Se realiza una revisión de estudios de resonancia magnética integral y funcional, así como estudios bioquímicos en pacientes con y sin ideas suicidas. Estos estudios en pacientes con alto riesgo de suicidio presentan una disminución de volúmenes corticales en la corteza prefrontal dorso y ventrolateral. Lo importante de estos estudios es que resultan de la comparación con pacientes deprimidos con bajo riesgo de suicidio. Los estudios de resonancia magnética funcional mostraron una hipofuncionalidad del lóbulo prefrontal en los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas severas, que se observa como una disminución del flujo sanguíneo cerebral en las áreas lateral y ventral. Se observa una disminución del metabolismo de serotonina, en clara relación con la severidad de las ideas de muerte, también con un foco en la región lateroventral prefrontal. Dado que las funciones de la corteza prefrontal afirman al individuo en su perspectiva vital, disfunciones como las descritas debilitan la coordinación y organización del apego a la vida, quedando, por el contrario, la posibilidad de la búsqueda de la muerte. Se concluye que los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas tienen una alta vulnerabilidad para el intento de suicidio por la afectación de las zonas prefrontales.
A review of functional integral magnetic resonance and biochemical data from patients with and without suicidal ideation is presented. Patients with high suicidal risk show a decrease in cortical volume in ventrolateral and dorsal prefrontal cortex. These studies are compared to those of depressed patients with low suicidal risk. Functional magnetic resonance in depressed patients with severe suicidal ideation show an hypo functional prefrontal lobe, seen as a decrease in blood flow in lateral and ventral areas. There is a decrease in serotonin metabolism, clearly related to the severity of suicidal ideation, also in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. As prefrontal cortex functions enhance vital perspectives, such dysfunctions weaken coordination and organization of attachment to life, making search for death a possibility. Authors conclude that depressed patients with suicidal ideation have a high vulnerability for suicidal intent due to changes in prefrontal areas.
Subject(s)Humans , Suicide, Attempted , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Depression/physiopathology , Suicidal Ideation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Depression/metabolism
Working memory is an important foundation for advanced cognitive function. The paper combines the spatiotemporal advantages of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore the neurovascular coupling mechanism of working memory. In the data analysis, the convolution matrix of time series of different trials in EEG data and hemodynamic response function (HRF) and the blood oxygen change matrix of fNIRS are extracted as the coupling characteristics. Then, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to calculate the cross correlation between the two modal features. The results show that CCA algorithm can extract the similar change trend of related components between trials, and fNIRS activation of frontal pole region and dorsolateral prefrontal lobe are correlated with the delta, theta, and alpha rhythms of EEG data. This study reveals the mechanism of neurovascular coupling of working memory, and provides a new method for fusion of EEG data and fNIRS data.
Subject(s)Electroencephalography/methods , Memory, Short-Term , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods
Transcranial magneto-acoustic electrical stimulation (TMAES) is a novel method of brain nerve regulation and research, which uses induction current generated by the coupling of ultrasound and magnetic field to regulate neural electrical activity in different brain regions. As the second special envoy of nerve signal, calcium plays a key role in nerve signal transmission. In order to investigate the effect of TMAES on prefrontal cortex electrical activity, 15 mice were divided into control group, ultrasound stimulation (TUS) group and TMAES group. The TMAES group received 2.6 W/cm 2 and 0.3 T of magnetic induction intensity, the TUS group received only ultrasound stimulation, and the control group received no ultrasound and magnetic field for one week. The calcium ion concentration in the prefrontal cortex of mice was recorded in real time by optical fiber photometric detection technology. The new object recognition experiment was conducted to compare the behavioral differences and the time-frequency distribution of calcium signal in each group. The results showed that the mean value of calcium transient signal in the TMAES group was (4.84 ± 0.11)% within 10 s after the stimulation, which was higher than that in the TUS group (4.40 ± 0.10)% and the control group (4.22 ± 0.08)%, and the waveform of calcium transient signal was slower, suggesting that calcium metabolism was faster. The main energy band of the TMAES group was 0-20 Hz, that of the TUS group was 0-12 Hz and that of the control group was 0-8 Hz. The cognitive index was 0.71 in the TMAES group, 0.63 in the TUS group, and 0.58 in the control group, indicating that both ultrasonic and magneto-acoustic stimulation could improve the cognitive ability of mice, but the effect of the TMAES group was better than that of the TUS group. These results suggest that TMAES can change the calcium homeostasis of prefrontal cortex nerve clusters, regulate the discharge activity of prefrontal nerve clusters, and promote cognitive function. The results of this study provide data support and reference for further exploration of the deep neural mechanism of TMAES.
