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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 80-89, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339325

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study identified charcoal-based dentifrices and abrasive powders sold in Brazil and analyzed their label information. The products were searched in four online shopping platforms. The same products were searched on Instagram and their engagement metrics were investigated. Furthermore, a literature review of international publications assessing charcoal dentifrices and powders was conducted, and altmetrics were collected (Altmetric and PlumX). Thirty-six products were found with prices between $0.4-22 USD. Most frequent words in product description were sodium, stain, whitening, oil, xylitol, and coconut. Only 3 products contained fluoride. Bactericidal, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities were indicated, in addition to non-scientific claims such as calming teeth or increasing oral immunity. In total, 72% of products had Instagram profiles, which generally showed low engagement rates (81%) and medium audience quality scores (65%). Twenty-two articles were found in the literature, from which 21 were in vitro studies. The single clinical study was sponsored by a charcoal product and had no control group. In total, 23% of studies showed positive results and 55% reported negative results for the charcoal products, which included no whitening ability, increased roughness, surface alterations, and lower demineralization prevention ability. Altmetric scores for the included articles varied from 0 to 55, with 40.9% of studies mentioned online. In conclusion, charcoal-based products are using marketing strategies on Instagram but their current engagement with the public is not high. Consumers are being exposed to charcoal products whose potential risks to health are still unknown.


Resumo Este estudo identificou dentifrícios e pós abrasivos de carvão vendidos no Brasil e analisou suas informações de rótulo. Os produtos foram pesquisados em quatro plataformas de compras online. Os mesmos produtos foram pesquisados no Instagram e métricas de engajamento dos perfis foram investigadas. Além disso, foi realizada uma revisão da literatura buscando publicações internacionais que avaliaram dentifrícios e pós de carvão; dados de altmetria foram coletados (Altmetric e PlumX). Foram encontrados 36 produtos com preços entre US$ 0,4-22. As palavras mais frequentes na descrição dos produtos foram sódio, mancha, clareamento, óleo, xilitol e coco. Apenas 3 produtos continham flúor. Foram indicadas atividades bactericidas, antivirais, antifúngicas e anti-inflamatórias, além de alegações não-científicas como acalmar dentes ou aumentar a imunidade oral. No total, 72% dos produtos tinham perfis no Instagram, que geralmente apresentavam baixas taxas de engajamento (81%) e média qualidade de audiência (65%). Vinte e dois artigos foram encontrados na literatura, dos quais 21 foram estudos in vitro. O único estudo clínico foi patrocinado por um produto de carvão e não tinha grupo controle. No total, 23% dos estudos apresentaram resultados positivos e 55% relataram resultados negativos para os produtos de carvão, que incluíram incapacidade de clareamento, aumento da rugosidade, alterações superficiais e menor capacidade de prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. A altmetria dos artigos incluídos variou de 0 a 55, com 40,9% dos estudos sendo mencionados online. Em conclusão, os produtos à base de carvão estão usando estratégias de marketing no Instagram, mas seu engajamento atual com o público não é alto. Consumidores estão sendo expostos a produtos de carvão cujos potenciais riscos à saúde ainda são desconhecidos


Subject(s)
Humans , Charcoal , Dentifrices , Powders , Brazil
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879076

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of Dendrobium officinale in LPS-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Forty SPF-grade C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into normal group(NC), model group(LPS), and two superfine powder groups of Dendrobium officinale(DOF)(DOF-L, 0.30 g·kg~(-1)and DOF-H, 0.60 g·kg~(-1), respectively), with 10 mice in each group. DOF superfine powder suspension was given via oral administration to mice for 7 days, while the mice in NC and LPS groups received the same volume of saline for 7 days. On the eighth day, the mice in LPS group and DOF treatment groups were injected with LPS(5 mg·kg~(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection to establish the intestinal mucosal injury model, while the mice in NC group were injected with the same volume of sterile saline in the same manner. Six hours after injection with LPS or saline, plasma and the intestinal tissue were collected. The diamine oxidase(DAO) and D-lactate levels in plasma were detected with a biochemical method. The levels of proinflammatory factors interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in plasma were detected by ELISA. The histomorphology and ultrastructure of mouse ileum tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining in optical microscope and transmission electron microscope(TEM). The expression and distribution of tight junction(TJ) proteins claudin-1, occludin and F4/80 were detected by immunohistochemistry while the protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4) and nuclear factor kappa B p65(NF-κB p65) in jejunum were detected by Western blot. The experimental results showed that continuous intragastric administration of D. officinale superfine powder for 7 days obviously alleviated the damage and ultrastructural changes of intestinal mucosa induced by LPS; significantly decreased DAO and D-lactate levels in plasma in model group(P<0.05); up-regulated the protein expression of claudin-1 and occludin in ileum tissues; down-regulated the protein expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB p65 in jejunum tissues(P<0.01); significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in plasma(P<0.05); and decreased the infiltration of F4/80~+ macrophage cells. Our results suggested that D. officinale had significant protective effects on LPS-induced intestinal mucosal damage and reduced intestinal permeability. The mechanism might be related to its effects of inhibiting inflammation via TLR-4/NF-κB p65, and up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendrobium , Intestinal Mucosa , Lipopolysaccharides , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B , Powders , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879075

