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1.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e223, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1411453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fiebre es un motivo muy frecuente de consulta y hasta en un 20% de los pacientes no se encuentra la causa. En el ámbito de la emergentología pediátrica clásicamente ha existido interés en homogeneizar la forma de evaluar los lactantes febriles menores de tres meses. Contar con un protocolo que permita detectar precozmente el niño que cursa una infección bacteriana invasiva (IBI) sin realizar conductas desproporcionadas es todo un desafío. Objetivo: evaluar y comparar la capacidad para identificar IBI en la pauta actual de fiebre sin foco (FSF) como en la estrategia step by step, en lactantes con FSF valorados en el DEP-CHPR. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y de pruebas diagnósticas. Criterios de inclusión: lactantes menores de 90 días de vida que consultaron en 2017 y 2018 en DEP-CHPR con diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: se incluyeron 261 lactantes evaluados con la pauta de FSF actual, en ellos se aplicó la estrategia step by step. El rango de edad fue de 84 días (4-88 días) con una media de 41 días. Sexo masculino 148 niños (56,7%). Se registraron 37 infecciones bacterianas (14,2%) de las cuales 3 fueron IBI (1,1%) y 34 fueron no-IBI (13,1%). La sensibilidad para step by step fue de 0,94% y de 0,89 para la pauta actual, con un VPN de 0,98 para ambas estrategias. Discusión: los lactantes menores de 3 meses son más susceptibles por características fisiológicas a infecciones bacterianas invasivas y cuanto más pequeño aumenta aún más la frecuencia. El step by step discrimina a menores de 1 mes en menores de 21 días y otro grupo de más de 21 días. Nuestra pauta no hace esta discriminación y realiza por igual laboratorio en sangre, orina y líquido cefalorraquídeo; realizando en ocasiones estudios cruentos no necesarios. Conclusiones: ambas estrategias aplicadas en esta población resultaron altamente sensibles para identificar infección bacteriana con un VPN elevado. La aplicación de step by step presenta como beneficio adicional evitar con seguridad la punción lumbar en recién nacidos entre los 21 y 28 días.


Introduction: fever is a very frequent reason for consultation and in up to 20% of patients the cause has not been found. In the field of pediatric emergentology, there has been a traditional interest in homogenizing the way of assessing febrile infants under three months of age. Having a protocol that enables early detection of children with IBIs without engaging in disproportionate procedures is a challenge. Objective: to evaluate and compare the ability to identify IBIs in the present FSF regimen as in the Step-by-Step strategy, in infants with FSF assessed at the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital Center. Material and methods: observational, descriptive, retrospective study and diagnostic tests. Inclusion criteria: Infants under 90 days of age who consulted in 2017 and 2018 at the DEP-CHPR with a diagnosis of FSF. Results: 261 infants diagnosed with FSF regimen were included and they all received a Step-by-Step approach. The age range was 84 days (4 - 88) days with a mean of 41 days. Males 148 children (56.7%). There were 37 bacterial infections (14.2%), of which 3 were IBI (1.1%) and 34 were Non-IBI (13.1%). The sensitivity for the Step-by-Step approach was 0.94% and 0.89 for the current regimen, with a NPV of 0.98 for both strategies. Discussion: infants younger than 3 months-old are more susceptible due to physiological characteristics to invasive bacterial infections, and the younger they are, the higher the frequency. The Step-by-Step Approach splits children of under 1 month of age into those under or over 21 days of age. Our guideline does not make this discrimination and performs the same blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory tests sometimes carrying out blood tests is not necessary. Conclusions: both approaches used in this population were highly sensitive to the identification of bacterial infections with a high NPV. The application of the "Step-by-Step" approach has the additional benefit of avoiding lumbar puncture to newborns of between 21 and 28 days of age.