Subject(s)Acoustics , Animals , Brain , Calcium , Electric Stimulation , Mice , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
The present study offers a broad comparative analysis of the dorsolateral head musculature in the Gymnotiformes, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of the dorsolateral head muscles of 83 species representing combined all valid genera. Results permit a detailed assessment of primary homologies and taxonomically-relevant variation across the order. This provides the basis for a myological synonymy, which organizes 33 previously proposed names for 15 recognized muscles. Morphological variation derived from dorsolateral head musculature was coded into 56 characters. When analyzed in isolation, that set of characters results in Gymnotidae as the sister group of remaining gymnotiforms, and all other currently recognized families as monophyletic groups. In a second analysis, myological characters were concatenated with other previously proposed characters into a phenotypic matrix. Results of that analysis reveal new myological synapomorphies for nearly all taxonomic categories within Gymnotiformes. A Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) was used to asses the significance of comparative myology in elucidating phylogenetic relationships. PBS values show strongly non-uniform distributions on the tree, with positive scores skewed towards more inclusive taxa, and negative PBS values concentrated on less inclusive clades. Our results provide background for future studies on biomechanical constraints evolved in the early stages of gymnotiform evolution.(AU)
O presente estudo fornece uma ampla análise comparativa da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça dos Gymnotiformes, com descrições detalhadas e ilustrações dos músculos dorsolaterais da cabeça de 83 espécies representando quase todos os gêneros válidos. Resultados permitem uma avaliação das homologias primárias e da variação taxonomicamente relevante na ordem. Isto fornece a base para uma sinonímia da nomenclatura miológica que organiza 33 nomes previamente propostos para os 15 músculos reconhecidos. As variações morfológicas da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça foram codificadas em 56 caracteres. Este conjunto de dados foi inicialmente analisado isoladamente, resultando em Gymnotidae como grupo-irmão dos demais Gymnotiformes; e todas as famílias como grupos monofiléticos. Numa segunda análise, os caracteres musculares foram concatenados com uma matriz fenotípica previamente proposta compondo uma ampla matriz morfológica combinada. Os resultados desta análise revelaram novas sinapomorfias miológicas para todas as categorias taxonômicas em Gymnotiformes. O Suporte de Bremer Particionado (SBP) foi implementado para acessar a influência da miologia em elucidar os relacionamentos filogenéticos. Os valores de SBP exibem uma distribuição não uniforme na árvore, com indicadores positivos para agrupamentos mais inclusivos e valores negativos de SBP em clados menos inclusivos. Nossos resultados fornecem subsídios para investigações futuras sobre as restrições biomecânicas envolvidas nos estágios inicias da evolução dos Gymnotiformes.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Phylogeny , Prefrontal Cortex , Gymnotiformes/genetics
OBJECTIVES@#Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anhedonia tend to have a poor prognosis. The underlying imaging basis for anhedonia in MDD remains largely unknown. The relationship between nodal properties and anhedonia in MDD patients need to be further investigated. Herein, this study aims to explore differences of cerebral functional node characteristics in MDD patients with severe anhedonia (MDD-SA) and MDD patients with mild anhedonia (MDD-MA) before and after the antidepressant treatment.@*METHODS@#Ninety participants with current MDD were recruited in this study. 24-Item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-24) and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) were used to assess the severity of depression and anhedonia at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment. The MDD patients who scored above the 25th percentile on the SHAPS were assigned to an MDD-SA group (n=19), while those who scored below the 25th percentile were assigned to an MDD-MA group (n=18). All patients in the 2 groups received antidepressant treatment. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images of all the patients were collected at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment. Graph theory was applied to analyze the patients' cerebral functional nodal characteristics, which were measured by efficiency (ei) and degree (ki).@*RESULTS@#Repeated measures 2-factor ANCOVA showed significant main effects on group on the ei and ki values of left superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) (P=0.003 and P=0.008, respectively), and on the ei and ki values of left medial orbital-frontal gyrus (LMOFG) (P=0.004 and P=0.008, respectively). Compared with the MDD-MA group, the significantly higher ei and ki values of the LSFG (P=0.015 and P=0.021, respectively), and the significantly higher ei and ki values of the LMOFG (P=0.015 and P=0.037, respectively) were observed in the MDD-SA group at baseline. Meanwhile, higher SHAPS scores could result in higher ei and ki values of LSFG (P=0.019 and P=0.026, respectively), and higher ei value of LMOFG (P=0.040) at baseline; higher SHAPS scores could result in higher ei values of LSFG (P=0.049) at the end of 6-months treatment. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sex were negatively correlated with the ei and ki values of LSFG (r= -0.014, P=0.004; r=-1.153, P=0.001, respectively). The onset age of MDD was negatively correlated with the ki value of LSFG (r=-0.420, P=0.034) at the end of 6-months treatment. We also found that SHAPS scores at baseline were positively correlated with the HAMD-24 scores (r=0.387, P=0.022) at the end of 6-months treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are obvious differences in nodal properties between the MDD-SA and the MDD-MA patients, such as the high ei of LSFG in the MDD-SA patients, which may be associated with the severity of anhedonia. These nodal properties could be potential biomarkers for the prognosis of MDD. The increased ei and ki values in the LSFG of MDD-SA patients may underlie a compensatory mechanism or protective mechanism. The mechanism may be an important component of the pathological mechanism of MDD-SA. The poor prognosis in the MDD-SA patients suggests that anhedonia may predict a worse prognosis in MDD patients. Sex and onset age of MDD may affect the nodal properties of LSFG at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment.
Subject(s)Anhedonia , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of valproic acid (VPA) -induced impairment of the dendritic spines and synapses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for causing core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mice.@*METHODS@#Female C57 mice were subjected to injections of saline or VPA on gestational days 10 and 12, and the male offspring mice in the two groups were used as the normal control group and ASD model group (n=10), respectively. Another 20 male mice with fetal exposure to VPA were randomized into two groups for stereotactic injection of DMSO or Wortmannin into the PFC (n=10). Open field test, juvenile play test and 3-chamber test were used to evaluate autistic behaviors of the mice. The density of dendrite spines in the PFC was observed with Golgi staining. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expressions of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-AKT, AKT, p-mTOR, mTOR and the synaptic proteins PSD95, p-Syn, and Syn in the PFC of the mice.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control mice, the mice with fetal exposure to VPA exhibited obvious autism-like behaviors with significantly decreased density of total, mushroom and stubby dendritic spines (P < 0.05) and increased filopodia dendritic spines (P < 0.05) in the PFC. The VPA-exposed mice also showed significantly increased expressions of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR (P < 0.01) and lowered expressions of PSD95 and p-Syn/Syn in the PFC (P < 0.05 or 0.001). Wortmannin injection into the PFC obviously improved the ASD-like phenotype and dendritic spine development, down-regulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and up-regulated the synaptic proteins in VPA-exposed mice.@*CONCLUSION@#In male mice with fetal exposure to VPA, excessive activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and decreased expressions of the synaptic proteins PSD95 and p-Syn cause dendritic spine damage and synaptic development disturbance in the PFC, which eventually leads to ASD-like phenotype.
