Resumen Objetivo: Generar recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia, para la prevención primaria y secundaria, el tratamiento de las lesiones preneoplásicas y el diagnóstico temprano del cáncer gástrico en población adulta, con el propósito de reducir la carga de la enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: El grupo desarrollador estuvo integrado por profesionales de la salud y tomadores de decisiones. Se construyeron preguntas clínicas contestables y se realizó la graduación de los desenlaces. Se elaboró la búsqueda de la información en MEDLINE; EMBASE y CENTRAL, siendo actualizada el 18 de octubre de 2018. La pesquisa también abarcó otras fuentes de información como la Revista Colombiana de Gastroenterología y la lectura en "bola de nieve" de las referencias incluidas. Se contactó a expertos en la materia con el objetivo de identificar estudios relevantes no publicados. Para la construcción de las recomendaciones, se realizó un consenso acorde con los lineamientos propuestos por la metodología GRADE, sopesando los beneficios, los efectos adversos derivados de la intervención, las preferencias de los pacientes y el potencial impacto de las intervenciones sobre los costos. Resultados: Se presenta la versión corta de la "Guía de práctica clínica para la prevención primaria, secundaria y diagnóstico temprano de cáncer gástrico", junto con su evidencia de soporte y respectivas recomendaciones. Conclusiones: Como recomendación central para la implementación, se recomienda erradicar la infección por H. pylori en los pacientes con o sin factores de riesgo, como estrategia de prevención de las condiciones precursoras de cáncer gástrico. La Guía deberá actualizarse en tres años.
Abstract Objetive: Generate recommendations for primary and secondary prevention, treatment of gastric preneoplastic lesions, and early diagnosis of gastric cancer in the adult population, to increase the detection of gastric cancer in early stages. Material and methods: The developer group was made up of health professionals, decision-makers, and a representative of the patients. Answerable clinical questions were constructed and outcomes were graded. The search for information in MEDLINE was carried out; EMBASE and CENTRAL, being updated on October 18, 2018. The search also covered other sources of information such as the Colombian Journal of Gastroenterology and the "snowball" reading of the references included. Experts in the field were contacted to identify studies. For the construction of the recommendations, a consensus was made according to the guidelines proposed by the GRADE methodology, weighing the benefits, the adverse effects derived from the intervention, the preferences of the patients, and the potential impact of the interventions on costs. Results: The short version of the "Clinical practice guidelines for the primary, secondary, and early diagnosis of gastric cancer" is presented together with its supporting evidence and respective recommendations. Conclusions: As a central recommendation for implementation, it is recommended to eradicate H. pylori infection in patients with or without risk factors in whom it is detected to prevent gastric cancer precursor conditions. The Guide will need to be updated in three years.
Subject(s)Humans , Primary Prevention , Stomach Neoplasms , Consensus , Precancerous Conditions , Risk Factors , Costs and Cost Analysis , Early Diagnosis , Secondary Prevention
This study was conducted to describe the distribution of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix uteri, enumerated during a mass screening in Burkina Faso. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 577 women aged 18 to 60 years, carried out from November 23 to December 19, 2013, in the city of Bobo-Dioulasso and in the rural commune of Bama. Regarding the screening results, 89 participants (15.4%) were positive for pre-malignant cervical lesions. Chi-square testing and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the likelihood of cervical pre-cancer lesion in the women. Participants less than 29 years old were approximately 3 times more likely to have cervical lesions than participants >39 years. Participants who were parous (1-3 deliveries) and multiparous (four or more deliveries) were approximately 4 times more likely to present with cervical lesions than nulliparous women. Access to screening services is low in the Bobo-Dioulasso region. Further research should be conducted to understand the incidence and distribution of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions in Burkina Faso. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26:97-103).