Introdução: a febre é um motivo muito comum de consulta e em até 20% dos pacientes a causa não é encontrada. No campo da emergência pediátrica, tradicionalmente tem havido interesse em homogeneizar a forma de avaliação de lactentes febris menores de três meses de idade. Ter um protocolo que permita a detecção precoce de uma criança com IBI sem realizar procedimentos desproporcionais é um desafio. Objetivo: avaliar e comparar a capacidade de identificação de IBI na atual Diretriz da FSF e na estratégia Passo a Passo, em lactentes com FSF avaliados no DEP-CHPR. Material e métodos: estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo e de testes diagnósticos. Critérios de inclusão: Lactentes com menos de 90 dias de idade que consultaram em 2017 e 2018 no Hospital Pediátrico Pereira Rossell do Uruguai com diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: Foram incluídos 261 lactentes avaliados com a atual diretriz da FSF, nos quais foi aplicada a estratégia Passo a Passo. A faixa etária foi de 84 dias (4 - 88) dias com média de 41 dias. Sexo masculino 148 crianças (56,7%). Foram registradas 37 infecções bacterianas (14,2%), sendo 3 IBI (1,1%) e 34 Não IBI (13,1%). A sensibilidade para Passo a Passo foi de 0,94% e 0,89 para o esquema atual, com VPN de 0,98 para ambas estratégias. Discussão: crianças menores de 3 meses de idade são mais suscetíveis a infecções bacterianas invasivas devido às características fisiológicas e quanto menores, mais frequentes. O Passo a Passo separa crianças menores de 1 mês em dois grupos: menores de 21 dias e acima de 21 dias. Nossa diretriz não faz essa discriminação e realiza exames laboratoriais de sangue, urina e líquido cefalorraquidiano da mesma forma; às vezes realizando estudos de sangue que não são necessários. Conclusões: ambas as estratégias aplicadas nesta população foram altamente sensíveis para identificar infecção bacteriana com alto VPN. A aplicação do "Passo a Passo" apresenta como benefício adicional evitar a punção lombar em recém-nascidos entre 21 e 28 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Study
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398995

ABSTRACT

For registration of generic and similar drugs, it is necessary to carry out pharmaceutical equivalence (PE) tests and pharmaceutical bioequivalence (PB). To carry out these tests, duly qualified research centers are contracted, which need to be monitored by the sponsor who is legally responsible for the activities. To this end, it is the recommendation of the Document of the Americas, periodic monitoring to verify compliance with quality requirements, Standard Operating Procedures, Good Clinical Practices (GCP), Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), of the applicable regulatory framework, as well as of compliance with the study protocol. Thus, monitoring is a methodical and documented process to evaluate the degree of adhesion of the center to the planned design for the evaluation of the formulations. To this end, the implementation of a standardized and easily completed guideline is a very important tool to guarantee a consistent evaluation and maintain the organizational memory of the evaluated items by monitors designated by the sponsor, contributing to the constant improvement of the contracted centers and supporting traceability of the studies. This work provided a systemic view of the evidence process related mainly to pharmaceutical bioequivalence, with the monitoring guideline summarizing the items of greatest relevance to be verified.


Para registro de medicamentos genéricos e similares, é necessária a realização de testes de equivalência farmacêutica (EF) e bioequivalência farmacêutica (BF). Para a realização desses testes, são contratados centros de pesquisa devidamente habilitados, que precisam ser monitorados pelo patrocinador legalmente responsável pelas atividades. Há também a recomendação do Documento das Américas de realizar monitoramentos periódicos para verificar o cumprimento dos requisitos de qualidade, Procedimentos Operacionais Padrão, Boas Práticas Clínicas (BPC), Boas Práticas de Laboratório (BPL), de marco regulatório aplicável, bem como de cumprimento do protocolo do estudo. Assim, o monitoramento é um processo metódico e documentado para avaliar o grau de adesão do centro ao desenho planejado para a avaliação das formulações. Para tanto, a implantação de uma diretriz padronizada e de fácil preenchimento é uma ferramenta muito importante para garantir uma avaliação consistente e manter a memória organizacional dos itens avaliados por monitores designados pelo patrocinador, contribuindo para a melhoria constante dos centros contratados e apoiando rastreabilidade dos estudos. Este artigo forneceu uma visão sistêmica do processo de evidência relacionado principalmente à bioequivalência farmacêutica, com a diretriz de monitoramento resumindo os itens de maior relevância a serem verificados.


Para el registro de medicamentos genéricos y similares, es necesario realizar pruebas de equivalencia farmacéutica (EP) y de bioequivalencia farmacéutica (PB). Para llevar a cabo estas pruebas se contratan centros de investigación debidamente cualificados, que deben ser supervisados por el promotor, que es el responsable legal de las actividades. Para ello, es la recomendación del Documento de las Américas, el monitoreo periódico para verificar el cumplimiento de los requisitos de calidad, los Procedimientos Operativos Estándar, las Buenas Prácticas Clínicas (BPC), las Buenas Prácticas de Laboratorio (BPL), del marco regulatorio aplicable, así como del cumplimiento del protocolo del estudio. Así, la monitorización es un proceso metódico y documentado para evaluar el grado de adhesión del centro al diseño previsto para la evaluación de las formulaciones. Para ello, la implantación de una pauta estandarizada y de fácil cumplimentación es una herramienta muy importante para garantizar una evaluación consistente y mantener la memoria organizativa de los elementos evaluados por parte de los monitores designados por el promotor, contribuyendo a la mejora constante de los centros contratados y apoyando la trazabilidad de los estudios. Este trabajo proporcionó una visión sistémica del proceso de evidencia relacionado principalmente con la bioequivalencia farmacéutica, con la pauta de monitoreo que resume los ítems de mayor relevancia a ser verificados.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Therapeutic Equivalency , Practice Guideline , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drugs, Generic , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Drug Development , Regulatory Frameworks for Health
3.
San Salvador; INS; oct. 01, 2022. 30 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1400729

