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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(1): 27-35, feb. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) es responsable del cáncer de cuello uterino y sus lesiones preneoplásicas. Los genotipos VPH16 y VPH18 son los más frecuentes en este cáncer. La integración del VPH-AR en el genoma de la célula hospedera es crucial en la carcinogénesis cervical, pero la etapa en que ocurre en la población chilena es incierta. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la integración de VPH16 y VPH18 en lesiones pre-neoplásicas de cuello uterino. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 108 muestras de raspados cervicales. El VPH se genotipificó mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) e hibridación no radiactiva. La integración de VPH16 y VPH18 se determinó por presencia del gen E2 mediante RPC. RESULTADOS: VPH16 y VPH18 se detectaron en 36,1% y 12,0% de las muestras, respectivamente. El VPH16 se integró en 23,1% de los casos de VPH16, mientras que VPH18 se integró en 100% de las muestras positivas para este genotipo. CONCLUSIONES: La integración VPH-AR es un evento temprano en la carcinogénesis cervical que ocurre en casi la mitad de las lesiones pre-neoplásicas y es más frecuente en VPH18 que en VPH16. La evaluación de la integración VPH-AR puede ser una herramienta útil para detectar el virus en la población chilena.


BACKGROUND: High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and its preneoplastic lesions. HPV16 and 18 are the most frequent HR-HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancer. HR-HPV genome integration into the host cell is an important event in the carcinogenic process. However, it remains uncertain which stage of cervical carcinogenesis HPV16 and 18 integration occurs in the Chilean population. AIM: The goal of this study was to evaluate HPV16 and HPV18 integration in preneoplastic lesions of the cervix. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 108 cervical scrape samples with preneoplastic lesions. HPV was genotyped using PCR and non-radioactive hybridization. The integration status of HPV16 and HPV 18 was determined by evaluating the E2 gene presence through PCR. RESULTS: HPV16 and HPV18 tested positive in 36.1% and 12.0% of samples, respectively. HPV16 was found integrated in 23.1% of HPV 16 cases, while HPV 18 in 100% of samples positive for this viral genotype. CONCLUSIONS: HR-HPV integration is an early event in cervical carcinogenesis, occurring in nearly half of preneoplastic lesions and being more frequent in HPV18 than in HPV16. The evaluation of HR-HPV integration can be utilized as a complementary tool for detecting HPV in the Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Precancerous Conditions/virology , Cervix Uteri/virology , Virus Integration/genetics , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human papillomavirus 16/isolation & purification , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/isolation & purification , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Genotyping Techniques , Genotype
2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(4): 296-204, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515219

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: La biopsia guiada por colposcopia (BGC) marca el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la concordancia de los resultados entre la BGC y la escisión amplia de la zona de transformación (LLETZ, large loop excision of the transformation zone), y la utilidad del genotipado del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para seleccionar a las pacientes con riesgo de lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado/neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 3 (HSIL/CIN3). Método: Se compararon los resultados de la BGC y de la LLETZ, siendo esta última el método de referencia. Se evaluó la relación del genotipo del VPH con el diagnóstico final de HSIL/CIN3. Resultados: La precisión de la biopsia comparada con LLETZ fue del 61,4%. La tasa de concordancia fue del 64,4% para CIN1, del 31,4% para CIN2 y del 77,4% para CIN3. La tasa global de sobrediagnóstico fue del 18,68% y la de subdiagnóstico del 19,89%. En mujeres menores de 30 años, la concordancia fue del 62,79% (CIN1 65%, CIN2 39,58% y CIN3 73,08%), la tasa de sobrediagnóstico del 22,67% y la tasa de subdiagnóstico del 15,11%. La infección por VPH16 tuvo una odds ratio de 3,86 para el diagnóstico final de HSIL/CIN3+. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de CIN2 por BGC parece insuficiente para seleccionar a las pacientes para tratamiento escisional, principalmente en mujeres jóvenes. El hallazgo de VPH16 es un factor de riesgo de HSIL/CIN3+ independientemente del resultado de la biopsia.


