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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 147-156, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010679


The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may support sequential working memory beyond episodic memory and spatial navigation. This stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) study investigated how the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) interacts with the hippocampus in the online processing of sequential information. Twenty patients with epilepsy (eight women, age 27.6 ± 8.2 years) completed a line ordering task with SEEG recordings over the DLPFC and the hippocampus. Participants showed longer thinking times and more recall errors when asked to arrange random lines clockwise (random trials) than to maintain ordered lines (ordered trials) before recalling the orientation of a particular line. First, the ordering-related increase in thinking time and recall error was associated with a transient theta power increase in the hippocampus and a sustained theta power increase in the DLPFC (3-10 Hz). In particular, the hippocampal theta power increase correlated with the memory precision of line orientation. Second, theta phase coherences between the DLPFC and hippocampus were enhanced for ordering, especially for more precisely memorized lines. Third, the theta band DLPFC → hippocampus influence was selectively enhanced for ordering, especially for more precisely memorized lines. This study suggests that theta oscillations may support DLPFC-hippocampal interactions in the online processing of sequential information.

Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Male , Epilepsy , Hippocampus , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Recall , Prefrontal Cortex , Theta Rhythm
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2824-2833, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007679


BACKGROUND@#Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share significant clinical overlap, although it remains unknown to what extent this overlap reflects shared neural profiles. To identify the shared and specific abnormalities in SCZ and MDD, we performed a whole-brain voxel-based meta-analysis using magnetization transfer imaging, a technique that characterizes the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue in terms of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR).@*METHODS@#A systematic search based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, International Scientific Index (ISI) Web of Science, and MEDLINE for relevant studies up to March 2022. Two researchers independently screened the articles. Rigorous scrutiny and data extraction were performed for the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Voxel-wise meta-analyses were conducted using anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping with a unified template. Meta-regression was used to explore the potential effects of demographic and clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 studies with 17 datasets describing 365 SCZ patients, 224 MDD patients, and 550 healthy controls (HCs) were identified. The conjunction analysis showed that both disorders shared higher MTR than HC in the left cerebellum ( P =0.0006) and left fusiform gyrus ( P =0.0004). Additionally, SCZ patients showed disorder-specific lower MTR in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right superior frontal gyrus, and higher MTR in the left thalamus, precuneus/cuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and paracentral lobule; and MDD patients showed higher MTR in the left middle occipital region. Meta-regression showed no statistical significance in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results revealed a structural neural basis shared between SCZ and MDD patients, emphasizing the importance of shared neural substrates across psychopathology. Meanwhile, distinct disease-specific characteristics could have implications for future differential diagnosis and targeted treatment.

Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/pathology , Brain/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex , Frontal Lobe , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1142-1151, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008944


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment, with the predominant clinical diagnosis of spatial working memory (SWM) deficiency, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of patients. However, the current pharmacological therapies have unsatisfactory cure rates and other problems, so non-pharmacological physical therapies have gradually received widespread attention. Recently, a novel treatment using 40 Hz light flicker stimulation (40 Hz-LFS) to rescue the cognitive function of model animals with AD has made initial progress, but the neurophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, this paper will explore the potential neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of SWM by 40 Hz-LFS based on cross-frequency coupling (CFC). Ten adult Wistar rats were first subjected to acute LFS at frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 Hz. The entrainment effect of LFS with different frequency on neural oscillations in the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was analyzed. The results showed that acute 40 Hz-LFS was able to develop strong entrainment and significantly modulate the oscillation power of the low-frequency gamma (lγ) rhythms. The rats were then randomly divided into experimental and control groups of 5 rats each for a long-term 40 Hz-LFS (7 d). Their SWM function was assessed by a T-maze task, and the CFC changes in the HPC-mPFC circuit were analyzed by phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). The results showed that the behavioral performance of the experimental group was improved and the PAC of θ-lγ rhythm was enhanced, and the difference was statistically significant. The results of this paper suggested that the long-term 40 Hz-LFS effectively improved SWM function in rats, which may be attributed to its enhanced communication of different rhythmic oscillations in the relevant neural circuits. It is expected that the study in this paper will build a foundation for further research on the mechanism of 40 Hz-LFS to improve cognitive function and promote its clinical application in the future.

