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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Insecta , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Nymph
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e255753, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355850

ABSTRACT

Abstract The leaf miner, Tuta absoluta is continue to be a serious threat to solanaceous plants, especially tomato plant worldwide. Tomato crop in Saudi Arabia has been recently affected by T. absoluta, which is difficult to control due to its unique biological features, such as high fecundity and its potential to develop resistance to chemical pesticides. In this article, the suitability and effectiveness of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), an indigenous species usually found in tomato greenhouses of northcentral Saudi Arabia, has been evaluated on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta in the laboratory. All experiments were conducted in an incubator at three constant temperatures of 22, 27 and 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% R.H. and L12:D12 h photoperiod. Adult females and males of N. cucumeris were able to feed and sustain oviposition on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, and could be an effective biocontrol agent against T. absoluta. The N. cucumeris had a clear preference for eggs compared to 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. The results showed the obvious effect of the temperature on the consumption rate of the predatory mite. The maximum daily consumption rate occurred during the oviposition period, when the females of the predatory mite consumed an average of 4.26 eggs and 2.44 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. In general, total fecundity was high with T. absoluta eggs as a food source when temperature increased from 22 to 32°C. The highest fecundity rate (42.92 and 20.97 eggs /female) was recorded at 32°C, while the lowest one (26.77 and 10.12 eggs / female) was recorded at 22°C, when N. cucumeris female fed on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, respectively. The results of this study indicated that the predatory mite, N. cucumeris can be considered a promising potential candidate for controlling the leaf miner T. absoluta, and further research is required to assess its effectiveness under greenhouse conditions.


Resumo A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta, continua sendo uma séria ameaça às plantas solanáceas, especialmente ao tomateiro em todo o mundo. A safra de tomate na Arábia Saudita foi recentemente afetada por T. absoluta, o qual é de difícil controle por causa de suas características biológicas únicas, como alta fecundidade e potencial para desenvolver resistência a pesticidas químicos. Neste artigo, a adequação e a eficácia do ácaro predador Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uma espécie indígena geralmente encontrada em estufas de tomate no centro-norte da Arábia Saudita, foram avaliadas em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta em condições de laboratório. Todos os experimentos foram conduzidos em uma incubadora em três temperaturas constantes de 22, 27 e 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% UR e fotoperíodo L12: D12 h. Fêmeas e machos adultos de N. cucumeris foram capazes de se alimentar e sustentar a oviposição em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, podendo ser um agente de biocontrole eficaz contra T. absoluta. Neoseiulus cucumeris teve uma clara preferência por ovos em comparação com larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Os resultados mostram que mais presas foram consumidas conforme a temperatura aumentou de 22°C para 32°C. A taxa máxima de consumo diário ocorreu durante o período de oviposição, quando as fêmeas consumiram em média 4,26 ovos e 2,44 larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Em geral, a fecundidade total foi maior com ovos de T. absoluta como fonte alimentar e com o aumento da temperatura. A maior taxa de fecundidade (42,92 e 20,97 ovos por fêmea) foi registrada a 32°C, enquanto a mais baixa (26,77 e 10,12 ovos por fêmea) foi a 22°C, quando N. cucumeris se alimentou de ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o ácaro predador N. cucumeris pode ser considerado um potencial candidato para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro T. absoluta, e mais pesquisas são necessárias para avaliar sua eficácia em condições de estufa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lepidoptera , Mites , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Larva
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356460

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are arachnids that have a generalist diet, which use venom to subdue their prey. The study of their trophic ecology and capture behavior is still limited compared to other organisms, and aspects such as trophic specialization in this group have been little explored. Methods: In order to determine the relationship between feeding behavior and venom toxicity in the scorpion species Tityus fuhrmanni, 33 specimens were offered prey with different morphologies and defense mechanisms: spiders, cockroaches and crickets. In each of the experiments we recorded the following aspects: acceptance rate, immobilization time and the number of capture attempts. The median lethal dose of T. fuhrmanni venom against the three different types of prey was also evaluated. Results: We found that this species does not have a marked difference in acceptance for any of the evaluated prey, but the number of capture attempts of spiders is higher when compared to the other types of prey. The immobilization time is shorter in spiders compared to other prey and the LD50 was higher for cockroaches. Conclusions: These results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Hunt , Toxicity , Feeding Behavior , Food Chain , Defense Mechanisms , Lethal Dose 50
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239639, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249218

