Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089390


Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, etching time, and application of phosphoric acid (PA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate on the bond strength between a feldspar ceramic and resin cement. Thus, 80 blocks (10 x 12 x 2 mm) of glass ceramic (VM - Vita Mark II - Vita Zahnfabrik) were made and randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 10) according to the factors: HF concentration (5 and 10%), etching time (60 and 120 s), and use of phosphoric acid (PA) (with and without). According to the experimental group, 37% PA (Condac, FGM) was applied after HF etching for 60s. Afterwards, samples were immersed in sodium bicarbonate for 1 min then in an ultrasonic bath in distilled water (5 min) for cleaning. After surface bonding treatment, cylinders (Ø = 2 mm; h = 2 mm) of dual resin cement (AllCem / FGM) were made in the center of each block. The samples were then stored in water (37ºC) for 90 days and submitted to the shear bond test (50 KgF, 1 mm/min). Failure analysis was performed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Data (MPa) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Only the factor "HF concentration" was significant (p = 0.02). Most failures were of cohesive in ceramic (40%) and mixed types (42.5%). The 10% HF resulted in higher shear bond strength value than the 5% HF. Surface cleaning with phosphoric acid followed by sodium bicarbonate and HF time (60 or 120 seconds) did not influence the resin bond strength to feldspar ceramic.

Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Reference Values , Silanes/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength/drug effects , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180233, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975899


Abstract Objective: To analyze color change, microhardness and chemical composition of enamel bleached with in-office bleaching agent with different desensitizing application protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventeen polished anterior human enamel surfaces were obtained and randomly divided into nine groups (n = 13). After recording initial color, microhardness and chemical composition, the bleaching treatments were performed as G1: Signal Professional White Now POWDER&LIQUID FAST 38% Hydrogen peroxide(S); G2: S+Flor Opal/0.5% fluoride ion(F); G3: S+GC Tooth Mousse/Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste(TM); G4: S+UltraEZ/3% potassium nitrate&0.11% fluoride(U); G5: S+Signal Professional SENSITIVE PHASE 1/30% Nano-Hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) suspension(SP); G6: S-F mixture; G7: S-TM mixture; G8: S-U mixture; G9: S-SP mixture. Color, microhardness and chemical composition measurements were repeated after 1 and 14 days. The percentage of microhardness loss (PML) was calculated 1 and 14 days after bleaching. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Welch ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett T3 tests (p<0.05). Results: Color change was observed in all groups. The highest ΔE was observed at G7 after 1 day, and ΔE at G8 was the highest after 14 days (p<0.05). A decrease in microhardness was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after 1 day. The microhardness of all groups increased after 14 days in comparison with 1 day after bleaching (p>0.05). PML was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after bleaching and none of the groups showed PML after 14 days. No significant changes were observed after bleaching at Ca and P levels and Ca/P ratios at 1 or 14 days after bleaching (p>0.05). F mass increased only in G2 and G6, 1 day after bleaching (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of desensitizing agents containing fluoride, CPP-ACP, potassium nitrate or n-HAP after in-office bleaching or mixed in bleaching agent did not inhibit the bleaching effect. However, they all recovered microhardness of enamel 14 days after in-office bleaching.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin Desensitizing Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Caseins/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Color , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Nitrates/chemistry
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039305


Abstract This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) of various resin cements to different ceramics. Composite resin cylinders of Z100 were fabricated and cemented to disks of feldspathic ceramic (Creation), leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Empress I), and densely sintered aluminum oxide ceramic (Procera AllCeram) using five resin cements: Panavia F (PAN), RelyX ARC (ARC), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Veneer, and Variolink II. SBS was measured after three days of water storage (baseline) and after artificial aging (180 days of water storage along with 12,000 thermal cycles). Failure mode of fractured specimens also was evaluated. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). RXU showed 1) the lowest baseline median SBS to feldspathic ceramic, which was not statistically different from PAN; 2) the lowest median baseline SBS to leucite-reinforced feldspathic and densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramics. All cements performed similarly after aging, except for ARC (median 0.0 MPa) and PAN (median 16.2 MPa) in the densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic group. Resin cements perform differently when bonded to different ceramic substrates. While all test resin cements worked similarly in the long-term to feldspathic and leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramics, only the MDP-containing resin cement provided durable bonds to densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic.

Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Shear Strength , Aluminum/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 202-207, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951528


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on feldspar ceramic strength and the reinforcing effect promoted by adhesive cementation with resin luting agent. One hundred twenty feldspar ceramic disks were obtained. Sixty disks were acid-etched, silanized, and coated with an experimental resin luting agent simulating the adhesive luting procedures. Four groups were created (n=30): uncoated ceramic (control group), uncoated ceramic submitted to AAA, ceramic coated with resin luting agent, and coated ceramic submitted to AAA. Biaxial flexural testing with ball-on-ring setup was carried out. Biaxial flexural strength (s bf , MPa), characteristic strength (s 0 , MPa), and Weibull modulus (m) were calculated for axial positions z=0 (ceramic surface) and z=−t2 (luting agent surface). Data of s bf at positions z=0 and z=-t2 were separately submitted to statistical analyses (a=0.05). The uncoated ceramic submitted to AAA had no significant difference in s bf and s 0 compared with the control group. Resin coating of the ceramic increased s bf and s 0 at z=0. The AAA increased the s bf and s 0 for the resin-coated ceramic specimens at z=0 and also the s 0 at axial position z=-t2. The structural reliability at z=0 and z=-t2 was not influenced by the variables tested. In conclusion, resin coating improved the mechanical strength of the feldspar ceramic. The AAA procedure was not effective in aging the uncoated or resin-coated feldspar ceramic specimens.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do envelhecimento artificial acelerado (EAA) na resistência da cerâmica feldspática e o reforço promovido pela cimentação adesiva com cimento resinoso. Cento e vinte discos de cerâmica feldspática foram obtidos. Sessenta discos foram condicionados com ácido, silanizados, e recobertos com um cimento resinoso experimental simulando os procedimentos de cimentação adesiva. Quatro grupos foram criados (n=30): cerâmica sem recobrimento (grupo controle), cerâmica sem recobrimento submetida ao EAA, cerâmica recoberta com cimento resinoso, cerâmica recoberta com cimento resinoso submetida ao EAA. O teste de resistência à flexão biaxial foi realizado utilizando o dispositivo pistão-anel. Resistência à flexão biaxial (s fb , MPa), resistência característica (s 0 , MPa), e módulo de Weibull (m) foram calculados para as posições axiais z=0 (superfície da cerâmica) e z=−t2 (superfície do cimento). Os dados de s fb em z=0 e z=−t2 foram submetidos a análises estatísticas separadamente (a=0,05). A cerâmica não recoberta submetida ao EAA não teve diferença significante na s fb e s 0 comparada com o grupo controle. O recobrimento com cimento resinoso da cerâmica aumentou a s fb e s 0 em z=0. O EAA aumentou a s fb e s 0 para os espécimes de cerâmica recobertos com cimento resinoso em z=0 e também a s 0 em z=−t2. A confiabilidade em z=0 e z=−t2 não foi influenciada pelas variáveis testadas. Concluindo, o recobrimento com cimento resinoso melhorou a resistência mecânica da cerâmica feldspática. O procedimento de EAA não foi efetivo em envelhecer os espécimes de cerâmica feldspática recobertos ou não com cimento resinoso.

Materials Testing , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841162


Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives/methods , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Shear Strength , Curing Lights, Dental , Photochemical Processes , Polymerization
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 51-56, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757427


OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding.METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%).RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased.CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface.

OBJETIVO: avaliar quatro métodos de condicionamento químico da superfície cerâmica, previamente à colagem de braquetes, e seu impacto sobre a resistência ao cisalhamento e a integridade da superfície ao descolamento.MÉTODOS: quatro grupos experimentais (n = 13) foram delineados de acordo com o método de condicionamento da superfície cerâmica empregado: G1 = ácido fosfórico a 37%, seguido da aplicação de silano; G2 = ácido fosfórico líquido a 37%, seguido da aplicação de silano sem lavagem prévia do ácido; G3 = ácido fluorídrico a 10%; e G4 = ácido fluorídrico a 10%, seguido da aplicação de silano. Após o condicionamento da superfície, braquetes metálicos foram colados à porcelana utilizando-se o sistema Transbond XP (3M Unitek). As amostras foram submetidas a ensaios de resistência ao cisalhamento, em máquina de ensaio universal, e as superfícies cerâmicas foram posteriormente avaliadas em microscópio, com magnitude de 8X. Testes ANOVA/Tukey foram realizados para verificar-se a diferença entre os grupos (α = 5%).RESULTADOS: os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento foram encontrados nos grupos G3 e G4 (22,01 ± 2,15MPa e 22,83 ± 3,32Mpa, respectivamente), seguidos por G1 (16,42 ± 3,61MPa) e G2 (9,29 ± 1,95MPa). Quanto à avaliação da superfície após a descolagem do braquete, a utilização de ácido fosfórico líquido seguido da aplicação de silano, sem lavagem do ácido (G2), produziu menores danos à porcelana. Quando ácido fluorídrico e silano foram aplicados, o risco de fraturar a cerâmica aumentou.CONCLUSÕES: níveis aceitáveis de resistência de união para uso clínico foram alcançados por todos os métodos testados. No entanto, o condicionamento com ácido fosfórico líquido, seguido da aplicação de silano (G2), resultou em menor dano à superfície cerâmica.

Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Silanes/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Dental Debonding/methods , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Shear Strength , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Microscopy
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 152-155, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741213


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a restorative composite repair in three types of dental ceramics: lithium disilicate-reinforced, leucite-reinforced and feldspathic. Twelve blocks were sintered for each type of ceramic (n=3) and stored for 3 months in distilled water at 37 °C. The bonding surface of ceramics was abraded with 600-grit SiC paper. Surface treatments for each ceramic were: GC (control) - none; GDB - diamond bur #30 µm; GHF - hydrofluoric acid (10%); GT- tribochemical silica coating (45-μm size particles). Treatments were followed by cleaning with phosphoric acid 37% for 20 s + silane + adhesive. The composite resin was used as restorative material. After repair, samples were subjected to thermocycled ageing (10,000 cycles between 5 °C and 55 °C for 30 s). Thereafter, the samples were sectioned into 1.0 mm2 sticks and tested for microtensile bond strength with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The superficial wear with diamond bur proved to be suitable for feldspathic porcelain and for leucite-reinforced glass ceramic while hydrofluoric acid-etching is indicated for repairs in lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic; tribochemical silica coating is applicable to leucite-reinforced ceramic. Predominance of adhesive failures was observed (>85% in all groups). In conclusion, the success of surface treatments depends on the type of ceramic to be repaired.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de diferentes condicionamentos de superfície na resistência de união de reparos de compósitos restauradores em três tipos de cerâmicas odontológicas: reforçada por dissilicato de lítio, reforçada por leucita e feldspática. Foram confeccionados 12 blocos para cada tipo de cerâmica (n=3) e armazenados por 3 meses em água destilada a 37 oC. A superfície de união das cerâmicas foi regularizada com lixa de granulação 600 por 15 s e lavadas em ultrassom por 10 min. Os tratamentos de superfície para cada cerâmica foram: GC (controle) - nenhum; GPD - ponta diamantada com 30 µm de granulação; GAF - ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10%; GJ - jateamento com partículas de óxido de alumínio revestido por sílica (45 µm - tamanho das partículas). Após, foi realizada a limpeza da superfície com ácido fosfórico a 7% por 20 s, seguido de silano e adesivo. Como material restaurador foi utilizada resina composta. Após o reparo, as amostras foram submetidas a ciclagem térmica (10,000 ciclos entre 5 °C e 55 °C, por 30 s). Na sequência, as amostras foram seccionadas em palitos de aproximadamente 1,0 mm2 e levadas ao teste de tração em uma máquina de ensaios universal à velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados obtidos foram comparados estatisticamente por ANOVA de dois fatores e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). Sugere-se que o desgaste da superfície com ponta diamantada é mais indicado para a cerâmica feldspática e cerâmica reforçada por leucita, enquanto o condicionamento com ácido fluorídrico é indicado para reparos em cerâmica reforçada por dissilicato de lítio. O jateamento com partículas de óxido de alumínio revestido por sílica mostrou-se aplicável à cerâmica reforçada por leucita. Predominancia de fraturas adesivas acima de 85% foi observada para todos os grupos. Este estudo demonstrou que o sucesso dos tratamentos de superfície depende do tipo de cerâmica a que são aplicados.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental , Dental Cements , Random Allocation , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(2): 85-90, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-704193


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods: Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results: One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions: Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. .

Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration Failure , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140173


Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the flexural bond strength of porcelain to combinations of used and new nickel-chromium alloy in various proportions. Materials and Methods: Used and new nickel-chromium bonding alloys were combined in various proportions (groups I to V; 10 samples per group) and their flexural bond strengths with porcelain were compared. A three-point loading system was used for the application of load. Load was applied at a constant speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the load required to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. Statistical Analysis Used: (a) Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and (b) Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: The best bond strength values were seen when 100% new alloy was used. According to the findings of this study, there was no adverse effects noted with up to 75% recast metal, but serious changes were found in the bond strength values when 100% old metal was used. Conclusions: The following conclusions were drawn from the study Fresh nickel-chromium alloy shows the greatest porcelain adherence. There is no significant change in bond strength of ceramic to alloy with up to 75% of used nickel-chromium alloy. At least 25%- of new alloy should be added when recycled nickel-chromium alloy is being used for metal ceramic restorations.

Adhesiveness , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Chromium Alloys/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Dental Casting Technique , Dental Impression Materials/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Materials Testing , Methylmethacrylates/chemistry , Pliability , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43989


BACKGROUND: Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that is highly toxic to humans. Here, we present and establish a novel method to detect methylmercury concentrations in the blood of Koreans. METHODS: Methylmercury concentration was analyzed with an automated methylmercury analytic system (MERX, Brooks Rand Co., USA) using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry (CVAFS). A variety of biological materials were digested in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The analysis method was validated by examination of certified reference material (955c, National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA). We randomly selected 30 Korean adults (age 20 yr or older) to analyze total blood mercury and methylmercury concentrations. RESULTS: The detection limit and methylmercury recovery rate using this method were 0.1 pg/L and, 99.19% (range: 89.33-104.89%), respectively. The mean blood concentration of methylmercury was 4.54+/-2.15 microg/L (N=30). The mean proportion of methylmercury to the total mercury concentration was 78.27% (range: 41.37-98.80%). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first report to analyze blood methylmercury concentration using CVAFS in Korea. We expect that this method will contribute to the evaluation of mercury exposure and the assessment of the toxicological impact of mercury in future studies.

Adult , Humans , Hydroxides/chemistry , Mercury/blood , Methylmercury Compounds/blood , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Braz. dent. j ; 22(3): 245-248, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595648


This study evaluated the bond strength of brackets to ceramic testing different etching times and light sources for photo-activation of the bonding agent. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10 percent hydrofluoric acid for 20 or 60 s. After application of silane on the ceramic surface, metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT (3M Unitek). The specimens for each etching time were assigned to 4 groups (n=15), according to the light source: XL2500 halogen light, UltraLume 5 LED, AccuCure 3000 argon laser, and Apollo 95E plasma arc. Light-activation was carried out with total exposure times of 40, 40, 20 and 12 s, respectively. Shear strength testing was carried out after 24 h. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated under magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Specimens etched for 20 s presented significantly lower bond strength (p<0.05) compared with those etched for 60 s. No significant differences (p>0.05) were detected among the light sources. The ARI showed a predominance of scores 0 in all groups, with an increase in scores 1, 2 and 3 for the 60 s time. In conclusion, only the etching time had significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic.

Este estudo avaliou a resistência de união de bráquetes à cerâmica testando diferentes tempos de condicionamento e fontes de luz para fotoativação do agente de união. Cilindros de cerâmica feldspática foram condicionados com ácido fluorídrico 10 por cento por 20 ou 60 s. Após aplicação de silano na superfície da cerâmica, bráquetes metálicos foram colados aos cilindros utilizando Transbond XT (3M Unitek). Os espécimes de cada tempo de condicionamento foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=15): fonte halógena XL2500, LED UltraLume 5, laser de argônio AccuCure 3000 e arco de plasma Apollo 95E. A fotoativação foi realizada com tempo total de 40, 40, 20 e 12 s, respectivamente. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado após 24 h. O índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR) foi avaliado sob aumento. Os dados foram submetidos a ANOVA de duas vias e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Espécimes condicionados por 20 s apresentaram resistência de união significativamente menor que espécimes condicionados por 60 s. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre as fontes de luz. O IAR mostrou predominância de escores 0 para todos os grupos, com aumento nos escores 1, 2 e 3 para o tempo 60 s. Em conclusão, apenas o tempo de condicionamento teve influência significativa na resistência de união de bráquetes à cerâmica.

