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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 102-106, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1098449

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility testing is essential to inform the correct management of Aspergillus infections. In this study we present antifungal susceptibility profile of A. fumigatus isolates recovered from lungs of birds with and without aspergillosis. Fifty three isolates were tested for their antifungal susceptibility to voriconazole (VRC), itraconazole (ITZ), amphotericin (AMB) and caspofungin (CSP) using the M38-A2 broth microdilution reference method. Five isolates were resistant to more than one antifungal drug (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ and AMB + ITZ). Fifteen (28%) isolates with susceptible increased exposure (I) to ITZ were sensible to VRC. Resistance to AMB (>2µg/mL) was observed in only four isolates. Eleven (21%) A. fumigatus present resistance to ITZ (13%) and VRC (8%). Fungal isolation from respiratory samples has been regarded as being of limited usefulness in the ante mortem diagnosis of aspergillosis in birds. However, the results suggest that the detection and antifungal susceptibility profile may be helpful for monitoring of therapy for avian species and where antifungal resistance might be emerging and what conditions are associated to the event.(AU)


Os testes de suscetibilidade são essenciais para informar o correto manejo das infecções por Aspergillus. Neste estudo apresentamos o perfil antifúngico de isolados de A. fumigatus provenientes de pulmões de aves com e sem aspergilose. Cinqüenta e três isolados foram testados quanto à susceptibilidade antifúngica ao voriconazol (VRC), itraconazol (ITZ), anfotericina B (AMB) e caspofungina (CSP) pelo método de referência de microdiluição do caldo M38-A2. Cinco isolados foram resistentes a mais de um antifúngico (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ e AMB + ITZ). Quinze (28%) isolados suscetíveis - com exposição aumentada (I) ao ITZ foram sensíveis ao VRC. A resistência ao AMB (>2µg/mL) foi observada em apenas quatro isolados. Onze (21%) A. fumigatus apresentaram resistência a ITZ (13%) e VRC (8%). O isolamento de fungos de amostras respiratórias tem sido considerado de utilidade limitada no diagnóstico ante mortem de aspergilose em aves. No entanto, os resultados sugerem que a detecção e o perfil de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos podem ser úteis para o monitoramento da terapia de espécies aviárias, assim como a emergência da resistência antifúngica e quais condições podem estar associadas ao evento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/veterinary , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Chickens , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2066-2075, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878466

ABSTRACT

To achieve uniform soluble expression of multiple proteins in the same Escherichia coli strain, and simplify the process steps of antigen production in genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine, we co-expressed three avian virus proteins including the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) Fiber-2 protein, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein and egg-drop syndrome virus (EDSV) Fiber protein in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells after optimization of gene codon, promoter, and tandem expression order. The purified proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and agar gel precipitation (AGP). The content of the three proteins were well-proportioned after co-expression and the purity of the purified proteins were more than 80%. Western blotting analysis and AGP experiment results show that all the three co-expression proteins had immunoreactivity and antigenicity. It is the first time to achieve the three different avian virus antigens co-expression and co-purification, which simplified the process of antigen production and laid a foundation for the development of genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Biological Assay , Chickens/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases , Vaccines, Synthetic/isolation & purification , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 797-804, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1011325

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e classificar a pododermatite em frangos de corte, comparando as lesões microscópicas com os aspectos macroscópicos utilizados pela inspeção sanitária. Foi realizada coleta de pés de frangos de corte, em matadouro de aves sob inspeção sanitária, após classificação utilizada nos padrões para exportação. Foram coletados 30 pés tipo A, 30 pés tipo B e 33 pés tipo C, escolhidos aleatoriamente dentro de cada grupo. Para análise histopatológica, foram desenvolvidos escores de acordo com a gravidade das lesões, variando de 0 a 2. Foi observada associação (qui-quadrado, P<0,05) entre a classificação macroscópica (A, B e C) e as alterações histológicas (0, 1 e 2). A classificação A diferiu significativamente (ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer, P<0,05) das classificações B e C quanto aos escores histopatológicos observados. Não houve diferença no comprometimento dos pés pelas lesões que justificassem a separação entre os pés classificados em B e C, uma vez que ambos apresentaram delimitação linear das lesões, sugerindo superficialidade e restrição ao epitélio queratinizado. Portanto, sugere-se o aproveitamento dos pés para consumo humano após remoção mecânica do "calo de pé", uma vez que este produto não oferece riscos ao consumidor.(AU)


