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Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(4): 11-28, Dec. 31, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396371


Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using several different methods has demonstrated the presence of particles, including nanoparticles of source material, in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that detected the presence of particles in all dilutions. We used the Nano Tracking Analyzer (NTA) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles. The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations with simple dilutions and controls including a soluble medicine. We observed the presence of solid material in all preparations including HHPs (except for pure water). The measurements showed significant differences in particle sizes distribution between homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls. Homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific size distribution even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing and potentization process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature and concentration of these NPs.

Dynamization , Homeopathic Pharmacotechniques , Nanoparticles , Potassium Chloride , Cuprum Metallicum , Kali Muriaticum , Copper , Lactose
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 38(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386291


Resumen El suicidio es el uso deliberado de violencia externa con la intención de quitarse la vida, y el uso de medicamentos es una forma en la que esta se puede consumar, el cloruro de potasio es uno de los medicamentos que en concentraciones elevadas tienen efectos letales, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo científico es detallar características farmacológicas del cloruro de potasio, y los elementos a considerar en el estudio postmorten de cadáveres cuando se sospecha de una intoxicación por cloruro de potasio con manera de muerte suicida; con la metodología de estudio de artículos científicos, exposición de un caso clínico y discusión de la importancia del análisis de los elementos aportados y solicitados durante la investigación médico legal, también la especial y delicada importancia de una correcta recolección de muestras biológicas y continentes de medicamentos para el estudio toxicológico y químicoanalítico; de esta manera se concluye que el Cloruro de potasio es un fármaco con efectos colaterales dañinos en la función eléctrica cardiaca, la determinación de la manera de muerte es un trabajo complejo para el médico forense en este tipo de casos, y los resultados de la pericias complementarias a la autopsia tienen mucha importancia para el análisis de este tipo de casos.

Abstract Suicide is the deliberate use of external violence with the intention of taking one's life, and the use of medications is one way in which this can be consumed, potassium chloride is one of the medications that in high concentrations have lethal effects, Therefore, the objective of this scientific article is to detail the pharmacological characteristics of potassium chloride, and the elements to be considered in the postmortem study of corpses when potassium chloride poisoning is suspected as a suicidal death; with the methodology of study of scientific articles, presentation of a clinical case and discussion of the importance of the analysis of the elements provided and requested during the medical-legal research, also the special and delicate importance of a correct collection of biological samples and drug containers for toxicological and chemical analysis; In this way, it is concluded that potassium chloride is a drug with harmful collateral effects on cardiac electrical function, determining the manner of death is a complex job for the forensic doctor in this type of case, and the results of the expertise complementary to the autopsy are very important for the analysis of this type of case.

Humans , Female , Adult , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Suicide , Costa Rica
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2968-2975, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921191


BACKGROUND@#Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) is a solution commonly used for organ transplantation. However, there is no certified fixed regimen for on-pump heart surgery in neonates. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes related to different HTK dosages and to analyze the safety of high-dosage perfusion.@*METHODS@#A total of 146 neonates who underwent on-pump heart surgery with single-shot HTK perfusion were divided into two groups according to HTK dosages: a standard-dose (SD) group (n = 63, 40 mL/kg 60 mL/kg). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control confounding bias.@*RESULTS@#The SD group had a higher weight (3.7 ± 0.4 vs. 3.4 ± 0.4 kg, P  0.05). The incidences of post-operative complications were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, and post-operative hospital stay (P > 0.05). Follow-up echocardiography outcomes at 1 month, 3 to 6 months, and 1 year showed that left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic dimension were comparable between the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In neonatal on-pump cardiac surgery patients, single-shot HD (>60 mL/kg) HTK perfusion had a comparable heart protection effect and short-term post-operative prognosis as standard dosage perfusion of 40 to 60 mL/kg. Thus, this study provides supporting evidence of the safety of HD HTK perfusion.

