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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06968, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356557

ABSTRACT

Coccidiosis is a disease of great importance in industrial poultry. The correct diagnosis directs the poultry industry to its best treatment and control. Thus, a survey of Eimeria spp. was carried out in intestines of 64 broiler flocks, with an average age of 29 days. Eight broilers from each flock were randomly removed from the slaughter line, in a total of 512 samples. Macroscopic and histopathological lesions in the intestine were classified into Scores 0 to 4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to research the oocysts from the seven species of Eimeria spp. in the intestinal content. The macroscopic evaluations showed that 59.4% (38/64) of the flocks were positive for E. acervulina, 32.8% (21/64) for E. maxima, 29.7% (19/64) for E. tenella, and 34.4% (22/64) for E. brunetti. The histopathological evaluation showed that 87.5% (56/64) of the flocks had at least one broiler with parasitic structures compatible with Eimeria spp. in the duodenum, 70.3% (45/64) in the jejunum, 18.8% (12/64) in the ileum, 46.9% (30/64) in the cecum, and 4.7% (3/64) in the colon. In PCR, 21.9% (14/64) of the flocks were positive for E. acervulina, 12.5% (8/64) for E. maxima, 3.1% (2/64) for E. mitis, and 32.8% (21/64) for E. tenella. The Kappa Cohen test between macroscopy, histopathology, and PCR demonstrated concordance ranging from weak to moderate with the exception of histopathology and PCR of the cecum, which was strong. In the comparison between macroscopy and histopathology, there were significative differences between Scores 0 and 1 (apart from the cecum). For Score 3, there were significative differences in duodenum, jejunum and cecum (p<0.05). In conclusion, the macroscopic diagnosis and PCR can generate false-negative results, and the histopathological exam proved to be effective, making it essential to associate different techniques for the correct diagnosis of Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens.(AU)


A coccidiose é uma doença de grande importância na avicultura industrial. O diagnóstico correto direciona a indústria avícola ao seu melhor tratamento e controle. Desta forma, realizou-se a pesquisa de Eimeria spp. em intestinos de 64 lotes de frangos de corte, com idade média de 29 dias. Em cada lote foram retirados aleatoriamente oito frangos da linha de abate, totalizando 512. Os intestinos foram classificados na macroscopia e na histopatologia em Grau de 0 a 4. No conteúdo intestinal pesquisou-se por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) oocistos das sete espécies de Eimeria. As avaliações macroscópicas demonstraram que 59,4% (38/64) dos lotes foram positivos para E. acervulina, 32,8% (21/64) para E. maxima, 29,7% (19/64) para E. tenella e 34,4% (22/64) para E. brunetti. Na avaliação histopatológica, 87,5% (56/64) dos lotes apresentaram pelo menos um frango com estruturas parasitárias compatíveis com Eimeria spp. no duodeno, 70,3% (45/64) no jejuno, 18,8% (12/64) no íleo, 46,9% (30/64) no ceco e 4,7% (3/64) no cólon. Na PCR 21,9% (14/64) dos lotes foram positivos para E. acervulina, 12,5% (8/64) para E. maxima, 3,1% (2/64) para E. mitis e 32,8% (21/64) para E. tenella. O teste de concordância de Kappa Cohen entre macroscopia, histopatologia e PCR demonstrou concordância variando de fraca a moderada com exceção da histopatologia e PCR do ceco que foi forte. Na comparação dos graus de macroscopia e histopatologia, foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre o Grau 0 e 1 (exceto no ceco) e no Grau 3 houve diferença para duodeno, jejuno e cecos (p<0,05). Conclui-se que o diagnóstico macroscópico e a PCR podem gerar resultados falsos negativos e que o exame histopatológico se demostrou eficaz, tornando fundamental a associação de diferentes técnicas para o correto diagnóstico de Eimeria spp. em frangos de corte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Chickens/parasitology , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/pathology , Eimeria , Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e020319, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138061