The aim of this study was to identify and classify pododermatitis in broilers, comparing the microscopic lesions with the macroscopic aspects used by the Sanitary Inspection. Broiler chicken feet were collected at a Poultry slaughterhouse under Sanitary Inspection, after classification according to the exportation standards. The chicken feet were randomly selected in each group, 30 feet type A, 30 feet type B and 33 feet type C. For the histopathological analysis, scores were developed according to the severity of the lesions, varying from 0 to 2. There was association (Chi-square, P< 0.05) between the macroscopic classification (A, B and C) and histological changes (0, 1 and 2). The A classification differed significantly (ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer, P< 0.05) from the B and C classifications regarding the histopathological scores observed. There was no difference in feet lesions that justified the separation between the feet classified in B and C, since both presented a linear delimitation of the lesions, suggesting superficiality and restriction to the keratinized epithelium. Therefore, the use of the feet for human consumption after mechanical removal of the footpad lesions is suggested since the product does not pose risks to the consumer.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Chickens/anatomy & histology , Chickens/microbiology , Dermatitis/veterinary , Meat Industry
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 601-606, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations. The role of the mentioned genes to SG remains to be investigated. In the present study a phoPQ-depleted SG strain (SG ΔphoPQ) was constructed and its virulence assessed in twenty-day-old laying hens susceptible to fowl typhoid. SG ΔphoPQ did cause neither clinical signs nor mortality in birds orally challenged, being non-pathogenic. Furthermore, this strain was not recovered from livers or spleens. On the other hand, chickens challenged subcutaneously with the mutant strain had discreet to moderate pathological changes and also low bacterial counts in liver and spleen tissues. These findings show that SG ΔphoPQ is attenuated to susceptible chickens and suggest that these genes are important during chicken infection by SG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Salmonella enterica/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Gene Silencing , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Spleen/microbiology , Spleen/pathology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Virulence , Chickens , Salmonella enterica/genetics
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 384-389, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii presents a high prevalence worldwide, infecting several animals. Felines are considered the definitive hosts and among the intermediate hosts we highlight mammals and birds. The man can become infected by ingesting tissue cysts present in birds and mammals. Biological and molecular aspects of T. gondii allows a better understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. This work is a serologic screening of 58 chickens grown (Gallus gallus domesticus) for human consumption in Espírito Santo State, by means of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). Thirteen chickens tested positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The heart and brain of five positive chickens were harvested, treated with pepsin and inoculated separately, in two Swiss mice, intraperitoneally. Tachyzoites were observed in the peritoneum of all the animals, between seven and 10 days after the inoculum. Ten isolates were obtained and biologically characterised in BALB/c mice inoculated with 101 to 104 tachyzoites. All isolates were classified as virulent or intermediately virulent. Isolates were genotyped by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, revealing three different genotypes. None of the isolates exhibited the clonal type I, II or III genotype. No genotypic differences were observed between the isolates from the brain or heart from the same bird.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii apresenta alta prevalência mundial, capaz de infectar diversos animais. Felinos são considerados os hospedeiros definitivos e entre os hospedeiros intermediários destacamos os mamíferos e as aves. O homem pode se infectar ingerindo cistos teciduais presentes na carne das aves e mamíferos. O conhecimento dos aspectos biológicos e moleculares do parasito possibilitam melhor entendimento da epidemiologia da toxoplasmose. Neste trabalho foi realizada triagem sorológica por hemaglutinação indireta (HI) em 58 galinhas caipiras (Gallus gallus domesticus) utilizadas para consumo humano, provenientes do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Treze galinhas apresentaram sorologia positiva para T. gondii. O coração e o cérebro de cinco galinhas positivas foram colhidos, tratados com pepsina e inoculados separadamente, em dois camundongos Swiss, por via intraperitoneal. Observou-se taquizoítos no peritônio de todos os camundongos, entre sete e 10 dias após o inóculo. Foram obtidos 10 novos isolados de T. gondii os quais foram estudados em camundongos BALB/C inoculados com 101 a 104 taquizoítos por animal. Todos os isolados foram considerados virulentos ou de virulência intermediária. A caracterização molecular dos isolados, realizada por PCR-RFLP, demonstrou a ocorrência de três genótipos distintos. Nenhum isolado apresentou genótipo clonal ou linhagem clonal do Brasil. Não foi observada diferença molecular (PCR-RFLP) entre os isolados obtidos a partir do cérebro ou do coração da mesma ave. Dois isolados já haviam sido relatados na literatura como causadores de doenças em humanos.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chickens/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasma/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Agglutination Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Genotype , Mice, Inbred BALB C
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 271-276, fev. 2018. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-895583