Objective: Colposcopy-guided biopsy (CGB) is a basic tool for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance of results between CGB and large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), and the usefulness of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping to select patients at risk of H-SIL/CIN3. Method: The results of colposcopy-guided biopsy and LLETZ were compared, with LLETZ being the gold standard. The relationship of HPV genotype to the final diagnosis of CIN3 was assessed. Results: The accuracy of CGB compared to LLETZ was 61.4%. The concordance rate was 64.4% for CIN1, 31.4% for CIN2 and 77.4% for CIN3. The overall overdiagnosis rate was 18.68% and underdiagnosis rate was 19.89%. In women under 30 years of age the concordance rate was 62.79% (CIN1 65%, CIN2 39.58% and CIN3 73.08%), and the rate of overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis was 22.67% and 15.11%, respectively. HPV16 infection had an odds ratio of 3.86 for the final diagnosis of CIN3+ and the result was significant regardless of the biopsy result. Conclusions: The CGB result as CIN2 is inaccurate and seems insufficient to select patients for excisional treatment, mainly in young women. HPV16 infection is a risk factor for CIN3+ regardless of the colposcopy-guided biopsy result.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Biopsy/methods , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/genetics , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Colposcopy/methods , Precancerous Conditions , Retrospective Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Image-Guided Biopsy , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 491-500, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440341

ABSTRACT

Siendo el cáncer gástrico la 3ª causa de muerte por cáncer en Chile, y existiendo estrategias de tamizaje consistentes en pesquisa de lesiones preneoplásicas de la mucosa gástrica, es relevante conocer los aspectos genéticos y moleculares que puedan ser aplicados, en la optimización de dichas estrategias a grupos de mayor riesgo. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue revisar la evidencia actual en los aspectos señalados, y de la inmunohistoquímica de 4 marcadores (p53, CDX2, MUC2 y S100A9) en la mucosa gástrica normal y en las lesiones preneoplásicas de la misma.


SUMMARY: Since gastric cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death from cancer in Chile, and there are screening strategies consisting of screening for preneoplastic lesions of the gastric mucosa, it is important to know certain genetic and molecular aspects that can be applied in optimizing these strategies for higher risk groups. The aim of this manuscript was to review the current evidence on the aforementioned aspects, and on the immunohistochemistry of 4 markers (p53, CDX2, MUC2 and S100A9) in normal gastric mucosa and in its preneoplastic lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Genes, p53 , Mucin-2 , CDX2 Transcription Factor , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Metaplasia
4.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 742-754, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012283

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the impact of molecular classification and key oncogenes on the oncologic outcomes in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) receiving fertility-preserving treatment. Methods: Patients with EC and AEH undergoing progestin-based fertility-preserving treatment and receiving molecular classification as well as key oncogenes test at Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University from January 2021 to March 2023 were reviewed. Hysteroscopic lesion resection and endometrial biopsy were performed before initiating hormone therapy and every 3 months during the treatment to evaluate the efficacy. The risk factors which had impact on the treatment outcomes in EC and AEH patients were further analyzed. Results: Of the 171 patients analyzed, the median age was 32 years, including 86 patients with EC and 85 patients with AEH. The distribution of molecular classification was as follows: 157 cases (91.8%) were classified as having no specific molecular profile (NSMP); 9 cases (5.3%), mismatch repair deficient (MMR-d); 3 cases (1.8%), POLE-mutated; 2 cases (1.2%), p53 abnormal. No difference was found in the cumulative 40-week complete response (CR) rate between the patients having NSMP or MMR-d (61.6% vs 60.0%; P=0.593), while the patients having MMR-d had increased risk than those having NSMP to have recurrence after CR (50.0% vs 14.4%; P=0.005). Multi-variant analysis showed PTEN gene multi-loci mutation (HR=0.413, 95%CI: 0.259-0.658; P<0.001) and PIK3CA gene mutation (HR=0.499, 95%CI: 0.310-0.804; P=0.004) were associated with a lower cumulative 40-week CR rate, and progestin-insensitivity (HR=3.825, 95%CI: 1.570-9.317; P=0.003) and MMR-d (HR=9.014, 95%CI: 1.734-46.873; P=0.009) were independent risk factors of recurrence in EC and AEH patients. Conclusions: No difference in cumulative 40-week CR rate is found in the patients having NSMP or MMR-d who received progestin-based fertility-preserving treatment, where the use of hysteroscopy during the treatment might be the reason, while those having MMR-d have a higher risk of recurrence after CR. Oncogene mutation of PTEN or PIK3CA gene might be associated with a lower response to progestin treatment. The molecular profiles help predict the fertility-preserving treatment outcomes in EC and AEH patients.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Hyperplasia , Progestins , Fertility Preservation , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrial Hyperplasia/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Precancerous Conditions , Fertility , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Retrospective Studies
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3546-3555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981486