ABSTRACT

La presente guía de práctica clínica es el resultado del esfuerzo articulado de los profesionales del Sistema Integrado de Salud (SNIS) coordinado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) y el apoyo metodológico de la OPS con el objetivo de brindar una herramienta de utilidad a los prestadores de los servicios de salud y a los pacientes ante la amenaza del COVID-19 en una etapa que afrontamos desde el desconocimiento de un virus hasta poder proveer de los registros de evidencia científica sobre esta enfermedad, considerada una infección potencialmente mortal causada por el virus SARS-Cov2 y que actualmente continua sien do un reto para todos los sistemas sanitarios en el mundo


This clinical practice guideline is the result of the coordinated effort of the professionals of the Integrated Health System (SNIS) coordinated by the National Institute of Health (INS) and the methodological support of PAHO with the aim of providing a useful tool for health service providers and patients in the face of the threat of COVID-19 in a stage that we face from being unaware of a virus to being able to provide records of scientific evidence on this disease, considered a potentially fatal infection caused by the virus SARS-Cov2 and that currently continues to be a challenge for all health systems in the world


Subject(s)
Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Patients , SARS Virus , El Salvador , Infections
4.
San Salvador; INS; oct. 01, 2022. 155 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1400728

ABSTRACT

La presente guía de práctica clínica es el resultado del esfuerzo articulado de los profesionales del Sistema Integrado de Salud (SNIS) coordinado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) y el apoyo metodológico de la OPS con el objetivo de brindar una herramienta de utilidad a los prestadores de los servicios de salud y a los pacientes ante la amenaza del COVID-19 en una etapa que afrontamos desde el desconocimiento de un virus hasta poder proveer de los registros de evidencia científica sobre esta enfermedad, considerada una infección potencialmente mortal causada por el virus SARS-Cov2 y que actualmente continua sien do un reto para todos los sistemas sanitarios en el mundo


This clinical practice guideline is the result of the coordinated effort of the professionals of the Integrated Health System (SNIS) coordinated by the National Institute of Health (INS) and the methodological support of PAHO with the aim of providing a useful tool for health service providers and patients in the face of the threat of COVID-19 in a stage that we face from being unaware of a virus to being able to provide records of scientific evidence on this disease, considered a potentially fatal infection caused by the virus SARS-Cov2 and that currently continues to be a challenge for all health systems in the world


Subject(s)
Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Patients , Viruses , SARS Virus , El Salvador , Infections
5.
San Salvador; INS; ago. 5, 2022. 64 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1400731

ABSTRACT

El Instituto Nacional de Salud ha desarrollado el proceso de adaptación de guías de práctica clínicas (GPC) a fin de proveer de un documento científico como herramienta útil para los profesionales de la salud y contribuir en la mejora de la salud del país. La presente guía de práctica clínica es un esfuerzo realizado por profesionales del Sistema Integrado de Salud (SNIS) coordinado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) ante la evidencia de alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en la población salvadoreña adulta y la carga social y económica que genera. En este documento se presenta el proceso que se realizó para la adaptación de la guía para el tratamiento farmacológico del paciente adulto con hipertensión de la OMS año 2021


The National Institute of Health has developed the process of adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (GPC) in order to provide a scientific document as a useful tool for health professionals and contribute to the improvement of the country's health. This clinical practice guideline is an effort made by professionals from the Integrated Health System (SNIS) coordinated by the National Institute of Health (INS) given the evidence of high prevalence of arterial hypertension in the adult Salvadoran population and the social and economic burden that generates This document presents the process that was carried out for the adaptation of the guide for the pharmacological treatment of the adult patient with hypertension of the WHO year 2021


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hypertension , Patients , Population , El Salvador
7.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 184-193, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394962