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Acetic Acid , Precancerous Conditions , Uterine Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the fourth most fatal and common disease globally among women of reproductive age in Kenya; it ranks the second most frequent type of cancer after breast cancer. Due to the high burden, cryotherapy treatment services, which are effective for the treatment of precancerous lesions are available in selected health facilities in Kenya, however, barriers to the treatment services are poorly understood. Nonetheless, understanding these barriers is critical for enhanced service delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS :A descriptive facility-based cross-sectional study design was carried out to determine the barriers to cryotherapy treatment services among 60 women of reproductive age on a one-year therapy at Migosi Sub County Hospital in Western Kenya. The participants were selected purposively and interviewed via telephone calls using pre-coded semi-structured questionnaires. However, data from 5 nurses working in the cryotherapy section were collected through face-to-face interviews at the health facility. Data were entered in an excel sheet and then exported to SPSS version 23.0 for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square) were used and data were presented in form of tables. RESULTS :Overall, 52 (85.4%) respondents adhered to post-care treatment instructions and reported no adverse reactions. However, 28 (46.7%) experienced unavailability of cryotherapy services at the time of the appointment and got the services later, 24 (40%) got the services at the time of the appointment but waited for a long time before being served, 37 (61.7%) did not know why they were being treated and 46 (76.7%) had misconceptions and myths about the therapy. In addition, there was a statistically significant association between knowing both the benefits of screening and cryotherapy [X 2 (1, N = 60) = 5.90, p = .02]. Also, the knowledge of the benefits of cryotherapy did not influence one's decision to wait for cryotherapy treatment services, [X 2(1, N = 60) = 3.98, p = .46]. CONCLUSION : The study shows very good adherence to post-treatment instruction but inadequate availability of cryotherapy treatment services. Also, the misconceptions and myths about cryotherapy are public health concerns. Therefore, the study recommends improved awareness campaigns and service delivery for the enhanced uptake of cryotherapy treatment services.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Precancerous Conditions , Attitude to Health , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cryotherapy , Therapeutic Misconception , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Background: Cervical precancerous lesions are disorders that can induce discoloration changes. Their detection is difficult in remote areas in the absence of adequate equipment. The objectives were to evaluate Smartphone performance in diagnosing cervical precancerous lesions in Tchibanga, Gabon. Methods: It was an interventional cross-sectional study to evaluate the validity and reliability of the smartphone as a tool for diagnosing atypical changes in the cervix. Study period was between July 1, 2017, to February 28, 2018, at the Tchibanga Regional Hospital (CHRT) and the University Hospital (CHU). The variability between examiners was determined according to Cohen's Kappa formula. The Gold standard test was the cytology. Results: Compared to the examiner -1, the examiner - 2 found a high percentage of inflammations as atypical transformations: 15.3% versus 9%. With regard to smartphonic impressions, the examiner-1 found the normal impressions almost equal to that of the examiner-2, 72.9% versus 72.2%. The concordance between positive smartphonic impressions was 93.8% and 95.5% between negative smartphonic impressions, with k = 0.86. Conclusion: In view of the above, the concordance between positive and negative smart phonic impressions was 93.8 and 95.5% with k = 0.86. The performance parameters being good, there is a need to use the smartphone as a tool for the diagnosis of precancerous lesions
Subject(s)Precancerous Conditions , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Smartphone , Uterine Cervical Diseases
With the recent upsurge of studies in the field of microbiology, we have learned more about the complexity of the gastrointestinal microecosystem. More than 30 genera and 1000 species of gastrointestinal microflora have been found. The structure of the normal microflora is relatively stable, and is in an interdependent and restricted dynamic equilibrium with the body. In recent years, studies have shown that there is a potential relationship between gastrointestinal microflora imbalance and gastric cancer (GC) and precancerous lesions. So, restoring the balance of gastrointestinal microflora is of great significance. Moreover, intervention in gastric premalignant condition (GPC), also known as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer (PLGC), has been the focus of current clinical studies. The holistic view of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is consistent with the microecology concept, and oral TCM can play a two-way regulatory role directly with the microflora in the digestive tract, restoring the homeostasis of gastrointestinal microflora to prevent canceration. However, large gaps in knowledge remain to be addressed. This review aims to provide new ideas and a reference for clinical practice.
Subject(s)Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PHE) is a rare angiogenic tumor. Histologically, the morphological characteristics of neoplastic vessels and endothelial differentiation are not obvious, and it is easy to be confused with epithelioid sarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and myogenic tumor. PHE usually occurs in arms and legs in young people and has a significant male predominance. The tumor has a predilection for the distal extremities and its typical manifestation is multiple center invasion of a single limb, which can involve all layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues,and is often accompanied by abvious pain. Histologically, PHE is characterized by infiltrative growth of tumor. Most tumor lesions are composed of sheets and loose fascicles of plump spindle or epithelioid cells within a background of variably prominent inflammatory infiltration, which was commonly composed of neutrophils. Some cells may resemble rhabdomyoblasts, and nuclear atypia and mitosis were rare. The tumor cells generally expressed positive cytokeratin (CK), ETS-related gene (ERG), Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) and integrase interactor 1(INI1). In some cases, the tumor cells expressed CD31. A case of a young woman was reported in this paper, who presented with a subcutaneous mass with severe pain and was chronologically misdiagnosed with herpes zoster, low-grade malignant fibrous histiocytoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. In this study, the clinical and pathological features, differential diagnosis and the latest progress in therapy of PHE were analyzed based on relevant literature.