Humans , Curing Lights, Dental/classification , Dental Bonding , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Etching/methods , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Orthodontic Brackets , Adhesiveness , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Materials Testing , Photochemical Processes , Polymerization , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Silanes/chemistry , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Time Factors , Tooth/anatomy & histology
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(1): 10-16, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545021


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-five cylindirical specimens (15x2 mm) were prepared for each feldspathic (Vita VMK 95, Ceramco III) and low-fusing dental porcelain (Matchmaker). Fifty-five specimens of machinable feldspathic porcelain blocks (Vitablocs Mark II), (12x14x18 mm) were cut into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm) with low speed saw. The prepared specimens were divided into 11 groups (n=5) representing different polishing techniques including control ((C) no surface treatment), glaze (G) and other 9 groups that were finished and polished with polishing discs (Sof-Lex) (Sl), two porcelain polishing kits (NTI (Pk), Dialite II (Di)), a diamond polishing paste (Sparkle) (Sp), a zirconium silicate based cleaning and polishing prophy paste (Zircate) (Zr), an aluminum oxide polishing paste (Prisma Gloss) (Pg), and combinations of them. The surface roughness of all groups was measured with a profilometer. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (a=0.05). RESULTS: For all porcelain material groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group Gl, Group Sl, Group Pk, and Group Di, which were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05).When comparing the 4 different porcelain materials, the machinable feldspathic porcelain block group (Mark II) demonstrated statistically significantly less Ra values than the other porcelain materials tested (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the VMK 95 and Ceramco III porcelain groups (p=0.919), also these groups demonstrated the highest Ra values. CONCLUSION: Subjected to surface roughness, the surfaces obtained with polishing and/or cleaning-prophy paste materials used alone were rougher compared to the surfaces finished using Sof-lex, Dialite, ...

Humans , Dental Polishing/methods , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , Diamond/chemistry , Materials Testing , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Surface Properties , Silicates/chemistry , Zirconium/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(1): 30-36, Jan.-Feb. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545024


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by shear bond strength (SBS) testing, the influence of different types of temporary cements on the final cementation using conventional and self-etching resin-based luting cements. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth divided in two halves were assigned to 8 groups (n=10): I and V (no temporary cementation); II and VI: Ca(OH)2-based cement; III and VII: zinc oxide (ZO)-based cement; IV and VIII: ZO-eugenol (ZOE)-based cement. Final cementation was done with RelyX ARC cement (groups I to IV) and RelyX Unicem cement (groups V to VIII). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5 percent significance level. RESULTS: Means were (MPa): I - 3.80 (±1.481); II - 5.24 (±2.297); III - 6.98 (±1.885); IV - 6.54 (±1.459); V - 5.22 (±2.465); VI - 4.48 (±1.705); VII - 6.29 (±2.280); VIII - 2.47 (±2.076). Comparison of the groups that had the same temporary cementation (Groups II and VI; III and VII; IV and VIII) showed statistically significant difference (p<0.001) only between Groups IV and VIII, in which ZOE-based cements were used. The use of either Ca(OH)2-based (Groups II and VI) or ZO-based (Groups III and VII) cements showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) for the different luting cements (RelyX TM ARC and RelyX TM Unicem). The groups that had no temporary cementation (Groups I and V) did not differ significantly from each other either (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: When temporary cementation was done with ZO- or ZOE-based cements and final cementation was done with RelyX ARC, there was an increase in the SBS compared to the control. In the groups cemented with RelyX Unicem, however, the use of a ZOE-based temporary cement affected negatively the SBS of the luting agent used for final cementation.

Humans , Dental Bonding , Dental Cements/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Cementation , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Dentin , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Eugenol/chemistry , Materials Testing , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Stress, Mechanical , Temperature , Time Factors , Water/chemistry , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(3): 216-219, May-June 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514036


OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to investigate how the release of fluoride from two compomers and a fluoridated composite resin was affected by exposure to KF solution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two compomers (Dyract AP and Compoglass F) and one fluoridated composite (Wave) were prepared as discs (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick), curing with a standard dental lamp. They were then stored in either water or 0.5% KF for 1 week, followed by placement in water for periods of 1 week up to 5 weeks total. Fluoride was determined with and without TISAB (to allow complexed and decomplexed fluoride to be determined), and other ion release (Na, Ca, Al, Si, P) was determined by ICP-OES. RESULTS: Specimens were found not to take up fluoride from 100 ppm KF solution in 24 h, but to release additional fluoride when stored for up to five weeks. Compomers released more fluoride cumulatively following exposure to KF solution (p<0.001), all of which was decomplexed, though initial (1 week) values were not statistically significant for Dyract AP. Other ions showed no variations in release over 1 week, regardless of whether the specimens were exposed to KF. Unlike the compomers, Wave showed no change in fluoride release as a result of exposure to KF. CONCLUSIONS: Compomers are affected by KF solution, and release more fluoride (but not other ions) after exposure than if stored in water.