Glucose/therapeutic use , Histidine , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mannitol , Organ Preservation Solutions , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Tryptophan , Ventricular Function, Left
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 634-643, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137349


Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of Bretschneider's histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and cold blood cardioplegia on systemic endothelial functions. Methods: A total of 50 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery between March 2018 and May 2018 were randomly divided into two groups - group 1 (Bretschneider's HTK solution, n=25) and group 2 (cold blood cardioplegia, n=25). Data related to the indicators of endothelial dysfunction were recorded. Flow-mediated dilation was measured together with the assessment of the values of endothelin-1, von Willebrand factor, and asymmetric dimethylarginine to identify endothelial dysfunction. Then, the two groups were compared regarding these values. Results: The most significant result of our study was that the endothelin-1 level was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P<0.001). The value of flow-mediated dilation was found to increase to a lesser degree on the postoperative days compared to the value at the day of admission in group 1 (P=0.002 and P=0.030, respectively). Conclusion: Cardiopulmonary bypass leads to endothelial dysfunction. Our results revealed that Bretschneider's HTK solution causes less severe endothelial injury than cold blood cardioplegia.

Humans , Male , Female , Cardioplegic Solutions/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass , Heart Arrest, Induced , Potassium Chloride , Procaine , Prospective Studies , Glucose , Mannitol
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(1): 72-87, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1127014


ABSTRACT Soil carbon sequestration refers to the process of transferring carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into the soil. The objective of this research was to do a simulation of how soil management factors in pastures can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing soil CO2-eq emissions due to increases of soil organic carbon.In livestock systems of Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, IPCC Tier 2 methodology was used to compare changes in soils C stocks under (a) two pasture types: Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures associated with Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) four increasing doses of CaCO?: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha-1; (c) three sources of N, P, K fertilizers: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Triple Superphosphate and 100 kg ha-1 Potassium Chloride. The statistical design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement 2 x 4 x 3. Tukey test indicated that the inclusion of kudzú in B. decumbens pasture (B2), 2.2 and 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 in both pastures, and the fertilization of B1 with Urea and B2 with Triple Superphosphate presented a greater benefit in soil C accumulation and CO2-eq emissions neutralization. Adittional cluster analysis showed that B2 liming with higher lime doses regardless of the type of fertilizer used presented major soil C stored grouped in Cluster 1. We concluded that these soil management factors should be feasible to implement in pastures, that can help offset the negative effects of global climate change on livestock systems at tropical zones.

RESUMEN El secuestro de carbono en el suelo se refiere al proceso de transferencia de dióxido de carbono (CO2) de la atmósfera al suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue hacer una simulación de cómo los factores de manejo del suelo en pasturas, pueden contribuir a mitigar el cambio climático al reducir las emisiones de CO2-eq del suelo debido a los aumentos de acumulación de carbono orgánico en el suelo. En sistemas ganaderos de Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, se utilizó la metodología Tier 2 del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC) para comparar los cambios en las existencias de C del suelo en (a) dos tipos de pasturas: pasturas de pasto Brachiaria decumbens (Bl) y pasturas del pasto Brachiaria decumbens asociadas con leguminosa de Pueraria phaseloi-des (B2); cuatro dosis crecientes de CaCO?: 0, l.l, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha1; y (c) tres fuentes de fertiliantes N, P, K: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Superfosfato triple y 100 kg ha-1 Cloruro de potasio. El diseño estadístico fue un bloques completos al azar en arreglo factorial 2 x 4 x 3. El test de Tukey indicó que la inclusión de la leguminosa en la pastura (B2), la aplicación de 2.2 y 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 en ambas pasturas y la fertilización de B1 con Urea y de B2 con Superfosfato triple presentaron un mayor beneficio en la acumulación de C del suelo y la neutralización de las emisiones de CO2-eq. El análisis de cluster adicional mostró que B2 encalada con más altas dosis de cal indistintamente del tipo de fertilizante usado presentaron mayor almacenamiento de C del suelo agrupados en el Cluster 1. Nosotros concluimos que estos factores de manejo de suelos deberían ser factibles de implementar en pasturas, lo que puede ayudar a compensar los efectos negativos del cambio climático global en los sistemas ganaderos de zonas tropicales.