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of Xihuang Pills on rats with precancerous lesions of the breast. Of 48 healthy female rats, 8 were randomly selected as blank group, and the other 40 were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene(DMBA) combined with estrogen and progestin to establish a model of precancerous lesions of the breast. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into a model group, a tamoxifen group(1.8 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a Xihuang Pills low-dose group(0.3 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a medium-dose group(0.6 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and a high-dose group(1.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After 30 days of admi-nistration, the histopathological changes of viscera and breast were observed by haematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining, and the visceral index was calculated. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the contents of estradiol(E_2) and progesterone(P) in serum. The protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR2), phosphorylated-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(p-VEGFR2), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) were detected by Western blot and the mRNA expressions of VEGF, FGF2, CXC-chemokine receptor 4(CXCR4), cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease(caspase-3), and stromal cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). HE staining revealed that the model group had some liver and kidney damages and severe hyperplastic mammary tissue, while the Xihuang Pills high-dose group had mild hyperplasia. Compared with the model group, the Xihuang Pills groups had lo-wer ovarian coefficient(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and Xihuang Pills high-dose group had lower uterine coefficient(P<0.01). ELISA results showed that compared with the model group, expressions of E_2 and P in Xihuang Pills high-dose group were significantly decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR indicated that compared with the conditions in the model group, the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in the Xihuang Pills groups were down-regulated(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lowered(P<0.01); there was a decrease in the protein expressions of VEGFR2 and p-VEGFR2(P<0.01), a down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of CXCR4 and SDF-1(P<0.01), while an increase in the mRNA expression of caspase-3(P<0.01) in both Xihuang Pills medium-dose and high-dose groups; the protein expression of Bax in Xihuang Pills high-dose group was increased(P<0.01). The above results indicated that Xihuang Pills can effectively intervene in precance-rous lesions of the breast, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of E_2 and P secretion as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis and chemokine receptor expression, thus controlling the occurrence of precancerous lesions of the breast in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Female , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Precancerous Conditions , Hyperplasia , Receptors, Chemokine , RNA, Messenger
6.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 299-307, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the pathological characteristics of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) specimens for early gastric cancer and precancerous lesions, accumulating experience for clinical management and pathological analysis.@*METHODS@#A total of 411 cases of early gastric cancer or precancerous lesions underwent ESD. According to the Japanese guidelines for ESD treatment of early gastric cancer and classification of gastric carcinoma, the clinicopathological data, pathologic evaluation, concordance rate of pathological diagnosis between preoperative endoscopic forceps biopsies and their ESD specimens (in 400 cases), as well as the risk factors of non-curative resection of early gastric cancer, were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#23.4% (96/411) of the 411 cases were adenoma/low-grade dysplasia and 76.6% (315/411) were early gastric cancer. The latter included 28.0% (115/411) non-invasive carcinoma/high-grade dysplasia and 48.7% (200/411) invasive carcinoma. The concordance rate of pathological diagnosis between endoscopic forceps biopsies and ESD specimens was 66.0% (264/400), correlating with pathological diagnosis and lesion location (P < 0.01). The rate of upgraded diagnosis and downgraded diagnosis after ESD was 29.8% (119/400) and 4.2% (17/400), respectively. Among the 315 cases of early gastric cancer, there were 277 cases (87.9%) of differentiated type and 38 cases (12.1%) of undifferentiated type. In the study, 262 cases (83.2%) met with absolute indication, while 53 cases (16.8%) met relative indication. En bloc and curative resection rates were 98.1% and 82.9%, respectively. Risk factors for non-curative resection included a long diameter >20 mm (OR=3.631, 95%CI: 1.170-11.270, P=0.026), tumor infiltration into submucosa (OR=69.761, 95%CI: 21.033-231.376, P < 0.001)and undifferentiated tumor histology (OR=16.950, 95%CI: 4.585-62.664, P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Several subjective and objective factors, such as the limitations of biopsy samples, the characteristics and distribution of the lesions, different pathological understanding, and the endoscopic sampling and observation, can lead to the differences between the preoperative and postoperative pathological diagnosis of ESD. In particular, the pathological upgrade of postoperative diagnosis was more significant and should receive more attention by endoscopists and pathologists. The curative resection rate of early gastric cancer in ESD was high. Non-curative resection was related to the long diameter, the depth of tumor invasion and histological classification. ESD can also be performed in undifferentiated early gastric cancer if meeting the indication criteria. The comprehensive and standardized pathological analysis of ESD specimens is clinically important to evaluate the curative effect of ESD operation and patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy , Precancerous Conditions
7.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 636-645, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions in the past 20 years.@*METHODS@#The RCTs on traditional Chinese medicines for gastric precancerous lesions were searched from the CNKI, Wanfang database, VIP, PubMed, and Embase from January 2001 to December 2021. The retrieved articles were screened, extracted and evaluated based on the 2010 edition of CONSORT statement, Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Scale and additional evaluation indicators.@*RESULTS@#A total of 840 papers were included. According to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Scale, the high risk of bias in the application of randomized methods was 5.95%; the risk of uncertainty for the allocation scheme concealment was 98.93%; the risk of uncertainty for blinding of patients or testers was 98.69%; the risk of uncertainty for blinding of the outcome assessor was 100.00%; the risk of bias for completeness of the outcome data was 2.86%; and the risk of uncertainty for selective reporting was 98.45%. The CONSORT statement evaluating the quality of reporting showed that 100.00% of the RCT articles reported the 8 entries; 36.79% of the literature mentioned the method of randomized sequence generation, but only 27.62% of the literature mentioned who implemented the randomized program, 1.07% of the literature hid the randomized program and 1.31% of the studies were blinded; 36.67% of the literature reported adverse reactions; no literature reported sample size prediction methods. Additional evaluation indicators showed that 17.02% of the studies had ethical approval; 43.81% of the literature specified Chinese medicine evidence; 16.55% of the studies excluded severe heterotrophic hyperplasia; 7.26% of the studies conducted follow-up; and 65.12% of the literature used composite efficacy indicators; 46.67% of the literature applied pathological histological evaluation; 2.62% of the literature applied quality of life evaluation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall risk of bias in RCTs of traditional Chinese medicines for gastric precancerous lesions is high, and the quality of most of the study reports needs to be improved. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the study design of RCTs and refer to appropriate traditional Chinese medicines evidence grading standards, select study protocols according to different purposes, provide objective and strong evidence for clinical studies on traditional Chinese medicines, and carry out clinical study design and result reporting suitable for traditional Chinese medicines according to the CONSORT principle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Precancerous Conditions/drug therapy
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 1250-1261, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009414