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics from different formations, defined and undefined cultures, applied in the control of Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers, identifying the compositions and states for which the probiotics are more effective. For that, 390 broilers were inoculated orally with 1.00 ml of Salmonella Enteritidis at a concentration of 1.2x109 CFU (Colony Forming Units). The experimental design used was randomized blocks with 5 treatments and 6 replications, totaling 30 boxes with 13 birds/box (13 birds/m2). The treatments were provided via drinking water 1 hour after inoculation, keeping a daily treatment of 12 hours with probiotics, for 3 consecutive days (birds at 1, 2 and 3 days of age). In general, the five treatments conducted were: T1 - Control without probiotic, T2 - Probiotic A (defined culture - lyophilized form, strain 7), T3 - Probiotic B (defined culture - lyophilized form, strain 11), T4 - Probiotic C (undefined culture liquid form), T5 - Probiotic D (undefined culture - liquid form). After treatments, performance was evaluated through average body weight, feed conversion and mortality counting. Microbiological analysis and Salmonella isolation were performed using MPN (Most Probable Number) and selective enrichment technique methods, respectively. Samples of ileum and liver pool, cecal tonsils, cecum, heart and spleen pool were collected at 5 and 31 days of age. No differences were observed on growth performance and isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis (p≥0.05). All probiotics applied were effective on reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in the ileum, cecal tonsils, and cecum at 5 days of life. Probiotics T2 and T5 has shown effectiveness in reducing colonization at 31 days, being considered the most efficient on Salmonella Enteritidis control, for the intestines segments evaluated. It was not possible to affirm which probiotics formation, defined or undefined, is more efficient for Salmonella Enteritidis control.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia dos probióticos de diferentes constituições: de culturas definidas e de culturas indefinidas no controle de Salmonella Enteritidis em frangos de corte, identificando qual a constituição e qual ou quais probióticos testados é mais eficaz. Foram inoculados 390 frangos de corte com 1ml de Salmonella Enteritidis, via oral, na concentração de 1,2 x 109 UFC (Unidades Formadoras de Colônia). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com 5 tratamentos e 6 repetições cada, totalizando 30 boxes com 13 aves/boxe (13 aves/m2). Os tratamentos foram fornecidos via água de bebida 1 hora após a inoculação, com 12 horas de tratamento com probióticos por dia, durante 3 dias consecutivos (1º, 2º e 3º dia de idade das aves). Os cinco tratamentos foram: T1 - Controle sem probiótico, T2 - Probiótico A (cultura definida - forma liofilizada, 7 cepas), T3 - Probiótico B (cultura definida - forma liofilizada, 11 cepas), T4 - Probiótico C (cultura indefinida - forma líquida), T5 - Probiótico D (cultura indefinida - forma liofilizada). O desempenho zootécnico foi avaliado usando o peso médio, a conversão alimentar e a mortalidade. Análises microbiológicas foram realizadas utilizando o método NMP (NMP/g)e isolamento de Salmonella através técnica de enriquecimento seletivo. Amostras de pool de íleo, tonsilas cecais e cecos e pool de fígado, coração e baço foram coletadas aos 5 dias e aos 31 dias de idade. Para desempenho zootécnico e isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis não foram observadas diferenças (p≥0,05). Todos os probióticos utilizados foram eficazes na redução da colonização de Salmonella Enteritidis no íleo, tonsilas cecais e cecos aos 5 dias de idade e somente os probióticos do T2 (cultura definida) e T5 (cultura indefinida) reduziram a colonização aos 31 dias sendo considerados os mais eficazes no controle de Salmonella Enteritidis nestes segmentos intestinais avaliados. Não se pode afirmar quais das constituições de probióticos, culturas definidas ou indefinidas, são mais eficazes no controle de Salmonella Enteritidis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/microbiology , Food Safety/methods , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Microbiological Techniques/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Salmonella enteritidis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742291