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the avian used for human consumption, the Muscovy duck is well adapted to various climatic conditions and its breeding is widespread due to its easy handling, and its meat is widely consumed and appreciated, especially in the cuisine of northern Brazil. The present study aimed to report and identify taxonomically the nematodes found in the esophagus of Muscovy ducks reared and marketed in the municipality of Soure, Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, and discuss its zoonotic potential to human. The samples consisted of 30 specimens of Cairina moschata domestica analyzed. A total of 258 nematodes were recovered, which were strongly fixed in the esophageal mucosa of hosts. The morphological and morphometric characteristics were compatible with Anisakis third-stage larvae.


Resumo Entre as aves utilizadas para consumo humano, o pato doméstico está bem adaptado às várias condições climáticas. Sua criação é muito difundida devido ao seu fácil manejo. E sua carne é amplamente consumida e apreciada, principalmente na culinária do norte do Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo relatar e identificar taxonomicamente os nematódeos encontrados no esôfago de patos domésticos, criados e comercializados no município de Soure, Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. E também discutir o seu potencial zoonótico para o homem. As amostras consistiram em 30 espécimes de Cairina moschata domestica analisados. Um total de 258 nematódeos foram recuperados, fortemente fixados na mucosa esofágica dos hospedeiros. As características morfológicas e morfométricas foram compatíveis com as larvas de terceiro estágio de Anisakis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Anisakis/classification , Ducks/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/transmission , Brazil , Food Parasitology , Anisakis/isolation & purification , Anisakis/anatomy & histology , Esophagus/parasitology , Larva
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e014120, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138133

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease, which is prevalent across the world and has a strong environmental component in its transmission chain. The present study determined the seroprevalence and factors related to Toxoplasma gondii infection among free-range chickens from an Atlantic Forest area in Northeastern Brazil. A total of 550 free-range chickens were tested for T. gondii antibodies usingthe indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, cut-off point 1:16), and 269 (48.9%; 95% CI = 44.7-53.1%) were positive. Among the 61 properties 57 (93.4%) had at least one seropositive animal. The robust Poisson regression model showed that the variables/categories associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii were: region of origin of the animals/urban area (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.346; P<0.001), management system/use of cages (PR = 1.591; P = 0.019), presence of rodents/yes (PR = 1.295; P = 0.035), and the type of food/use of food scraps (PR = 1.603; P = 0.009). The high prevalence found suggest that this scenario demands careful management, mainly regarding the use of scraps of undercooked or raw food, adequate environmental hygiene and frequent rodentcontrol.