ABSTRACT

According to the latest statistical data, the incidence and mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in China are still on the rise, posing a major threat to the health of the Chinese population. The occurrence is closely related to the formation of precancerous lesions in the liver. The clinical and basic research on precancerous lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma has developed rapidly, and the concepts and specific techniques for diagnosis and treatment have also undergone new changes and advancements. Therefore, based on the first version in 2020, this consensus has organized multidisciplinary experts to compile and improve a new version by integrating the latest progress in their respective professional fields at home and abroad. It aims to enhance clinicians' understanding of precancerous lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma standardize the pathology, imaging, and molecular diagnostic criteria, broaden early screening methods, formulate scientifically rational treatment plans, and help promote the advancement of diagnosis and treatment strategies and to enhance the overall 5-year survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Consensus , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Precancerous Conditions/therapy
9.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 354-359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982748

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the risk factors of recurrence and canceration for premalignant vocal fold lesions after surgery, and to provide a reasonable basis for preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up. Methods:This study retrospective analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome(recurrence, canceration, recurrence-free survival, and canceration-free survival) in 148 patients undergoing surgical treatment in Chongqing General Hospital from 2014 to 2017. Results:The five-year overall recurrence rate was 14.86% and the overall recurrence rate was 8.78%. Univariate analysis showed that smoking index, laryngopharyngeal reflux and lesion range were significantly associated with recurrence(P<0.05), and smoking index and lesion range were significantly associated with canceration(P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking index ≥600 and laryngopharyngeal reflux were independent risk factors for recurrence(P<0.05), and smoking index ≥600 and lesion range ≥1/2 vocal cord were independent risk factors for canceration(P<0.05). The mean carcinogenesis interval for the postoperative smoking cessation group was significantly longer(P<0.05). Conclusion:Excessive smoking, laryngopharyngeal reflux and a wide range of lesions may be related to postoperative recurrence or malignant progression of precancerous lesions in the vocal cord, and further large-scale multi-center prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify the effects of the above factors on recurrence and malignant changes in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vocal Cords/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/complications , Prospective Studies , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Risk Factors
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1642-1651, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970636