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: determinar el desempeño predictivo de la definición de retardo de crecimiento fetal (RCF) de ultrasonografía de la Sociedad de Medicina Materno Fetal (SMMF), consenso Delphi (CD) y Medicina Fetal de Barcelona (MFB) respecto a resultados adversos perinatales en cada una, e identificar si hay asociación entre diagnóstico de RCF y resultados adversos perinatales. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron gestantes con embarazo único de 24 a 36 semanas con 6 días, quienes fueron atendidas en la unidad de medicina materna fetal con evaluación ecográfica de crecimiento fetal y atención de parto en una institución hospitalaria pública de referencia ubicada en Popayán, Colombia. Se excluyeron embarazos con hallazgos ecográficos de anomalías congénitas. Muestreo por conveniencia. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de las gestantes al ingreso, la edad gestacional, el diagnóstico de RCF y el resultado adverso perinatal compuesto. Se analizó la capacidad predictiva de tres criterios diagnósticos de restricción de crecimiento fetal para malos resultados perinatales y la asociación entre el diagnóstico de RCF y mal resultado periantal. Resultados: se incluyeron 228 gestantes, cuya edad media fue de 26,8 años, la prevalencia de RCF según los tres criterios fue de 3,95 %, 16,6 % y 21,9 % para CD, MFB y SMMF respectivamente. Ningún criterio aportó área bajo la curva aceptable para predicción de resultado neonatal adverso compuesto, el diagnóstico de RCF por CD y SMMF se asoció a resultados adversos perinatales con RR de 2,6 (IC 95 %: 1,5-4,3) y 1,57 (IC 95 %: 1,01-2,44), respectivamente. No se encontró asociación por MFB RR: 1,32 (IC 95 %: 0,8-2,1). Conclusiones: ante un resultado positivo para RCF, el método Delphi se asocia de manera más importante a los resultados perinatales adversos.Los tres métodos tienen una muy alta proporción de falsos negativos en la predicción de mal resultado perinatal. Se requieren estudios prospectivos que reduzcan los sesgos de medición y datos ausentes.


Objectives: To determine the predictive performance of fetal growth restriction by Maternal Fetal Medicine Society (MFMS) definition of ultrasound, the Delphi consensus (DC) and the Barcelona Fetal Medicine (BFM) criteria for adverse perinatal outcomes, and to identify whether there is an association between the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and adverse perinatal outcomes. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including women with singleton pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation seen at the maternal fetal medicine unit for ultrasound assessment of fetal growth and delivery care in a public referral hospital in Popayán, Colombia. Pregnancies with ultrasound findings of congenital abnormalities were excluded. Convenience sampling was used. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured on admission; additional variables were gestational age, FGR diagnosis and adverse composite perinatal outcome. The predictive ability of three fetal growth restriction diagnostic criteria for poor perinatal outcomes was analyzed and asociation between FGR and adverse perinatlal outcomes. Results: Overall, 228 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.8 years were included; FGR prevalence according to the three criteria was 3.95 %, 16.6 % and 21.9 % for DC, BFM and MFMS, respectively. None of the criteria resulted in an acceptable area under the curve for the prediction of the composite adverse neonatal outcome; FGR diagnosis by DC and MFMS were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes with a RR of 2.6 (95 % CI: 1.5-4.3) and 1.57 (95 % CI: 1.01-2.44) respectively. No association was found for BFM RR: 1.32 (95 % CI: 0.8-2.1). Conclusions: Given a positive result for FGR, the Delphi method is significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The proportion of false negative results for a poor perinatal outcome is high for the three methods. Prospective studies that reduce measurement and attrition bias are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Fetal Growth Retardation , Forecasting , Negative Results , Ultrasonography , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnant Women , Fetal Development , Perinatal Death
9.
San Salvador; INS; abr. 05, 2022. 30 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1363436

ABSTRACT

La presente guía de práctica clínica es un esfuerzo realizado por profesionales del Sistema Integrado de Salud (SNIS) coordinado por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) ante la amenaza de la COVID-19 considerada una infección potencialmente mortal causada por el virus SARS-Cov2 y que actualmente representa un desafío sanitario mundial. Por tal razón, se ha generado este documento como herramienta de apoyo a los profesionales de la salud en su práctica diaria


This clinical practice guideline is an effort carried out by professionals from the Integrated Health System (SNIS) coordinated by the National Institute of Health (INS) in the face of the threat of COVID-19, considered a life-threatening infection caused by the SARS-Cov2 virus. and that currently represents a global health challenge. For this reason, this document has been generated as a support tool for health professionals in their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Patients , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Health Systems
11.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 27: 1-11, fev. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358721