Compomers/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Drug Interactions , Fluorides/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Ions/analysis , Solutions
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139705


Background: Post design and material has very important effects on dentinal stress distribution since the post placement can create stresses that lead to root fracture. Materials and Methods: In this study we use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate stress distribution on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that have been restored with different prefabricated posts. Six models were generated from the image of anatomical plate: Four metallic posts (ParaPost XH, ParaPost XT, ParaPost XP, and Flexi-Flange) and one fiberglass post (ParaPost Fiber Lux). The sixth model was a control-a sound maxillary central incisor. We used CAD software and exported the models to ANSYS 9.0. All the materials and structures were considered elastic, isotropic, homogeneous, and linear except the fiberglass post which was considered orthotropic. The values for the mechanical properties were obtained by a review of the literature and the model was meshed with 8-node tetrahedral elements. A load of 2N was applied to the lingual surface at an angle of 135°. Results: The stress results were recorded by shear stress and von Mises criteria; it was observed that there was no difference for stress distribution among the titanium posts in the radicular portions and into posts. There was higher stress concentration on the coronary portion with the titanium posts than with the glass fiber post. It seems that the metallic posts' external configuration does not influence the stress distribution. Conclusion: Fiber posts show more homogeneous stress distribution than metallic posts. The post material seems to be more relevant for the stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth than the posts' external configuration.

Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Biomechanical Phenomena , Composite Resins/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Computer-Aided Design , Crowns , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Dental Prosthesis Design , Dentin/physiopathology , Elasticity , Finite Element Analysis , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Incisor/physiopathology , Materials Testing , Maxilla/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Post and Core Technique/instrumentation , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Software , Stress, Mechanical , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Root/physiopathology , Tooth, Nonvital/physiopathology
Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2008; 51 (6): 867-878
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126454


CHROMIA/ALUMINA catalysts containing 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mol% Cr[2] O[3]. were prepared using the co-precipitation technique. Doping of the precipitated gels with 2 mol% K[2]O was made prior to calcinations at 500, 700 and 900 [degree sign] C. The structures of the calcinations products were determined from their XRD patterns and their textural properties were determined from the adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The dehydrocyclization of n-heptane was carried out at 520-580[degree sign] C. using helium as a gas carrier at a rate of 20-60 ml/min, in a pulse micro-reactor directly attached to a flame ionization detector. Samples containing 2 or 4 mol% Cr[2]O[3] did not show any crystalizied chromia phase, whereas those containing higher Cr[2]O[3] content showed gamma- and/or alpha- Cr[2]O[3] depending on their chromia content and calcination temperature. The surface area decreased and the pore size increased with increase of chromia content and with the rise of the calcinations temperature. Chromia/alumina catalysts calcined at 700 [degree sign] C exhibited the highest dehydrocyclization activities compared with the corresponding catalysts calcined either at 500 at 900 [degree sign] C. The conversion of n-heptane proceeded mainly via dehydrocyclization to toluene [major] and benzene [minor], with very low yield of cracking products of C[5]-naphthenes

Chromium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46883


Universal salt iodization (USI) is long term strategy for the control of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nepal. Standardized periodic testing of the iodine content in salt is a critical part of a salt iodisation programme. To achieve programmatic objective, this study was carried out to estimate the iodine content of household salt in Kavre, Lalitpur and Parsa districts of Nepal. Iodometric titration of 1803 salt samples collected from the households through the students of different schools revealed that 289 (16.0%) had less than 15 ppm iodine. Two hundred forty-one powder salt samples without two children logo (14.3% among total powder salt samples) had iodine below 15 ppm. It includes 25.8% of total salt samples from Parsa district of Terai ecological region. Among total, the largest proportion of the population accounting for almost 93.0% used powder salt. In total 1803 salt samples, mean and median iodine concentration were 31.8 ppm (95.0% CI=31.0-32.6) and 29.5 ppm respectively. The mean and median iodine concentration of phoda (dhike) salt were 22.1 ppm (95.0% CI= 19.2-25.1) and 18.9 ppm; powder salt were 32.6 ppm (95.0% CI= 31.7- 33.4) and 30.6 ppm respectively. In the community level, people are still using the non-iodized salt. To eliminate the IDD more efforts are required at program implementation and monitoring level.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food, Fortified , Goiter, Endemic/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Interviews as Topic , Iodates/chemistry , Iodine/administration & dosage , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Risk Factors , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage
Braz. dent. j ; 18(4): 305-308, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474469