ABSTRACT

Histomonas meleagridis is a facultative anaerobic parasite, which can cause a common poultry disease known as histomoniasis. The species and age of the birds impacts on the susceptibility, with turkey being the most susceptible species. Chickens are less susceptible to H. meleagridis than turkeys and usually serve as reservoir hosts. Here, the diagnosis of an outbreak of histomoniasis in backyard Sanhuang chickens is described. The primary diagnosis was made based on clinical symptoms, general changes at necropsy, histopathology, and the isolation and cultivation of parasites. The pathogen was further confirmed by cloning, PCR identification, and animal inoculation tests. A strain of H. meleagridis, named HM-JSYZ-C, with a higher pathogenicity level in chickens was obtained. The study lays a foundation for further investigations into H. meleagridis and histomoniasis in chickens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Chickens , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Diagnosis , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poultry Diseases , Protozoan Infections , Turkey , Turkeys , Virulence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690642

ABSTRACT

Seasonal outbreaks of airsacculitis in China's poultry cause great economic losses annually. This study tried to unveil the potential role of Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and Chlamydia psittaci (CPS) in avian airsacculitis. A serological investigation of 673 breeder chickens and a case-controlled study of 430 birds were undertaken. Results showed that infection with AMPV, ORT, and CPS was highly associated with the disease. The correlation between AMPV and CPS were positively robust in both layers and broilers. Finally, we determined the co-infection with AMPV, ORT, and CPS was prevalent in the sampled poultry farms suffering from respiratory diseases and the outbreak of airsacculitis was closely related to simultaneous exposure to all three agents.


Subject(s)
Air Sacs , Microbiology , Pathology , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial , Blood , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Case-Control Studies , Chickens , Chlamydia , Chlamydia Infections , Microbiology , Pathology , Coinfection , Flavobacteriaceae Infections , Microbiology , Pathology , Humans , Metapneumovirus , Ornithobacterium , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Pathology , Virology , Poultry Diseases , Microbiology , Pathology , Virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Microbiology , Virology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 754-759, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889180

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Salmonella Enteritidis causes fowl paratyphoid in poultry and is frequently associated to outbreaks of food-borne diseases in humans. The role of flagella and flagella-mediated motility into host-pathogen interplay is not fully understood and requires further investigation. In this study, one-day-old chickens were challenged orally with a wild-type strain Salmonella Enteritidis, a non-motile but fully flagellated (SE ΔmotB) or non-flagellated (SE ΔfliC) strain to evaluate their ability to colonise the intestine and spread systemically and also of eliciting gross and histopathological changes. SE ΔmotB and SE ΔfliC were recovered in significantly lower numbers from caecal contents in comparison with Salmonella Enteritidis at early stages of infection (3 and 5 dpi). The SE ΔmotB strain, which synthesises paralysed flagella, showed poorer intestinal colonisation ability than the non-flagellated SE ΔfliC. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that the flagellated strains induced more intense lymphoid reactivity in liver, ileum and caeca. Thus, in the present study the flagellar structure and motility seemed to play a role in the early stages of the intestinal colonisation by Salmonella Enteritidis in the chicken.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella enteritidis/growth & development , Salmonella enteritidis/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Flagella/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella enteritidis/physiology , Salmonella enteritidis/genetics , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Virulence , Chickens , Flagella/genetics , Intestines/pathology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 764-768, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889184

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent for necrotic enteritis. It secretes the major virulence factors, and α- and NetB-toxins that are responsible for intestinal lesions. The TpeL toxin affects cell morphology by producing myonecrosis, but its role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis is unclear. In this study, the presence of netB and tpeL genes in C. perfringens type A strains isolated from chickens with necrotic enteritis, their cytotoxic effects and role in adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells were evaluated. Six (27.3%) of the 22 C. perfringens type A strains were harboring the tpeL gene and produced morphological alterations in Vero cells after 6 h of incubation. Strains tpeL (-) induced strong cell rounding after 6 h of incubation and produced cell enlargement. None of the 22 strains harbored netB gene. All the six tpeL (+) gene strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 cells; however, only four of them (66.6%) were invasive. Thus, these results suggest that the presence of tpeL gene or TpeL toxin might be required for the adherence of bacteria to HEp-2 cells; however, it could not have any role in the invasion process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium perfringens/physiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chickens , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/genetics
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 472-478, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.