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Resumo Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro "Y". Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tetranychidae , Acari , Mites , Predatory Behavior , Smell , Zea mays
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236182, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The oyster culture has the incrusting organism as problem for production, in this context, it evaluated as biological control against incrusting organism and sediments the introduction of gastropod Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) in Chilean oysters (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) cultures in conditions of starvation presence and absence located in floating cages and bottom cultures. The predation and mechanic effect on T. atra grazing generated a decreasing in seven days of 19.8% and 13.7% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods without starvation respectively. Whereas it had a decrease of 12.6% and 11.4% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods with starvation respectively. The incrusting organism removed were mainly algae, colonial ascidia, polychaeta, bryozoan and small crustaceans.


Resumo A cultura da ostra tem como problema de produção o organismo incrustante, neste contexto, avaliou como controle biológico contra organismos incrustantes e sedimentos a introdução do gastrópode Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) em culturas de ostras chilenas (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) em condições de presença e ausência de fome, localizadas em gaiolas flutuantes e culturas de fundo. A predação e o efeito mecânico no pastejo de T. atra geraram uma diminuição em sete dias de 19,8% e 13,7% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo, por efeito de gastrópodes sem fome, respectivamente. Considerando que houve decréscimo de 12,6% e 11,4% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo pelos efeitos dos gastrópodes com fome respectivamente. Os organismos incrustantes removidos eram principalmente algas, ascídias coloniais, poliquetas, briozoários e pequenos crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ostreidae , Gastropoda , Predatory Behavior , Chile , Geologic Sediments , Crustacea
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 969-976, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153452

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a predatory arthropod with potential for conservation biological control. In addition to being considered a bioindicator of environmental quality, this arthropod provides an important service for agriculture by reducing insect-pest populations. In this work we seek to understand how the plants Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees and Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) and their different clump sizes affect the population density, spatial distribution and determination of the minimum number of samples to estimate its population density during the winter. Among the evaluated host plants, S. angustifolium and A. bicornis presented higher population density than E. retusa, but we observed that the clump diameter significantly influences the population density and the minimum number of samples. We observed a gregarious behavior in plants of A. bicornis and E. retusa. For S. angustifolium, a uniform distribution was observed.


Resumo Lycosa erythrognatha Lucas, 1833 (Araneae: Lycosidae) é um artrópode predador com potencial para controle biológico de conservação. Além de ser considerado um bioindicador da qualidade ambiental, esse artrópode fornece um importante serviço para a agricultura, reduzindo as populações de insetos-praga. Neste trabalho buscamos entender como as plantas Andropogon bicornis L., Saccharum angustifolium Nees e Eustachys retusa Lag (Poales: Poaceae) e seus diferentes tamanhos de touceira afetam a densidade populacional, distribuição espacial e a determinação do número mínimo de amostras para estimar sua densidade populacional durante o inverno. Entre as plantas hospedeiras avaliadas, S. angustifolium e A. bicornis apresentaram maior densidade populacional que E. retusa, observamos que o diâmetro da touceira influencia significativamente a densidade populacional e o número mínimo de amostras. Observamos um comportamento gregário nas plantas de A. bicornis e E. retusa. Para S. angustifolium, uma distribuição uniforme foi observada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Spiders , Predatory Behavior , Population Density , Sample Size , Agriculture
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 154-163, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153314