Subject(s)Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/chemically induced , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Dendritic Spines , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prefrontal Cortex , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Valproic Acid/adverse effects
Objective: To investigate the effects of PM2.5 exposure at different stages of early life on the prefrontal cortex of offspring rats. Methods: Twelve pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (CG), Maternal pregnancy exposure group (MG), Early postnatal exposure group (EP) and Perinatal period exposure group (PP), 3 rats in each group. The pregnant and offspring rats were exposed to clean air or 8-fold concentrated PM2.5. MG was exposed from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD21. EP was exposed from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND21, and PP was exposed from GD1 to PND21. After exposure, the prefrontal cortex of 6 offspring rats in each group was analyzed. HE staining was used to observe the pathological damage in the prefrontal cortex. ELISA was employed to detect neuroinflammatory factors, and HPLC/MSC was applied to determine neurotransmitter content. Western blot and colorimetry were applied for detecting astrocyte markers and oxidative stress markers, respectively. Results: Compared with MG and CG, the pathological changes of prefrontal cortex in PP and EP were more obvious. Compared with MG and CG, the neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) in PP and EP were increased significantly (P＜0.01), the level of MT were decreased significantly (P＜0.05), and the level of oxytocin (OT) showed a downward trend; the level of neurotransmitter ACh was also increased significantly (P＜0.01). Compared with MG and CG, the GFAP level of PP and EP showed an upward trend, the level of oxidative stress index SOD in PP and EP was decreased significantly (P＜0.01), and the level of ROS was increased significantly (P＜0.01). Compared with the offspring rats of CG and MG, the CAT level of PP was decreased significantly (P＜0.01, P＜0.05). Compared with the offspring rats of CG, the CAT level of EP was decreased significantly (P＜0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MT, OT, ACh, GFAP, SOD, ROS and CAT levels between PP and EP, or MG and CG. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure in early life has adverse effects on the prefrontal cortex of offspring male rats, and early birth exposure may be more sensitive.
Subject(s)Animals , Female , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prefrontal Cortex , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
Introducción: los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventriculares son una entidad sumamente infrecuente, solo 45 casos han sido reportados en la literatura. La mayoría de los ependimomas se localizan a nivel infratentorial e intraventricular, solo en un grupo pequeño de casos no presentan continuidad con el sistema ventricular. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y presentar el caso de un tumor inusual, cuya importancia radica en la baja prevalencia de casos reportados en la literatura y en la particularidad del abordaje quirúrgico seleccionado. Descripción del caso: paciente de sexo masculino, de 16 años de edad, con diagnóstico de lesión ocupante de espacio sólida-quística, a nivel frontal izquierdo, entre el giro frontal superior y giro del cíngulo. Se optó por realizar un abordaje interhemisférico contralateral transfalcino, logrando la resección total de la lesión tumoral. Se obtuvo el diagnóstico histopatológico de ependimoma Grado II según clasificación de la OMS. Discusión: en base a la información analizada en los diferentes artículos, los hallazgos imagenológicos y anatomopatológicos del caso presentado coinciden con lo relatado en la literatura acerca de los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventricualres. Es imprescindible la utilización de técnicas de inmunohistoquímica para la correcta tipificación del tumor ya que las características del mismo son fácilmente confundibles con otras entidades y su correcta graduación tiene implicancias pronósticas y terapéuticas. Conclusión: los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventricualares son neoplasias sumamente inusuales. La resección quirúrgica es considerada el tratamiento de primera línea para mejorar el pronóstico y la sobrevida. El abordaje interhemisférico contralateral transfalcino nos permitió lograr la exéresis total de la lesión tumoral, favoreciéndonos un adecuado ángulo de trabajo y reduciendo así la transgresión del parénquima cerebral