Humans , Animals , Soil , Climate Change , Carbon , Carbon Dioxide , Brachiaria , Fertilizers , Carbon Sequestration , Potassium Chloride , Research , Urea , Pasture , Simulation Exercise , Dosage
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(2): 95-99, abril/jun 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361449


A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica é uma complicação inusitada do hipertireoidismo, porém é considerada urgência endocrinológica e ainda frequentemente subdiagnosticada. Sua apresentação clínica consiste na tríade de défice de potássio, tireotoxicose e fraqueza muscular ­ sendo esse último sintoma comum em diversas patologias. Realizamos uma revisão bibliográfica e destacamos, por meio do relato de caso, a importância do diagnóstico precoce dessa doença, possibilitando uma evolução favorável ao paciente, independente de sua etnia, sexo ou região geográfica. Atentamos ainda ao tratamento da doença, que, apesar de sua simplicidade, acarreta muitos equívocos.

The thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism, but is considered an endocrinological urgency, and yet frequently underdiagnosed. Its clinical presentation consists of potassium deficit, thyrotoxicosis, and muscular weakness, with the latter symptom being very common in several pathologies. We performed a bibliographic review and highlight, through a case report, the importance of the early diagnosis of this disease to allow favorable progression to the patient, regardless of ethnicity, sex, or geographical region. We also reinforce the importance of the disease treatment which, despite its simplicity, leads to many mistakes.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/diagnosis , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Thyrotoxicosis/blood , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Iodine/adverse effects , Iodine/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
J. vasc. bras ; 19: e20190010, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135095


Resumo Contexto A isquemia e reperfusão (I/R) renal está envolvida diretamente com insuficiência renal aguda, ocorrendo em casos como infarto por embolização ou trombose, quadros de septicemia e transplante renal. Esse processo é complexo, envolvendo respostas imunes inatas e adaptativas, presença de infiltrado celular, produção e liberação de citocinas e quimiocinas. Também desencadeia respostas celulares e liberação de espécies reativas de oxigênio, além de resultar em apoptose e, em alguns casos, necrose celular. Nesse contexto, é imprescindível a avaliação dos mecanismos de proteção ao tecido renal. Objetivos O objetivo foi testar a solução desenvolvida M&G, avaliando sua capacidade protetora no rim por meio de análise morfométrica e presença e expressão de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-alfa, VEGF, HIF e IL-8). Métodos Foram selecionados 18 ratos Wistar, divididos em três grupos: Sham (S), Controle (C) e Estudo (E). O grupo S foi submetido ao processo cirúrgico sem o clampeamento arterial. No grupo C, foi clampeada a aorta acima e abaixo da artéria renal esquerda, sem a infusão de solução preservadora. No grupo E, além do clampeamento, realizou-se a punção da aorta e a infusão contínua da solução M&G por 20 minutos a 15 °C. Realizou-se a avaliação morfológica e imuno-histoquímica com os marcadores. Resultados Identificaram-se diferenças morfológicas entre o grupo S comparado aos grupos C e E. Na análise dos marcadores, houve redução na intensidade de expressão do TNF e na expressão do VEGF no grupo E. Não houve diferenças com HIF e IL-8 entre os grupos. Conclusões A solução M&G apresentou redução da presença e expressão de TNF-alfa e tendência de redução do VEGF.

Abstract Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is directly associated with acute renal failure and can occur in conditions such as infarction caused by embolization or thrombosis, septicemia, and kidney transplantation. The process is complex, involving innate and adaptive immune responses, presence of cellular infiltrate, and production and release of cytokines and chemokines. It also triggers cell responses and release of reactive oxygen species, in addition to causing apoptosis and, in some cases, cell necrosis. Against this background, evaluation of renal tissue protection mechanisms is essential. Objectives The objective of this study was to test the M&G solution, developed in prior research, evaluating its capacity to protect the kidneys using morphometric analysis and by assaying the presence and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, VEGF, HIF, and IL-8). Methods Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham (S), Control (C), and Experimental (E). The S group underwent the surgical operation, but without arterial clamping. In group C, the aorta was clamped above and below the left renal artery, without infusion of the preservation solution. In group E, in addition to clamping, the aorta was punctured and M&G solution was infused continuously for 20 minutes at 15o C. Morphological analysis and immunohistochemical assessment of markers were then conducted. Results Morphological differences were identified in group S compared with groups C and E. Analysis of markers revealed reduced intensity of expression of TNF and of VEGF in group E. There were no differences in HIF or IL-8 between groups. Conclusions The M&G solution was associated with a reduction in presence and expression of TNF-alpha and a trend to reduced VEGF.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/therapeutic use , Ischemia/complications , Kidney , Phosphates , Potassium Chloride , Sodium Chloride , Intervention Studies , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Bicarbonate , Renal Insufficiency/therapy
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090775


Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.