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii officinalis, with a definite effect of nourishing Yin and clearing heat, has been a folk habit for drinking after being mixed with water. Because its superfine powder has the advantages of high dissolution and convenient drinking, we observed the effect of D. officinalis superfine powder on metabolic hypertension model rats and its possible mechanism in this experiment, which can be used as a reference for its clinical application for hypertension. The overeating greasy-induced metabolic hypertension model was established with high-fat, high-sugar and high-purine diet. These rats were orally administered with 400 mg·kg~(-1) and 200 mg·kg~(-1) of D. officinalis superfine powder for 20 consecutive weeks. During this period, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, insulin and other related indexes of glucose and lipid metabolism were monitored; the levels of lipopolysaccharide(LPS), C-reactive protein(CRP), interleukin 6(IL-6) and other inflammatory mediators were measured; the levels of nitric oxide(NO) and endothelin-1(ET-1) were detected, and the histomorphological and ultrastructural changes of aorta were observed. In addition, the expression of LPS/TLR4 pathway-related molecules in aorta was determined. The results showed that long-term administration of D. officinalis superfine powder significantly reduced the levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and mean arterial pressure(MBP) in metabolic hypertension model rats, decreased the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), glucose(Glu), and insulin(INS) levels in blood, increased the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c),decreased the LPS, CRP, IL-6 and ET-1 levels in blood and increased NO content. Furthermore, it improved the abnormality of aortic histomorphology and endothelial ultrastructure, and inhibited the protein expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor(MyD88), IL-6, interleukin-1 β(IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in aorta. In conclusion, D. officinalis superfine powder may improve the abnormal function and structure of blood vessels by inhibiting the activation of LPS/TLR4 pathway, thus playing a role against metabolic hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendrobium/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hyperphagia , Hypertension/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Powders , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879074

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicine for nourishing Yin and benefiting stomach. Its superfine powder has many advantages, such as good dissolution, high utilization rate, strong integrity and easy to use. However, the researches on effect of D. officinale superfine powder on stomach Yin deficiency model are still not sufficient. In this experiment, we explored the effect of D. officinale superfine powder in mice model with stomach Yin deficiency caused by "spicy overeating", and provided certain reference value for its application in gastrointestinal diseases. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Yiweitang group, omeprazole group, and D. officinale superfine powder high, medium and low dose groups. The mixture of wine and pepper liquid was given by gavage administration for 30 d, and the corresponding drug was given for 60 d while the model was conti-nued. The body weight, food intake, water intake, fecal moisture content and particle number, foot temperature of mice were measured. The levels of serum gastrin(Gas), motilin(MTL) and somatostatin(SS) were measured by ELISA. Gastric histomorpho-logy was observed by HE staining. The expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) were determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) in gastric tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that D. officinale superfine powder could increase the food intake, water intake, fecal moisture content and particle number, reduce the foot temperature, improve the pathological changes of gastric mucosa, reduce the expression of NF-κB, COX-2 protein in gastric tissues, and increase the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. D. officinale superfine powder can "nourish Yin and benefit the stomach", improve the syndrome of stomach Yin deficiency, such as "hunger but not want to eat, dry mouth but not want to drink, hand and feet hot, constipation", and reduce the damage of gastric mucosa. The mechanism may be related to regulating the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, inhibiting the inflammation of gastric tissues and promoting the apoptosis of abnormal cells in gastric tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendrobium , Hyperphagia , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Powders , Stomach , Yin Deficiency
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879072

ABSTRACT

The physical properties of powder and granules are the critical quality attributes for the process control of Suhuang Zhike Capsules, a big brand traditional Chinese medicine. This paper took the production of 25 batches of real-world Suhuang Zhike Capsules dry extract powder and granules intermediates as the research object. Firstly, a method for testing the physical properties of Suhuang Zhike Capsules powder and granules with 19 physical indicators was established. The results showed that the granules of dry extract powder after granulation had a smaller particle size, wider particle size distribution range and poor fluidity, which easily caused the problem of over-limit capsule loading. Secondly, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for mathematical statistics. The correlation analysis showed that the density of dry extract powder could affect the chroma and fluidity. At the same time, the particle size in the granules had a stronger effect on the chroma and fluidity than the density. The study also found that the particle size and hygroscopicity of dry extract powder were potentially key physical properties that affected the physical properties of granules. Furthermore, the results of principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed that the consistency of the physical properties between the dry extract powder and intermediate granules was relatively poor. To this end, similarity analysis was carried out, and the quality control method of powder and granules based on physical fingerprint was established. The results showed that the physical fingerprint similarity of 25 batches of dry extract powder was 0.639-0.976, and the physical fingerprint similarity of the gra-nules was 0.716-0.983. With the similarity of 0.85 as the threshold, the batches with abnormal physical properties could be identified. In this study, the process quality control method of Suhuang Zhike Capsules based on the physical properties of powder and granules was established finally, which realized the identification of abnormal batches, and provided a reference for the process quality control of Suhuang Zhike Capsules.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879070