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe the development and validation of a permanent health education work-shop protocol for professional qualification in promoting adequate and healthy eating and physical activity and bodily practices for professionals working in Primary Health Care. The protocol de-velopment was based on the following theoretical references: Brazilian Dietary Guidelines, Brazil-ian Physical Activity Guidelines, Interprofessional Collaborative Practice, and Critical-Reflective Methodology (MCR); and it was proposed with 6 modules, totaling 30 hours of qualification. The protocol was evaluated in two panels of experts for content validation, which assessed aspects of clar-ity, relevance, and representativeness. The Content Validity Index (CVI), considering adequate the activities that scored CVI>0.8; and the proportion of theoretical representativeness in each activity were calculated. All 32 activities in the protocol have been validated for clarity and relevance, and the representativeness obtained results consistent with the objectives of each module. The represent-ativeness of MCR in the protocol as a whole was of 86.25%. The workshop activities protocol was evaluated as adequate for the proposed objective, considering its theoretical framework and its target audience. This is the first validated permanent education workshop to work in combination the Bra-zilian Dietary Guidelines and the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines, and it can be applied to the qualification of professionals in Primary Health Care throughout Brazil


O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever o desenvolvimento e validação de conteúdo de um protocolo de oficina de educação permanente em saúde para a qualificação profissional em promoção da alimentação adequada e saudável e da atividade física e práticas corporais voltado aos profissionais atuantes na Atenção Primária à Saúde. O desenvolvimento do protocolo utilizou como referenciais teóricos o Guia Alimentar para a Popu-lação Brasileira, o Guia de Atividade Física para a População Brasileira, a Prática Colaborativa Interpro-fissional e a Metodologia Crítico-Reflexiva (MCR); e foi definido com seis módulos presenciais, totalizando 30 horas de qualificação. O protocolo foi avaliado nos aspectos de clareza, pertinência e representatividade, em dois painéis de juízes para validação de conteúdo. Foram calculados o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC), considerando adequadas as atividades que pontuaram IVC>0,8; e o percentual de representatividade dos referenciais teóricos em cada atividade. Todas as 32 atividades do protocolo foram validadas para clareza e pertinência; e a representatividade obteve resultados condizentes com os objetivos de cada módulo. A repre-sentatividade da MCR no protocolo como um todo foi de 86,25%. As atividades da oficina foram avaliadas como adequadas ao objetivo proposto, considerando seu referencial teórico e seu público-alvo. Esta é a pri-meira oficina de educação permanente em saúde validada a trabalhar em formação combinada com o Guia Alimentar e o Guia de Atividade Física para a População Brasileira, e pode ser aplicada para a qualificação de profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde em todo Brasil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/methods , Exercise , Food and Nutritional Health Promotion/methods , Health Education/methods , Education, Continuing/methods , Obesity/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diet
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 667-672, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939498

ABSTRACT

Although there are many treatment options for patients with stage Ⅳ primary lung cancer, the problems in the diagnosis and treatment process may involve multiple systems and organs due to their complex condition and heterogeneity. Therefore, cooperation between different disciplines is often required in the process of clinical practice. Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) refers to a fixed working group composed of more than two related disciplines, which puts forward the best treatment strategy for individual patient in the form of regular consultation for a certain system disease, and then the related disciplines implement the treatment strategy alone or jointly. MDT is widely used for disease diagnosis and treatment, and especially suitable for cancer patients. MDT has become a standard procedure for cancer treatment worldwide, including stage Ⅳ primary lung cancer. In order to promote the healthy development of MDT and generally improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of stage Ⅳ primary lung cancer in China, Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists and Medical Oncology Branch of Chinese International Exchange and Promotion Association for Medical and Healthcare co-organized the national experts committee to formulate "Clinical practice guideline for multi-disciplinary team diagnosis and treatment of stage Ⅳ primary lung cancer in China" .


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Patient Care Team , Practice Guidelines as Topic
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936039

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, the development of clinical practice guidelines in China has grown rapidly. However, with regards to the guidelines that have been established in the past, few were of high quality and in line with international standards. The main reason for this was that many clinical experts were not familiar with the procedures and rules of clinical guidelines before established, which lowered the quality seriously. Clinical practice guidelines are based on a clinical problem that is distilled into populations, interventions, comparison and outcome (PICO). After comprehensive systematic review, recommendations are made through evidence grading and strength of recommendation system. In addition, other issues should be noted such as pros and cons of the recommendation for specific population, preferences and values of the population, cost-effectiveness, and the health care system. A high-quality guideline requires multidimensional thinking (from clinicians, patients and policy makers), the implementation of a standard procedure (to ensure guidelines scientifically sound, honest and transparent), as well as the collaboration of multiple organizations (including experts, methodologists and policy makers).


Subject(s)
China , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927385

ABSTRACT

Based on the 28 Chinese clinical practice guidelines of acupuncture and moxibustion, this study summarized and analyzed the contents related to reaching consensus during the development process. The results indicated that all the 28 guidelines reported they have used consensus in the "recommendations" section, and provided details on consensus personnel, consensus methods, consensus process and consensus materials. However, it was found that the reporting of consensus was in need of further improvement. The limitations included unclear definition and responsibilities of "expert group", obscure concept between "consensus meeting" and "expert discussion", non-rigorous process of reaching consensus when generating recommendations and lacking of detailed reporting of the consensus reaching process. As such, we suggested that future researchers should conduct researches to further standardized the consensus process when developing acupuncture and moxibustion clinical practice guidelines, so as to improve the quality and clinical applicability of guidelines..