Animals , Cattle , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Pyrrolidinones/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sodium Bicarbonate/pharmacology , Sodium Bicarbonate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Drug Combinations
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(11): 1349-1355, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057072


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of prescriptions errors with potentially dangerous drugs (heparin and potassium chloride for injection concentrate) before and after the introduction of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that compared errors in manual/pre-typed prescriptions in 2007 (Stage 1) with CPOE prescriptions in 2014 (Stage 2) (Total = 1,028 prescriptions), in two high-complexity hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brasil. RESULTS: An increase of 25% in the frequency of errors in Hospital 1 was observed after the intervention (p<0.001). In contrast, a decreased error frequency of 85% was observed in Hospital 2 (p<0.001). Regarding potassium chloride, the error rate remained unchanged in Hospital 1 (p>0.05). In Hospital 2, a significant decrease was recorded in Stage 2 (p<0.001). A reduced error severity with heparin (p<0.001) was noted, while potassium chloride-related prescription severity remain unchanged (p> 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and severity of medication errors after the introduction of CPOE was affected differently in the two hospitals, which shows a need for thorough observation when the prescription system is modified. Control of new potential errors introduced and their causes for the adoption of measures to prevent these events must be in place during and after the implementation of this technology.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e a gravidade de erros em prescrições envolvendo medicamentos potencialmente perigosos (heparina e cloreto de potássio concentrado injetável) antes e após a introdução de um sistema de prescrição eletrônica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo que comparou erros em prescrições manuais e pré-digitadas de 2007 (Fase 1) com prescrições eletrônicas de 2014 (Fase 2) (total = 1.028 prescrições), em dois hospitais de alta complexidade de Belo Horizonte. RESULTADOS: Foi observado no hospital 1 aumento de 25% dos erros depois da intervenção (p<0,001), e no hospital 2 foi verificada redução de 85% (p<0,001). Para o cloreto de potássio, a frequência de erros permaneceu a mesma no hospital 1 (p>0,05), independentemente da fase e, no hospital 2, ocorreu redução significativa na fase 2 (p<0,001). Foi identificada redução da gravidade dos erros com a heparina (p<0,001), mas não houve alteração na gravidade dos erros com cloreto de potássio (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A frequência e a gravidade dos erros de medicação após a introdução de prescrição eletrônica foram impactadas de forma diferente nos dois hospitais, demonstrando necessidade de observação criteriosa quando o sistema de prescrição é modificado. Durante e após a implantação dessa tecnologia, deve existir controle dos novos erros potenciais introduzidos e suas causas para a adoção de medidas de prevenção desses eventos.

Humans , Potassium Chloride/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Medical Order Entry Systems , Electronic Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Brazil , Heparin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Prescribing/standards
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 271-278, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013463


Abstract Objective: The goal of the present study was to compare the myocardial protection obtained with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) cardioplegic solution (Custodiol®) and with intermittent hypothermic blood solution. Methods: Two homogenous groups of 25 children with acyanotic congenital heart disease who underwent total correction with mean aortic clamping time of 60 minutes were evaluated in this randomized study. Troponin and creatine kinase-MB curves, vasoactive-inotropic score, and left ventricular function were obtained by echocardiogram in each group. The values were correlated and presented through graphs and tables after adequate statistical treatment. Results: It was observed that values of all the studied variables varied over time, but there was no difference between the groups. Conclusion: We conclude that in patients with acyanotic congenital cardiopathies submitted to total surgical correction, mean aortic clamping time around one hour, and cardiopulmonary bypass with moderate hypothermia, the HTK crystalloid cardioplegic solution offers the same myocardial protection as the cold-blood hyperkalemic cardioplegic solution analyzed, according to the variables considered in our study model.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Cardioplegic Solutions/therapeutic use , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Procaine/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Time Factors , Troponin/analysis , Echocardiography , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/analysis , Operative Time , Glucose/therapeutic use , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Mannitol/therapeutic use
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 79-88, jan./fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048562