ABSTRACT

The physical properties of ginkgo leaves extract(GLE) are the critical quality attributes for the control of the manufacturing process of ginkgo leaves preparations. In this study, 53 batches of GLE with different sources from the real world were used as the objects to carry out the research from 3 levels. First, based on micromeritics evaluation method, a total of 29 physical attribute quality parameters in five dimensions were comprehensively characterized, with a total of 1 537 data points. Further, with use of physical fingerprinting technology combined with similarity evaluation, the powder physical properties of 53 batches of GLE showed obvious differences from an overall perspective, and the similarity of the physical fingerprints was 0.876 to 1.000. Secondly, hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) models were constructed to realize the reliable identification and differentiation of real-world materials produced by GLE from different sources. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) model was used to create GLE material Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts. It was found that the SPE score of B_(21) powder exceeded the 99% confidence control limit by 22.495 9, and the SPE scores of A_1 and C_(10) powder exceeded the 95% confidence control limit by 16.099 2, realizing the determination of abnormal samples in the materials of GLE from the production in real world. Finally, the physical quality control method of GLE in the production process of ginkgo leaves preparations was established in this study, providing a reference for the quality control methods of ginkgo leaves preparations in their manufacturing process.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginkgo biloba , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Powders , Quality Control
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879065

ABSTRACT

The spatial distribution uniformity of valuable medicines is the critical quality attribute in the process control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. With the real world sample of the mixed end-point powder of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills as the research object, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to collect a total of 32 400 data points with a size of 180 pix×180 pix. Spectral angle matching(SAM), classical least squares and mixed tuned matched filtering(MTMF) were used to identify the spatial distribution of rare medicines. MTMF model showed higher identification accuracy, therefore the spatial distribution of the blended intermediates was identified based on the MTMF model. The histogram method was also used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of rare medicines. The results showed that the standard deviation was 4.78, 6.5, 3.48, 1.96, and 3.00 respectively for artificial bezoar, artificial musk, Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn; the variance was 22.8, 42.3, 12.1, 3.82, and 9.00, and the skewness was 1.26, 1.71, 0.06,-0.86, and 1.04, respectively. The final results showed that the most even blending was achieved in concentrated powder of Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn, followed by artificial bezoar, and last artificial musk. A visualization method was established for quality attributes of distribution uniformity in blending process of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. It could provide evidences of quality control methods in the mixing process of big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quality Control
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878951

ABSTRACT

Based on the network pharmacology and molecular docking method to explore the molecular mechanism of Shengjiang Powder in treating chronic tonsillitis in children. This research first based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology(TCMSP) and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tools for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN-TCM), the effective active ingredients of the drugs contained in Shengjiang Powder were screened out by the pharmacokinetic(ADME) parameters, the targets were predicted, and then chronic tonsillitis disease in children targets were obtained by GeneCards database. Afterwards, the target protein names were standardized by the Uniprot database. The drug targets were matched with the disease targets to obtain the potential therapeutic targets of Shengjiang Powder. Cytoscape 3.8.0 software was used to screen out and construct the network diagram of "drug-components-core targets-disease". DAVID database and R language were used to conduct the enrichment analysis of core action targets. Finally, AutoDock software was used to conduct molecular docking between drug components with a high network medium value and core action targets. According to the findings, after standardized treatment, a total of 79 active ingredients of Shengjiang Powder were obtained; it was predicted to get 1 261 potential targets, 268 potential targets for treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children, and 29 core targets; and 81 entries of GO enrichment were determined(P<0.05), including 63 biological processes, 7 cell components, 11 molecular function items, 24 KEGG pathway enrichment items(P<0.05), mainly including cell cycle, inflammatory factors, viral infection, immune regulation and other signaling pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that main active components in Shengjiang Powder had a stable binding activity with the core targets. This study revealed the mechanism of Shengjiang Powder in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children, mainly by resisting virus, inhibiting inflammation, regulating immunity and other means to play a synergistic effect, so as to provide a theoretical basis for rational clinical application.


Subject(s)
Child , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Powders , Tonsillitis/drug therapy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878942

ABSTRACT

By preparing 10 batches of substance benchmarks freeze-drying powder( lyophilized powder),the methodology of the characteristic spectrum and the content of index component for substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was established. The characteristic peaks and the similarity range of the characteristic spectrum,the contents and the transfer rate range of isoferulic acid,palmatine and paeonol,and the paste-forming rate range were determined to define key quality attributes of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San. In the10 batches of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San,the similarity of characteristic spectrum was higher than 0. 90. In further comparison of the characteristic peak information,a total of 16 characteristic peaks were identified,including 5 characteristic peaks from Cimicifugae Rhizoma,5 characteristic peaks from Coptidis Rhizoma,2 characteristic peaks from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and 4 characteristic peaks from Moutan Cortex. The content of isoferulic acid was 0. 10%-0. 18%,with the average transfer rate of 49. 82%±4. 02%. The content of palmatine was 0. 17%-0. 31%,with the average transfer rate of 15. 84% ±2. 39%. The content of paeonol was 0. 41%-0. 75%,with the average transfer rate of 23. 41%±3. 23%. The paste-forming rate of the 10 batches of substance benchmarks were controlled at 27%-33%,with the transfer rate between the theoretical paste-forming rate and the actual paste-forming rate was 86. 59%±3. 39%. In this study,the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was analyzed by the combination of characteristic spectrum,the content of index component and the paste-forming rate. A scientific and stable evaluation method was preliminarily established,so as to provide the basis for subsequent development and quality control of relevant preparations of Qingwei San.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Powders , Quality Control , Rhizome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the efficacy of acupuncture combined with @*METHODS@#A total of 180 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into a combined group (60 cases, 2 cases dropped off), an acupuncture group (60 cases, 4 cases dropped off) and a Chinese medication group (60 cases, 5 cases dropped off). On the basis of conventional treatment, the children in the combined group were treated with acupuncture [Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenting (GV 24), Benshen (GB 13), 30 min each time, twice a day] and @*RESULTS@#The total effective rate was 91.4% (53/58) in the combined group, which was higher than 80.4% (45/56) in the acupuncture group and 78.2% (43/55) in the Chinese medication group (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Cerebral Palsy/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Powders , Treatment Outcome
11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 783-786, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156203