Resumo A toxoplasmose é uma doença parasitária mundial com um forte componente ambiental em sua cadeia de transmissão. Nesta pesquisa, foram determinados a soroprevalência e os fatores associados em galinhas caipiras de uma área de Mata Atlântica no Nordeste do Brasil. Um total de 550 galinhas caipiras foi testado para anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunfluorescência indireta (RIFI) com ponto de corte de 1:16, e 269 (48,9%; IC95% = 44,7- 53,1%) foram positivas. Das 61 propriedades visitadas, 57 (93,4%) apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo. O modelo de regressão de Poisson robusta mostrou que as variáveis/categorias associadas à soroprevalência de T. gondii foram: origem dos animais/área urbana (razão de prevalência - RP = 2,346; P<0,001), sistema de manejo/uso de gaiolas (RP = 1,591; P = 0,019), presença de roedores/sim (RP = 1,295; P = 0,035), e tipo de alimento/uso de sobras de alimentos (RP = 1,603; P = 0,009). A alta prevalência sugereque este cenário demanda cuidados de manejo, principalmente no que se refere ao fornecimento de sobras de alimentos mal cozidos ou crus, higiene adequada do meio ambiente e controle frequente de roedores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Chickens/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Forests , Chickens/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 384-389, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii presents a high prevalence worldwide, infecting several animals. Felines are considered the definitive hosts and among the intermediate hosts we highlight mammals and birds. The man can become infected by ingesting tissue cysts present in birds and mammals. Biological and molecular aspects of T. gondii allows a better understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. This work is a serologic screening of 58 chickens grown (Gallus gallus domesticus) for human consumption in Espírito Santo State, by means of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). Thirteen chickens tested positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The heart and brain of five positive chickens were harvested, treated with pepsin and inoculated separately, in two Swiss mice, intraperitoneally. Tachyzoites were observed in the peritoneum of all the animals, between seven and 10 days after the inoculum. Ten isolates were obtained and biologically characterised in BALB/c mice inoculated with 101 to 104 tachyzoites. All isolates were classified as virulent or intermediately virulent. Isolates were genotyped by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, revealing three different genotypes. None of the isolates exhibited the clonal type I, II or III genotype. No genotypic differences were observed between the isolates from the brain or heart from the same bird.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii apresenta alta prevalência mundial, capaz de infectar diversos animais. Felinos são considerados os hospedeiros definitivos e entre os hospedeiros intermediários destacamos os mamíferos e as aves. O homem pode se infectar ingerindo cistos teciduais presentes na carne das aves e mamíferos. O conhecimento dos aspectos biológicos e moleculares do parasito possibilitam melhor entendimento da epidemiologia da toxoplasmose. Neste trabalho foi realizada triagem sorológica por hemaglutinação indireta (HI) em 58 galinhas caipiras (Gallus gallus domesticus) utilizadas para consumo humano, provenientes do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Treze galinhas apresentaram sorologia positiva para T. gondii. O coração e o cérebro de cinco galinhas positivas foram colhidos, tratados com pepsina e inoculados separadamente, em dois camundongos Swiss, por via intraperitoneal. Observou-se taquizoítos no peritônio de todos os camundongos, entre sete e 10 dias após o inóculo. Foram obtidos 10 novos isolados de T. gondii os quais foram estudados em camundongos BALB/C inoculados com 101 a 104 taquizoítos por animal. Todos os isolados foram considerados virulentos ou de virulência intermediária. A caracterização molecular dos isolados, realizada por PCR-RFLP, demonstrou a ocorrência de três genótipos distintos. Nenhum isolado apresentou genótipo clonal ou linhagem clonal do Brasil. Não foi observada diferença molecular (PCR-RFLP) entre os isolados obtidos a partir do cérebro ou do coração da mesma ave. Dois isolados já haviam sido relatados na literatura como causadores de doenças em humanos.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chickens/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasma/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Agglutination Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Genotype , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 472-478, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rearing free-range chicken is based on grazing feeding patterns, and these animals could be potential environmental contaminants of Cryptosporidium oocysts for humans and other animals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-range chickens from Brazil. A total of 351 fecal samples from chickens were examined from 20 farms. For detection of Cryptosporidium spp., 18S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using a nested PCR reaction. Positive samples were sent for sequencing. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 25.6% (95% CI = 21.2% - 30.6%). Sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed for the identification of three species: C. meleagridis in 57 (62.6%), C. baileyi in 15 (16.4%), C. parvum in 3 (3.2%) samples, and a new Cryptosporidium genotype (C. genotype BrPR1) in 3 (3.2%) samples. Cryptosporidium genotype BrPR1 has not yet been classified as a species, and its host spectrum is not known. Cryptosporidium, including zoonotic species, exists at a high prevalence in free-range chickens within the region studied.