The potato plant presents extraordinary productive capacity, being the fertilization one of the essential factors to optimize the cultivars potential. Potassium (K), the nutrient most absorbed and transported by the crop, interferes with the productivity and tubers quality. Despite many efforts to improve the general and nutritional management of the crop, information as K source and its parceling are still not well elucidated, generating doubts to the producers regarding the decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development, productivity and potatoes quality in relation to sources and proportions of potassic fertilization and its subdivision. The field experiment were conducted with the Agate variety, in the municipalities of Ibicoara - BA and São Gotardo - MG. The design was in randomized blocks, in factorial 6X2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of potassium chloride and double sulfate of potassium and magnesium (100% KCl; 87.5% KCl + 12.5% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 75% KCl + 25% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 50% KCl + 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 25% KCl + 75% K2SO4.2MgSO4 and 100% K2SO4.2MgSO4) of the potassium recommended amount (100% at planting or 50% at planting and 50% at the beginning of tuberization). The proportion of potassium fertilizer sources in São Gotardo-MG does not affect the vegetative development at 60 days after planting (DAP) and potato productivity. In Ibicoara-BA, plants fertilized with 100% KCl reduced the amount of discarded tubers and presented aerial dry mass (MSA) accumulation 41% higher than the application of 50% KCl and 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4. The K subdivision is favorable to special tuber classes in São Gotardo-MG and reduces the class Discard in Ibicoara-BA. Most of the proportions between K2SO4.2MgSO4 and KCl did not differ from the exclusive use of KCl for the quantitative parameters. On the other hand, qualitative factors such as starch and soluble solids are related to the application of 100% of K via K2SO4.2MgSO4 in installments.

A batateira apresenta extraordinária capacidade produtiva, sendo a adubação um dos fatores essenciais para otimização do potencial das cultivares. O potássio (K), nutriente mais absorvido e transportado pela cultura, interfere na produtividade e qualidade dos tubérculos. Apesar dos muitos esforços para melhoria do manejo geral e nutricional da cultura, informações como a fonte do K e o seu parcelamento ainda não estão bem elucidados, gerando dúvidas aos produtores quanto a tomada de decisão. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento, produtividade e qualidade de batata em função de fontes e proporções de adubação potássica e seu parcelamento. Os ensaios foram conduzidos a campo com a variedade Ágata, nos municípios de Ibicoara ­ BA e de São Gotardo ­ MG. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, em fatorial 6X2 com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação das fontes cloreto de potássio e sulfato duplo de potássio e magnésio (100% KCl; 87.5% KCl + 12.5% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 75% KCl + 25% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 50% KCl + 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4; 25% KCl + 75% K2SO4.2MgSO4 e 100% K2SO4.2MgSO4) e parcelamento ou não da quantidade de potássio recomendada (100% no plantio ou 50% no plantio e 50% no início da tuberização). O desenvolvimento vegetativo aos 60 DAP e a produtividade da batateira não é afetado pela proporção entre fontes de fertilizante potássico em São Gotardo-MG. Por outro lado, em Ibicoara-BA, plantas adubadas com 100% KCl reduziu a quantidade de tubérculos descartados e apresentaram acúmulo de massa seca de parte aérea (MSPA) 41% superior a aplicação de 50% KCl e 50% K2SO4.2MgSO4. O parcelamento do K é favorável a classe Especial de tubérculos, em São Gotardo e reduz a classe Descarte em Ibicoara-BA. A maioria das proporções entre K2SO4.2MgSO4 como KCl não diferiu do uso exclusivo do KCl para os parâmetros quantitativos. Por outro lado, fatores qualitativos como amido e sólidos solúveis estão relacionados a aplicação de 100% do K via K2SO4.2MgSO4 parcelado.

