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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 207, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102940

ABSTRACT

La pancreatitis es una de las consecuencias principales del envenenamiento escorpiónico producido por el género Tityus. El manejo farmacológico mediante el uso de agonistas y antagonistas α adrenérgicos en modelos experimentales in vivo e in vitro, permiten establecer una aproximación del papel del Sistema Nervioso Simpático (SNS) en el desarrollo de la pancreatitis. Objetivo: determinar el papel del SNS en el desarrollo de la pancreatitis aguda inducida por el veneno de escorpión Tityus zulianus (TzV), por medio del uso de simpaticolíticos como la clonidina y el prazosin. Métodos: La Extravasación de Proteínas Plasmáticas (EPP) en el páncreas se evaluó mediante el método de Azul de Evans (AE), modificado de Saria y Lundberg (1983) a 620 nm; n=3 ratones NIH en cada grupo experimental. Las comparaciones se hicieron por ANOVA de una vía y las pruebas post HOC por Tukey-Kramer. Resultados: Ambos fármacos (1mg/Kg), disminuyeron significativamente p< 0,01 (**) la EPP en el páncreas inducida por el TzV, en comparación con los animales inoculados solo con TzV. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los animales del grupo control y los grupos tratados con los fármacos más el TzV. Conclusiones: El efecto pancreatotóxico del TzV en ratones podría tener un componente autonómico dado que drogas simpaticolíticas al disminuir la actividad noradrenérgica reducen la magnitud del edema. Esto sugiere que ambos fármacos pueden usarse como estrategia terapéutica en estos casos(AU)


Pancreatitis is one of the main consequences of scorpionic poisoning produced by the genus Tityus. The pharmacological management through the use of agonists and α adrenergic antagonists in experimental models in vivo and in vitro, allow us to establish an approximation of the role of the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) in the development of pancreatitis. Objective: to determine the role of SNS in the development of acute pancreatitis induced by the scorpion venom Tityus zulianus (TzV), through the use of sympatholytics such as clonidine and prazosin. Methods: Plasma Protein Extravasation (PPE) in the pancreas was evaluated by the method of Evans Blue (EA), modified by Saria and Lundberg (1983) at 620 nm; n = 3 NIH mice in each experimental group. Comparisons were made by one-way ANOVA and post-HOC tests by Tukey-Kramer. Results: Both drugs (1mg / Kg) significantly decreased p <0.01 (**) the EPP in the pancreas induced by TzV, compared to animals inoculated only with TzV. There were no significant differences between the animals in the control group and the groups treated with drugs plus TzV. Conclusions: The pancreatotoxic effect of TzV in mice could have an autonomic component since sympatholytic drugs by decreasing noradrenergic activity reduce the magnitude of edema. This suggests that both drugs can be used as a therapeutic strategy in these cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Pancreatitis/etiology , Scorpion Venoms , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects , Pharmacology, Clinical , Prazosin/therapeutic use , Clonidine/therapeutic use
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 600-607, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Apoptosis effect of oral alpha-blockers is known in the prostate. Apoptosis index of silodosin has not been proved, yet. Aims are to present apoptosis index of silodosin in prostate and to compare this with other currently used alpha-blocker's apoptosis indexes together with their clinical effects. Materials and Methods: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were enrolled among those admitted to urology outpatient clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Study groups were created according to randomly prescribed oral alpha-blocker drugs as silodosin 8mg (Group 1; n=24), tamsulosin 0.4mg (Group 2; n=30), alfuzosin 10mg (Group 3; n=25), doxazosin 8mg (Group 4; n=22), terazosin 5mg (Group 5; n=15). Pa- tients who refused to use any alpha-blocker drug were included into Group 6 as control group (n=16). We investigated apoptosis indexes of the drugs in prostatic tissues that were taken from patient's surgery (transurethral resection of prostate) and/or prostate biopsies. Immunochemical dyeing, light microscope, and Image Processing and Analy- sis in Java were used for evaluations. Statistical significant p was p<0.05. Results: There were 132 patients with mean follow-up of 4.2±2.1 months. Pathologist researched randomly selected 10 areas in each microscope set. Group 1 showed statisti- cal significant difference apoptosis index in immunochemical TUNEL dyeing and im- age software (p<0.001). Moreover, we determined superior significant development in parameters as uroflowmetry, quality of life scores, and international prostate symptom score in Group 1. Conclusions: Silodosin has higher apoptosis effect than other alpha-blockers in prostate. Thus, clinic improvement with silodosin was proved by histologic studies. Besides, static factor of BPH may be overcome with creating apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/drug effects , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Reference Values , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Prazosin/analogs & derivatives , Prazosin/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Doxazosin/pharmacology , Tamsulosin , Indoles/pharmacology , Middle Aged
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17228, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001591