Humans , Adult , Rats , Animals , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Hippocampus , Prefrontal Cortex
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1135-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008943


With the widespread use of electrical equipment, cognitive functions such as working memory (WM) could be severely affected when people are exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMF) for long term. However, the effects of EMF exposure on WM and its neural mechanism remain unclear. In the present paper, 15 rats were randomly assigned to three groups, and exposed to an EMF environment at 50 Hz and 2 mT for a different duration: 0 days (control group), 24 days (experimental group I), and 48 days (experimental group II). Then, their WM function was assessed by the T-maze task. Besides, their local field potential (LFP) in the media prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was recorded by the in vivo multichannel electrophysiological recording system to study the power spectral density (PSD) of θ and γ oscillations and the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) intensity of θ-γ oscillations during the T-maze task. The results showed that the PSD of θ and γ oscillations decreased in experimental groups I and II, and the PAC intensity between θ and high-frequency γ (hγ) decreased significantly compared to the control group. The number of days needed to meet the task criterion was more in experimental groups I and II than that of control group. The results indicate that long-term exposure to EMF could impair WM function. The possible reason may be the impaired communication between different rhythmic oscillations caused by a decrease in θ-hγ PAC intensity. This paper demonstrates the negative effects of EMF on WM and reveals the potential neural mechanisms from the changes of PAC intensity, which provides important support for further investigation of the biological effects of EMF and its mechanisms.

Humans , Rats , Animals , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Prefrontal Cortex , Cognition
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 33 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1435264


The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential in the execution of cognitive tasks, however very little is known on how these neurons are modulated during specific tasks and which subtype of neurons are responsible for so. Therego, with the intention of addressing this issue, we recorded mPFC gabaergic and glutamatergic activation patterns through fiber photometry (FIP) in mice, while simultaneously performing the Barnes Maze (BM) cognitive task (4 day behavioral trial). In addition, an altered structural and procedural protocol for BM was validated in this study due to necessary modifications allowing FIP and BM to happen simultaneously. A successful protocol validation was followed by our preliminary results, which showed that both glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented significant change in activation intensity and number of events in specific contexts throughout the task days. In addition, when stratified and crossed with BM performance parameters, such as latency to complete tasks and adopted strategy, glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented a significant decline in both activation patterns and number of activation events throughout the days. This data suggest not only an important role of glutamatergic and gabaergic mPFC neurons in learning, memory and decision making, but also that activation patterns of each of these groups may serve as markers for cognitive progression and/or dysfunction. KEY-WORDS: Memory, Learning, Decision Making, Medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC), Fiber Photometry (FIP), Barnes Maze (BM), Glutamatergic, Gabaergic, Neuronal Activity, Neuronal Activation Patterns, Neuronal Dynamics.

O córtex pré-frontal medial (mPFC) é essencial na execução de tarefas cognitivas, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre como esses neurônios são modulados durante tarefas específicas e qual subtipo de neurônios é responsável por isso. Portanto, com a intenção de abordar essa questão, registramos os padrões de ativação de neurônios gabaérgicos e glutamatérgicos do mPFC por meio de fotometria de fibra (FIP) em camundongos, enquanto realizávamos simultaneamente a tarefa cognitiva do Labirinto de Barnes (BM) (ensaio comportamental de 4 dias). Além disso, um protocolo estrutural e procedimental alterado para o BM foi validado neste estudo devido a modificações necessárias que permitiram a realização simultânea de FIP e BM. Uma validação bem-sucedida do protocolo foi seguida pelos nossos resultados preliminares, que mostraram que tanto os neurônios glutamatérgicos quanto os gabaérgicos apresentaram mudanças significativas na intensidade de ativação e no número de eventos em contextos específicos ao longo dos dias da tarefa. Além disso, quando estratificados e cruzados com parâmetros de desempenho do BM, como latência para completar as tarefas e estratégia adotada, os neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos apresentaram uma diminuição significativa nos padrões de ativação e no número de eventos de ativação ao longo dos dias. Esses dados sugerem não apenas um papel importante dos neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos do mPFC na aprendizagem, memória e tomada de decisões, mas também que os padrões de ativação de cada um desses grupos podem servir como marcadores de progressão e/ou disfunção cognitiva. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Memória, Aprendizagem, Tomada de Decisões, Córtex Pré-Frontal Medial (mPFC), Fotometria de Fibra (FIP), Labirinto de Barnes (BM), Glutamatérgico, Gabaérgico, Atividade Neuronal, Padrões de Ativação Neuronal, Dinâmica Neuronal.