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the preoperative and postoperative outcomes of patients diagnosed with severe knee osteoarthritis who underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a mobile-bearing implant with a rotating platform and removing the posterior cruciate ligament. The present study focused on the outcomes relative to depression, pain, functional limitations, and fall episodes. Methods The Lequesne questionnaire was used to assess pain and functional limitations before and after TKA. In addition, the geriatric depression scale (GDS) was also used. Episodes of falls before and after the surgery were estimated. Results The mean Lequesne score before the surgery was 15.95, and that after surgery was 6.5. This finding was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The mean GDS score before the surgery was 7.43, and that after TKA was 2.22 (p < 0.001). The mean number of fall occurrences before the procedure, over a 1-year period, was 1.22, and that after TKA was 0.27 (p = 0.004). A direct relationship was found between the Lequesne scores before the surgery and the GDS scores (p = 0.004). Conclusions Total knee arthroplasty resulted in the improvement of pain and functional limitation, decrease or disappearance of the depressive condition, and decrease of fall rates in the evaluated patients.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os resultados pré e pós-operatórios em relação à depressão, dor, limitações funcionais e episódios de queda em pacientes diagnosticados com osteoartrite (OA) grave do joelho submetidos a uma artroplastia total do joelho (ATJ), usando um implante móvel com uma plataforma rotativa e removendo o ligamento cruzado posterior. Métodos O questionário de Lequesne foi utilizado para avaliar a dor e as limitações funcionais antes e após a ATJ. Além disso, a escala de depressão geriátrica (EDG) também foi utilizada. Os episódios de quedas antes e após a cirurgia foram estimados. Resultados O escore médio de Lequesne antes da cirurgia foi de 15,95 e após a cirurgia foi de 6,5. Esse resultado foi estatisticamente significativo (p < 0,001). O escore médio da EDG antes da cirurgia foi de 7,43 e após a ATJ foi de 2,22 (p < 0,001). O número médio de ocorrências de queda antes do procedimento, em um período de 1 ano, foi de 1,22 e após a ATJ foi de 0,27 (p = 0,004). Foi encontrada uma relação direta entre os escores de Lequesne antes da cirurgia e os escores da EDG (p = 0,004). Conclusões A ATJ resultou em melhora da dor e limitação funcional, diminuição ou desaparecimento da condição depressiva e diminuição das taxas de queda nos pacientes avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoarthritis , Pain , Powders , Accidental Falls , Surveys and Questionnaires , Posterior Cruciate Ligament , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Depression
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 29-35, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salep is obtained by grinding dried orchid tubers and used as a valuable ingredient in the food industry. Because of the glucomannan content of salep, it is thought to have prebiotic potential. However, there is little information in studies concerning the fermentation characteristics and potential prebiotic properties of salep. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salep on bifidobacterial growth by measuring the highest optical density (OD), calculating the specific growth rates, and determining the production of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) as a result of bacterial fermentation. RESULT: The OD and pH values obtained in this study showed that salep was utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the Bifidobacterium species (BS). All Bifidobacterium strains produced lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, indicating that salep is readily fermented by these bacteria. Salep at 1% (w/v) showed a similar effect on bifidobacterial growth as that promoted by 1% (w/v) glucose used as a traditional carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium species can develop in media containing salep as well as in glucose and exhibit the potential to be used as new sources of prebiotics.


Subject(s)
Powders/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Propionates/analysis , Propionates/metabolism , Food Industry , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Lactic Acid/analysis , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Probiotics , Butyric Acid/analysis , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Prebiotics , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-15, jan.-maio 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1151235