ABSTRACT

In the current work, a sustained drug delivery system of flutamide (FLT) was developed using Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) decorated bypoly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted prazosin (PLGA-PEG-Praz) as a targeting moiety. In a multi-step reaction, PLGA was linked to PEG and prazosin. The structure of the synthesized polymers was confirmed by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Flutamide-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique. The nanoparticles were evaluated for size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug crystallinity, loading efficiency, and release properties. Also, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Powder X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The particle size of nanoparticles was ranged between 191 and 249 nm. Loading efficiency of nanoparticles was about 43%-69%. Results showed a steady release rate for nanoparticles compared to that of a pure drug powder. SEM characterization confirmed that particles were in nanosize range. DSC and XRPD results verified a decrease in drug crystallinity in the prepared formulations. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that PLGA-PEG-Praz nanoparticles could be a good choice to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug and these formulations can increase Flutamide efficacy.


Subject(s)
Prazosin/analysis , Nanoparticles , Flutamide/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Naftopidil ((±)-1-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazinyl]-3-(1-naphthyloxy) propan-2-ol) is prescribed in several Asian countries for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Previous animal experiments showed that intrathecal injection of naftopidil abolished rhythmic bladder contraction in vivo. Naftopidil facilitated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in spinal cord slices. These results suggest that naftopidil may suppress the micturition reflex at the spinal cord level. However, the effect of naftopidil on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in SG neurons remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats at 6 to 8 weeks old were used. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made using SG neurons in spinal cord slices isolated from adult rats. Evoked EPSCs were analyzed in Aδ or C fibers. Naftopidil or prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, was perfused at 100 μM or 10 μM, respectively. RESULTS: Bath-applied 100 μM naftopidil significantly decreased the peak amplitudes of Aδ and C fiber-evoked EPSCs to 72.0%±7.1% (n=15) and 70.0%±5.5% (n=20), respectively, in a reversible and reproducible manner. Bath application of 10μM prazosin did not inhibit Aδ or C fiber-evoked EPSCs. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that a high concentration of naftopidil reduces the amplitude of evoked EPSCs via a mechanism that apparently does not involve α1-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of evoked EPSCs may also contribute to suppression of the micturition reflex, together with nociceptive stimulation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animal Experimentation , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Baths , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Injections, Spinal , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated , Neurons , Prazosin , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reflex , Spinal Cord , Substantia Gelatinosa , Urinary Bladder , Urination
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727866

ABSTRACT

Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced electrically using electrical field stimulation consisting of pulse trains at an amplitude of 40 V and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 2–10 Hz. In this study, the pharmacological inhibitors atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (adenosine A₁ receptor antagonist), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (α₁-receptor antagonist), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) were used to pretreat bladder smooth muscles. It was found that the contractility of bladder smooth muscles from DM rats was lower than that of normal rats. In addition, there were significant differences in percent change of contractility between normal and DM rats following pretreatment with prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122. In conclusion, we suggest that the decreased bladder muscle contractility in DM rats was a result of perturbations in PLC/IP₃-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ release and PDE5 activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Diabetes Mellitus , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
7.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 464-467, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812740