Subject(s)Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers, Tumor , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/pathology , Hemangioma , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pain , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis
Gastric cancer (GC) has a good prognosis, if detected at an early stage. The intestinal subtype of GC follows a stepwise progression to carcinoma, which is treatable with early detection and intervention using high-quality endoscopy. Premalignant lesions and gastric epithelial polyps are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Surveillance of patients with premalignant gastric lesions may aid in early diagnosis of GC, and thus improve chances of survival. An expert professional workgroup was formed to summarise the current evidence and provide recommendations on the management of patients with gastric premalignant lesions in Singapore. Twenty-five recommendations were made to address screening and surveillance, strategies for detection and management of gastric premalignant lesions, management of gastric epithelial polyps, and pathological reporting of gastric premalignant lesions.
Subject(s)Adenomatous Polyps , Endoscopy , Humans , Precancerous Conditions/therapy , Singapore , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy
Objective: To construct the diagnostic model of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and precancerous lesions in endoscopic images based on the YOLOv5l model by using deep learning method of artificial intelligence to improve the diagnosis of early ESCC and precancerous lesions under endoscopy. Methods: 13, 009 endoscopic esophageal images of white light imaging (WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI) and lugol chromoendoscopy (LCE) were collected from June 2019 to July 2021 from 1, 126 patients at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, including low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC limited to the mucosal layer, benign esophageal lesions and normal esophagus. By computerized random function method, the images were divided into a training set (11, 547 images from 1, 025 patients) and a validation set (1, 462 images from 101 patients). The YOLOv5l model was trained and constructed with the training set, and the model was validated with the validation set, while the validation set was diagnosed by two senior and two junior endoscopists, respectively, to compare the diagnostic results of YOLOv5l model and those of the endoscopists. Results: In the validation set, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the YOLOv5l model in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes were 96.9%, 87.9%, 98.3%, 88.8%, 98.1%, and 98.6%, 89.3%, 99.5%, 94.4%, 98.2%, and 93.0%, 77.5%, 98.0%, 92.6%, 93.1%, respectively. The accuracy in the NBI model was higher than that in the WLI model (P<0.05) and lower than that in the LCE model (P<0.05). The diagnostic accuracies of YOLOv5l model in the WLI, NBI and LCE modes for the early ESCC and precancerous lesions were similar to those of the 2 senior endoscopists (96.9%, 98.8%, 94.3%, and 97.5%, 99.6%, 91.9%, respectively; P>0.05), but significantly higher than those of the 2 junior endoscopists (84.7%, 92.9%, 81.6% and 88.3%, 91.9%, 81.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed YOLOv5l model has high accuracy in diagnosing early ESCC and precancerous lesions in endoscopic WLI, NBI and LCE modes, which can assist junior endoscopists to improve diagnosis and reduce missed diagnoses.
Subject(s)Artificial Intelligence , Endoscopy/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Narrow Band Imaging , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity
BACKGROUND@#Family clustering of esophageal cancer (EC) has been found in high-risk areas of China. However, the relationships between cancer family history and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions (ECPL) have not been comprehensively reported in recent years. This study aimed to provide evidence for identification of high-risk populations.@*METHODS@#This study was conducted in five high-risk areas in China from 2017 to 2019, based on the National Cohort of Esophageal Cancer. The permanent residents aged 40 to 69 years were examined by endoscopy, and pathological examination was performed for suspicious lesions. Information on demographic characteristics, environmental factors, and cancer family history was collected. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to evaluate odds ratios between family history related factors and ECPL.@*RESULTS@#Among 33,008 participants, 6143 (18.61%) reported positive family history of EC. The proportion of positive family history varied significantly among high-risk areas. After adjusting for risk factors, participants with a family history of positive cancer, gastric and esophageal cancer or EC had 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.62), 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.38-1.67), or 1.66-fold (95% CI: 1.50-1.84) higher risks of ECPL, respectively. Participants with single or multiple first-degree relatives (FDR) of positive EC history had 1.65-fold (95% CI: 1.47-1.84) or 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.46-2.54) higher risks of ECPL. Participants with FDRs who developed EC before 35, 45, and 50 years of age had 4.05-fold (95% CI: 1.30-12.65), 2.11-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.25), and 1.91-fold (95% CI: 1.44-2.54) higher risks of ECPL, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Participants with positive family history of EC had significantly higher risk of ECPL. This risk increased with the number of EC positive FDRs and EC family history of early onset. Distinctive genetic risk factors of the population in high-risk areas of China require further investigation.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-EOC-17010553.