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding the ecological and toxicological relationship between genetically modified cultivars (GM) and biological control agents is of great importance for discussions related to the compatability of GM cultivars and integrated management strategies for pest resistance. The present study evaluated the search behavior and predatory capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) on eggs and caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistant or not to the protein Cry1F expressed in Bt corn. To determine the search time, a stopwatch was run until the capture of the first prey, predation capacity was evaluated by counting the prey remaining after 24 hours of infestation. The injuries of S. frugiperda in genetically modified and conventional corn in the presence and absence of predators was also evaluated. The predators were not able to distinguish between resistant and susceptible prey (eggs or caterpillars), given the predatory behaviour observed. There was no difference in searching time or predatory capacity between the predators for eggs and caterpillars of either resistant or susceptible S. frugiperda. In the presence of predators, the injury scores for resistant S. frugiperda on the Bt corn plants were lower. It was concluded that O. insidiosus and D. luteipes did not notice the presence of the protein Cry1F in the prey S. frugiperda, which may facilitate the combined use of GM corn and biological control in integrated management programs and for management of pest resistance.


Resumo O entendimento de relações ecológicas e toxicológicas envolvendo culturas geneticamente modificadas (GM) e agentes de controle biológico é de grande importância para discussões relativas à compatibilidade de culturas GM com estratégias de manejo integrado e manejo de resistência de pragas. Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento de busca e a capacidade predatória de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) e Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) sobre ovos e lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistente ou não à proteína Cry1F expressa em milho Bt. Para determinar o tempo de busca foi utilizado um cronômetro que foi disparado até a captura da primeira presa; a capacidade de predação foi avaliada através da contagem das presas remanescentes 24 h após infestação. Também foram avaliadas as injúrias de S. frugiperda em milho transgênico e milho convencional na presença ou ausência dos predadores. Os predadores não foram capazes de distinguir entre presas (ovos ou lagartas) resistentes e suscetíveis, considerando os comportamentos predatórios avaliados. Não houve diferença no tempo de busca e capacidade predatória sobre ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda resistente ou suscetível entre os predadores. Na presença dos predadores, as notas de injúria de S. frugiperda resistente nas plantas de milho Bt foram menores. Conclui-se que O. insidiosus e D. luteipes não percebem a presença da proteína Cry1F na presa S. frugiperda, o que pode contribuir para o uso integrado de milho GM e controle biológico em programas de manejo integrado e manejo de resistência de pragas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins , Moths , Predatory Behavior , Spodoptera , Zea mays/genetics , Larva
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e0752019, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348960

ABSTRACT

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, has caused significant damage to vineyards in the valley of the São Francisco River in Brazil. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma is one of the most abundant species of predatory mites on vines in this region. This study evaluated the population growth rates of T. urticae on leaves of two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars ('Italia' and 'Superior Seedless') and jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.] and, also, to estimate the predation rates of the pest mite by N. idaeus on leaves of both grape cultivars and jack bean. A higher oviposition rate of T. urticae was observed on 'Superior Seedless' than on 'Italia' grape leaves; however, there was no significant difference in the instantaneous growth rates of T. urticae for these grape cultivars. For 'Superior Seedless', the spider mite egg viability was significantly lower than on 'Italia' grape, indicating a resistance factor in this grape cultivar. The phytoseiid N. idaeus preyed higher number of T. urticae females on 'Superior Seedless' leaves than on 'Italia' grape and jack bean leaves for the densities of 10 and 20 pest mites per leaf arena (9 cm2). Evaluations of leaf trichomes in both grape cultivars indicated the occurrence of longer trichomes on the basal portion of the main veins of 'Superior Seedless' leaves. The presence of these longer trichomes may be associated with the better performance of N. idaeus on 'Superior Seedless' leaves.