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the short- and long-term effects of triple acupuncture at the Qugu acupoint as an adjunctive therapy on type-Ⅲ chronic prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).@*METHODS@#We equally randomized 90 CP/CPPS patients into a control and a treatment group, both treated with Levofloxacin Mesylate Tablets (0.5 g, tid) + Terazosin Hydrochloride Capsules (2 mg qd) for 4 weeks, while the latter group by triple acupuncture at the Qugu acupoint as an adjunctive therapy twice a week at the same time. Then, we followed up all the patients for 4 weeks, recorded the cases, time and rate of recurrence, obtained the scores in National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), quality of life (QoL) and Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), and compared them between the two groups of patients.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the controls, the patients of the treatment group showed significantly decreased NIH-CPSI scores in pain (8.6 ± 2.12 vs 6.2 ± 2.25, P <0.05), micturition (5.8 ± 1.22 vs 3.1 ± 1.10, P <0.05), and QoL (6.0 ± 1.33 vs 3.4 ± 1.71, P <0.05) and ZDS score as well (43.9 ± 4.53 vs 33.6 ± 3.20, P <0.01). The recurrence rate was markedly lower while the recurrence time remarkably longer in the treatment than in the control group (15.56 vs 35.56% and [20.0 ± 2.72] vs [12.5 ± 3.47] d, P <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#As an adjunctive therapy, triple acupuncture at the Qugu acupoint can evidently ameliorate the clinical symptoms, enhance the curative effect of antibacterials, reduce the recurrence rate, and prolong the recurrence time in the treatment of CP/CPPS.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Chronic Disease , Chronic Pain , Therapeutics , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Methods , Humans , Levofloxacin , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Pelvic Pain , Therapeutics , Prazosin , Therapeutic Uses , Prostatitis , Therapeutics , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Syndrome , United States , Urological Agents , Therapeutic Uses
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 144-151, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741140

ABSTRACT

Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. .


Fundamento: Distúrbios da motilidade do intestino proximal no infarto agudo do miocárdio podem desencadear sintomas digestivos como náuseas e vômitos. O infarto do miocárdio ocasiona retardo do esvaziamento gástrico (EG) de líquido em ratos. Objetivo: Investigar se existe a influência do nervo vago (VGX), adrenoreceptores α-1, receptores GABAB do sistema nervoso central e participação do núcleo paraventricular (NPV) do hipotálamo no esvaziamento gástrico (EG) e complacência gástrica (CG) em ratos infartados. Métodos: Ratos Wistar (n = 8-15) foram divididos em: grupo infarto (INF), sham (SH) e subdivididos. O infarto foi realizado por ligadura da artéria coronária descendente anterior. A complacência gástrica foi estimada com curvas pressão-volume. Realizada vagotomia por secção dos ramos dorsal e ventral. Para verificar a ação dos receptores GABAB foi injetado baclofeno por via intra ventrículo-cerebral. Simpatectomia química foi realizada com prazosina intravenosa (iv), e na lesão do núcleo paraventricular do hipotálamo foi utilizada corrente elétrica de 1mA/10s, com esvaziamento gástrico determinado por medição da retenção gástrica (% RG) de uma refeição salina. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa na CG. A vagotomia (VGX) reduziu significativamente a %RG; no grupo INF, o tratamento intra ventrículo-cerebral (ivc) com baclofeno reduziu significativamente a % RG; não houve conclusivamente envolvimento dos receptores GABAB em retardar o EG; o tratamento intravenoso com prazosina reduziu significativamente a %RG no grupo INF. A lesão do NPV aboliu o efeito do infarto do miocárdio no EG. Conclusão: O nervo vago, receptores α-adrenérgicos e núcleo paraventricular estão envolvidos no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico no infarto agudo do miocárdio em ratos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiopathology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/physiology , Receptors, GABA-B/physiology , Vagus Nerve/physiopathology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Baclofen/pharmacology , GABA-B Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Gastroparesis/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Prazosin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Vagotomy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nefopam has shown an analgesic effect on acute pain including postoperative pain. The reuptake of monoamines including serotonin and noradrenaline has been proposed as the mechanism of the analgesic action of nefopam, but it remains unclear. Although alpha-adrenergic agents are being widely used in the perioperative period, the role of noradrenergic modulation in the analgesic effect of nefopam has not been fully addressed. METHODS: Changes in the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal (i.t.) nefopam against formalin-elicited flinching responses were explored in Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with i.t. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which depletes spinal noradrenaline. In addition, antagonism to the effect of nefopam by prazosin and yohimbine was evaluated to further elucidate the antinociceptive mechanism of i.t. nefopam. RESULTS: Pretreatment with i.t. 6-OHDA alone did not alter the flinching responses in either phase of the formalin test, while it attenuated the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam significantly during phase 1, but not phase 2. The antagonist of the alpha-2 receptor, but not the alpha-1 receptor, reduced partially, but significantly, the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam during phase 1, but not during phase 2. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that spinal noradrenergic modulation plays an important role in the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam against formalin-elicited acute initial pain, but not facilitated pain, and this action involves the spinal alpha-2 but not the alpha-1 receptor.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain , Formaldehyde , Nefopam , Norepinephrine , Oxidopamine , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative , Perioperative Period , Prazosin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Spinal Cord , Yohimbine
10.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 814-820, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the response to medical therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) after a 3-month period of treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cohort study of 100 patients, 47 with MetS and 53 without MetS, referred to either the primary care unit or referral hospital with BPH who had moderate lower urinary tract symptoms of prostate involvement and were candidates for medical treatment. Our main outcome was response to medical treatment with prazosin 1 mg twice a day and finasteride 5 mg daily in patients with BPH on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare BPH treatment response in patients with and without MetS before and after receiving treatment. RESULTS: The mean volume of the prostate was significantly higher in MetS patients than in patients without MetS (57+/-32.65 mL compared with 46.00+/-20.19 mL, p=0.036). The control group demonstrated an 11-unit reduction in IPSS, whereas those with MetS showed a reduction in the symptom score of only 6 units (p<0.001). Regarding the components of MetS separately, triglyceride (p<0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.001), and waist circumference (p=0.028) significantly affected the clinical progression of BPH. The observational nature of this study may be a limitation in comparison with an interventional study. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that MetS can negatively affect the response to medical treatment of BPH. Therefore, it is necessary to consider MetS in selecting patients with BPH for drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Case-Control Studies , Finasteride/therapeutic use , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prazosin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Treatment Outcome , Urological Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236351