ABSTRACT

The UPLC-MS/MS was established for the determination of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid(AKBA) and β-boswellic acid(β-BA), the main active components of Olibanum and Myrrha extracts in Xihuang Formula, in rat plasma and urine. The effects of compatibility on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of AKBA and β-BA in rats were investigated, and the differences in pharmacokinetic behaviors between healthy rats and rats with precancerous lesions of breast cancer were compared. The results showed that compared with RM-NH and RM-SH groups, the AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of β-BA increased(P<0.05 or P<0.01), T_(max) decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and C_(max) increased(P<0.01) after compatibility. The trends of AKBA and β-BA were the same. Compared with RM-SH group, the T_(max) decreased(P<0.05), C_(max) increased(P<0.01), and the absorption rate increased in the normal group of Xihuang Formula. The results of urinary excretion showed that there was a decreasing trend in the urinary excretion rate and total urinary excretion of β-BA and AKBA after compatibility, but there was no statistical difference. Compared with normal group of Xihuang Formula, the AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of β-BA increased(P<0.05), T_(max) increased(P<0.05), and the clearance rate decreased in the breast precancerous lesion group. AUC_(0-t) and AUC_(0-∞) of AKBA showed an increasing trend, the in vivo retention time was prolonged, and the clearance rate was reduced, but there was no significant difference compared with the normal group. The cumulative urinary excretion and urinary excretion rate of β-BA and AKBA decreased under pathological conditions, indicating that pathological conditions could affect the in vivo process of β-BA and AKBA, and reduce their excretion in the form of prototype drugs, showing different pharmacokine-tic characteristics from normal physiological conditions. In this study, UPLC-MS/MS analysis method was established, which was sui-table for in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of β-BA and AKBA. This study laid a foundation for the development of new dosage forms of Xihuang Formula.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Precancerous Conditions , Triterpenes/pharmacology
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969818

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze clinicopathological features of circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions and investigate the risk factors for deep submucosal invasion and angiolymphatic invasion retrospectively. Methods: A total of 116 cases of esophageal squamous epithelial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by gastroscopy, biopsy pathology and endoscopic resection pathology during November 2013 to October 2021 were collected, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed. The independent risk factors of deep submucosal invasion and angiolymphatic invasion were analyzed by logistic regression model. Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking history (OR=3.090, 95% CI: 1.165-8.200; P<0.05), The AB type of intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) (OR=11.215, 95% CI: 3.955-31.797; P<0.05) were the independent risk factors for the depth of invasion. The smoking history (OR=5.824, 95% CI: 1.704-19.899; P<0.05), the presence of avascular area (AVA) (OR=3.393, 95% CI: 1.285-12.072; P<0.05) were the independent factors for the angiolymphatic invasion. Conclusions: The risk of deep submucosal infiltration is greater for circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with drinking history and IPCL type B2-B3 observed by magnifying endoscopy, while the risk of angiolymphatic invasion should be vigilant for circumferential superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with smoking history and the presence of AVA observed by magnifying endoscopy. Ultrasound endoscopy combined with narrowband imagingand magnification endoscopy can improve the accuracy of preoperative assessment of the depth of infiltration of superficial squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions and angiolymphaticinvasion in the whole perimeter of the esophagus, and help endoscopists to reasonably grasp the indications for endoscopic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Esophagoscopy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/surgery , Margins of Excision , Risk Factors
12.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 26(1): 39-96, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407971

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Generar recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia, para la prevención primaria y secundaria, el tratamiento de las lesiones preneoplásicas y el diagnóstico temprano del cáncer gástrico en población adulta, con el propósito de reducir la carga de la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: El grupo desarrollador estuvo integrado por profesionales de la salud y tomadores de decisiones. Se construyeron preguntas clínicas contestables y se realizó la graduación de los desenlaces. Se elaboró la búsqueda de la información en MEDLINE; EMBASE y CENTRAL, siendo actualizada el 18 de octubre de 2018. La pesquisa también abarcó otras fuentes de información como la Revista Colombiana de Gastroenterología y la lectura en "bola de nieve" de las referencias incluidas. Se contactó a expertos en la materia con el objetivo de identificar estudios relevantes no publicados. Para la construcción de las recomendaciones, se realizó un consenso acorde con los lineamientos propuestos por la metodología GRADE, sopesando los beneficios, los efectos adversos derivados de la intervención, las preferencias de los pacientes y el potencial impacto de las intervenciones sobre los costos. Resultados: Se presenta la versión corta de la "Guía de práctica clínica para la prevención primaria, secundaria y diagnóstico temprano de cáncer gástrico", junto con su evidencia de soporte y respectivas recomendaciones. Conclusiones: Como recomendación central para la implementación, se recomienda erradicar la infección por H. pylori en los pacientes con o sin factores de riesgo, como estrategia de prevención de las condiciones precursoras de cáncer gástrico. La Guía deberá actualizarse en tres años.