Subject(s)
Tick Control , Vitis , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Mite Infestations
10.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-4, 2021. Ilu, Graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352349

ABSTRACT

Objetctive: This experimental study aimed to assess the preference of Gambusia affinis to mosquito larvae of An.gambiae s.s., Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Method: Three Gambusia affinis were introduced in a glass container with a dimension of 45cm x 25cmx 25cm. Three larvae densities were used, 90 (30 larvae per species), 120 (40 larvae per species), and 180 (60 larvae per species). Each density experiment was set in triplicate and monitored after 1, 2, 3, and 24 hours. No fish food was added to the container for larvae. Results: Results have shown that in all times A. aegypti has been the most preferred species by Gambusia affinis. Among the tested species, A. aegypti was most prayed with time and in different densities. In mixed models including density, species, and time there was no significant difference among the species predation. Conclusion: Preliminary results have shown that the appropriate choice of predators for each mosquito species can have a great impact on bio-control to substantially complement existing tools.


Objetivo: avaliar a preferência de Gambusia affinis por larvas de mosquito de An. gambiae s.s., Cx. quinquefasciatus e Aedes aegypti. Método: Três Gambusia affinis foram introduzidos em um recipiente de vidro com dimensões de 45cm x 25cm x 25cm. Foram utilizadas três densidades de larvas, 90 (30 larvas por espécie), 120 (40 larvas por espécie) e 180 (60 larvas por espécie). Cada experimento de densidade foi estabelecido em triplicado e monitorado após 1, 2, 3 e 24 horas. Nenhum alimento de peixe foi adicionado ao recipiente com larvas. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que em todos os tempos o A. aegypti foi a espécie mais preferida por Gambusia affinis. Entre as espécies testadas, A. aegypti foi a mais predada com o tempo e em diferentes densidades. Em modelos mistos incluindo densidade, espécie e tempo, não houve diferença significativa entre a predação por espécies. Conclusão: Os resultados preliminares mostraram que a escolha apropriada de predadores para cada espécie de mosquito pode ter um grande impacto no bio-controle para complementar substancialmente as ferramentas existentes.


Subject(s)
Predatory Behavior , Biological Products , Control , Larva
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200128, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135154

ABSTRACT

As in previous contributions to the JVATiTD, the aim of this note is to bring some general information on a particular aspect of the scorpion biology. An attempt is made to explain the possible coevolution of telson morphology and venom glands, which took place during several hundred million years and in particular since scorpions migrated from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Three components can be directly associated with predation and defensive behaviours: (1) morphology of the chelae and structure of the chelae fingers granulations; (2) morphology of the metasoma and in particular of the telson; (3) evolution of tegumentary glands in the telson toward different types of venom glands. Since a number of recent contributions already treated some of these aspects, I will limit my comments to the possible evolution of the telson in relation to the evolution of venom glands. As in previous contributions, the content of this article is basically addressed to non-specialists on scorpions whose research embraces scorpions in several fields such as venom toxins and public health.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisons , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Biological Coevolution
12.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180165, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990195

ABSTRACT

Studies of mixed-species groups of animals can reveal emergent complexities of collective behaviors. In this study we collected data on mixed-species hunting groups composed primarily of piscivorous fishes (species composition, abundance, behavioral interactions) and used both multivariate and network analyses to quantify pair-wise and guild level behavioral relationships. Our results indicate that such collective behaviors exhibit consistent patterns of associations (33 species with 282 pair-wise links within the observed network) with 10 dominant species accounting for 60% of pair-wise interactions. Species richness within groups varied (mean = 2.4, range 2-6 species) as did group size (mean = 8.1 individuals, range 2-80). Mixed-species groups, in general, were composed of species representing morphologically diverse forms that appeared to enhance access to shelter sites and implement diverse strategies for prey capture. It is noteworthy that the composition of groups did not reflect the relative abundances of their component species within the overall community of fishes, suggesting that group membership was an elective choice. The identification of these patterns, assuming they are persistent features of these communities, can be used as a foundation for studies to assess dynamics of mixed-species relationships, rates of predator success based on group membership, demographic consequences, and responses to variations in habitat attributes and associated prey resources. Such information could be used to interpret the nature of multispecies interactions within predator communities and potentially aid in conservation and management.(AU)