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the antithrombotic effects and its molecular mechanisms of prazosin combined with anisodamine (Ani).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Isolated rat tail artery rings model was employed to evaluate the vasodilative effects of drugs, mice tail thrombosis model induced by carrageenan was used to study the antithrombotic effects and its molecular mechanisms of the drug composition.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonists, prazosin(Pra) had the greatest relaxation rate, which was (82.6 +/- 8.9)%, and the EC50 value was 0.44 micromol/L. The drug composition of anisodamine and prazosin of different doses could decrease the length of the tail thrombosis from (24.6 +/- 4.6)mm to (6.9 +/- 2.7)mm, and the rate of thrombosis was decreased from 86.6% to 50.0%. The drug composition could prolong the prothrombin time (PT) distinctively, but it had no effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). It also could restrain the decrease of serum levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and 6- Keto -PGF1alpha as well as the increase of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in the mice.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The drug composition formed by anisodamine and prazosin has good effects of relaxing extremities tiny blood vessels and it can fight against thrombosis, its antithrombotic mechanisms may be related to the influence of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, inhibition of platelet activation functions and the promotion of fibrinolysis function.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists , Pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Prazosin , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Thrombosis , Drug Therapy
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236346

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation under different temperature conditions and the protective effects of Vitamin E (Vit E) against endothelial injury induced by hypothermia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The tail arterial rings were prepared for isometric tension recording using multi wire myograph system. The effect of temperature on relaxation and construction was evaluated. Incubate the arterial rings with different concentration of Vit E when they were exposed to hypothermia, then acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was investigated to evaluate the activity of endothelial.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The hypothermia could enhanced the dose-dependent construction induced by PE in mice tail artery. (2) Exposure to hypothermia also resulted in increase of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced re-After incubation with Vit E, the vascular relaxation responses to ACh increased in an endothelium-dependent manner, when compared with the hypothermia-treated group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The vascular function of constriction was attenuated by hypothermia, while the relaxation was increased. Vit E could prevent the hypothermia-induced decrease in vascular endothelial cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Physiology , Cold Temperature , Hypothermia , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice , Prazosin , Pharmacology , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Vasoconstriction , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents , Pharmacology , Vitamin E , Pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236299