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , China , Consensus , Moxibustion , Practice Guidelines as Topic
15.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e59856, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384529

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: a sífilis é uma doença facilmente tratável, porém, no Brasil, ainda é um problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: construir um fluxograma e um protocolo para manejo da sífilis em adultos na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: pesquisa quanti-qualitativa, desenvolvida em 2019, realizada com 42 enfermeiros da Atenção Primária à Saúde de um município no oeste catarinense. Para a etapa quantitativa aplicou-se um questionário autoaplicado, embasado nos protocolos vigentes do Ministério da Saúde. A etapa qualitativa ocorreu por meio de uma pesquisa participativa do tipo pesquisa-ação com oito dos 42 enfermeiros. Estes, em dois grupos focais, produziram coletivamente um fluxograma e um protocolo de manejo da sífilis em adultos e, posteriormente, após análise do material construído, validaram os documentos, por meio de análise de conteúdo, resultando em 100% de concordância. Resultados: os produtos construídos representam a descrição das melhores práticas profissionais a serem seguidas. O fluxograma apresenta as etapas no manejo, e o protocolo descreve as atividades que envolvem o atendimento relacionado à doença nos adultos atendidos na Atenção Primária à Saúde do município. Considerações finais: a construção do fluxograma e do protocolo atenderam as necessidades dos profissionais da saúde, na qualificação do atendimento às pessoas com sífilis no município.


RESUMEN Introducción: la sífilis es una enfermedad fácilmente tratable, sin embargo, en Brasil, todavía es un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: construir un flujograma y un protocolo para el manejo de la sífilis en adultos en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Método: investigación cuanti-cualitativa, desarrollada en 2019, realizada con 42 enfermeros de la Atención Primaria de Salud de un municipio en el oeste catarinense, Brasil. Para la etapa cuantitativa se aplicó un cuestionario autoaplicado, basado en los protocolos vigentes del Ministerio de Salud. La etapa cualitativa ocurrió por medio de una investigación del tipo acción participativa con ocho de los 42 enfermeros. Estos, en dos grupos focales, produjeron colectivamente un flujograma y un protocolo de manejo de la sífilis en adultos y, posteriormente, tras el análisis del material construido, validaron los documentos, por medio de análisis de contenido, resultando en un 100% de concordancia. Resultados: los productos construidos representan la descripción de las mejores prácticas profesionales a seguir. El flujograma presenta las etapas en el manejo, y el protocolo describe las actividades que involucran la atención relacionada con la enfermedad en los adultos atendidos en la Atención Primaria de Salud del municipio. Consideraciones finales: la construcción del flujograma y del protocolo atendieron las necesidades de los profesionales de la salud, en la calificación de la atención a las personas con sífilis en el municipio.


ABSTRACT Introduction: syphilis is an easily treatable disease, even though it is still a public health problem in Brazil. Objective: to build a flowchart and a protocol for syphilis management in adults in Primary Health Care. Method: quantitative-qualitative study of 42 Primary Health Care nurses from a municipality in western Santa Catarina performed in 2019. In the quantitative stage, a self-administered questionnaire based on the current protocols of the Ministry of Health was applied. The qualitative stage was performed through participatory action research with eight out of 42 nurses. In two focus groups, they collectively produced a flowchart and a protocol for the management of syphilis in adults. After analyzing the constructed material, they validated the documents through content analysis, resulting in 100% agreement. Results: the products built describe the best professional practices to be followed. The flowchart presents the steps in the management, and the protocol describes the activities involving the care related to the disease in adults treated in Primary Health Care of the municipality. Final considerations: the construction of the flowchart and the protocol met the needs of health professionals in the qualification of care for people with syphilis in the municipality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Syphilis/prevention & control , Clinical Protocols/standards , Professional Practice/standards , National Health Strategies , Public Health/education , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Focus Groups/methods , Validation Studies as Topic , Workflow , Health Services Needs and Demand , Nurses/organization & administration
16.
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 681-690, March 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400532