Resumo A criação de galinhas no estilo colonial/caipira é baseada em padrões de alimentação de pastagem, o que as torna potenciais contaminantes ambientais de oocistos de Cryptosporidium para humanos e outros animais. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira. Um total de 351 amostras de fezes de frangos foram examinadas em 20 fazendas. Para a detecção de Cryptosporidium spp., os fragmentos do gene rRNA 18S foram amplificados utilizando-se a reação de nested-PCR. A prevalência global de Cryposporidium foi de 25,6% (IC 95% = 21,2% - 30,6%). O sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de três espécies que infectam aves: C. meleagridis em 57 (62,6%), C. baileyi em 15 (16,4%), C. parvum em 3 (3,2%) amostras, bem como, um novo genótipo de Cryptosporidium (C. genótipo BrPR1) foi identificado em 3 (3,2%) amostras. Cryptosporidium genotipo BrPR1 não foi ainda classificado como uma espécie, e seu espectro de hospedeiros é desconhecido. O presente trabalho permitiu concluir que Cryptosporidium, incluindo espécies zoonóticas, existe com alta prevalência em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira na região estudada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Molecular Epidemiology
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(11): 1213-1219, Nov. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-895353

ABSTRACT

In this study an Iron oxide/carbon nanocomposite from maize straw was prepared and was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, FTIR, TG/DTA and Surface area analyzer. The adsorbent was fed to different groups of poultry birds along with aflatoxin B1. Different physiological and blood parameters were monitored in order to study the efficacy of the prepared adsorbent for binding of aflatoxin B1 in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. It was found that adsorbent at dose of 0.3%/ kg feed was highly effective in detoxifying aflatoxin B1 in gastrointestinal tract of poultry birdswith no harmful effects. The high doses given to groups E and F; 0.4% and 0.5% respectively showed slight variation in tested parameters from group A. No negative symptoms associated with the use of activated carbon as previously reported were observed for the adsorbent under study.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/diet therapy , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/blood , Chickens , Aflatoxin B1/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1064-1068, out. 2017. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-895334

ABSTRACT

A comparative survey between non-systemic (paratyphoid Salmonellae) and systemic (S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum) Salmonella strains was performed to produce a virulence gene profile for differentiation among the groups. The following virulence genes were evaluated: invA, spvC, sefC, pefA, fimY, sopB, sopE1, stn and avrA. There are substantial differences among paratyphoid Salmonellae, S. Pullorum, and S. Gallinarum regarding the genes sefC, spvC, sopE1 and avrA. A higher frequency of sefC, spvC, sopE1 and avrA genes were detected in S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum when compared with strains from the paratyphoid group of Salmonella. These results may be useful for differentiating among different groups and serotypes.(AU)


Uma investigação comparativa entre amostras de Salmonella não-sistêmicas (grupo paratifoide) e sistêmicas (S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum) foi desenvolvida para produzir um perfil de genes de virulência para diferenciação entre os grupos. Os seguintes genes de virulência foram avaliados invA, spvC, sefC, pefA, fimY, sopB, sopE1, stn e avrA. Detectou-se uma diferença substancial entre Salmonella do grupo paratifoide, S. Pullorum e S. Gallinarum considerando os genes sefC, spvC, sopE1 e avrA. Os genes sefC, spvC, sopE1 e avrA foram detectados, em maior número, em S. Gallinarum e S. Pullorum quando comparados com as amostras de Salmonella do grupo paratifoide. Estes resultados podem ser úteis para a diferenciação entre os diferentes grupos e sorotipos de Salmonella.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella/genetics , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Chickens
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 221-225, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042440