Humans , Male , Female , Photometry , Prefrontal Cortex , Glutamic Acid , GABA Agents , Decision Making , Learning , Memory , GABAergic Neurons , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurons
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 54(1): 36512, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451828


A agressividade e a psicopatia estão relacionadas com o funcionamento do córtex pré-frontal (CPF), cuja maturação leva aproximadamente 21 anos. Assim, objetivou-se identificar a existência de diferenças entre um grupo de adolescentes, com no máximo 20 anos de idade, e um grupo de detentos no tocante ao nível de agressividade e psicopatia. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 48 detentos do sexo masculino, com idade média de 34,6 (DP = 8,68) e 48 adolescentes do sexo masculino, com idade média de 17,75 (DP = 1,15). Os participantes responderam ao Questionário de Agressão de Buss-Perry, a Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale (LSRS) e a um questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados dos testes Mann-Whitney e teste t de student indicaram a existência de diferenças significativas apenas para a psicopatia secundária, sendo mais característica em detentos. Os achados foram discutidos considerando a relação do desenvolvimento do CPF com fatores ambientais

Aggression and psychopathy are prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity-related and the maturation of this region takes approximately 21 years. Our aim was to assess differences in aggression and psychopathy levels between an adolescent group (máx age 20) and a prisoner group. It counted with a sample of 48 male prisoners mean aged 34,6 (SD = 3.66) and 48 male adolescents mean aged 17,75 (SD = 1.5). The participants answered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; the Levenson Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRS) and a demographic questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test and the Student's t-test results shown significant differences only for secondary psychopathy, which was higher in the prisoner group. Our findings were discussed considering the relationship between the PFC development and external factors

La agresividad y la psicopatía están relacionadas con el funcionamiento de la corteza prefrontal (CPF), cuya maduración tarda aproximadamente 21 años. Por lo tanto, el objetivo era identificar la existencia de diferencias entre un grupo de adolescentes, con un máximo de 20 años de edad, y un grupo de prisioneros, con respecto al nivel de agresión y psicopatía. Para ello, participaron del estudio 48 prisioneros de sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 34,6 (DE = 8,68) y 48 adolescentes de sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 17,75 (DE = 1,15). Los participantes respondieron al Cuestionario de Agresión de Buss-Perry, al Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale ­ LSRS y a un cuetionario sociodemográfico. Los resultados de los testes de Mann-Whitney y de t de Student indicaron diferencias significativas solo para la psicopatía secundaria, siendo más característicos en los prisioneros. Los hallazgos se discutieron como base en la relación del desarrollo de la CPF con factores ambientales

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Aggression , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Surveys and Questionnaires , Prefrontal Cortex
Ter. psicol ; 40(3): 367-395, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424679


La planificación es definida como la habilidad de desarrollar un plan secuenciado de pasos conductuales para alcanzar una meta y forma parte de un conjunto de funciones cognitivas de alto orden denominadas funciones ejecutivas. Esta función se ve afectada en diversas situaciones de la vida cotidiana y en una variedad de trastornos neuropsiquiátricos (por ej., depresión, ansiedad, déficit atencional, esquizofrenia, etc.). Tanto el diseño de pruebas cognitivas para evaluar planificación en el contexto clínico, como también el diseño de paradigmas experimentales de evaluación de la planificación en el contexto de investigación, continúa siendo un desafío para la neuropsicología clínica y para las neurociencias. En este artículo de revisión sistemática que sigue las direcciones PRISMA, revisamos la teoría e investigación en relación con la evaluación clínica y la investigación de las bases neurobiológicas de la planificación y los aportes a la comprensión de los mecanismos de su implementación. Se reportan medidas metodológicas comunes y se resumen las aproximaciones teóricas que contribuyen en su comprensión. Nuestros hallazgos muestran la implicancia de la corteza prefrontal en el rendimiento en planificación, en particular el área dorsolateral, corteza cingulada anterior y frontopolar. Mayores estudios clínicos, instrumentales y experimentales son necesarios para comprender mejor la planificación en el contexto de una teoría integrativa de las funciones ejecutivas y del rol de la corteza prefrontal.