Abstract Objetive: Generate recommendations for primary and secondary prevention, treatment of gastric preneoplastic lesions, and early diagnosis of gastric cancer in the adult population, to increase the detection of gastric cancer in early stages. Material and methods: The developer group was made up of health professionals, decision-makers, and a representative of the patients. Answerable clinical questions were constructed and outcomes were graded. The search for information in MEDLINE was carried out; EMBASE and CENTRAL, being updated on October 18, 2018. The search also covered other sources of information such as the Colombian Journal of Gastroenterology and the "snowball" reading of the references included. Experts in the field were contacted to identify studies. For the construction of the recommendations, a consensus was made according to the guidelines proposed by the GRADE methodology, weighing the benefits, the adverse effects derived from the intervention, the preferences of the patients, and the potential impact of the interventions on costs. Results: The short version of the "Clinical practice guidelines for the primary, secondary, and early diagnosis of gastric cancer" is presented together with its supporting evidence and respective recommendations. Conclusions: As a central recommendation for implementation, it is recommended to eradicate H. pylori infection in patients with or without risk factors in whom it is detected to prevent gastric cancer precursor conditions. The Guide will need to be updated in three years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention , Stomach Neoplasms , Consensus , Precancerous Conditions , Risk Factors , Costs and Cost Analysis , Early Diagnosis , Secondary Prevention
13.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 417-435, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939560

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer (GC) has a good prognosis, if detected at an early stage. The intestinal subtype of GC follows a stepwise progression to carcinoma, which is treatable with early detection and intervention using high-quality endoscopy. Premalignant lesions and gastric epithelial polyps are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Surveillance of patients with premalignant gastric lesions may aid in early diagnosis of GC, and thus improve chances of survival. An expert professional workgroup was formed to summarise the current evidence and provide recommendations on the management of patients with gastric premalignant lesions in Singapore. Twenty-five recommendations were made to address screening and surveillance, strategies for detection and management of gastric premalignant lesions, management of gastric epithelial polyps, and pathological reporting of gastric premalignant lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenomatous Polyps , Endoscopy , Precancerous Conditions/therapy , Singapore , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 813-819, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Family clustering of esophageal cancer (EC) has been found in high-risk areas of China. However, the relationships between cancer family history and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (ECPL) have not been comprehensively reported in recent years. This study aimed to provide evidence for identification of high-risk populations.@*METHODS@#This study was conducted in five high-risk areas in China from 2017 to 2019, based on the National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer. The permanent residents aged 40 to 69 years were examined by endoscopy, and pathological examination was performed for suspicious lesions. Information on demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and cancer family history was collected. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to evaluate odds ratios between family history related factors and ECPL.@*RESULTS@#Among 33,008 participants, 6143 (18.61%) reported positive family history of EC. The proportion of positive family history varied significantly among high-risk areas. After adjusting for risk factors, participants with a family history of positive cancer, gastric and esophageal cancer or EC had 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.62), 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.38-1.67), or 1.66-fold (95% CI: 1.50-1.84) higher risks of ECPL, respectively. Participants with single or multiple first-degree relatives (FDR) of positive EC history had 1.65-fold (95% CI: 1.47-1.84) or 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.46-2.54) higher risks of ECPL. Participants with FDRs who developed EC before 35, 45, and 50 years of age had 4.05-fold (95% CI: 1.30-12.65), 2.11-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.25), and 1.91-fold (95% CI: 1.44-2.54) higher risks of ECPL, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Participants with positive family history of EC had significantly higher risk of ECPL. This risk increased with the number of EC positive FDRs and EC family history of early onset. Distinctive genetic risk factors of the population in high-risk areas of China require further investigation.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-EOC-17010553.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 743-760, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940935