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum from 629 chickens on 39 family farms in seven municipalities in the semiarid region, Pernambuco, Brazil, and to identify risk factors associated with T. gondii infection. The risk factors were studied in 421 samples from 29 farms. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were investigated by indirect fluorescent antibody test with a 1:16 cutoff. The frequency of positive chickens was 27.9% (176/629) and 94.8% of the farms studied had chickens infected by T. gondii. Multivariate analysis showed variables significantly associated with anti-T. gondii antibodies in serum: slaughter of animals on the farm, reproductive disorders in sheep, consumption of fetal adnexa and placentas by chickens, presence of sheep in the property and birth of sheep the property. The results suggest that there is a complex relationship between general management practices for different animal species raised on the same farm and the prevalence of T. gondii infection in chickens. In addition, the results draw attention to the risk of human infection by T. gondii via consumption of infected chicken meat, because the farming conditions and the low human development indices observed in the region studied result in inappropriate meat preparation practices.


Resumo Objetivou-se investigar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em 629 soros de galinha em 39 propriedades da agricultura familiar em sete municípios de Pernambuco, Brasil e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii empregou-se a reação de imunofluorescência indireta com ponto-de-corte 1:16. O estudo dos fatores de risco foi realizado em 29 propriedades, totalizando 421 amostras. A prevalência de aves positivas foi de 27,9% (176/629) e 94,8% das propriedades tinham galinhas infectadas por T. gondii. Na análise multivariada, obteve-se como variáveis significativas associadas com anticorpos anti-T. gondii a ocorrência de abate de animais na propriedade, relato de distúrbios reprodutivos em ovinos, ingestão de anexos fetais e placentas pelas galinhas, presença de ovinos na propriedade e nascimento de ovinos na propriedade. Os resultados sugerem relações complexas entre o manejo das espécies animais criados nas propriedades e a prevalência da infecção nas galinhas. Em adicional, chama-se atenção para o risco de infecção humana por T. gondii via consumo de carne de galinha infectada, uma vez que as condições de criação e os baixos índices de desenvolvimento observados na região resultam em inapropriada preparação da carne para consumo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/etiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chickens/immunology , Chickens/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/etiology , Poultry Diseases/blood , Poultry Diseases/transmission , Toxoplasma , Brazil , Sheep/parasitology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/transmission , Risk Factors
15.
Hig. aliment ; 31(266/267): 130-135, 30/04/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833408

ABSTRACT

A avicultura brasileira atualmente ocupa o terceiro lugar, com uma produção anual de aproximadamente, 10,9 milhões de toneladas de carne de frango. Contudo, severas perdas econômicas são relatadas, devido à coccidiose em granjas de frangos de corte, matrizes e postura. As Eimerias são classificadas como protozoários, sendo que os mesmos se multiplicam nas células intestinais diminuindo a absorção de nutrientes, levando à desidratação, perda de sangue e susceptibilidade para infecção por outros micro-organismos. Com o desenvolvimento da pesquisa objetivou-se determinar os índices de produtividade zootécnica (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, taxa de mortalidade e índice de eficiência produtiva) bem como, mensurar o nível residual do Diclazuril nos tecidos de frangos de corte, comparando com os padrões internacionais de Limites Máximos de Resíduos determinados pelo Codex Alimentarius. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se 624 frangos de corte, onde metade do grupo foi inoculado experimentalmente com E. acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. O estudo foi composto por grupos tratados e não tratados com diclazuril. O uso do diclazuril expressou efeito positivo, no desempenho zootécnico das aves inoculadas artificialmente; a análise residual do medicamento apresentou um período de carência zero, sendo considerada segura para alimentação humana a carne de frangos medicados com Diclazuril.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Eimeria/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry/microbiology , Coccidiosis/prevention & control
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0272015, 2017. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-887838

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) is a host-specific bacteria that causes the fowl typhoid (FT). This disease is highly pathogenic to commercial chickens, specially brown layers and breeders, causing acute septicemia followed by high morbidity and mortality. Vaccination is extensively adopted in the fields as a biosafety tool for prevention of isolated infections and outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks. The present study evaluated the use of an attenuated SG with deletions on genes cobS and cbiA (SGΔcobSΔcbiA) as a live vaccine, using vaccination schemes adjusted for field conditions. To this end, brown layers were used in two different experiments, to evaluate the long-term protection, necessary in the fields. The vaccination scheme on the first experiment consisted of two doses, the first at 4 th week-of-age and the booster dose at 8 th week-of-age with challenge at 16 th week-of-age with wild SG strain. On the second experiment, the vaccination was carried out by different routes using three doses of the live vaccine, at 4 th , 8 th and 12 th weeks-of-age, and the challenge was done at 20 th weeks-of-age. After the challenge, the mortality was recorded during 28 days, and the egg production (experiment 2) was evaluated and compared with the group of unvaccinated layers. In both experiments, the mortality was significantly reduced, and the egg production was not affected in vaccinated layer-hens. In summary, this study shows the efficacy and the protection of different vaccination schemes against FT that can be applied under field conditions in commercial poultry farms.(AU)