ntroduction: extraventricular supratentorial ependymomas are an extremely rare entity, only 45 cases have been reported in the literature. Most ependymomas are located at the infratentorial and intraventricular level, only in a small group of cases don Ìt present continuity with the ventricular system. The aim of this paper is to describe and to present the case of an unusual tumor, the importance lies in the low prevalence of cases reported in the literature and in the particularity of the selected surgical approach. Case description: a 16-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of a solid-cystic space-occupying lesion, at the left frontal level, between the superior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, measuring 40mm x 50mm x 60mm. A contralateral transfalcine interhemispheric approach was chosen, achieving total resection of the lesion. The histopathological diagnosis of Grade II ependymoma was obtained according to WHO. Discussion: based on the information analyzed in the different articles, the imaging and pathological findings of the case presented coincide with what is reported in the literature about supratentorial extraventricular ependymomas. The use of immunohistochemical techniques is essential for the correct typing of the tumor since its characteristics are easily confused with other entities and its correct graduation has prognostic and therapeutic implications Conclusion: extraventricular supratentorial ependymomas are extremely rare neoplasms. Surgical resection is considered the first-line treatment to improve prognosis and survival. The contralateral transfalcine interhemispheric approach allowed us to achieve a total resection of the lesion, favoring an adequate working angle and thus reducing the transgression of the brain parenchyma
Subject(s)Male , Ependymoma , Therapeutics , Brain , Prefrontal Cortex , Parenchymal Tissue
Abstract Background: Migraine is a prevalent neurological disease that leads to severe headaches. Moreover, it is the commonest among the primary headaches that cause medication overuse headache (MOH). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the structures most associated with medication overuse. Objective: To determine microstructural changes in the OFC among migraine patients who developed MOH, through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who had been diagnosed with migraine based on the Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III-B) were included in the study. Patients were sub-classified into two groups, with and without MOH, based on the MOH criteria of ICHD-III-B. DTI was applied to each patient. The OFC fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean age of all the patients was 35.98±7.92 years (range: 18-65), and 84.5% (n=49) of them were female. The two groups, with MOH (n=25) and without (n=33), were alike in terms of age, gender, family history, migraine with or without aura and duration of illness. It was found that there was a significant difference in FA values of the left OFC between the two groups (0.32±0.01 versus 0.29±0.01; p=0.04). Conclusions: An association was found between MOH and changes to OFC microstructure. Determination of neuropathology and factors associated with medication overuse among migraine patients is crucial in terms of identifying the at-risk patient population and improving proper treatment strategies specific to these patients.
RESUMO Introdução: A migrânea é uma doença neurológica prevalente que causa fortes dores de cabeça. Além disso, é a mais comum entre as cefaleias primárias que causam cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos (CUEM). O córtex orbitofrontal (OF) é uma das estruturas mais associadas ao uso excessivo de medicamentos. Objetivo: Determinar alterações microestruturais no córtex OF em pacientes com migrânea que desenvolveram CUEM, por meio da técnica de imagem por tensor de difusão (ITD). Métodos: Cinquenta e oito pacientes com diagnóstico de migrânea, com base na Classificação das Cefaleias (ICHD-III-B), foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram subclassificados em dois grupos, com e sem CUEM, com base nos critérios de CUEM da ICHD-III-B. A ITD foi aplicada a cada paciente. Os valores de anisotropia fracionada OFC (AF) e coeficiente de difusão aparente (CDA) dos dois grupos foram comparados. Resultados: A média de idade de todos os pacientes foi de 35,98±7,92 anos (variação: 18‒65), sendo 84,5% (n=49) do sexo feminino. Os dois grupos, com CUEM (n=25) e sem (n=33), são semelhantes em termos de idade, sexo, história familiar, migrânea com ou sem aura e duração da doença. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa nos valores de AF do córtex OF esquerdo entre os dois grupos (0,32±0,01 versus 0,29±0,01; p=0,04). Conclusões: Foi encontrada associação entre o CUEM e as alterações na microestrutura do córtex OF. A determinação da neuropatologia e dos fatores associados ao uso excessivo de medicamentos entre pacientes com migrânea é crucial para identificar a população de pacientes em risco e melhorar as estratégias de tratamento adequadas específicas para esses pacientes.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Headache Disorders, Secondary/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Prefrontal Cortex , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Prescription Drug Overuse , Middle Aged