This study evaluated, using Knoop hardness test, the polymerization depth of Rely-X dual-cured resin cement activated by chemical reaction alone (control group) or by chemical/physical mode with light curing through a 1.5-mm-thick ceramic layer (HeraCeram). Bovine incisors had their buccal surface flattened and hybridized. On this surface, a rubber mould (5 mm diameter; 1 mm high) was bulk filled with cement. Either a polyester strip or a 1.5-mm-thick disc of the veneering material was seated over this set. Light curing was performed with either conventional halogen light (QTH; XL2500) for 40 s, light-emitting diode (LED; Ultrablue Is) for 40 s or xenon plasma arc (PAC; Apollo 95E) for 3 s. In a control group, cement setting occurred by chemical reaction alone. After storage dry in dark (24 h/37ºC), the specimens (n=5) were sectioned for hardness (KHN) measurements at three depths in a microhardness tester (50 gf load/15 s). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 0.05). Rely-X cement presented higher Knoop hardness values when the QTH and LED LCUs were used, compared to the control group and PAC. Light curing with PAC resulted in lower hardness compared to the control group. Cement hardness was significantly lower in deeper regions.

Este estudo avaliou, por meio do teste de dureza Knoop, a profundidade de polimerização do cimento resinoso dual (Rely-X) ativado quimicamente (grupo controle) ou química/fisicamente (dual), fotoativado através de uma faceta de cerâmica com 1,5mm de espessura (HeraCeram). Incisivos bovinos tiveram sua face vestibular planificada e hibridizada. Sobre esta superfície, uma matriz de borracha (5mm de diâmetro e 1mm de altura) foi preenchida com cimento. Uma tira de poliéster ou um disco de material de faceta foi assentado sobre essa matriz. No grupo dual, a fotoativação foi realizada com aparelho de lâmpada halógena convencional (XL2500), por 40s (QTH); luz emitida por diodos (Ultrablue Is), por 40s (LED); ou por luz emitida por arco de plasma de Xenônio (Apollo 95E), por 3s (PAC). No grupo controle, a presa do cimento ocorreu somente por ativação química. Após armazenamento em ambiente seco e escuro (24h/37ºC), as amostras (n=5) foram seccionadas para mensuração dos valores de dureza (KHN) em três diferentes profundidades, obtidos em um aparelho microdurômetro (50gf/15s). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (a=0,05). O cimento Rely-X apresentou maiores valores de dureza Knoop após fotoativação com QTH e LED, comparados ao grupo controle e PAC. A fotoativação com PAC resultou em valores de dureza inferiores ao grupo controle. A dureza do cimento foi menor em regiões mais profundas.

Animals , Cattle , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Curing Lights, Dental , Darkness , Self-Curing of Dental Resins/methods , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Hardness , Materials Testing , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/radiation effects , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/radiation effects , Surface Properties , Temperature , Time Factors
Braz. dent. j ; 18(4): 314-319, 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474471


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of a repair composite resin to a leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Omega 900, VITA) submitted to two surface conditionings methods: 1) etching with hydrofluoric acid + silane application or 2) tribochemical silica coating. The null hypothesis is that both surface treatments can generate similar bond strengths. Ten ceramic blocks (6x6x6 mm) were fabricated and randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=5), according to the conditioning method: G1- 10 percent hydrofluoric acid application for 2 min plus rinsing and drying, followed by silane application for 30 s; G2- airborne particle abrasion with 30 µm silica oxide particles (CoJet-Sand) for 20 s using a chairside air-abrasion device (CoJet System), followed by silane application for 5 min. Single Bond adhesive system was applied to the surfaces and light cured (40 s). Z-250 composite resin was placed incrementally on the treated ceramic surface to build a 6x6x6 mm block. Bar specimens with an adhesive area of approximately 1 ± 0.1 mm² were obtained from the composite-ceramic blocks (6 per block and 30 per group) for microtensile testing. No statistically significant difference was observed between G1 (10.19 ± 3.1 MPa) and G2 (10.17 ± 3.1 MPa) (p=0.982) (Student's t test; á = 0.05). The null hypothesis was, therefore, accepted. In conclusion, both surface conditioning methods provided similar microtensile bond strengths between the repair composite resin and the ceramic. Further studies using long-term aging procedures should be conducted.