Salmonella enterica sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) é uma bactéria hospedeira específica que causa o tifo aviário (TA). Essa doença é altamente patogênica em aves comerciais, especialmente galinhas poedeiras de linhagem vermelha e aves reprodutoras pesadas, causando septicemia aguda, e consequentemente, alta morbidade e mortalidade. A vacinação é amplamente utilizada no campo como uma ferramenta de biossegurança para a prevenção de infecções isoladas e surtos nas granjas avícolas comerciais. O atual estudo avaliou o potencial vacinal de uma cepa viva atenuada de SG com deleções nos genes cobS e cbiA (SGΔcobSΔcbiA), utilizando esquemas de vacinação formulados para utilização em campo. Para isso, as galinhas poedeiras de linhagem vermelha foram utilizadas em dois experimentos diferentes, para avaliar a proteção a longo prazo, necessária no campo. O esquema de vacinação no primeiro experimento consistiu em duas doses, a primeira na quarta semana de vida e a dose de reforço na oitava, e o desafio na 16ª semana com a estirpe selvagem SG. No segundo experimento, a vacinação foi realizada por diferentes rotas usando três doses da vacina viva, na quarta, na oitava e na décima segunda semana de vida, e o desafio foi feito na 20ª semana de vida. Após o desafio, a mortalidade foi acompanhada por 28 dias, e no experimento 2 a produção de ovos também foi avaliada e comparada com o grupo de galinhas não vacinadas. Em ambos os experimentos, a mortalidade foi significativamente reduzida, e a produção de ovos não foi afetada nos grupos de galinhas poedeiras vacinadas. Este estudo mostra a eficácia da proteção dos diferentes programas de vacinação contra o TA, que podem ser aplicados em granjas comerciais em condições de campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases , Vaccination , Salmonella enterica , Eggs , Poultry
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 210-216, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775114

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Pasteurella multocida/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Virulence Factors/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poultry , Pasteurella Infections/microbiology , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Serotyping , Swine , Virulence Factors/genetics
18.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 83: e0282014, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1006561

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the transit of poultry, as well as the inspection on the outbreak of diseases, by addressing the issues concerning the system of the National Program on Poultry Sanity and its legal resolutions. The data on the animal transportation and the occurrence of the diseases were collected from the official services. A legislation-based assessment was also carried out for the period from 2008 to 2012 in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Results showed an intense transit of poultry in just about all towns of the state in the period under study, especially in chicken farms where less number of poultry is bred: from 5,000 to 15,000. Besides, 64% of poultry transportation was found to be intermunicipal. The state of Sergipe has received poultry particularly from the states of Pernambuco (49.87%), Bahia (20.85%), Minas Gerais (5.94%), Paraíba (5.16%), and Goiás (5.05%). The number of transit indicates an increase in transit over the years. In addition, three of six municipalities which saw these diseases (Estância, São Cristóvão and Itaporanga d'Ajuda) are responsible for a great part of the poultry transit. Results also showed that the majority of activities of the State Program on Poultry Sanity would be carried out in the municipalities where a larger poultry marketing flow takes place, thereby seeking to record a greater number of notifications on the diseases and, then, carry out the surveillance activities. Therefore, regarding the poultry transit, it is recommended to do a mapping of the risk regions for poultry diseases, as well as studies about the epidemiological characterization of the municipalities of the state of Sergipe.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o trânsito de aves, sua fiscalização e o surgimento de enfermidades, abordando questões referentes ao sistema do Programa Nacional de Sanidade Avícola e suas determinações legais. Dessa forma, compilaram-se dados do serviço oficial sobre o trânsito dos animais e a ocorrência de doenças, realizando-se também uma avaliação da legislação vigente entre 2008 e 2012, no estado do Sergipe. Observou-se no período averiguado um intenso trânsito de aves em quase toda a totalidade dos municípios, principalmente entre granjas que alojam pequenas quantidades de aves (5.000 a 15.000), e 64% do total do transporte de aves ocorreu entre municípios do Estado. Os estados fornecedores de aves para Sergipe foram sobretudo Pernambuco (49,87%), Bahia (20,85%), Minas Gerais (5,94%), Paraíba (5,16%) e Goiás (5,05%). O número de guias de trânsito emitidas aponta um crescimento do trânsito ao longo dos anos. Verificaram-se que três municípios (Estância, São Cristóvão e Itaporanga d'Ajuda), dos seis acometidos por enfermidades, são aqueles responsáveis por grande parte do trânsito realizado. O estudo mostrou que para os municípios sergipanos, nos quais acontece maior fluxo de comercialização avícola, seriam indicadas mais das ações do Programa Estadual de Sanidade Avícola, com a finalidade de registrar maior número de notificações de enfermidades e, consequentemente, exercer ações de vigilância. Assim, quanto ao trânsito animal, recomendam-se a adoção de um mapeamento das regiões de risco sanitário para as enfermidades de aves e a realização de estudos sobre a caracterização epidemiológica dos municípios de Sergipe.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Health Surveillance , Sanitary Supervision , Legislation as Topic , Poultry Diseases , Brazil
19.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 39-45, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296219