Resumo A criação de galinhas no estilo colonial/caipira é baseada em padrões de alimentação de pastagem, o que as torna potenciais contaminantes ambientais de oocistos de Cryptosporidium para humanos e outros animais. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira. Um total de 351 amostras de fezes de frangos foram examinadas em 20 fazendas. Para a detecção de Cryptosporidium spp., os fragmentos do gene rRNA 18S foram amplificados utilizando-se a reação de nested-PCR. A prevalência global de Cryposporidium foi de 25,6% (IC 95% = 21,2% - 30,6%). O sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de três espécies que infectam aves: C. meleagridis em 57 (62,6%), C. baileyi em 15 (16,4%), C. parvum em 3 (3,2%) amostras, bem como, um novo genótipo de Cryptosporidium (C. genótipo BrPR1) foi identificado em 3 (3,2%) amostras. Cryptosporidium genotipo BrPR1 não foi ainda classificado como uma espécie, e seu espectro de hospedeiros é desconhecido. O presente trabalho permitiu concluir que Cryptosporidium, incluindo espécies zoonóticas, existe com alta prevalência em galinhas criadas em sistema colonial/caipira na região estudada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Molecular Epidemiology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(5): 466-469, May 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759380

ABSTRACT

Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia (Paratanaisia)bragai Santos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragai is considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death...


Os trematódeos da família Eucotylidae, incluindo Tanaisia (Paratanaisia)bragai Santos, 1934, são parasitos de rins e ureteres de várias espécies de aves domésticas e silvestres. Tanaisia bragai é considerada uma espécie pouco patogênica, mas que pode determinar complicações clínicas como apatia, perda de peso, diarreia e morte, quando em cargas parasitárias elevadas...


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Trematoda/parasitology , Parasitology/methods , Parasite Load/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Parasites/parasitology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51157

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the infection status, worm development, and phylogenetic characteristics of the intestinal trematode, Stellantchasmus falcatus. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected only in the half-beak (Dermogenus pusillus) out of the 4 fish species examined. Their prevalence was 90.0%, and the intensity of infection was 919 metacercariae on average. Worms were recovered from 33 (97.1%) of 34 chicks that were experimentally infected with 200 S. falcatus metacercariae each, and the average recovery rate was 43.0%. The body size and inner organs of S. falcatus quickly increased in the experimental chicks over days 1-2 post-infection (PI). In addition, ITS2 sequence data of this parasite were analyzed to examine the phylogenetic relationships with other trematodes using the UPGMA method. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence data recorded from trematodes in the family Heterophyidae appeared to be monophyletic. This study concluded that D. pusillus serves as a compatible second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Thailand and that S. falcatus can develop rapidly in the experimental chicks. Data collected from this study can help to close the gap in knowledge regarding the epidemiology, biology, and phylogenetic characteristics of S. falcatus in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Heterophyidae/classification , Metacercariae/classification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Thailand , Trematode Infections/parasitology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162933

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp contamination in the Jamaican poultry industry and its environments. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 farms across 6 Jamaican parishes were selected for this study. A total of 6693 specimens from animals and the environment were investigated for the presence of Salmonella spp. All specimens were placed in an igloo with ice packs and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Bacteriological media obtained from Difco Laboratories Detroit MI U.S.A were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. Salmonella serological typing was performed to determine the Salmonella serovar by standard procedures. Results: This study revealed a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination/infection in both small and large entities in the poultry industry in Jamaica. The overall prevalence was 1 % (79 positive out of 6693 specimens). However, a higher prevalence of Salmonella was observed in the case of those operations which practiced “organic” poultry farming. It was shown that two Salmonella serovars including Augustenborg and Kentucky, identified during the study, are newly reported serovars in Jamaica. The sources of Salmonella infection varied from poultry itself to other species, such as rodents, pigs and insects. Improper disposal of broken eggs, wet bedding and other fomites contributed to Salmonella contamination. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate possibility of salmonellosis (zoonosis) in Jamaica, although the prevalence of Salmonella spp was low, and the need for improved quality of the food industry, animal care and human health to prevent salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Jamaica , Poultry/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Prevalence , Salmonella/epidemiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 119-123, Jan.-Mar. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-671596

ABSTRACT

This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin). It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p < 0.05) used in remedies against external parasites in poultry. Other traditional recipes such as palm oil and ash have been reported.