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug-food interactions can lead to adverse drug reactions and therapy failure which can potentially impact patient safety and therapy outcome. Objectives: This study assessed patients' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding drug-food interactions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients at three public hospitals in eThekwini, KwaZulu-Natal. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS® version 25. The association between demographic variables and patients' knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed. Results: Of the 342 patients, 70.5% were female, and the mean age was 42.87±0.89 years. Almost 50% of patients had secondary level education, and 64% were unemployed. About 52% of patients had high knowledge of drug-food interactions; however, only 30-50% of the patients could identify potential drug-food interactions of their drugs. More than half of the patients (51.5%) answered that they took multivitamin pills with medications and 61.7% responded they consulted healthcare professionals for drug-food interactions' information before taking new medications. Few patients (15.2%) had experienced drug-food interactions. Conclusions: Overall, patients had gaps in their knowledge and practices, and positive attitudes towards drug-food interactions. Many patients could not identify food items that can potentially interact with their drugs. It is important that education and medication counselling are provided to patients to prevent drug-food interactions, ensure optimal drug therapy and patient safety


Subject(s)
Attitude , Food-Drug Interactions , Patients , Practice Guidelines as Topic
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 189 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380163

ABSTRACT

A fibrilação atrial (FA) não valvar é a arritmia cardíaca mais comum em adultos, principalmente na população idosa. Para o tratamento da FA, recomenda-se a utilização de guias de prática clínica (GPCs), que são documentos que apresentam as melhores e mais atualizadas evidências para o tratamento dos pacientes acometidos por essa arritmia. Todavia, o processo de desenvolvimento dos GPCs requer recursos humanos, financeiros e tempo. Assim, a adaptação dos referidos documentos é uma opção para reduzir a duplicação de esforços e possibilitar sua adequação para uso local. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma matriz de recomendações farmacológicas para subsidiar o processo de adaptação de GPCs utilizados no tratamento da fibrilação atrial não valvar. Para tanto, aplicou-se o método ADAPTE: revisão sistematizada de GPCs, avaliação e seleção dos GPCs de qualidade e elaboração da matriz. Foram considerados elegíveis 26 GPCs com recomendações farmacológicas para assistência primária da fibrilação atrial não valvar em adultos, publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português no período de abril de 2014 a abril de 2019 e indexados às bases de referência: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library e em 12 bases de dados específicas. A qualidade dos GPCs, foi avaliada pela aplicação do instrumento Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluarion II (AGREE II), sendo considerados de alta qualidade aqueles que apresentaram nota igual ou superior a 60 % no domínio Rigor de desenvolvimento. Todas as etapas foram realizadas por, pelo menos, 2 avaliadores e em caso de discrepância, um terceiro avaliador participou do processo. Dos 26 GPCs avaliados apenas 7 (26,9%) foram considerados de alta qualidade. A maioria dos GPCs utiliza o escore CHA2DS2-VASc, que indica a profilaxia tromboembólica em pacientes com FA não valvar a partir da pontuação 1 (fator de risco não sexual) e sugere a anticoagulação com anticoagulantes de ação direta. Houve pouca ênfase à complexidade da profilaxia de eventos tromboembólicos em idosos. Esta matriz visa contribuir para que sejam realizadas discussões e adaptações de GPCs destinado ao tratamento da FA não valvar com ênfase nas demandas e necessidades locais


Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in adults, especially in the elderly population. For the treatment of AF, the use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is recommended, which are documents that present the best and most up-to-date evidence for the treatment of patients who are affected by this arrhythmia. However, the CPGs development process requires human, financial and time resources. However, the adaptation of documents is an option to reduce the duplication of efforts and make it possible to adapt them for any local use. The objective of this work was to elaborate a matrix of pharmacological treatment to support the process of adaptation of CPGs used in the treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the ADAPTE method was applied: systematic review of CPGs, evaluation and selection of quality CPGs and matrix definition. Twenty-six CPGs were considered eligible with pharmacological recommendations for primary care of non-valvular atrial fibrillation valid in adults, published in English, Spanish or Portuguese from April 2014 to April 2019 and indexed to the following reference databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and in 12 specific databases. The quality of the CPGs was assessed by applying the Assessment of Guidelines for Research and Assessment II (AGREE II) instrument, being considered of high those who had a grade equal to or greater than 60% in the domain Rigour of development. All steps were performed by a least 2 evaluators and in case of discrepancy, a third evaluator participated in the process. Of the 26 CPGs evaluated, only 7 (26.9%) were considered to be of high quality. Most CPGs use the CHA2DS2-VASc score, which indicates thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients with non-valvular AF from score 1 (non-sexual risk factor), and suggest anticoagulation with direct-acting anticoagulants. There was little emphasis on the complexity of prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in the elderly. This matrix aims to contribute to discussion and adaptations of CPGs for the treatment of non-valvar AF with the emphasis on local demands and needs