ABSTRACT

Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-induced RNA degradation can inhibit viral infection, and has been investigated extensively for its efficacy as antiviral therapy. The potential therapeutic role of lentiviral-mediated short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) replication in vivo has been explored less often. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against the phosphoprotein (P) of the NDV, RNAi-341 and RNAi-671. Recombinant shRNA lentivirus vectors were co-transfected into 293T cells, along with helper plasmids, to package the recombinant shRNA lentivirus. Lentivirus-based shRNAs were titrated and transduced into NDV-susceptible chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chick embryos. Antiviral activity against the NDV strain was evaluated by virus titration and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 strongly suppressed transient expression of a FLAG-tagged P fusion protein in 293T cells. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 NDV reduced virus titers by 66.6-fold and 30.6-fold, respectively, in CEFs 16 h after infection. RNAi-341 and RNAi-671 reduced virus titers in specific pathogen-free chick embryos by 99% and 98%, respectively, 48 h after infection. Both shRNAs inhibited accumulation of not only P-gene mRNA, but also nucleocapsid, M-, F-, HN-, and L-gene mRNA. RNAi-341 silenced P-gene mRNA more potently than RNAi-671. These results suggest that shRNAs silencing the P gene had substantial antiviral properties and inhibited NDV replication in CEFs and chick embryos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Down-Regulation , Fibroblasts , Virology , Gene Targeting , Lentivirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Newcastle Disease , Virology , Newcastle disease virus , Genetics , Physiology , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Poultry Diseases , Virology , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Virus Replication
20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 46-55, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296218

ABSTRACT

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates. We found that pheasants and quails were infected under the selective pressure that accumulates stepwise in different hosts, and that ducks were not infected. Infection rates for SPF chickens and turkeys were 100% (16/16), whereas those for pheasants and quails were 37.5% (6/16) and 11.1% (3/27). Infected hosts showed immune tolerance, and inflammation and tissue damage could be seen in the liver, spleen, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Non-synonymous mutation and synonymous ratio (NS/S) analyses revealed the NS/S in hypervariable region (hr) 2 of pheasants and quails was 2.5. That finding suggested that mutation of isolates in pheasants and quails was induced by selective pressure from the resistant host, and that the hr2 region is a critical domain in cross-species transmission of ALV-J. Sequencing showed that ALV-J isolates from turkeys, pheasants and quails had moved away from the original virus, and were closer to the ALV-J prototype strain HPRS-103. However, the HPRS-103 strain cannot infect pheasants and quails, so further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Avian Leukosis , Virology , Avian Leukosis Virus , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Chickens , Ducks , Virology , Galliformes , Virology , Host Specificity , Molecular Sequence Data , Poultry Diseases , Virology , Quail , Virology , Sequence Alignment , Turkeys , Virology , Viral Envelope Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism
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