Este estudo é uma contribuição ao inventário de plantas curativas e outros métodos endógenos usados no combate aos ectoparasitos de pássaros de currais nas aldeias de Djougou e Ouaké (departamento do Donga, em Benin). A pesquisa foi conduzida entre dezembro de 2010 e março de 2011, durante visitas e entrevistas com 210 criadores de aves. Os resultados indicam que 13 espécies de plantas curativas são utilizadas no combate aos ectoparasitos. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica e Parkia biglobosa, são usadas para tratar uma doença parasitária externa na área de estudo. Annona senegalensis foi a planta mais frequentemente usada (18%, p < 0.05) como medicação contra os parasitas externos das aves. Outras receitas tradicionais como o óleo de palma e a cinza tem sido comunicadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Phytotherapy/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal , Benin , Ectoparasitic Infestations/prevention & control
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86986

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the distribution patterns and duration of stay of Toxocara cati larvae in organs of chickens and to investigate chronic phase and potential zoonotic risk of toxocariasis in chickens. Chickens were orally infected with 1,000 embryonated T. cati eggs and necropsied 240 days post-infection. Organs of the chickens were examined at gross and microscopic levels; tissues were digested to recover larvae. Peribronchiolitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, and hyperplasia of bronchiolar associated lymphatic tissues (BALT) and goblet cells, were evident in the lungs of infected chickens. There were mild hemorrhages and infiltration of lymphocytes and a few eosinophils in the meninges. Larvae were recovered from 30% of the exposed chickens. Larvae recovery indicated that T. cati larvae stay alive for at least 240 days in the chicken brain. Therefore, chickens may potentially act as a paratenic host in nature and transfer T. cati larvae to other hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/pathology , Chickens , Larva/physiology , Longevity , Lung/pathology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Toxascariasis/pathology , Toxocara/pathogenicity
11.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2009; 3 (2): 18-21
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-101162

ABSTRACT

Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds' cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus burs. Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Chickens/parasitology , Housing, Animal , Environment , Bird Diseases , Poultry Diseases/parasitology
12.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2009; 4 (4): 29-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-101342

ABSTRACT

As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens[Gallu gallus domesticus] in Shiraz, southern Iran. Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster random sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique [IFAT]. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically significant. Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 [1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds] and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver [27 out of 29] and the lowest was the heart [16 out of 29] [alpha =0.05, P=0.002]. None of the seronegative chickens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 [as cut off point] were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be important sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Allocation
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 17(4): 175-178, out.-dez. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-606743

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2" percent is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.


O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de um produto à base de extrato de nim, no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum em poedeiras comerciais. O experimento foi realizado observando-se a eficácia do extrato de nim a 2 por cento após duas, três e quatro aplicações com intervalo de sete dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o extrato de nim a 2 por cento é efetivo no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum, sendo necessárias pelo menos três pulverizações semanais do produto para que haja o controle efetivo do parasito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azadirachta , Acari/physiology , Chickens/parasitology , Plant Extracts , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Communicable Disease Control/methods
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36287

ABSTRACT

Eimeria (E.) tenella (local isolate) sporozoites were adapted on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-12 days chicken embryos and completed its life cycle in 6~7 days at 39 degrees C and 70 per cent humidity. Only 23 embryos (4.6%) were found dead from 1~4 day post inoculation of sporozoites with mild lesions on CAM with no gametocytes but few sporozoites in chorioallantoic fluid (CAF). On 5~7 day post inoculation, 432 embryos (86.4%) were found dead with severe haemorrhages on CAM and CAF contained uncountable number of gametocytes. After seven days post inoculation, 45 embryos (9%) were found to be alive. Some oocysts were also detected in the CAF on 6~7 days post inoculation. In the histological sections of the CAM, there were abundant small dark colored rounded bodies of gametes; distributed extensively in tissues of CAM on 5~7 days post inoculation of sporozoites. In some cases, cluster of small mature and immature relatively large bodies were seen in increasing numbers on 5~6 days post inoculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane/parasitology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Eimeria tenella , Histocytochemistry , Poultry Diseases/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79787