Subject(s)Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
Objective: To systematically summarize and analyze the clinical research progress of therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Methods: English databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Proquest, and ClinicalTrails.gov) and Chinese databases (SinoMed, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP Database) were systematically searched to collect literature on therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer or precancerous lesions from inception to February 18, 2021. After screening, we evaluated the risk of bias of included studies, and combed the basic information of the literature, research designs, information of vaccines, study patients, outcome indicators and so on, qualitatively summarized the clinical research progress. Results: A total of 71 studies were included in this systematic review, including 14 random controlled trials, 15 quasi-random controlled trials, 4 cohort studies, 1 case-control study, 34 case series studies and 3 case reports. The study patients included women aged 15~79 with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions in 18 countries from 1989 to 2021. On the one hand, there were 40 studies on therapeutic vaccines for cervical precancerous lesions (22 867 participants), involving 21 kinds of vaccines in 6 categories. Results showed 3 marketed vaccines (Cervarix, Gardasil, Gardasil 9) as adjuvant immunotherapies were significant effective in preventing the recurrence of precancerous lesions compared with the conization only. In addition, MVA E2 vaccine had been in phase Ⅲ clinical trials as a specific therapeutic vaccine, with relative literature showing it could eliminate most high-grade precancerous lesions. Therapeutic vaccines for precancerous lesions all showed good safety. On the other hand, there were 31 studies on therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer (781 participants), involving 19 kinds of vaccines in 7categories, with none had been marketed. 25 studies were with no control group, showing the vaccines could effectively eliminate solid tumors, prevent recurrence, and prolong the median survival time. However, the vaccines effectiveness couldn't be statistically calculated due to the lack of a control group. As for the safety of therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer, 9 studies showed that patients experienced serious adverse events after treatments, where 7 studies reported that serious adverse events occurred in patients couldn't be ruled out as the results of therapeutic vaccines. Conclusions: The literature review shows that the literature evidence for the therapeutic vaccines for cervical precancerous lesions is relatively mature compared with the therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer. The four kinds of vaccines on the market are all therapeutic vaccines for precancerous lesions, but they are generally used as vaginal infection treatments or adjuvant immunotherapies for cervical precancerous lesions, not used for the specific treatments of cervical precancerous lesions. Other specific therapeutic vaccines are in the early stage of clinical trials, mainly phase Ⅰ/Ⅱ clinical trials with small sample size. The effectiveness and safety data are limited, and further research is still needed.