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Using an experimental model of animals exposed to cold to evaluate the regulative effects of prazosin hydrochloride (Pra) and racanisodamine (Ani) on extremital skin temperature of rats and mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty animals were randomly divided into eight groups according to the drug dosage. After been administered with drugs by intragastric at room temperature for 60 min, the animals were moved into specified temperature (5 degrees C,18 degrees C) environment and the skin temperatures at the 1/3 site at the proximal end of tail were measured by infrared camera on 180 min and 300 min. Effects of drug were evaluated by changes in tail skin temperatures.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pra and Ani combination raised the extremital skin temperature of experimental animals significantly in a dose-dependent manner, while single use of Pra was not potent to rats and less potent to mice, and single use of Ani could not raise extremital skin temperature of both rats and mice. Change of rectal temperature in mice showed that Pra and Ani combination did not affect core temperature.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Pra and Ani combination could significantly raise extremital skin temperature of rats and mice exposed to cold, and would not affect their core (rectal) temperature.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Temperature , Cold Temperature , Mice , Prazosin , Pharmacology , Rats , Skin Temperature , Solanaceous Alkaloids , Pharmacology
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(6): 832-840, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699124

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of terazosin and tolterodine on ureteral stent discomfort. Materials and Methods Of 163 patients assessed for eligibility, 104 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 2 mg of terazosin twice daily, 2 mg of tolterodine daily, or both terazosin plus tolterodine during the stenting period. Prior to stenting and at stent removal, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the IPSS quality of life (QoL) subscore and the Visual Analog Scale for Pain were determined. The patients also reported their analgesic use during the stenting period. Results Ninety-four patients completed the study. We noted significant decreases in the total IPSS scores (p = 0.002), irritative subscore (p = 0.039), QoL (p = 0.001), flank pain (p = 0.013), voiding pain (p = 0.01) and amount of analgesics used (p = 0.02) in the groups. However, neither the obstructive subscore nor the suprapubic pain improved significantly (p = 0.251 and p = 0.522, respectively). The patients receiving terazosin plus tolterodine experienced significant reductions in the total IPSS, irritative symptoms, QoL, flank pain, voiding pain and decreased analgesics use compared with those patients receiving placebo. However, compared with placebo, terazosin monotherapy did not affect pain levels, and tolterodine monotherapy did not improve QoL, flank pain or analgesics use. Conclusions Terazosin plus tolterodine improves ureteral stent-related complications, including irritative symptoms, the amount of analgesics used, QoL, flank pain and voiding pain but does not decrease obstructive symptoms or suprapubic pain. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530243. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cresols/therapeutic use , Phenylpropanolamine/therapeutic use , Prazosin/analogs & derivatives , Stents/adverse effects , Ureter/drug effects , Urological Agents/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Device Removal/adverse effects , Flank Pain/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Prazosin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Visual Analog Scale
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 735-738, 19/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686572

ABSTRACT

Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg−1·day−1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adrenergic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Ampyrone/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antipyrine/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Gastric Emptying/drug effects , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Infusions, Intraventricular , Phenolsulfonphthalein , Prazosin/administration & dosage , Propranolol/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Yohimbine/administration & dosage
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(4): 513-518, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687309