Potassium , Potassium Chloride , Solanum tuberosum , Magnesium Sulfate
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900402, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001091


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of amniotic fluid in liver preservation in organ transplantation, and compare it with standard preservation solutions. Methods: The groups consisted of Group 1: Ringer Lactate (RL) group, Group 2: HTK group, Group 3: UW group, Group 4: AF group. The livers of rats from Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were perfused and placed into falcon tubes containing RL, HTK, UW, and AF solutions at +4‎°C, respectively. The tubes were stored for 12 hours in the refrigerator at +4°C. Tissue samples were taken at the 6th and 12th hours for histopathological examinations of the perfused livers, and storage solutions for biochemical analyzes at 6th and 12th hours. Results: AF was shown to maintain organ viability by reducing the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Histopathological changes such as sinusoidal dilatation, hydropic degeneration, and focal necrosis were found to be similar to the groups in which the standard organ preservation solutions were used. Additionally, the results of INOS, IL-10, and TNF-α,which were evaluated immunohistochemically, have been shown to be similar to the UW and HTK groups. Conclusions: AF provided conservation similar to UW and HTK in the 12-hour liver SCS process. The fact that apoptosis values are comparable to standard preservation solutions supports the success of AF in the cold storage of the liver.

Animals , Male , Cryopreservation/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/pharmacology , Amniotic Fluid , Liver/blood supply , Liver/pathology , Organ Preservation/methods , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tissue Survival , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/analysis , Ringer's Solution/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762599


Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a notable and potentially lethal complication of thyrotoxicosis, and Graves' disease is the most common cause of TPP. TPP is commonly reported in Asian males between 20–40 years of age, but it is rare in children and adolescents. We report 2 Korean adolescents (a 16-year-old male and a 14-year-old female) with episodes of TPP who were previously diagnosed with Graves' disease. These 2 patients presented with lower leg weakness in the morning after waking up. They were diagnosed with TPP-associated with thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. After they were initially treated with potassium chloride and antithyroid drugs, muscle paralysis improved and an euthyroid state without muscle paralytic events was maintained during follow-up. Therefore, clinicians should consider TPP when patients have sudden paralysis and thyrotoxic symptoms such as goiter, tachycardia, and hypertension.

Adolescent , Antithyroid Agents , Asian People , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Goiter , Graves Disease , Humans , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis , Leg , Male , Paralysis , Potassium Chloride , Tachycardia , Thyrotoxicosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987


OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.

Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(3): 407-416, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973993


Resumen Introducción. Las interacciones farmacológicas ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las unidades de cuidados intensivos que en otros servicios. Sin embargo, en Colombia son pocos los estudios en que se han evaluado en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Objetivos. Caracterizar las potenciales interacciones farmacológicas en las prescripciones de pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos y determinar los factores asociados con su aparición. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos, durante un periodo de siete meses. Las prescripciones diarias se evaluaron en busca de potenciales interacciones farmacológicas mediante el programa Lexicomp™. Se calculó la incidencia de interacciones, se clasificaron según su tipo, gravedad y grado de documentación, y se evaluaron los factores asociados con su aparición mediante regresión logística. Resultados. La proporción de pacientes con por lo menos una interacción fue de 84 %, en tanto que el 87 % presentó más de una interacción; la mediana fue de seis interacciones por paciente. La más frecuente fue entre el fentanilo y el midazolam (23 %). Las interacciones de gravedad y grado de documentación moderados fueron las más frecuentes (77,6 y 52,6 %, respectivamente). El fármaco índice más frecuente fue el midazolam (12 %) y el precipitante más frecuente, el fentanilo (10,6 %). La edad (odds ratio, OR=3,1) y el número de medicamentos (OR=11,8), se asociaron con la aparición de interacciones. Conclusiones. Dada su elevada frecuencia y potencial impacto negativo es importante vigilar sistemáticamente las prescripciones en cuidados intensivos para detectar las interacciones, con el fin de contribuir al uso racional de los medicamentos y a mejorar la calidad de la atención.