ABSTRACT

Este artigo remete-se a resultados de uma pesquisa iniciada em 2014 que construiu um mapeamento de pesquisadores(as) de programas de pós-graduação (PPGs) brasileiros em psicologia social e em psicologia que identificavam a psicologia social como área de atuação no Lattes e apresentavam publicações científicas sobre temas políticos. A partir deste mapeamento, apresento um panorama sobre as universidades de formação em mestrado e doutorado e de atuação dos(as) pesquisadores(as), articulando-o com a reflexão sobre a construção e consolidação de PPGs no Brasil. Selecionamos 169 pesquisadores(as) vinculados a 37 PPG distintos, localizados nas cinco regiões do país. Os dados foram organizados em termos das universidades de formação e de atuação dos(as) pesquisadores(as) por períodos temporais. O panorama construído converge com um aspecto histórico marcante no desenvolvimento da pós-graduação brasileira: a concentração da formação em mestrado e doutorado e da atuação de pesquisadores(as) em PPGs da região sudeste. A Universidade de São Paulo (USP) e a Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP) formaram 45% dos 169 docentes. Os/as pesquisadores(as) que mais orientaram os(as) docentes da pesquisa tiveram participação ativa na construção da psicologia social crítica brasileira. Considera-se importante realizar novas pesquisas sobre: a) o impacto do deslocamento de pesquisadores formados no sudeste para outras regiões no modo em que atuam nestas regiões; b) as consequências de mudanças na avaliação das assimetrias regionais propostas no VI Planos Nacionais de Pós-graduação ­ PNPG; c) as implicações do teto de gastos do Governo Federal na desigualdade regional referente ao investimento científico em pós-graduação....(AU)


This article refers to the results of a research initiated in 2014 that mapped the researchers of Brazilian Graduate Programs (PPG) in Social Psychology and in Psychology that identified social psychology as a working area in the Lattes curriculum and presented scientific publications on political issues. Based on this mapping, we present an overview of the universities that provide master's and doctorate studies and of the work of these researchers, articulating it with some considerations on the construction and consolidation of PPGs in Brazil. We selected 169 researchers from 37 different PPGs situated in all five regions of the country: The data were organized according to academic formation and work universities of the researchers per period. The built panorama converges with a notable historical aspect in the development of Brazilian graduation: concentration in the Southeast region. USP and PUC-SP constituted 45% of the 169 professors. The researchers who most oriented the professors of the research had active participation in the construction of Brazilian critical social psychology. The results show the importance of conducting new research on: a) the impact of the operational displacement of researchers trained in the Southeast to other regions; b) the consequences of changes in the evaluation of the regional asymmetries proposed in the VI Planos Nacionais de Pós-graduação (PNPG); c) the consequences of the Federal Government's limitation of expenditures on regional inequality related to scientific investment in graduate studies....(AU)


Este artículo se remite a los resultados de una investigación iniciada en 2014, que objetivó construir un mapeamiento de investigadores/as de Programas de Postgrado (PPG) brasileños en psicología social y en psicología que identificaban la psicología social como el área de actuación en el currículo Lattes y presentaban publicaciones científicas sobre temas políticos. A partir de ese mapeamiento, presentamos un panorama sobre las universidades de formación en maestría y doctorado y de actuación de los/as investigadores/as, articulándolo con la reflexión sobre la construcción y consolidación de los PPG en Brasil. Seleccionamos 169 investigadores vinculados a 37 PPG distintos, ubicados en las cinco regiones del país. Los datos fueron organizados en cuanto a las universidades de formación y de actuación de los/as investigadores/as por períodos temporales. El panorama construido es convergente conun aspecto histórico marcante en el desarrollo del postgrado brasileño: la concentración de la formación en maestría y doctorado y de la actuación de investigadores/as en PPG de la región Sudeste. La Universidad de São Paulo (USP) y la Pontificia Universidad Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP) formaron el 45% de los 169 docentes. Los investigadores que más orientaron a los docentes de la investigación tuvieron participación activa en la construcción de la psicología social crítica brasileña. Se considera importante la realización de nuevas investigaciones sobre: a) el impacto del desplazamiento de investigadores formados en el Sudeste a otras regiones en el modo en que actúan en esas regiones; b) las consecuencias de cambios en la evaluación de las asimetrías regionales propuestas en los VI Planes Nacionales de Postgrado (PNPG); c) las implicaciones de los límites de gastos del Gobierno Federal en la desigualdad regional referente a la inversión científica en postgrado....(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Social , Research , Research Personnel , Powders , Universities , Faculty
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-15, jan.-maio 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1150858

ABSTRACT

A ciência e a pós-graduação brasileiras remontam a um passado recente, com expressivo crescimento no decorrer das últimas décadas. Considerando o comportamento do cientista como objeto de estudo psicológico, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar possíveis diferenças entre as variáveis responsáveis por instalar e manter o comportamento acadêmico de pesquisadores seniores e iniciantes. Participaram desta pesquisa, de natureza exploratória, seis professores bolsistas de produtividade em pesquisa do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico das áreas de Psicologia, Genética e Física ­ sendo um pesquisador sênior e um pesquisador iniciante de cada área. Os dados, coletados por meio de entrevistas, foram analisados mediante o procedimento de interpretação analítico-comportamental. A análise do relato verbal das participantes seniores indica que o comportamento acadêmico das entrevistadas foi instalado por meio de contingências associadas à formação clássica; os participantes iniciantes, por outro lado, foram expostos a uma formação básica profissionalizante. Em acréscimo, as participantes seniores titularam-se doutoras sob contingências informais, e os participantes iniciantes doutoraram-se por meio de contingências delimitadas institucionalmente. Na contemporaneidade, o comportamento acadêmico das participantes seniores é mantido por meio de contingências de reforçamento natural. O relato verbal dos participantes iniciantes indica que o comportamento acadêmico dos entrevistados é, atualmente, distanciado das suas consequências naturais imediatas. As principais diferenças encontradas entre as contingências originárias e mantenedoras do comportamento acadêmico dos participantes seniores e iniciantes parecem exprimir, especialmente, as diferentes contingências a que os entrevistados foram expostos ao longo da formação acadêmico-científica....(AU)