Subject(s)Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Precancerous Conditions/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
Introducción: La displasia epitelial oral (DEO) es la presencia de alteraciones celulares y tisulares, lo que puede significar una etapa anterior al desarrollo del cáncer. Múltiples marcadores han sido considerados para estimar su potencial neoplásico y evolución a carcinoma, incluyendo a la molécula p53, se considera como participe de diversos fenómenos de la homeostasis celular. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la inmunoexpresión de p53 DO-7 y PAb 240 con el grado de severidad de la displasia epitelial oral. Material y métodos: Se analizaron nueve muestras de DEO (tres para cada grado de severidad). La inmunoexpresión de p53 tipo silvestre (DO-7) y forma mutada (PAb 240), fue determinada a través de ensayo de inmunohistoquímica por peroxidasa. Se obtuvieron la media y desviación estándar y se realizó la prueba χ2 (p < 0.05). Resultados: La edad media fue de 65.7 ± 11.4 años, la zona anatómica con mayor presencia de DEO es el borde lateral de la lengua. Ocho de nueve muestras fueron positivas para DO-7 y solo dos para PAb 240. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados indican que, aunque la expresión de p53 DO-7 podría estar relacionada parcialmente con la patogénesis de la displasia epitelial, no todas las displasias presentaron la forma mutada de p53 (PAb 240). Lo cual coincide con el comportamiento biológico incierto de las displasias al poder permanecer sin cambios, involucionar o transformarse
Introduction: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is the presence of cellular and tissue alterations, which may mean a stage prior to the development of cancer. Multiple markers have been considered to estimate its pathogenic potential and evolution to neoplasms, including the p53 molecule, considered as participating in various phenomena of cellular homeostasis. Objective: To determine the relationship between the immunoexpression of p53 DO-7 and PAb 240 with the degree of severity of oral epithelial dysplasia. Material and methods: Nine OED samples were analyzed (three for each degree of severity). The immunoexpression of wild-type p53 (DO-7) and mutated form (PAb 240) was determined through a peroxidase immunohistochemical assay. The mean and standard deviation were obtained, and χ2 test (p < 0.05) were performed. Results: The mean age was 65.7 ± 11.4 years, with a greater presence of OED in the anatomical area of the lateral side of the tongue. Eight out of nine samples were positive for DO-7 and only two for PAb 240. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, although the expression of p53 DO-7 could be partially related to the pathogenesis of epithelial dysplasia, not all dysplasias presented the mutated form of p53 (PAb 240), which coincides that not all dysplasias have a potential for malignant transformation and that could be related to other oncogenic mechanisms (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions , Immunohistochemistry , Genes, p53 , Gingival Neoplasms , Tongue Neoplasms , Pilot Projects , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Carcinogenesis , Observational Study , Mexico
Objetivo: Los desórdenes de mucosa bucal potencialmente malignos pueden presentar áreas displásicas. En estos casos, la biopsia es un procedimiento imprescindible para un correcto diagnóstico. La inspección visual y la palpación, como método de selección del área de biopsia, ofrecen sensibilidad y especificidad adecuadas pero mejorables. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una serie de casos clínicos en los que se describen el empleo y la interpretación de la tinción vital con azul de toluidina como método complementario para contribuir a una mejor elección del área de biopsia. Casos clínicos: Se trata de siete casos de lesiones con sospecha de displasia epitelial en mucosa bucal. En cada uno se detalla la correlación de las áreas teñidas con las manifestaciones clínicas y con el diagnóstico de displasia. Además, se muestran patrones de tinción considerados falsos positivos. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva, se tuvieron en cuenta el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida. El empleo combinado de inspección, palpación y tinción vital podría constituir un procedimiento integral de utilidad para obtener mayor precisión en la determinación del sitio de biopsia en comparación con los mismos procedimientos aplicados de manera individual. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva con azul de toluidina deberían considerarse el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida (AU)
Aim: Potentially Malignant Disorders in the oral cavity can present dysplastic areas. In these cases, the biopsy is an essential procedure for a correct diagnosis. Visual inspection and palpation, are adequate methods to select the area for the biopsy, however there is margin for improvement. The objective of this article is to present a series of clinical cases in which the use and interpretation of vital staining with Toluidine Blue is described as a complementary method to contribute to a better choice of the biopsy area. Clinical cases: Seven clinical cases that presented lesions with suspected epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa were presented. The correlation of the stained areas with the clinical manifestations and with the diagnosis of dysplasia is detailed in each case. Staining patterns considered false positives are also shown. In the interpretation of the positive staining, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion were considered. The combined use of inspection, palpation and vital staining could constitute a useful comprehensive procedure to obtain greater precision in determining the biopsy site in relation to the same procedures applied individually. In the interpretation of the positive staining with Toluidine Blue, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion should be considered (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions/classification , Tolonium Chloride , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Palpation , Biopsy/methods , Lip Neoplasms/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis
Abstract Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is related to a great number of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations. The spectrum of HPV ranges from inapparent infections, through various clinical benign presentations including cutaneous and mucosal disease, to malignant and premalignant conditions. New HPV types are currently described in the literature; many of them are characterized as high-risk types due to their oncogenic potential. Knowledge regarding their epidemiology and pathogenesis is important to understand not only infection and disease processes, but also to formulate the clinical and laboratory basis for diagnosis, therapeutics, and prophylactic measures. This non-systematic review aims to discuss and to update those aspects, with an emphasis on relevant topics for dermatologists. HPV infection and related diseases in the Brazilian scenario are highlighted, including common dermatologic conditions seen at clinics as well as the condition of a public health problem as a sexually transmitted infection. The oncogenicity of the virus and the variety of clinical outcomes - especially in the immunocompromised individuals - are addressed.