Abstract Introduction: Drug-drug interactions occur more frequently in intensive care units than in other services. However, in Colombia, there are few studies on this problem in critically ill patients. Objectives: To characterize potential drug-drug interactions generated from prescriptions during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and to determine factors associated with their onset. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort was assembled with patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit for a seven-month period. The daily prescription was assessed for potential drugdrug interactions using the Lexicomp® program. We calculated the incidence of interactions, classified them by type, severity, and level of documentation, and evaluated the factors associated with their onset using logistic regression. Results: The proportion of patients with at least one interaction was 84% while 87% had more than one interaction; the median was six interactions per patient. The most frequent was fentanyl and midazolam (23%). Moderate interactions were the most frequent by severity (77.6%) and by documentation (52.6%). The most common index and precipitating drugs were midazolam (12%) and fentanyl (10.6%), respectively. Age (OR=3.1) and the number of drugs (OR=11.8) were associated with the occurrence of interactions. Conclusions: Given their high frequency and potential negative impact, the systematic monitoring of prescriptions in intensive care units to detect interactions is important. Such monitoring contributes to the rational use of medicines and to improve the quality of care.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drug Interactions , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Midazolam/adverse effects , Midazolam/pharmacology , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740081


Phagocytosis is a fundamental process in which phagocytes capture and ingest foreign particles including pathogenic bacteria. Several oral pathogens have anti-phagocytic strategies, which allow them to escape from and survive in phagocytes. Impaired bacteria phagocytosis increases inflammation and contributes to inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of various agents on oral pathogenic phagocytosis. To determine phagocytosis, Streptococcus mutans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were stained with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and was measured using flowcytometery and confocal microscopy. The influencing factors on phagocytosis were evaluated through the pretreatment of ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)), lysozyme, potassium chloride (KCI) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in THP-1 cells. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phagocytosis of various bacteria increased in a MOI-dependent manner. Among the tested bacteria, phagocytosis of P. gingivalis showed the highest fluorescent intensity at same infection time. Among the tested inhibitors, the NAC treatment significantly inhibited phagocytosis in all tested bacteria. In addition, NAC treatment indicated a similar pattern under the confocal microscopy. Moreover, NAC treatment significantly increased the bacteria-induced secretion of IL-1β among the tested inhibitors. Taken together, we conclude that the phagocytosis occurs differently depending on each bacterium. Down-regulation by ROS production inhibited phagocytosis and lead increased of oral pathogens-associated inflammation.

Adenosine Triphosphate , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteria , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Inflammation , Macrophages , Microscopy, Confocal , Monocytes , Muramidase , Phagocytes , Phagocytosis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Potassium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , United Nations
Acta cir. bras ; 32(6): 407-417, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886210


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effeicacies of Silybum marianum's (silymarin, S) on University of Wisconsin (UW) and histidinetryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions. Methods: Thirty two Wistar albino adult male rats were used. Group 1: UW group, Group 2: UW + Silymarin group(S), Group 3: HTK group, Group 4: HTK + silymarin group (S), respectively. Silymarin was enforced intraperitoneally before the surgery. Biopsies were enforced in 0, 6 and 12.hours to investigate. Results: Biochemical parameters examined in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), furthermore superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats were also evaluated. Detected histopathological changings were substantially declining in the groups that received silymarin, cellular damage was decreased significantly in HTK + Silymarin group, according to other groups. It has been identified as the most effective group was HTK + silymarin group in evaluation of ALT, electron microscopic results, also decreased MDA and elevated in SOD, and CAT activity. Caspase 3 analysis showed a substantial lower apoptosis ratio in the silymarin groups than in the non-performed groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Histidinetryptophan-ketoglutarate+silymarin group provides better hepatoprotection than other groups, by decreasing the hepatic pathologic damage, delayed changes that arise under cold ischemic terms.