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically summarize and analyze the clinical research progress of therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Methods: English databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Proquest, and ClinicalTrails.gov) and Chinese databases (SinoMed, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP Database) were systematically searched to collect literature on therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer or precancerous lesions from inception to February 18, 2021. After screening, we evaluated the risk of bias of included studies, and combed the basic information of the literature, research designs, information of vaccines, study patients, outcome indicators and so on, qualitatively summarized the clinical research progress. Results: A total of 71 studies were included in this systematic review, including 14 random controlled trials, 15 quasi-random controlled trials, 4 cohort studies, 1 case-control study, 34 case series studies and 3 case reports. The study patients included women aged 15~79 with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions in 18 countries from 1989 to 2021. On the one hand, there were 40 studies on therapeutic vaccines for cervical precancerous lesions (22 867 participants), involving 21 kinds of vaccines in 6 categories. Results showed 3 marketed vaccines (Cervarix, Gardasil, Gardasil 9) as adjuvant immunotherapies were significant effective in preventing the recurrence of precancerous lesions compared with the conization only. In addition, MVA E2 vaccine had been in phase Ⅲ clinical trials as a specific therapeutic vaccine, with relative literature showing it could eliminate most high-grade precancerous lesions. Therapeutic vaccines for precancerous lesions all showed good safety. On the other hand, there were 31 studies on therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer (781 participants), involving 19 kinds of vaccines in 7categories, with none had been marketed. 25 studies were with no control group, showing the vaccines could effectively eliminate solid tumors, prevent recurrence, and prolong the median survival time. However, the vaccines effectiveness couldn't be statistically calculated due to the lack of a control group. As for the safety of therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer, 9 studies showed that patients experienced serious adverse events after treatments, where 7 studies reported that serious adverse events occurred in patients couldn't be ruled out as the results of therapeutic vaccines. Conclusions: The literature review shows that the literature evidence for the therapeutic vaccines for cervical precancerous lesions is relatively mature compared with the therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer. The four kinds of vaccines on the market are all therapeutic vaccines for precancerous lesions, but they are generally used as vaginal infection treatments or adjuvant immunotherapies for cervical precancerous lesions, not used for the specific treatments of cervical precancerous lesions. Other specific therapeutic vaccines are in the early stage of clinical trials, mainly phase Ⅰ/Ⅱ clinical trials with small sample size. The effectiveness and safety data are limited, and further research is still needed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Precancerous Conditions/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 395-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935227

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct the diagnostic model of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and precancerous lesions in endoscopic images based on the YOLOv5l model by using deep learning method of artificial intelligence to improve the diagnosis of early ESCC and precancerous lesions under endoscopy. Methods: 13, 009 endoscopic esophageal images of white light imaging (WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI) and lugol chromoendoscopy (LCE) were collected from June 2019 to July 2021 from 1, 126 patients at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, including low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC limited to the mucosal layer, benign esophageal lesions and normal esophagus. By computerized random function method, the images were divided into a training set (11, 547 images from 1, 025 patients) and a validation set (1, 462 images from 101 patients). The YOLOv5l model was trained and constructed with the training set, and the model was validated with the validation set, while the validation set was diagnosed by two senior and two junior endoscopists, respectively, to compare the diagnostic results of YOLOv5l model and those of the endoscopists. Results: In the validation set, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the YOLOv5l model in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes were 96.9%, 87.9%, 98.3%, 88.8%, 98.1%, and 98.6%, 89.3%, 99.5%, 94.4%, 98.2%, and 93.0%, 77.5%, 98.0%, 92.6%, 93.1%, respectively. The accuracy in the NBI model was higher than that in the WLI model (P<0.05) and lower than that in the LCE model (P<0.05). The diagnostic accuracies of YOLOv5l model in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes for the early ESCC and precancerous lesions were similar to those of the 2 senior endoscopists (96.9%, 98.8%, 94.3%, and 97.5%, 99.6%, 91.9%, respectively; P>0.05), but significantly higher than those of the 2 junior endoscopists (84.7%, 92.9%, 81.6% and 88.3%, 91.9%, 81.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed YOLOv5l model has high accuracy in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in endoscopic WLI, NBI and LCE modes, which can assist junior endoscopists to improve diagnosis and reduce missed diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Endoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Narrow Band Imaging , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 390-395, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928982

ABSTRACT

Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PHE) is a rare angiogenic tumor. Histologically, the morphological characteristics of neoplastic vessels and endothelial differentiation are not obvious, and it is easy to be confused with epithelioid sarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and myogenic tumor. PHE usually occurs in arms and legs in young people and has a significant male predominance. The tumor has a predilection for the distal extremities and its typical manifestation is multiple center invasion of a single limb, which can involve all layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues,and is often accompanied by abvious pain. Histologically, PHE is characterized by infiltrative growth of tumor. Most tumor lesions are composed of sheets and loose fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells within a background of variably prominent inflammatory infiltration, which was commonly composed of neutrophils. Some cells may resemble rhabdomyoblasts, and nuclear atypia and mitosis were rare. The tumor cells generally expressed positive cytokeratin (CK), ETS-related gene (ERG), Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) and integrase interactor 1(INI1). In some cases, the tumor cells expressed CD31. A case of a young woman was reported in this paper, who presented with a subcutaneous mass with severe pain and was chronologically misdiagnosed with herpes zoster, low-grade malignant fibrous histiocytoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. In this study, the clinical and pathological features, differential diagnosis and the latest progress in therapy of PHE were analyzed based on relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/pathology , Hemangioma , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/diagnosis , Pain , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis
18.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1-18, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929036