Subject(s)Humans , Papillomaviridae , Precancerous Conditions , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus , Brazil/epidemiology
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oil pulling in the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Material and Methods: A total of 62 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as OSMF were incorporated in the present study. The subjects are randomly divided equally into two groups, Group A (oil pulling group) and Group B (placebo group). Subjects in Group A were asked to perform OP with sesame oil on an empty stomach in the morning for 3 months and Group B was given placebo capsules for 3 months. Assessment of various clinical parameters was done regularly, and data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-two percent had a habit of betel nut chewing, while 18% of the patients had tobacco chewing habits, which were among the main causative factors for OSMF. Clinical improvements in mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in speech and deglutition, and burning sensation were significant in the Group A. None of the patients reported any discomfort or side effects. The symptoms were not severe in nature and resolved in few days without stopping the therapy. Conclusion: Oil pulling can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like a mouth opening and tongue protrusion.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Sesame Oil , Chi-Square Distribution , Visual Analog Scale , India/epidemiology
La urgencia en la práctica odontológica incluye no solo la atención de pacientes con dolor e infección, sino también la atención de pacientes que presentan patologías con presunción diagnóstica de agresividad y/o malignidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la incidencia de las patologías bucomaxilares biopsiadas en el Servicio de Urgencias y Orientación de Pacientes (SUyOP), y diagnosticadas en el Laboratorio de Patología Quirúrgica de la Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica (LPQ-CAP) de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FOUBA), en un período del Aislamiento Social Preventivo y Obligatorio de la pandemia COVID-19. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes que se presentaron para la atención odontológica en el período de tiempo comprendido entre el 20 de marzo al 21 de junio de 2020. Se registraron los pacientes que presentaron lesiones bucales con indicación de biopsia. Del total de pacientes evaluados (4854), 48 presentaron patologías con presunción diagnóstica de agresividad y/o malignidad. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron las neoplasias malignas (21 casos), siendo la entidad prevalente el carcinoma de células escamosas. Para el LPQ-CAP, las muestras biópsicas remitidas por el SUyOP representaron el 44% del total de las muestras recibidas. Si bien la incidencia de patologías bucomaxilares biopsiadas y diagnosticadas fue baja (1%) es de destacar que el diagnóstico histopatológico correspondió, en la mayoría de los casos, a patologías neoplásicas. De allí la importancia de la atención de urgencia a pacientes que presentan lesiones con presunción diagnóstica de malignidad/agresividad (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Jaw Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Argentina , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Schools, Dental , Social Isolation , Biopsy/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies , Emergencies , Age and Sex Distribution , Observational Study , Ambulatory Care
Gastric cancer(GC), one of the most common malignancies worldwide, seriously threatens human health due to its high morbidity and mortality. Precancerous lesion of gastric cancer(PLGC) is a critical stage for preventing the occurrence of gastric cancer, and PLGC therapy has frequently been investigated in clinical research. Exploring the proper animal modeling methods is necessary since animal experiment acts as the main avenue of the research on GC treatment. At present, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine(MNNG) serves as a common chemical inducer for the rat model of GC and PLGC. In this study, MNNG-based methods for modeling PLGC rats in related papers were summarized, and the applications and effects of these methods were demonstrated by examples. Additionally, the advantages, disadvantages, and precautions of various modeling methods were briefly reviewed, and the experience of this research group in exploring modeling methods was shared. This study is expected to provide a reference for the establishment of MNNG-induced PLGC animal model, and a model support for the following studies on PLGC.