ABSTRACT

Purpose To evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of the use of propiverine and terazosine combination in patients with LUTS and DO by a placebo controlled study. Materials and Methods One hundred patients were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into two groups (each group consisted of 50 patients). Terazosine and placebo were administered to the patients in Group 1 and terazosine plus propiverine HCL was administered to Group 2. The patients were evaluated by international prostate symptom score (IPSS), the first four questions of IPSS (IPSS4), the 8th question of IPSS (quality of life-QoL), overactive bladder symptom score questionnaire (OAB-q V8), PSA test, urodynamic studies, post voiding residue (PVR). All patients were followed for one year and were reassessed for comparison. Results IPSS, IPSS4, OAB symptoms, QoL score, PVR, and Qmax scores of the groups did not differ. After one year treatment, there was significant improvement in IPSS, IPSS4, OAB symptoms, QoL and Qmax values in Group 2. No significant improvement was noted for the same parameters in Group 1. Conclusion This is the first study to show long term safety and efficacy of anticholinergic therapy for patients with LUTS. In patients with OAB or DO, long term anticholinergic treatment may be regarded as a treatment option. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Benzilates/therapeutic use , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Muscarinic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prazosin/analogs & derivatives , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Prazosin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1325-1332, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259474

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate the penetration effects and mechanism of N-arginine chitosan (ACS). This novel transdermal enhancer with a mimetic structure of cell-penetration peptides was synthesized by introducing hydrophilic arginine groups to the amino-group on chitosan's side chain. The structure of ACS was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and element analysis. In addition, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to study the protein conformation and the water content of stratum corneum, and the result suggested that ACS can change the orderly arrangement of the molecules in the stratum corneum, making the stack structure of keratin become loose. And ACS can increase the water content of the stratum corneurn. Inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to examine penetration effect of ACS on Hacat cell. The result confirmed that the uptake of ACS was enhanced with increased substitution degree of arginine by 4-8 folds compared to chitosan. In vitro penetration studies on three electrical types of drugs were carried out using three model drugs of negatively charged aspirin, positively charged terazosin and neutral drug isosorbide mononitrate by the method of Franz diffusion cells. The results showed that ACS has obviously penetration of the negatively charged drug aspirin, and certain penetration of neutral drug issorbide mononitrate, but inhibition of positively charged terazosin. In vivo imaging technology research results show that the ACS can significantly enhance the fluorescence intensity of morin, which is the auto-fluorescence anionic drug. These obtained results suggested that ACS, as a promising transdermal enhancer, can change the structure of the keratinocytes and analog penetrating peptides promote absorption, but have certain selectivity for the drug.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Arginine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Aspirin , Pharmacokinetics , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Chitosan , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drug Carriers , Humans , Isosorbide Dinitrate , Pharmacokinetics , Keratinocytes , Cell Biology , Male , Mice , Prazosin , Pharmacokinetics , Skin Absorption
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of spinal adrenergic and cholinergic receptors on the anti-nociceptive effect of intrathecal ginsenosides was determined in a rat postoperative pain model. METHODS: Catheters were placed into the intrathecal space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Postoperative pain was evoked by an incision to the plantar surface of a hind paw. Withdrawal thresholds was used as a nociceptive parameter and was measured with a von Frey filament. After observing the effect of intrathecal ginsenosides, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin), an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine), and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) were given 10 min before administration of the ginsenosides to analyze the contribution of spinal adrenergic and cholinergic receptors on the antinociceptive effect of ginsenosides. RESULTS: Paw incision decreased withdrawal threshold in incised site of paw, but no change of withdrawal threshold was not seen in non-incised site. The intrathecal ginsenosides increased withdrawal threshold of the incised paw in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with both prazosin and intrathecal yohimbine antagonized the anti-nociceptive effect of the ginsenosides. However, pre-treatments with atropine or mecamylamine had any effect on the antinociceptive activity of ginsenosides. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal ginsenosides are effective in attenuation of postoperative pain induced in the rat model. Anti-nociceptive action of ginsenosides is partially mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors, but does not appear to be related to spinal cholinergic receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Catheters , Ginsenosides , Humans , Male , Mecamylamine , Pain, Postoperative , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2 , Receptors, Cholinergic , Receptors, Muscarinic , Receptors, Nicotinic , Spinal Cord , Yohimbine
19.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 39(5): 176-179, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-656242