ABSTRACT

With the recent upsurge of studies in the field of microbiology, we have learned more about the complexity of the gastrointestinal microecosystem. More than 30 genera and 1000 species of gastrointestinal microflora have been found. The structure of the normal microflora is relatively stable, and is in an interdependent and restricted dynamic equilibrium with the body. In recent years, studies have shown that there is a potential relationship between gastrointestinal microflora imbalance and gastric cancer (GC) and precancerous lesions. So, restoring the balance of gastrointestinal microflora is of great significance. Moreover, intervention in gastric premalignant condition (GPC), also known as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer (PLGC), has been the focus of current clinical studies. The holistic view of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is consistent with the microecology concept, and oral TCM can play a two-way regulatory role directly with the microflora in the digestive tract, restoring the homeostasis of gastrointestinal microflora to prevent canceration. However, large gaps in knowledge remain to be addressed. This review aims to provide new ideas and a reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Afr. j. health sci ; 35(3): 269-278, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the fourth most fatal and common disease globally among women of reproductive age in Kenya; it ranks the second most frequent type of cancer after breast cancer. Due to the high burden, cryotherapy treatment services, which are effective for the treatment of precancerous lesions are available in selected health facilities in Kenya, however, barriers to the treatment services are poorly understood. Nonetheless, understanding these barriers is critical for enhanced service delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS :A descriptive facility-based cross-sectional study design was carried out to determine the barriers to cryotherapy treatment services among 60 women of reproductive age on a one-year therapy at Migosi Sub County Hospital in Western Kenya. The participants were selected purposively and interviewed via telephone calls using pre-coded semi-structured questionnaires. However, data from 5 nurses working in the cryotherapy section were collected through face-to-face interviews at the health facility. Data were entered in an excel sheet and then exported to SPSS version 23.0 for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square) were used and data were presented in form of tables. RESULTS :Overall, 52 (85.4%) respondents adhered to post-care treatment instructions and reported no adverse reactions. However, 28 (46.7%) experienced unavailability of cryotherapy services at the time of the appointment and got the services later, 24 (40%) got the services at the time of the appointment but waited for a long time before being served, 37 (61.7%) did not know why they were being treated and 46 (76.7%) had misconceptions and myths about the therapy. In addition, there was a statistically significant association between knowing both the benefits of screening and cryotherapy [X 2 (1, N = 60) = 5.90, p = .02]. Also, the knowledge of the benefits of cryotherapy did not influence one's decision to wait for cryotherapy treatment services, [X 2(1, N = 60) = 3.98, p = .46]. CONCLUSION : The study shows very good adherence to post-treatment instruction but inadequate availability of cryotherapy treatment services. Also, the misconceptions and myths about cryotherapy are public health concerns. Therefore, the study recommends improved awareness campaigns and service delivery for the enhanced uptake of cryotherapy treatment services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Precancerous Conditions , Attitude to Health , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cryotherapy , Therapeutic Misconception , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
20.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-7, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390580

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to describe the distribution of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix uteri, enumerated during a mass screening in Burkina Faso. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 577 women aged 18 to 60 years, carried out from November 23 to December 19, 2013, in the city of Bobo-Dioulasso and in the rural commune of Bama. Regarding the screening results, 89 participants (15.4%) were positive for pre-malignant cervical lesions. Chi-square testing and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the likelihood of cervical pre-cancer lesion in the women. Participants less than 29 years old were approximately 3 times more likely to have cervical lesions than participants >39 years. Participants who were parous (1-3 deliveries) and multiparous (four or more deliveries) were approximately 4 times more likely to present with cervical lesions than nulliparous women. Access to screening services is low in the Bobo-Dioulasso region. Further research should be conducted to understand the incidence and distribution of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions in Burkina Faso. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:97-103).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Acetic Acid , Precancerous Conditions , Uterine Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer
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