Brazilian science and graduate studies go back to a recent past, with significant growth over the last decades. Considering the scientist's behavior as an object of psychological study, this study investigated possible differences among the variables responsible for installing and maintaining the academic behavior of senior and beginner researchers. Six professors with productiveness scholarships granted by the CNPq in the areas of Psychology, Genetics and Physics (always in pairs of one senior researcher and one beginner researcher in each area) participated in this study. The data that were collected through interviews were analyzed with use of the analytic-behavioral interpretation procedure. The analysis of the verbal report of senior participants indicates that the academic behavior of interviewees was established through contingencies associated with classical formation; the beginner participants, on the other hand, were exposed to basic vocational training. Moreover, the senior participants qualified for doctorates under informal contingencies, and the beginner participants were doctored by means of institutionally-delimited contingencies. Currently, the academic behavior of senior participants is maintained through contingencies of natural reinforcement. The verbal account of the beginner participants, in turn, indicates that the academic behavior of the interviewees is currently distanced from its immediate natural consequences. The main differences found between the contingencies that originated and maintained the academic behavior of senior and beginner participants seem to express, especially, the different contingencies to which the interviewees were exposed throughout their academic training....(AU)


La ciencia y el posgrado brasileños se remontan a un pasado reciente, con un significativo crecimiento en el transcurso de las últimas décadas. Considerando el comportamiento del científico como objetivo de estudio psicológico, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar las posibles diferencias entre las variables responsables de instalar y mantener el comportamiento académico de investigadores séniores y principiantes. Participaron de este estudio, de carácter exploratorio, seis profesores con becas de productividad en investigaciones del Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico de las áreas de Psicología, Genética y Física ­siendo un investigador sénior y un investigador principiante de cada área­. Los resultados obtenidos por medio de entrevistas fueron analizados según el método de interpretación analítico-conductual. El análisis del relato verbal de las participantes séniores indica que el comportamiento académico de las entrevistadas fue instalado por medio de contingencias asociadas a la formación clásica; los participantes principiantes, por otro lado, fueron expuestos a una formación básica profesional. Además, las participantes séniores se titularon doctoras bajo contingencias informales, y los participantes principiantes se doctoraron por medio de contingencias delimitadas institucionalmente. En la contemporaneidad, el comportamiento académico de las participantes séniores se mantiene por medio de contingencias de refuerzo natural. El relato verbal de los participantes principiantes, por su parte, apunta que el comportamiento académico de los entrevistados es actualmente distanciado de sus consecuencias naturales inmediatas. Las principales diferencias encontradas entre las contingencias originarias y mantenedoras del comportamiento académico de los participantes séniores e principiantes parecen expresar, especialmente, las diferentes contingencias a las que los entrevistados fueron expuestos a lo largo de la formación académico-científica....(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Psychology , Research Personnel , Science , Behavior , Faculty , Physics , Powders , Fellowships and Scholarships , Genetics
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-12, jan.-maio 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1100748

ABSTRACT

Constata-se, a partir da experiência dos autores enquanto psicólogos recém-graduados por diferentes universidades brasileiras, uma desproporção tanto nas oportunidades oferecidas aos graduandos para que se envolvam com pesquisas quanto no que diz respeito à comunicação daquilo que se produz na pós-graduação. Fazendo uso da metodologia de relato de experiência, objetiva-se refletir de que maneira a interlocução entre ensino e pesquisa contribui para a integração entre a graduação e a pós-graduação. Com isso, pretende-se discutir a inserção da psicanálise enquanto método de pesquisa e de produção de saber na universidade, problematizando a relação entre o campo científico e os psicanalistas que se dedicam à atividade de pesquisa. Uma vez que os programas de pós-graduação e os órgãos de fomento de pesquisa priorizam candidatos que tenham experiência em pesquisa científica fim de selecionar pesquisadores melhor preparados, é fundamental entender como se dá a transmissão da pesquisa em psicanálise para alunos da graduação. A aposta deste trabalho é que a transmissão da pesquisa acadêmica pode suscitar o interesse e a qualificação necessária nos graduandos para o ingresso na pós-graduação, bem como o desenvolvimento da psicanálise enquanto método de pesquisa acadêmica. ..(AU)


Based on the experience of the authors as psychologists recently graduated from different Brazilian universities, there is a disproportion in the opportunities offered to undergraduates to engage in research and in relation to the communication of what is produced in the graduate courses. Therefore, using the experience reporting methodology, the objective of this work was to think on how the interlocution between teaching and research contributes to the integration between undergraduate and graduate studies. With that, the purpose is to discuss the insertion of psychoanalysis as a method of research and production of knowledge in the university, problematizing the relationship between the scientific field and the psychoanalysts who are engaged in research activity. Since graduate programs and research funding agencies prioritize candidates who have experience in scientific research in order to select better-prepared researchers, it is critical to understand how the transmission of research in psychoanalysis to undergraduates occurs. This work defends that the transmission of academic research can raise the interest and qualification necessary for undergraduate students to join the graduate courses, as well as the development of psychoanalysis as a method of academic research...(AU)