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: Prazosina, um antagonista de receptores alfa-1 adrenérgicos, é utilizada no tratamento de pesadelos e insônia relacionados com TEPT. Apesar das evidências sugerindo sua eficácia também no tratamento de sintomas gerais de TEPT, sua curta meia-vida (2-3 horas) pode limitar seus efeitos terapêuticos.OBJETIVO: Descrever quatro casos de pacientes com TEPT resistentes aos inibidores de recaptação de serotonina ou de serotonina e adrenalina (terapia convencional) tratados com uma apresentação de prazosina de liberação lenta.MÉTODOS: Quatro pacientes com TEPT grave, resistentes à terapia convencional, tiveram a prazosina de liberação lenta (meia-vida de 10,8 horas) adicionada as suas prescrições por pelo menos três meses. Os sintomas de TEPT foram avaliados pela PCL-C e pelos itens referentes a pesadelos e insônia da CAPS, na linha de base e no final do período de observação de cada paciente.RESULTADOS: Dois pacientes mostraram melhora dos sintomas gerais de TEPT (redução de 35,7% e 11,9% nos escores da PCL-C), e três mostraram melhora de pesadelos e insônia (nos escores da CAPS). O único paciente que recebeu doses da prazosina pela manhã e ao deitar-se foi o que mostrou a maior melhora dos sintomas gerais de TEPT.CONCLUSÃO: Possivelmente, a sustentação do bloqueio da atividade noradrenérgica no sistema nervoso central promovida pela prazosina de liberação lenta durante o dia se faz necessária para a melhora de sintomas residuais de TEPT em pacientes em tratamento convencional com antidepressivos.


BACKGROUND: Prazosin is an antagonist of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor used to treat PTSD-related nightmares and insomnia. Although evidence suggests that it is also effective in the treatment of general symptoms of PTSD, its short half-life (2-3 hours) may limit its therapeutic effects.OBJECTIVE: To describe four cases of patients with PTSD resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) therapy (conventional therapy) treated with slow-release prazosin presentation.METHODS: Four patients with severe PTSD resistant to conventional therapy received slow-release prazosin (half-life of 10.8 hours) added to their prescription for at least three months. PTSD symptoms were evaluated by the PCL-C, together with nightmares and insomnia items of CAPS, at baseline and at the last observation of each patient.RESULTS: Two patients showed improvement in general symptoms of PTSD (reduction of 35.7% and 11.9% in PCL-C scores), and three showed relief from nightmares and insomnia (CAPS scores). The only patient who received morning and bedtime doses of prazosin showed the greatest improvement in general symptoms of PTSD.DISCUSSION: It is possible that the sustained blockade of noradrenergic activity in the central nervous system provided by slow-release prazosin during the day is necessary to further ameliorate residual PTSD symptoms in patients receiving conventional antidepressant therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists , Prazosin/therapeutic use , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
20.
Damascus University Journal for Health Sciences. 2012; 28 (1): 195-208
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-132803

ABSTRACT

The vasodilator effect of ethanolic extract of Achillea Fragrantissima [Asteraceae] was detected at several levels in isolated and phenylephrine- precontracted rabbit aortic rings. First, The role of potassium channels and beta[2] receptors was determined by using the selective blockers for each of them: Charybdotoxine and Propranolol, respectively. Secondly, there was a set of experiments in which a Ca[+2] free Krebs solution was used and pheylephrine contracted the rings following by re-injection of Ca[+2] ions to the medium, this step was repeated in the presence of the extract. The vasodilator drugs: Diltiazem and Prazocine were used as reference and for evaluation. This extract showed a profound relaxing effect on phenylephrine- precontracted aortic rings, which was partially related to potassium channels and beta[2] receptors. In experiments that used Ca[+2] free Krebs solution, the extract inhibited partially the first phase contraction [pheylephrine contraction] and the second phase contraction which is due for calcium entry via calcium channels, with more potent for the last one and this was similar to Diltiazem. The vasodilator effect of ethanolic extract of Achillea Fragrantissima is largely related to calcium channels and this emphasis the need for isolation of related compound[s].


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Plant Extracts , Ethanol , Vasodilator Agents , Vasodilation , Rabbits , Phenylephrine , Diltiazem , Prazosin
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