Objective: Current treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves psychological and pharmacological interventions. However, neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may positively affect BPD symptomatology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and neuropsychological effects of rTMS on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in BPD patients. Methods: Fourteen patients with BPD were randomized into two groups (active vs. sham) for 15 sessions of rTMS on the DMPFC. Clinical effects were measured using the Borderline Symptoms List (BSL), Clinical Global Impression Scale for BPD (CGI-BPD), Borderline Evaluation of Severity over Time (BEST), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Neuropsychological effects were determined by a Stop-Signal Task (SST), the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT). Results: Within-group comparison showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in CGI-BPD (total score and six of nine psychopathologic domains), BEST, HDRS, HARS, and IGT scores for active modality. Conclusion: The 5 Hz-DMPFC rTMS technique was well tolerated and lessened the severity of BPD symptomatology, especially abandonment, affective issues, interpersonal relationships, suicidal behavior, anger, and paranoid ideation. Cognitive improvement was seen in decision-making. Additional studies are needed to fully evaluate the effects of rTMS on BPD symptomatology. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03832777.
Subject(s)Humans , Borderline Personality Disorder/therapy , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Treatment Outcome , Prefrontal Cortex
Analyzing the influence of mixed emotional factors on false memory through brain function network is helpful to further explore the nature of brain memory. In this study, Deese-Roediger-Mc-Dermott (DRM) paradigm electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment was designed with mixed emotional memory materials, and different kinds of music were used to induce positive, calm and negative emotions of three groups of subjects. For the obtained false memory EEG signals, standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) was applied in the source localization, and then the functional network of cerebral cortex was built and analyzed. The results show that the positive group has the most false memories [(83.3 ± 6.8)%], the prefrontal lobe and left temporal lobe are activated, and the degree of activation and the density of brain network are significantly larger than those of the calm group and the negative group. In the calm group, the posterior prefrontal lobe and temporal lobe are activated, and the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are larger than those of the positive and negative groups. The negative group has the least false memories [(73.3 ± 2.2)%], and the prefrontal lobe and right temporal lobe are activated. The brain network is the sparsest in the negative group, the degree of centralization is significantly larger than that of the calm group, but the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are smaller than the positive group. The results show that the brain is stimulated by positive emotions, so more brain resources are used to memorize and associate words, which increases false memory. The activity of the brain is inhibited by negative emotions, which hinders the brain's memory and association of words and reduces false memory.
Subject(s)Electroencephalography , Emotions , Humans , Memory , Music , Prefrontal Cortex
The aim of the present study was to observe the activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mice, and the expression of the marker genes of the disease-associated microglia (DAM) associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Sixty healthy adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups, normal control (CON) group and T1DM group. Streptozocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to induce T1DM mice. The spatial learning and memory function of mice was detected by Morris water maze at the 8th week after the successful model establishment. The number and activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of mice were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Changes in the mRNA level of several DAM molecular markers were detected by RT-FQ-PCR. The results showed that, compared with CON mice, the fasting blood glucose of T1DM mice increased significantly, while the body weight of T1DM mice decreased remarkably (P < 0.05). The escape latency of water maze in T1DM mice was longer than that in CON mice (P < 0.05). Compared with CON group, the Iba1 protein expression and the number of microglia in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA levels of several DAM markers in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group were increased significantly (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the microglia are activated and transformed to DAM type in the prefrontal cortex of T1DM mice.
Subject(s)Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia , Prefrontal Cortex
BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.