ABSTRACT

Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoan infection of poultry seriously impairing the growth and feed utilization of infected animals. Conventional disease control strategies have relied on prophylactic medication. Due to the continual emergence of drug resistant parasites in the field and increasing incidence of broiler condemnations due to coccidia, novel approaches are urgently needed to reduce economic losses. Understanding the basic biology of host-parasite interactions and protective intestinal immune mechanisms, as well as characterization of host and parasite genes and proteins involved in eliciting protective host responses are crucial for the development of new control strategy. This review will highlight recent developments in coccidiosis research with special emphasis on the utilization of cutting edge techniques in molecular/cell biology, immunology, and functional genomics in coccidia vaccine development. The information will enhance our understanding of host-parasite biology, mucosal immunology, and host and parasite genomics in the development of a practical and effective control strategy against Eimeria and design of nutritional interventions to maximize growth under the stress caused by vaccination or infection. Furthermore, successful identification of quantitative economic traits associated with disease resistance to coccidiosis will provide poultry breeders with a novel selection strategy for development of genetically stable, coccidiosis-resistant chickens, thereby increasing the production efficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biotechnology/methods , Chickens , Coccidiosis , Eimeria/immunology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Protozoan Vaccines
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7146

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to determine the viability and infectivity of oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi that had been stored from 1 to 40 months at 4 degrees C preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Oocysts of C. baileyi were purified from the feces of experimentally infected chickens using discontinuous sucrose gradients. Subsequently, the purified oocysts were suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution at a concentration of 1 x 10 (7) organism/ml, and their viabilities were assessed by nucleic acid staining, histologic examination, and infectivity to 2-day-old chickens. All chickens inoculated with oocysts that had been stored for 1-18 months developed patent infections, while chickens infected with older oocysts remained uninfected. Between 5.8% and 82.2% of the oocysts, stored at 4 degrees C in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution, were found to be viable, as determined by nucleic acid staining. Parasite colonization in the bursa of Fabricius was detected in the microvillus border of bursal epithelium. The finding that C. baileyi oocysts remain infective to chickens for at least 18 months offers important time-saving advantages to investigators who frequently require large numbers of oocysts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/parasitology , Chickens/parasitology , Coloring Agents , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/drug effects , Feces/parasitology , Oocysts/drug effects , Organic Chemicals , Potassium Dichromate/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Preservation, Biological/methods , Staining and Labeling
17.
Vet. Méx ; 30(4): 285-8, oct.-dic. 1999. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-266731

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se describen observaciones realizadas durante un experimento diseñado para estudiar el comportamiento de los leucocitos polimorfonucleares en infecciones con E. tenella en pollos tratados con 5-FU como agente granulocitopénico. Ciento veinte pollitos de engorda fueron asignados en 4 grupos con 30 pollitos cada uno: 1) testigo blanco, 2) tratado con 200 mg/kg de peso de 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU), 3) infectado oralmente con 500 ooquistes esporulados de Eimera tenella y 4) infectado con E tenella después del tratamiento con 5-FU. Se administró E. tenella a 5 pollos de cada grupo a los días: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 y 12 días posinoculación con 5-FU (17 días de edad). Siete días posinfección con E. Tenella se tomaron muestras de tejidos de varios órganos, para su estudio histológico. Se observaron coccidias en diferentes estado de desarrollo en 25 y 24 pollos en los grupos 3 y 4, respectivamente. Se observó hiperplasia epitelial moderada a severa, infiltrado mononuclear en el subepitelio, y algunos quistes intraepiteliales, que fueron asociados con la presencia del parásito. Este hallazgo muestra que bajo ciertas circunstancias E. tenella es capaz no sólo de invadir el epitelio de la bolsa de Fabricio, sino tambien de desarrollarse en él


Subject(s)
Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/parasitology , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/parasitology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Coccidiosis/pathology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Chickens/parasitology
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