Subject(s)Animals , Gastric Mucosa , Methylnitronitrosoguanidine/toxicity , Precancerous Conditions/chemically induced , Rats , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy
Objective: Serrated adenoma is recognized as a precancerous lesion of colorectal cancer, and the serrated pathway is considered as an important pathway that can independently develop into colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the related risk factors of carcinogenesis of serrated adenoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution characteristics and potential malignant factors of serrated adenoma in the colon and rectum. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to collect the clinical data of patients with serrated adenoma who underwent colonoscopy and were pathologically diagnosed in the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from April 2017 to July 2019, and exclude patients with two or more pathological types of lesions. The clinical characteristics of serrated adenoma were summarized, and univariate and logistic multivariate regression analysis was conducted to explore the influencing factors for serrated adenoma to develop malignant transformation. Results: Among 28 730 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 311 (1.08%) were found with 372 serrated adenomas, among which 22 (5.9%) were sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 84 (22.6%) were traditional serrated adenomas, and 266 (71.5%) were unclassified serrated adenomas according to WHO classification. The pathological results showed that 106 (28.5%) lesions were non-dysplasia, 228 (61.3%) lesions were low grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and 38 (10.2%) lesions were high grade intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer. There were 204 (54.8%) lesions with long-axis diameter <10 mm and 168 (45.2%) lesions with length long-axis ≥ 10 mm. 238 (64.0%) lesions were found in the left side colon and rectum and 134 (36.0%) lesions in the right side colon. Gross classification under endoscopy: 16 flat type lesions (4.3%), 174 sessile lesions (46.8%), 117 semi-pedunculated lesions (31.5%), 59 pedunculated lesions (15.9%). Narrow-band imaging international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) classification: 85 (22.8%) type I lesions, 280 (75.3%) type II lesions, 4 (1.1%) type III lesions. Univariate analysis showed that lesion size, lesion location, lesion site and different WHO classifications were associated with malignant transformation of colorectal serrated adenoma (all P<0.05). For the serrated adenomas with different NICE classifications, there were statistically significant differences in the distribution of malignant lesions among groups (P=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the long-axis diameter of the lesion ≥10 mm (OR=6.699, 95% CI: 2.843-15.786) and the lesion locating in the left side colorectum (OR=2.657, 95% CI: 1.042-6.775) were independent risk factors for malignant transformation. Conclusions: Serrated adenomas mainly locate in the left side colon and rectum, and are prone to malignant transformation when the lesions are ≥10 mm in long-axis diameter or left-sided.
Subject(s)Adenoma/pathology , Adenomatous Polyps/pathology , Carcinogenesis , Case-Control Studies , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
El Cáncer de Cuello Uterino (CCU) es un problema de Salud pública a nivel mundial. Su indiscutible asociación con el Virus del papiloma humano (HPV) hace necesario su estudio. El objetivo de este trabajo, es conocer la prevalencia de los diferentes genotipos de HPV, en lesiones pre invasoras de alto grado de malignidad (HSIL) y/o cáncer de cuello uterino. Material y Métodos: Todas las Mujeres que fueron derivadas a pol de TGI del H Clínicas entre enero del 2011 y diciembre de 2012, por un PAP sospechoso de lesión y en las que se confirmó luego un HSIL o cáncer cervical fueron tipificadas. Se recabaron datos de edad, tipo de lesión y genotipificación. La extracción de ADN viral se realizó a partir de muestras cervico vaginales conservadas en medio de transporte comercial (Sacace) mediante el kit QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Se buscaron 14 genotipos de alto riesgo. Resultados: Se tipificaron 75 pacientes, 19 con CCU y 56 con HSIL. El HPV 16 fue el más prevalente en un 61,5 % para las infecciones únicas y en un casi 100 % para las múltiples y un 60% para el total de las lesiones, seguido en prevalencia por los HPV 31,33 y 45. El HPV 18 fue muy poco prevalente. Conclusiones: En esta muestra, la prevalencia del HPV 16 está acorde con las publicaciones nacionales siendo el más frecuente. El HPV 18 tiene muy baja prevalencia siendo 2 casos en 75, siempre en infecciones múltiples.
Cervical Cancer (CC) is a public health problem worldwide. Its indisputable association with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) makes its study necessary. The objective of this work is to know the prevalence of the different HPV genotypes, in pre-invasive high-grade malignant lesions (HSIL) and / or cervical cancer. Material and Methods: All women who were referred to Low genital tract service in the Hospital de Clinicas between January 2011 and December 2012, for a PAP suspected of injury and in which HSIL or cervical cancer was later confirmed were typified. Data on age, type of lesion and genotyping were collected. The viral DNA extraction was carried out from cervico-vaginal samples preserved in commercial transport medium (Sacace) using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN). 14 high-risk genotypes were searched. Results: 75 patients were typified, 19 with CCU and 56 with HSIL. HPV 16 was the most prevalent in 61.5% for single infections and almost 100% for multiple infections and 60% for all lesions, followed in prevalence by HPV 31,33 and 45. The HPV 18 was very rare. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of HPV 16 is in accordance with national publications, being the most frequent. HPV 18 has a very low prevalence, being 2 cases in 75, always in multiple infections.