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine/classification , Disease Prevention , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Patients/classification , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization , Risk Factors , MEDLINE , Total Quality Management/classification , Health Services Needs and Demand/classification , Libraries/classification
19.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; v26(n4): 238-245, 31-12-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1367640

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conhecer a produção científica sobre as práticas de reprocessamento de materiais hospitalares. Método: Revisão integrativa, realizada em agosto e setembro de 2019 nas bases de dados da enfermagem, Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online e Scientific Electronic Library Online. Utilizaram-se descri-tores em português, espanhol e inglês, com recorte temporal de cinco anos. Os resultados foram apresentados em quadro, e o corpus de análise em catego-rias, conforme o método dedutivo. Resultados: Foram identificados 1.207 artigos e selecionados seis deles em conformidade com os critérios de elegibi-lidade. Os delineamentos mais frequentes eram estudos quantitativos, no idioma português, configurando três categorias temáticas: processo de limpeza dos produtos para saúde; acondicionamento e esterilização dos produtos para saúde; armazenamento dos produtos para saúde. Conclusão: Foram evi-denciados os principais procedimentos realizados em cada etapa do reprocessamento de materiais, que deve ser descrita em protocolos institucionais. Destaca-se a lacuna de pesquisas com nível de evidência, voltadas para o reprocessamento de produtos para saúde.


Objective: To know the scientific production on the practices for reprocessing hospital materials. Method: This is an integrative review, con-ducted in August and September 2019 in the following nursing databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature,Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, andScientific Electronic Library Online. We used descrip-tors in Portuguese, Spanish, and English, with a five-year time frame. Results were presented in a table, and the corpus for analysis in categories, according to the deductive method. Results: We retrieved 1,207 articles and selected six of them based on the eligibility criteria. The most frequent designs were quan-titative studies in Portuguese, and three thematic categories were identified: cleaning process of healthcare products; packaging and sterilization of health-care products; storage of healthcare products. Conclusions: The main procedures performed at each stage of material reprocessing were determined and should be described in institutional protocols. We highlight the lack of research on the reprocessing of healthcare products with a higher level of evidence.


Objetivo: Conocer la producción científica sobre las prácticas de reprocesamiento de materiales hospitalarios. Método: Revisión integrativa, realizada de agosto a septiembre de 2019, en bases de datos especializadas en Enfermería, Literatura Latinoamericana y Caribeña en Ciencias de la Salud, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online y Scientific Electronic Library Online. Se utilizaron descriptores en portugués, español e inglés, con un marco de tiempo de cinco años. Los resultados se presentaron en una tabla y el corpus de análisis en categorías, según el método deductivo. Resultados: Se identificaron 1.207 artículos y se seleccionaron seis de ellos, de acuerdo con los criterios de elegibilidad. Los diseños más frecuentes fueron estudios cuantitativos, en portugués, configurando tres categorías temáticas: proceso de limpieza de productos sanitarios; envasado y esterilización de productos sanitarios; almacenamiento de productos sanitarios. Conclusión: Se destacaron los principales procedimientos realizados en cada etapa del reprocesamiento del material, los cuales deben ser descritos en los protocolos institucionales. Se destaca la brecha en la investigación con nivel de evidencia, enfocada al reprocesamiento de productos sanitarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sterilization , Equipment and Supplies , Hospitals , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Guidelines as Topic , Product Storage
20.
Rev. ABENO ; 21(1): 1558, dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1373464

ABSTRACT

O ensaio, parte 1, examina como a pandemia da coronavírus disease (Covid-19)está impactando na organização e realização dos estágios curriculares dos cursos de Odontologia no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).Aprofunda-se na problematização de contextos pré-pandêmicos e transpandêmicos, retomando o significado formativo social, profissional e pessoal que os estágios no SUS representam para o ensino/aprendizagem inserido no mundo do trabalho. Reflete sobre as reorganizações protagonizadas nas políticas profissionais e de educação em relação aos estágios, para compreender visibilidades e/ou cegueiras que nos sobrevêm diante dos complexos desafios que a situação impõe (AU).


The essay, part 1, examines how the Covid-19 pandemic is influencing the organization and implementation of curricular internships in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) for dentistry undergraduate courses. It goes into the problematization of pre-and trans-pandemic contexts, resuming the social, professional, and personal formative meaning that internships in SUS represent for teaching/learning inserted in the labor world. It reflects on the reorganizations carried out in professional and educational policies related to internships, in order to understand the visibilities and/or blindness that turn up in the face of the complex challenges imposed by the state of affairs (AU).


Subject(s)
Preceptorship , Teaching Care Integration Services , Clinical Clerkship/standards , COVID-19/transmission , Unified Health System , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Education, Dental
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