Estudios de grupos mixtos de animales puede revelar complejidades y sutilezas del comportamiento colectivo. En este estudio recolectamos datos sobre depredación de grupos mixtos de especies, compuestos principalmente por piscívoros (composición de especies, abundancia, interacciones) y usamos tanto análisis multivariado como de redes para cuantificar relaciones de comportamiento entre pares de especies y a nivel de gremios. Nuestros resultados indican que los comportamientos colectivos exhiben patrones consistentes de asociaciones (33 especies con 382 interacciones entre pares de especies dentro de la red) con 10 especies dominantes que constituyen el 60% de las interacciones entre dos especies. La riqueza de especies dentro de grupos varió (media = 2.4, ámbito 2-6 especies) cómo también el tamaño del grupo (media = 8.1, ámbito 2-80). Los grupos de especies mixtas, en general, estaban compuestos por especies con diversas morfologías que aparentemente aumentan el accesos a lugares estrechos y además, implementa diversas estrategias de captura de presas. Vale la pena resaltar que la composición de los grupos no reflejaba la abundancia relativa de las especies en la comunidad total de peces, sugiriendo que la membresía en el grupo era algo electivo. La identificaión de estos patrones, asumiendo que son características persistentes de la comunidad, se podrán usar en estudios para determinar la dinámica de las relaciones de grupos mixtos, tasa de éxito de depredación basado en la membresía del grupo, consecuencias demográficas y respuestas a varicaciones en las habitat y presas. Esta información servirá para interpretar la naturaleza de las interacciones multiespecíficas dentro de la comunidad de depredadores y potencialmente ayudar en la conservación y manejo de recursos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Symbiosis , Behavior, Animal , Hunt/analysis
13.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): [e154252], out. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025168

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo predatory viability of the nematophagous fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, after storage (36 months) and refrigeration (2-8 °C). This viability was evaluated using the infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil. Sixteen Santa Inês sheep with negative counting of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were divided into four experimental groups, each group comprised of four animals. The pellets were administered at the dose of 3 g/10 kg of live weight (20% fungal micelyum), and a single administration was performed for each animal. Group I was administered pellets that had been stored for 36 months; Group II, freshly produced pellets; Group III, freshly produced pellets that did not contain fungi; and Group IV, pellets were not administered, and this was the control group. Feces were collected for 5 days, every 24 h for analysis. There was a significant decrease in the number of infective larvae of sheep nematodes that received D. flagrans pellets in a sodium alginate matrix, 82% was observed for Group I and 71% for Group II, compared to the control group. It is therefore concluded that the fungus, D. flagrans, pelleted in sodium alginate matrix after 36 months of storage at 2-8 °C, showed efficacy in reducing the number of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. (AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade predatória in vivo do fungo nematófago Duddingtonia flagrans, após armazenamento (36 meses) e refrigeração (2-8 °C). Esta viabilidade foi avaliada utilizando larvas infectantes de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos no semi-árido nordestino do Brasil. 16 ovinos Santa Inês com contagem negativa de ovos por grama de fezes (GEP) foram divididos em quatro grupos experimentais, compostos por quatro animais. Os péletes foram administrados na dose de 3 g/10 kg de peso vivo (20% de micélio fúngico), e uma única administração foi realizada para cada animal. Grupo I foi administrado péletes que foram armazenados por 36 meses; Grupo II, péletes recém-produzidos; Grupo III, péletes recém-produzidos que não continham fungos; e o Grupo IV, péletes não foram administrados, e este foi o grupo controle. As fezes foram coletadas por cinco dias, a cada 24 horas, para análise. Houve uma diminuição significativa no número de larvas infectantes de nematóides ovinos que receberam pellets de D. flagrans, 82% foi observado para o Grupo I e 71% para o Grupo II, comparado ao grupo controle. Conclui-se, portanto, que o fungo D. flagrans, peletizado em matriz de alginato de sódio após 36 meses de armazenamento a 2-8 °C, apresenta eficácia na redução do número de larvas infectantes de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/microbiology , Duddingtonia , Nematode Infections , Predatory Behavior , Refrigeration
14.
Clinics ; 74: e675, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019708