Subject(s)Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Food deprivation can rescue obesity and overweight-induced mood disorders, and promote mood performance in normal subjects. Animal studies and clinical research have revealed the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction, but little is known about the mechanism of calorie restriction-induced mood modification. Previous studies have found that astrocytes modulate depressive-like behaviors. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) is the predominant isoform in mediating astrocyte Ca
Subject(s)Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Caloric Restriction , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Prefrontal Cortex
Subject(s)Humans , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Mental Disorders , Prefrontal Cortex
Abstract Objectives Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS), is a chronic pain disorder with poorly understood pathophysiology. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been recommended for pain relief in various chronic pain disorders. The objective of the present research was to study the effect of low frequency rTMS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on pain status in FMS. Methods Ninety diagnosed cases of FMS were randomized into Sham-rTMS and Real-rTMS groups. Real rTMS (1 Hz/1200 pulses/8 trains/90% resting motor threshold) was delivered over the right DLPFC for 5 consecutive days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was assessed by subjective and objective methods along with oxidative stress markers. Patients were followed up for 6 months (post-rTMS;15 days, 3 months and 6 months). Results In Real-rTMS group, average pain ratings and associated symptoms showed significant improvement post rTMS. The beneficial effects of rTMS lasted up to 6 months in the follow-up phase. In Sham-rTMS group, no significant change in pain ratings was observed. Conclusion Right DLPFC rTMS can significantly reduce pain and associated symptoms of FMS probably through targeting spinal pain circuits and top-down pain modulation . Trial registration: Ref No: CTRI/2013/12/004228.(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Chronic Pain , Prefrontal Cortex , Oxidative Stress , Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control
Cognitive enhancement refers to the technology of enhancing or expanding the cognitive and emotional abilities of people without psychosis based on relevant knowledge of neurobiology. The common methods of cognitive enhancement include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cognitive training (CT). tDCS takes effect quickly, with a short effective time, while CT takes longer to work, requiring several weeks of training, with a longer effective time. In recent years, some researchers have begun to use the method of tDCS combined with CT to regulate the cognitive function. This paper will sort out and summarize this topic from five aspects: perception, attention, working memory, decision-making and other cognitive abilities. Finally, the application prospect and challenges of technology are prospected.
Subject(s)Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive method for stimulation and modulation in the field of cognitive neuroscience research and clinical neurological regulation. In this paper, adult Wistar rats were divided into the rTMS group and control group randomly. Rats in the rTMS group were stimulated with 5 Hz rTMS for 14 days, while the rats in the control group did not accept any stimulation. Then, the behavior and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded synchronously when the rats perform a working memory (WM) task with T-maze. Finally, the time-frequency distribution and coherence characteristics of the LFPs signal in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory task were analyzed. The results showed that the rats in the rTMS group needed less training days to reach the task correction criterion than the control group (
Subject(s)Animals , Memory, Short-Term , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
It has been reported that single-unit activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum represented visual stimulus and reward information. But how to encode these pieces of information is quite complex from the view of single-neuron activity. Different neurons represented stimulus or reward information in different task epochs with increasing or decreasing their activities relative to their baseline firing rates. The present paper was aimed to study whether population neurons in the two brain areas could stably encode task-relevant parameters in a whole trial period. We recorded single-unit activities in the lateral PFC (LPFC) and striatum while the monkey was performing a stimulus- reward prediction task, and analyzed the neuronal activities by the method of a multi-variable regression model and the linear support vector machine. The results showed that, although proportions of task-related neurons in the two areas varied largely in the whole trial period, LPFC population neurons encoded reward and stimulus information stably and reliably. Population neurons in the striatum encoded only reward information, not stimulus information. A group of neurons in the two areas represented combined information of stimulus and reward. Further analysis showed that LPFC neurons encoded reward information for a group of relevant stimuli, while striatal neurons encoded reward information for a specific stimulus. These results suggest that both LPFC and striatal population neurons are able to stably represent task-relevant information, but from different aspects of the task. The different strategies to encode information in the LPFC and striatum suggest their different contributions in reward-based decision making.
Subject(s)Animals , Corpus Striatum , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Primates , Reward
Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.