick test in mice rendered diabetic by administering streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, i.p.). The antinociceptive effect of morphine (4 and 8 mg/kg, s.c.) and cromakalim, a KATP channel opener, (0.3, 1 and 2 micrograms, i.c.v.) was significantly reduced in diabetic mice. Moreover, co-administration of cromakalim(0.3 microgram) did not alter the reduced antinociceptive effect of morphine(4 mg/kg) in diabetic mice. Spleenectomy in diabetic mice restored the decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine and cromakalim. Multiple dose treatment with insulin to maintain euglycaemia for 3 days in diabetic mice prevented the decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine and cromakalim. However, hyperglycaemic tyrode's buffer did not alter the pD2 value of morphine in isolated guinea pig ileum suggesting that hyperglycaemia does not interfere with mu receptor mediated responses in vitro. The results suggest that hyperglycaemia induced decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine and cromakalim may be due to alteration in KATP channels. Some unknown factor from spleen in diabetic mice may be responsible for this alteration in KATP channels in diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Cromakalim/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Female , Guinea Pigs , Ileum/drug effects , Male , Mice , Morphine/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Spleen/physiopathology
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : S51-S52, 2000.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117522

ABSTRACT

In pancreatic acinar cells Ca(2+)-dependent secretagogues promote the fusion of zymogen granules (ZG) with the apical plasma membrane (PM) and exocytosis of digestive enzymes. In addition to exocytotic fusion complexes between SNARE proteins in the ZG membrane (ZGM) and the apical PM, enzyme secretion elicited by Ca(2+)-dependent secretagogues requires cytosolic Cl and K+ and is inhibited by blockers of Cl- and K+-channels. We have identified a Cl-conductance activated by ATP, and a K+-conductance (with properties similar to ATP-sensitive K+-channels), regulated by the granule matrix protein Zg-16p in the ZGM. Both conductances are inversely regulated by a 65-kD mdr1 gene product. We have also identified a novel Ca(2+)-activated anion conductance in ZGM, the Ca(2+)-sensitivity of which increases 50-fold when Cl is replaced by 1. This conductance is blocked by micromolar H2-DIDS or DTT, reminiscent of a family of epithelial Ca(2+)-activated Cl -channels (CaCC). Expression of a CaCC in exocrine pancreas has been confirmed by RT-PCR analysis, and by immunoblotting and immunogold labeling of ZG membranes. These data suggest that ion channels in the ZGM are essential elements in pancreatic exocytosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Chloride Channels/genetics , Exocytosis/physiology , Gene Expression/physiology , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/metabolism , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/genetics , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/cytology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Potassium Channels/genetics , Secretory Vesicles/metabolism , Secretory Vesicles/metabolism
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