Según la experiencia de los autores como psicólogos recién graduados de diferentes universidades brasileñas, existe una desproporción tanto en las oportunidades que se ofrecen a los estudiantes de pregrado para involucrarse en la investigación como en la comunicación de lo que se produce en la escuela de posgrado. Utilizando la metodología de informes de experiencia, el objetivo es reflexionar sobre cómo el diálogo entre la enseñanza y la investigación contribuye a la integración entre los cursos de pregrado y posgrado. Con esto, se pretende discutir la inserción del psicoanálisis como método de investigación y producción de conocimiento en la universidad, cuestionando la relación entre el campo científico y los psicoanalistas que se dedican a la actividad de investigación. Dado que los programas de posgrado y las agencias de promoción de la investigación priorizan a los candidatos que tienen experiencia en investigación científica para seleccionar investigadores mejor preparados, es esencial comprender cómo se transmite la investigación del psicoanálisis a los estudiantes universitarios. La apuesta de este trabajo es que la transmisión de la investigación académica puede aumentar el interés y la calificación necesaria en los estudiantes de pregrado para ingresar al postgrado, así como el desarrollo del psicoanálisis como método de investigación académica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Psychology , Research , Universities , Powders , Research Personnel , Schools , Knowledge , Research Promotion
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e215231, jan.-maio 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1143527

ABSTRACT

Resumo Na perspectiva da teoria enativa da cognição, uma habilidade pode ser compreendida como uma relação flexível de um organismo com aspectos de seu ambiente de modo que ele possa agir de forma bem sucedida. Por sua vez, o conceito de políticas cognitivas nos ajuda a compreender como habilidades são promovidas e distribuídas em diversos contextos. Consideramos que os modelos de avaliação da produtividade acadêmica promovem arranjos que tendem a enfatizar um plano no qual os resultados ganham maior relevância na escala produtiva do que o desmembramento das "soluções" já existentes em problemas. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste artigo é entender o modo como as formas de avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação no Brasil podem modular noções de habilidades acadêmicas - hoje baseadas, principalmente, em publicações, invisibilizando outros processos que envolvem a produção de conhecimento e a experiência do pesquisador. Para tanto, realizamos uma pesquisa-intervenção junto a estudantes de cinco programas de pós-graduação de universidades públicas e privadas, na qual foram utilizados os procedimentos de entrevistas semiestruturadas e oficinas de fotografia. Por meio das entrevistas com as estudantes de engenharia e o estudante da veterinária, destacadas neste artigo, percebemos como o funcionamento acadêmico pressupõe a habilidade de pesquisar como um atributo que pertence ao indivíduo e reconhece/visibiliza em maior quantidade as habilidades consagradas nas sessões de procedimentos em métodos de artigos científicos, tratando como expert aquele que reproduz com precisão modos de fazer previamente especificados.


Abstract From the perspective of the enative theory of cognition, an ability can be understood as a flexible relationship of an organism with aspects of its environment so that it can act in a successful way. In turn, the concept of cognitive policies allows to understand how skills are promoted and distributed in diverse contexts. We consider that the models of evaluation of academic productivity promote more relevant results than transformation of existing "solutions" into problems. The objective of this article is to understand how the forms of evaluation of graduate programs in Brazil modulate a notion of academic abilities based, mainly, in publications, decreasing the importance of other processes involving the production of knowledge and the experience of the researcher. For such, we conducted an intervention research with students from five graduate programs of public and private universities utilizing semi-structured interviews and photography workshops. The results show how academic functioning assumes the ability to research as an attribute that belongs to the individual. They emphasise the abilities acknowledged only in scientific methods, considering as experts students able to reproduce standard practices.


Resumen En la perspectiva de la teoría enactiva de la cognición, una habilidad se entiende como una relación flexible de un organismo con aspectos de su ambiente para que pueda actuar de forma exitosa. Por su parte, el concepto de políticas cognitivas nos ayuda a comprender cómo las habilidades son promovidas y distribuidas en diversos contextos. Consideramos que los modelos de evaluación de la productividad académica promueven arreglos que tienden a enfatizar un plan en el cual los resultados ganan mayor relevancia en la escala productiva que el desmembramiento de las "soluciones" ya existentes en problemas. Ante esto, el objetivo de este artículo fue entender cómo las formas de evaluación de los programas de posgrado en Brasil pueden modular nociones de habilidades académicas, basadas actualmente en publicaciones, invisibilizando otros procesos que involucran la producción de conocimiento y la experiencia del investigador. Para ello, realizamos una investigación-intervención junto a estudiantes de cinco programas de posgrado de universidades públicas y privadas, en la cual se utilizaron los procedimientos de entrevistas semiestructuradas y talleres de fotografía. De las entrevistas con las estudiantes de ingeniería y el estudiante de veterinaria, destacadas en este artículo, percibimos cómo el funcionamiento académico presupone la habilidad de investigar como un atributo que pertenece al individuo y reconoce/posibilita en mayor cantidad las habilidades más consagradas en las sesiones de procedimientos en métodos de artículos científicos tratando como experto aquel que reproduce con precisión modos de hacer previamente especificados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Research , Students , Veterinary Medicine , Interview , Cognition , Engineering , Policy , Powders , Publications , Research Personnel , Solutions , Universities , Photography , Knowledge , Growth and Development , Education
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 367-372, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114909