O câncer cervical é um problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo. E um câncer com uma ligação comprovada com o vírus do papiloma humano. O objetivo é conhecer a prevalência dos diferentes genótipos do HPV em mulheres que apresentam neoplasias pré-invasivas de alto grau e câncer de colo do útero, que foram tratadas e diagnosticadas no Hospital de Clínicas entre janeiro de 2011 e dezembro de 2012. Material e Métodos: o estudo foi realizado em 75 pacientes do Hospital de Clinicas, com diagnóstico histológico de Câncer Cervical e lesões intraepiteliais de alto grau para as quais foi realizado o tipageme do HPV alto risco. Resultados: 75 pacientes foram tipificados, 19 com CCU e 56 com HSIL. O HPV 16 foi o mais prevalente em 61,5% para infecções únicas e quase 100% para infecções múltiplas e 60% para todas as lesões, seguido em prevalência pelo HPV 31,33 e 45. O HPV 18 era muito raro. Conclusões: Nesta amostra, a prevalência do HPV 16 está de acordo com as publicações nacionais, sendo a mais frequente. O HPV 18 tem prevalência muito baixa, sendo 2 casos em 75, sempre em infecções múltiplas.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions/virology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Alphapapillomavirus/genetics , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Distribution
Los términos lesión precancerosa, cancerizable o premaligna son sinónimos e involucran aquellas entidades con posibilidades estadísticamente demostrables de transformarse en cáncer. El porcentaje de transformación es variable de acuerdo con el tipo de lesión. La lesión precancerosa fue definida por la OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud) como aquel tejido de morfología alterada con mayor predisposición a la cancerización (superior al 5%) que el tejido equivalente de apariencia normal, independientemente de sus características clínicas o histológicas. La cátedra de Anatomía Patológica considera como lesiones precancerosas o cancerizables a las siguientes entidades: la leucoplasia, los líquenes atípicos, las queilitis crónicas, eritroplasia y las ulceras traumáticas crónicas. Con frecuencia, factores relacionados con los estilos de vida son más importantes en la predisposición al cáncer, si bien en algunos casos los factores genéticos o ambientales pueden jugar algún papel en grado variable. No se conocen todos los factores de riesgo, y no siempre las asociaciones son de causaefecto. Las infecciones bacterianas, micóticas y virales se vinculan al surgimiento y desarrollo de los cánceres bucales por diferentes mecanismos, no del todo esclarecidos. En los últimos años han aumentado de manera significativa las manifestaciones orales y faríngeas secundarias a la práctica de sexo oral. El cambio de los hábitos sexuales en países occidentales ha dado lugar a la aparición de patologías otorrinolaringológicas, antes excepcionales, por lo que es importante su conocimiento por parte de los profesionales de la salud relacionados con la atención primaria para realizar un diagnóstico precoz, seguimiento precoz, seguimiento y oportuno tratamiento específico (AU)
The terms precancerous, cancerable or premalignant lesion are synonyms and involve those entities with statistically demonstrable possibilities of transforming into cancer. The transformation percentage is variable, according to the type of injury. The precancerous lesion was defined by the WHO as that tissue of altered morphology with a greater predisposition to cancerization (greater than 5%) than the equivalent tissue of normal appearance, regardless of its clinical or histological characteristics. The Chair of Pathological Anatomy considers the following entities as precancerous or cancerous lesions: leukoplakia, atypical lichens, chronic cheilitis, erythroplasia, and chronic traumatic ulcers. Lifestyle-related factors are often more important in cancer predisposition, although in some cases genetic or environmental factors may play a role to varying degrees. Not all risk factors are known, and the associations are not always cause and effect Bacterial, fungal, and viral infections are linked to the emergence and development of oral cancers by different mechanisms, not fully understood. In recent years, oral and pharyngeal manifestations secondary to oral sex have increased significantly. The change in sexual habits in western countries has given rise to the appearance of exceptional otorhinolaryngological pathologies previously, which is why it is important for them to be known by health professionals related to primary care in order to make an early diagnosis, early follow-up, follow-up and timely specific treatment (AU)