Animals , Male , Rats , Silymarin/therapeutic use , Organ Preservation Solutions , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Potassium Chloride , Procaine , Raffinose , Immunohistochemistry , Adenosine , Allopurinol , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose , Glutathione , Insulin , Mannitol
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(2): 90-95, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843475


Abstract OBJECTIVE: Myocardial protection is the most important in cardiac surgery. We compared our modified single-dose long-acting lignocaine-based blood cardioplegia with short-acting St Thomas 1 blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing single valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who underwent single (aortic or mitral) valve replacement surgery were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups based on the cardioplegia solution used. In group 1 (56 patients), long-acting lignocaine based-blood cardioplegia solution was administered as a single dose while in group 2 (54 patients), standard St Thomas IB (short-acting blood-based cardioplegia solution) was administered and repeated every 20 minutes. All the patients were compared for preoperative baseline parameters, intraoperative and all the postoperative parameters. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant difference in preoperative baseline parameters. Cardiopulmonary bypass time were 73.8±16.5 and 76.4±16.9 minutes (P=0.43) and cross clamp time were 58.9±10.3 and 66.3±11.2 minutes (P=0.23) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean of maximum inotrope score was 6.3±2.52 and 6.1±2.13 (P=0.65) in group 1 and group 2, respectively. We also did not find any statistically significant difference in creatine-phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB), Troponin-I levels, lactate level and cardiac functions postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This study proves the safety and efficacy of long-acting lignocaine-based single-dose blood cardioplegia compared to the standard short-acting multi-dose blood cardioplegia in patients requiring the single valve replacement. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish this non-inferiority in situations of complex cardiac procedures especially in compromised patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardioplegic Solutions/administration & dosage , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Aortic Valve/surgery , Postoperative Period , Potassium Chloride/administration & dosage , Bicarbonates/administration & dosage , Calcium Chloride/administration & dosage , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lactic Acid/blood , Troponin I/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Mitral Valve/surgery
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1-10, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331599


This study was designed to observe the differences between main pulmonary arteries and the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries in the contractile response to phenylephrine (Phen), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and potassium chloride (KCl). The vascular tension changes of main and the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries induced by KCl, ET-1 and Phen were recorded by traditional vascular tone detection methods and microvascular ring technique, respectively. The results showed that Phen could cause a significant contraction in main pulmonary arteries, but did not induce apparent contraction in the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries. Compared with main pulmonary arteries, ET-1 contracted the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries with reduced maximal response value and PDvalue. In comparison with the main pulmonary arteries, contraction caused by KCl was enhanced in the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries. The results suggest that the vascular reactivity of main and the third-order branches of pulmonary arteries is different and it is important to study the vascular function of small branches of pulmonary arteries. This study could provide an important experimental basis for the further study on vascular function of small branches of pulmonary arteries and the functional changes in pulmonary hypertension.

Animals , Endothelin-1 , Pharmacology , Male , Phenylephrine , Pharmacology , Potassium Chloride , Pharmacology , Pulmonary Artery , Rats , Vasoconstriction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728750


The vascular actions and mechanisms of taurine were investigated in the isolated human radial artery (RA). RA rings were suspended in isolated organ baths and tension was recorded isometrically. First, a precontraction was achieved by adding potassium chloride (KCl, 45 mM) or serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, 30 µM) to organ baths. When the precontractions were stable, taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) was added cumulatively. Antagonistic effect of taurine on calcium chloride (10 µM to 10 mM)-induced contractions was investigated. Taurine-induced relaxations were also tested in the presence of the K⁺ channel inhibitors tetraethylammonium (1 mM), glibenclamide (10 µM) and 4-aminopyridine (1 mM). Taurine did not affect the basal tone but inhibited the contraction induced by 5-HT and KCl. Calcium chloride-induced contractions were significantly inhibited in the presence of taurine (20, 40, 80 mM) (p<0.05). The relaxation to taurine was inhibited by tetraethylammonium (p<0.05). However, glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine did not affect taurine-induced relaxations. Present experiments show that taurine inhibits 5-HT and KCl-induced contractions in RA, and suggest that large conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels may be involved in taurine-induced relaxation of RA.

4-Aminopyridine , Baths , Calcium , Calcium Chloride , Glyburide , Humans , Potassium Channels , Potassium Chloride , Potassium , Radial Artery , Relaxation , Serotonin , Taurine , Tetraethylammonium , Vasodilation