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to review literature on studies of dengue cases conducted over 30 years in the state of Ceará. Between November 2015 and January 2016, articles published in Portuguese and English in 7 databases were searched using keywords and a Boolean operator. A total of 191 articles were identified in the databases; 133 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 58 were included in the study. Of the 58 articles analyzed, 6 reported data from Brazil; including the Northeast region and the state of Ceará; 41 reported data for only the city of Fortaleza; 7 reported data for the state of Ceará; 4 reported data for cities in the interior of the state; and 3 included only children. The studies adopted different approaches and focused on different aspects of the disease. Study outcomes included the identification of serological, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; potential larvicides and biological predators of mosquitoes; potential antiviral agents; vector density characteristics; and educational dengue prevention and control strategies. Additionally, one vaccine trial was included. Although studies on dengue in the state of Ceará are scarce, they are encompassing, including several lines of research, and the number of studies and reports on dengue in the state of Ceará continues to increase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Aedes/classification , Dengue/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Predatory Behavior , Research Design , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 556-563, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951585

ABSTRACT

Abstract We used miniaturized GPS loggers and site observations to access foraging patterns and nest behaviour of the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus (WTTB), an endangered species at its South Atlantic breeding colony. Dual foraging pattern was observed with alternation between long and short foraging trips. Birds responsible for nest attendance engaged in short foraging trips with mean distance from colony of 25 ± 17 km, total distance covered of 79 ± 65 km and mean duration of 4.02 ± 5.28 hours. Birds flew by dawn and returned before dusk while partners were at sea for long foraging trips that ranged from four to 11 days, with mean maximum distance from colony of 105 ± 47.48 km. Chicks were usually left alone for hours and chick predation by Land Crab Johngartia lagostroma, egg consumption by Goniopsis cruentata and intra-specific competition are suspected to be responsible for high chick mortality rates.


Resumo Utilizamos aparelhos de GPS miniaturizados e observações de campo para determinar padrões de forrageio e comportamento em ninho da espécie ameaçada Rabos-de-palha-de-bico-laranja Phaethon lepturus em sua colônia reprodutiva do Atlântico Sul. Padrão dual de forrageio foi observado, com alternância entre viagens longas e curtas. Aves responsáveis por cuidado parental efetuaram viagens curtas de forrageio com em média 25 ± 17 km de distância da colônia, distância total percorrida média de 79 ± 65 km e duração média de 4.02 ± 5.28 horas. As aves saíram da colônia entre o amanhecer e o entardecer, enquanto seus parceiros estavam em alto-mar em viagens longas de quatro a 11 dias de duração, com média de distância máxima da colônia de 105 ± 47.48 km. Filhotes foram constantemente deixados sozinhos por várias horas, e predação por Johngartia lagostroma, consumo de ovos por Goniopsis cruentata e competição intra-específica possivelmente foram responsáveis por sua morte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Birds/physiology , Oceans and Seas , Brazil , Breeding , Endangered Species
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1046-1054, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977365

ABSTRACT

Resumen Gleditsia amorphoides (Griseb.) Taub. es una especie arbórea nativa de Sudamérica, conocida por su madera de buena calidad y por los frutos que contienen una goma de utilización industrial. Una de las causas de la disminución de la producción de semillas viables en árboles forestales es el daño ocasionado por depredadores de frutos y semillas. La relación entre producción de frutos y depredadores no es conocida para G. amorphoides. Por lo tanto, en este trabajo se evaluó la producción de frutos en árboles de esta especie y la abundancia de ejemplares pertenecientes a la Subfamilia Bruchinae asociada a la misma. El estudio se efectuó en tres localidades ubicadas en la provincia de Formosa en el noreste de Argentina durante tres años consecutivos. Se halló una especie de Bruchinae, identificada como Bruchidius endotubercularis Arora. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de variabilidad en la producción de frutos entre los años, no así entre localidades, mientras que la abundancia de insectos se mantuvo constante, no respondiendo a la variación en la producción de frutos entre años. En este trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de B. endotubercularis asociado a G. amorphoides en Argentina.