ABSTRACT

Este estudio in vitro evaluó la influencia de la dentina sobre el efecto antibacteriano contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 de dos concentraciones de Hipoclorito de Sodio (NaOCl) 2,5 % y 5 %. Se empleó polvo de dentina a partir de dientes humanos (84 µg/ml) y la supervivencia de la bacteria se evaluó realizando recuento de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) a los 10, 30 y 60 segundos. Los datos se analizaron con la prueba estadística ANOVA factorial no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos con dentina y sin dentina. En conclusión, la dentina en este estudio no influyó en el efecto antibacteriano del Hipoclorito de Sodio en ninguna concentración, ni en los tiempos.


This in vitro study evaluated the influence of dentin on the antibacterial effect against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 of two concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite NaOCl 2.5 % and 5 %. Dentin powder was used from human teeth (84 mg/ml) and the survival of the bacteria was evaluated by counting colony forming units (CFU) at 10, 30 and 60 seconds. The data were analyzed with the statistical ANOVA factorial test, finding no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without dentin. In conclusion, the dentin in this study had no inhibitory effect on antibacterial activity of Sodium Hypochlorite and any concentration, nor over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Powders , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Analysis of Variance , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Dentin/microbiology
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0122019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1117631

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timbó seed coat on the physiological and sanitary quality of soybean seeds. Timbó seeds were collected from mature fruits in the Cerrado. The external layer of the seed coat was removed and crushed in a mill and used in the treatment of soybean seeds. Three lots of soybean seeds were used, from high, medium and low vigor seeds. The treatments were: powder; gel; hydroalcoholic extract; synthetic fungicide (Vitavax® - Thiram 200 sc), and untreated seeds. The physiological quality of the soybean seeds was determined by standard germination, accelerated aging, length, fresh and dry mass of seedlings. Blotter test was used to determine the sanitary quality. The statistical analyze used was a completely randomized 3 × 5 factorial design, considering three seed lots and five treatments. Treatment with the coat seed extract and gel improves the physiological quality of soybean seeds from low vigor lots. The treatment of seeds with gel decreases the incidence of Fusarium and Penicillium genus; and treatment with the powder reduced the incidence of the Cercospora genus.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tegumento das sementes de timbó sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de soja. As sementes de timbó foram coletadas de frutos maduros, no Cerrado. A camada mais externa do tegumento das sementes foi retirada e triturada em moinho e utilizada no tratamento de sementes de soja. Foram utilizados três lotes de sementes de soja, provenientes de sementes de alto, médio e baixo vigor. Os tratamentos foram: pó, gel, extrato hidroalcoólico; fungicida sintético (Vitavax® - Thiram 200 sc) e sementes não tratadas. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja foi determinada pelo teste padrão de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, comprimento, massa fresca e seca de plântulas. Para a determinação da qualidade sanitária utilizou-se o teste de borrão (blotter test). O delineamento estatístico foi em esquema fatorial 3 × 5, inteiramente casualizado, considerando-se três lotes de sementes e cinco tratamentos. Os tratamentos com o extrato e o gel do tegumento das sementes de timbó melhoraram a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja provenientes de lotes de baixo vigor. O tratamento com gel do tegumento das sementes de timbó diminuiu a incidência de fungos dos gêneros Fusarium e Penicillium; e o tratamento com o pó reduziu a incidência do gênero Cercospora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/drug effects , Soybeans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sapindaceae , Powders , Brazil , Food Quality , Germination/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Gels
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190382, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056584

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of Maras powder (a type of smokeless tobacco obtained from Nicotiana rustica Linn and mixed with the ashes of wood, especially from oak, walnut or grapevine) on the microRNA (miRNA) deregulation of oral mucosa, and it compares these effects with those of smoking. Methodology Oral mucosal samples were collected from 74 patients, consisting of 16 nonusers, 26 smokers, and 32 Maras powder users. Genes associated with oral cancer were selected and 90 microRNAs targeting these genes were identified. MicroRNA were isolated and purified using the microRNA isolation kit. MicroRNA were expressed using Fluidigm RT-PCR. Results A positive correlation between the duration of Maras powder use with miR-31 expression levels, and a negative correlation between the Maras powder chewing time and miR-372 expression levels was found. In addition, there is a negative correlation between the amount of Maras powder consumed and expression levels of miR-375, miR-378a, miR-145, and miR-10b; moreover, another negative correlation is observed between the number of cigarettes consumed and the expression levels of miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-203a, miR-200b, and miR-375. However, miR-200b and miR-92a levels were downregulated significantly more in Maras powder users when compared with smokers and nonusers (p<0.05). Conclusion The results show both chewing Maras powder and smoking have an effect on deregulation of miR-200b and miR-92a expressions. This leads to the belief that assessing the expression of these two miRNAs is a promising noninvasive method of analysis, especially in mutagen exposures. Finally, large-scale and high-throughput studies may help to identify an extensive miRNA expression profile associated with tobacco use and improve the understanding of oral malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tobacco, Smokeless/adverse effects , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Powders , Time Factors , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , MicroRNAs/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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