A proposta desse estudo foi avaliar a resistência à microtração entre uma resina composta e uma cerâmica feldspática submetida a diferentes tratamentos de superfície. A hipótese foi que os tratamentos de superfície (deposição de sílica + silanização e o ácido fluorídrico + silanização) promovessem resistências adesivas semelhantes. Dez blocos cerâmicos (Omega 900) de 6x6x6mm foram confeccionados e divididos em dois grupos: G1 - ácido fluorídrico 10 por cento/2 min + silanização; G2 Sistema CoJet: jateamento com partículas de sílica de 30 µm (CoJet-Sand) + ESPE-Sil. Em seguida, o adesivo Single Bond foi aplicado na superfície e fotopolimerizado (40 s); a resina composta Z-250 foi condensada, obtendo-se um bloco de 6 mm. Depois da armazenagem (água destilada/37ºC/7 dias), espécimes retangulares foram seccionados com disco diamantado (6 corpos-de-prova por bloco e 30 corpos-de-prova por grupo), com 1 ± 0,1 mm² de área adesiva. Cada corpo-de-prova foi fixado a um dispositivo adaptado com cianoacrilato e o teste de tração foi realizado. Os dados foram submetidos ao Teste t de Student (p>0,05). A hipótese nula foi aceita (p=0.982): G1 (10,19 ± 3,1 MPa) e G2 (10,17 ± 3,1 MPa) foram similares estatisticamente. Concluiu-se que os métodos de condicionamento da superfície cerâmica geram resistência adesiva similar à da cerâmica. Estudos posteriores empregando envelhecimento a longo prazo devem ser realizados.

Humans , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Dental Prosthesis Repair , Dental Etching/methods , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Materials Testing , Resin Cements/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Silanes/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Tensile Strength
Braz. dent. j ; 17(3): 191-194, 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-442365


During fabrication of bonded ceramic restorations, cervical adaptation, occlusal adjustment and final finishing/polishing are procedures to be performed at the dental office after adhesive cementation. Final adjustments may result in loss of ceramic glaze, which requires new polishing of the ceramic surface, with special attention for selection of adequate materials and instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different vehicles associated with diamond pastes indicated for dental ceramic polishing. Two polishing pastes (Crystar Paste and Diamond Excell) associated with four vehicles (rubber cup, Robinson bristle brush, felt wheel and buff disc) were evaluated. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from Ceramco II dental ceramic. Surface roughness means (Ra) of the ceramic specimens were determined with a rugosimeter. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5 percent significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01) between the polishing pastes. However, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) among the tested vehicles. Vehicle-paste interaction showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) as well. It may be concluded that: 1) Robinson bristle brush, felt wheel and buff disc were efficient vehicles to be used in association with a diamond polishing paste; 2) The use of rubber cup as a vehicle showed poor efficiency for mechanical polishing of the ceramic surfaces; 3) Both pastes provided similar and efficient polishing and may be recommended for use with an appropriated vehicle.

Durante a confecção de restaurações de cerâmica aderidas, a adaptação cervical, o ajuste oclusal e o polimento/acabamento final são procedimentos a serem executados no consultório odontológico após a cimentação adesiva. Os ajustes finais podem resultar na perda do "glaze" da cerâmica, o que requer novo polimento da superfície da restauração, necessitando de atenção especial em relação aos materiais e instrumentos adequados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes veículos associados a pastas diamantadas indicadas para polimento de cerâmicas odontológicas. Duas pastas de polimento diamantadas (Crystar Paste and Diamond Excell) associadas a quatro veículos (taça de borracha, escova de Robinson, roda de feltro e disco de feltro) foram avaliadas. A cerâmica Ceramco II foi selecionada para a confecção dos espécimes. A rugosidade superficial (Ra) dos espécimes de cerâmica foi determinada por um rugosímetro. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância a dois critérios e ao teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5 por cento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,01) entre as pastas de polimento avaliadas. Contudo, houve diferença significante (p<0,01) entre os veículos. A interação veículo-pasta revelou diferença significante (p<0,05). Conlcuir que: 1) A escova de Robinson, a roda de feltro e o disco de feltro foram veículos efetivos para serem usados em associação com as pastas de diamante; 2) O uso da taça de borracha como veículo foi menos eficiente para o polimento mecânico das superfícies cerâmicas; 3) Ambas as pastas de polimento apresentaram comportamento similar e eficiente e podem ser indicadas para o polimento final de restaurações cerâmicas com um veículo apropriado.

Humans , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Polishing/methods , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Diamond/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Materials Testing , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Surface Properties