Abstract Gleditsia amorphoides (Griseb.) Taub. is a tree species native to South America. It is known for its good quality wood and for its fruits that contain a rubber for industrial uses. One of the causes for the reduction of the production of viable seeds in forest trees is the damage caused by predators of fruits and seeds. The relationship between fruit production and predators is not known for G. amorphoides. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the fruit production in this three species and the abundance of specimens of the Subfamily Bruchinae associated to G. amorphoides. The study was carried out in three localities of the Formosa Province in the Northeast of Argentina for three consecutive years. We found a single species of Bruchinae, identified as Bruchidius endotubercularis Arora. The results showed the existence of variability in the production of G. amorphoidesfruits between years, but not between locations. The abundance of insects remained constant, not responding to the variation in the production of fruits between years. In this study, we report for the first time, the occurrence of B. endotubercularis associated with G. amorphoides in Argentina. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1046-1054. Epub 2018 September 01.


Subject(s)
Predatory Behavior , Seeds/adverse effects , Coleoptera , Gleditsia , Fruit , Fabaceae , Argentina
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 373-383, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The intercropping is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management. It is based on the principle that increased plant diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the crop. The current study aimed to assess the impact the colored fiber cotton-cowpea intercropped systems on Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora and on their predator Cycloneda sanguinea and the losses and the dispersion behavior of these aphids and their predator in these cropping systems. The experiment had a randomized block experimental design with two bioassays and four treatments. The number of apterous and alate aphids (A. gossypii) per cotton plant was 1.46 and 1.73 or 1.97 and 2.19 times highest in the solid cotton system than that found in the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1) and (S2), respectively. On the other hand, the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and S2) reduced, respectively, in 43% and 31% the number of apterousA. gossypiiper cotton plant compared to the control. Implementing cotton-cowpea intercropped system in the S1 scheme reduced A. gossypii infestation, favored the multiplication of C. sanguinea, and allowed obtaining heavier open bolls.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/physiology , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Crops, Agricultural/parasitology , Gossypium/parasitology , Vigna/parasitology , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Animal Distribution
18.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 179-183, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886895

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coenosia attenuata Stein (1903) is a predatory fly that is commonly found in greenhouses and open fields preying on whiteflies, leafminers, psocopterans and other insects. The species is widespread in the Old World and its distribution has expanded in recent times to Neotropical countries including Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Peru. We report here for the first time the presence of C. attenuata in Brazil, occurring in different sites in the State of Ceará (Northeastern Brazil). Expansion of the distribution range of this muscid to the eastern parts of South America opens up the possibility of applying the beneficial predator as a biological control agent for protected crops of the region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Muscidae/physiology , Pest Control, Biological , Crops, Agricultural/parasitology , Brazil , Introduced Species , Animal Distribution
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 703-709, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888815

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0) and mean generation time (T) were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o desenvolvimento e reprodução do zoofitófago Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em couve, brócolis e repolho. Ninfas e adultos deste predador foram alimentados com lagartas de Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) como presa e receberam folhas de couve, repolho ou brócolis. Durante o período ninfal, a duração do período e o consumo de presas foram semelhantes com as diferentes cultivares de brassicácea. Porém, a viabilidade ninfal foi maior para predadores com folhas de brócolis. O peso de ninfas de quinto instar e de fêmeas recém-emergidas e a razão sexual de P. nigrispinus foram semelhantes entre as cultivares de brassicáceas, enquanto que o peso de machos recém-emergidos foi maior com folhas de couve e brócolis. Folhas de brócolis proporcionaram maiores número de oviposições, ovos por postura e longevidade de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus. Além disso, o consumo de lagartas de P. xylostella por adultos desse predador fora maiores com esta cultivar. A taxa líquida de reprodução (R0) e o tempo médio de geração (T) foram maiores para predadores com presa e folhas de brócolis. Podisus nigrispinus alimentados com lagartas de P. xylostella e folhas de brócolis apresentaram melhores parâmetros reprodutivos, podendo ser uma alternativa para a criação deste predador em laboratório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Predatory Behavior , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Heteroptera/physiology , Moths/chemistry , Nymph/physiology , Heteroptera/growth & development , Food Chain , Larva/growth & development , Larva/chemistry , Moths/growth & development , Nymph/growth & development
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 289-298, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888753

ABSTRACT

Abstract Predator-prey interactions involving an aquatic insect and zooplanktonic prey of different sizes were investigated to quantify prey mortality exposed to predators. Laboratory experiments were undertaken with the young and adult gerrid Rheumatobates crassifemur to test predation and size selectivity on the cladocerans Daphnia gessneri, Ceriodaphnia richardi, and Bosmina tubicen. Population fluctuations and spatial distribution of the gerrid were also evaluated in a small and shallow Brazilian lake throughout 12 months in fortnightly samples. The insects were more abundant in the littoral (mean density 7.0 ± 1.2 ind.m-2) compared to the limnetic zone. The period with the highest densities was late January to June, in both zones. Predation by young instars on Daphnia and Ceriodaphnia was significant (mean ingestion rate of 1.3 ± 0.1 D. gessneri and 0.7 ± 0.1 C. richardi per predator per hour). Adult insect fed only the large-sized prey (mean ingestion rate of 1.0 ± 0.1 D. gessneri per predator per hour). Young gerrids have greater potential to prey on cladocerans than adults, and size selectivity occurred for both predators. Preference of adults by the larger prey is probably related to difficulties in manipulating smaller planktonic prey, such as Ceriodaphnia. Due to higher densities of insects in the littoral, higher predation on zooplankton in this zone is expected. This study does contribute to a better understanding of trophic interactions in tropical shallow lakes and is the first to investigate predation of a gerrid on cladocerans in laboratory experiments.


Resumo Foram investigadas as interações predador-presa, envolvendo inseto aquático e presas zooplanctônicas de diferentes tamanhos para quantificar a mortalidade das presas expostas a predadores. Experimentos de laboratório foram realizados com jovens e adultos do gerrídeo Rheumatobates crassifemur para testar a predação e a seletividade por tamanho das espécies de cladóceros Daphnia gessneri, Ceriodaphnia richardi e Bosmina tubicen. Flutuações populacionais e a distribuição espacial do gerrídeo também foram avaliadas em um lago brasileiro pequeno e raso durante 12 meses em amostras quinzenais. Os insetos foram mais abundantes no litoral (densidade média 7,0 ± 1,2 ind.m-2) em comparação com a zona limnética. Maiores densidades ocorreram de fim de janeiro a junho, em ambas as zonas. A predação dos jovens foi significativa sobre Daphnia e Ceriodaphnia (taxa de ingestão média 1,3 ± 0,1 D. gessneri and 0,7 ± 0,1 C. richardi por predador por hora). Adultos predaram somente a presa maior (taxa de ingestão média 1,0 ± 0,1 D. gessneri por predador por hora). Gerrídeos jovens têm um maior potencial para predar cladóceros que os adultos, e seletividade por tamanho ocorreu para ambos. A preferência dos adultos somente pela presa maior provavelmente está relacionada à dificuldade em manipular pequenas presas planctônicas como Ceriodaphnia. Devido às maiores densidades de insetos no litoral, é esperada maior predação sobre o zooplâncton nesta zona. Este estudo contribui para uma melhor compreensão sobre interações tróficas em lagos tropicais rasos e é o primeiro a investigar a predação de um gerrídeo sobre cladóceros em experimentos de laboratório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Heteroptera/physiology , Food Chain , Cladocera/growth & development , Animal Distribution , Seasons , Zooplankton/growth & development , Brazil , Lakes , Daphnia/growth & development , Spatial Analysis
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