Planning is defined as the ability to develop a sequenced plan of behavioral steps to achieve a goal and is part of a set of high-order cognitive functions called executive functions. This function is affected in various daily life situations and in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, etc.). Both the design of cognitive tests to assess planning in the clinical context, as well as the design of experimental paradigms for evaluating planning in research context, continues to be a challenge for clinical neuropsychology and neurosciences. In this PRISMA systematic review article, we review theory and research regarding clinical assessment and research into the neurobiological bases of planning and contributions to understanding the mechanisms of its implementation. Common methodological measures are reported and the theoretical approaches that contribute to their understanding are summarized. Our findings show the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in planning performance, particularly the dorsolateral area, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the frontopolar cortex. Further clinical, instrumental, and experimental studies are needed to better understand planning in the context of an integrative theory of executive functions and the role of the prefrontal cortex.

Humans , Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , Executive Function , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 86(2): 55-61, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1412357


Se realiza una revisión de estudios de resonancia magnética integral y funcional, así como estudios bioquímicos en pacientes con y sin ideas suicidas. Estos estudios en pacientes con alto riesgo de suicidio presentan una disminución de volúmenes corticales en la corteza prefrontal dorso y ventrolateral. Lo importante de estos estudios es que resultan de la comparación con pacientes deprimidos con bajo riesgo de suicidio. Los estudios de resonancia magnética funcional mostraron una hipofuncionalidad del lóbulo prefrontal en los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas severas, que se observa como una disminución del flujo sanguíneo cerebral en las áreas lateral y ventral. Se observa una disminución del metabolismo de serotonina, en clara relación con la severidad de las ideas de muerte, también con un foco en la región lateroventral prefrontal. Dado que las funciones de la corteza prefrontal afirman al individuo en su perspectiva vital, disfunciones como las descritas debilitan la coordinación y organización del apego a la vida, quedando, por el contrario, la posibilidad de la búsqueda de la muerte. Se concluye que los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas tienen una alta vulnerabilidad para el intento de suicidio por la afectación de las zonas prefrontales.

A review of functional integral magnetic resonance and biochemical data from patients with and without suicidal ideation is presented. Patients with high suicidal risk show a decrease in cortical volume in ventrolateral and dorsal prefrontal cortex. These studies are compared to those of depressed patients with low suicidal risk. Functional magnetic resonance in depressed patients with severe suicidal ideation show an hypo functional prefrontal lobe, seen as a decrease in blood flow in lateral and ventral areas. There is a decrease in serotonin metabolism, clearly related to the severity of suicidal ideation, also in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. As prefrontal cortex functions enhance vital perspectives, such dysfunctions weaken coordination and organization of attachment to life, making search for death a possibility. Authors conclude that depressed patients with suicidal ideation have a high vulnerability for suicidal intent due to changes in prefrontal areas.

Humans , Suicide, Attempted , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Depression/physiopathology , Suicidal Ideation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Depression/metabolism
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(11): 1493-1500, nov. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442060


Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has multiple uses in psychiatry, but its mechanisms of action (MA) in patients with schizophrenia (PS) are poorly understood. We synthesize and discuss the available evidence in this regard. We conducted a search for primary human studies and systematic reviews searching MA of ECT in PS published in PubMed/Medline, SciELO, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, including 24 articles. Genetic findings are scarce and inconsistent. At the molecular level, the dopaminergic and GABAergic role stands out. The increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after ECT, is a predictor of positive clinical outcomes, while the change in N-acetyl aspartate levels would demonstrate a neuroprotective role for ECT. This intervention would improve inflammatory and oxidative parameters, thereby resulting in a symptomatic improvement. ECT is associated with an increase in functional connectivity in the thalamus, right putamen, prefrontal cortex and left precuneus, structures that play a role in the neural default mode network. A decrease in connectivity between the thalamus and the sensory cortex and an enhanced functional connectivity of the right thalamus to right putamen along with a clinical improvement have been reported after ECT. Moreover a volumetric increase in hippocampus and insula has been reported after ECT. These changes could be associated with the biochemical pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Most of the included studies are observational or quasi-experimental, with small sample sizes. However, they show simultaneous changes at different neurobiological levels, with a pathophysiological and clinical correlation. We propose that the research on ECT should be carried out from neurobiological dimensions, but with a clinical perspective.

Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Electroconvulsive Therapy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 228-236, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928218


Working memory is an important foundation for advanced cognitive function. The paper combines the spatiotemporal advantages of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore the neurovascular coupling mechanism of working memory. In the data analysis, the convolution matrix of time series of different trials in EEG data and hemodynamic response function (HRF) and the blood oxygen change matrix of fNIRS are extracted as the coupling characteristics. Then, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to calculate the cross correlation between the two modal features. The results show that CCA algorithm can extract the similar change trend of related components between trials, and fNIRS activation of frontal pole region and dorsolateral prefrontal lobe are correlated with the delta, theta, and alpha rhythms of EEG data. This study reveals the mechanism of neurovascular coupling of working memory, and provides a new method for fusion of EEG data and fNIRS data.

Electroencephalography/methods , Memory, Short-Term , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 19-27, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928195


Transcranial magneto-acoustic electrical stimulation (TMAES) is a novel method of brain nerve regulation and research, which uses induction current generated by the coupling of ultrasound and magnetic field to regulate neural electrical activity in different brain regions. As the second special envoy of nerve signal, calcium plays a key role in nerve signal transmission. In order to investigate the effect of TMAES on prefrontal cortex electrical activity, 15 mice were divided into control group, ultrasound stimulation (TUS) group and TMAES group. The TMAES group received 2.6 W/cm 2 and 0.3 T of magnetic induction intensity, the TUS group received only ultrasound stimulation, and the control group received no ultrasound and magnetic field for one week. The calcium ion concentration in the prefrontal cortex of mice was recorded in real time by optical fiber photometric detection technology. The new object recognition experiment was conducted to compare the behavioral differences and the time-frequency distribution of calcium signal in each group. The results showed that the mean value of calcium transient signal in the TMAES group was (4.84 ± 0.11)% within 10 s after the stimulation, which was higher than that in the TUS group (4.40 ± 0.10)% and the control group (4.22 ± 0.08)%, and the waveform of calcium transient signal was slower, suggesting that calcium metabolism was faster. The main energy band of the TMAES group was 0-20 Hz, that of the TUS group was 0-12 Hz and that of the control group was 0-8 Hz. The cognitive index was 0.71 in the TMAES group, 0.63 in the TUS group, and 0.58 in the control group, indicating that both ultrasonic and magneto-acoustic stimulation could improve the cognitive ability of mice, but the effect of the TMAES group was better than that of the TUS group. These results suggest that TMAES can change the calcium homeostasis of prefrontal cortex nerve clusters, regulate the discharge activity of prefrontal nerve clusters, and promote cognitive function. The results of this study provide data support and reference for further exploration of the deep neural mechanism of TMAES.

Animals , Mice , Acoustics , Brain , Calcium , Electric Stimulation , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 289-300, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928970


OBJECTIVES@#Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anhedonia tend to have a poor prognosis. The underlying imaging basis for anhedonia in MDD remains largely unknown. The relationship between nodal properties and anhedonia in MDD patients need to be further investigated. Herein, this study aims to explore differences of cerebral functional node characteristics in MDD patients with severe anhedonia (MDD-SA) and MDD patients with mild anhedonia (MDD-MA) before and after the antidepressant treatment.@*METHODS@#Ninety participants with current MDD were recruited in this study. 24-Item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-24) and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) were used to assess the severity of depression and anhedonia at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment. The MDD patients who scored above the 25th percentile on the SHAPS were assigned to an MDD-SA group (n=19), while those who scored below the 25th percentile were assigned to an MDD-MA group (n=18). All patients in the 2 groups received antidepressant treatment. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images of all the patients were collected at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment. Graph theory was applied to analyze the patients' cerebral functional nodal characteristics, which were measured by efficiency (ei) and degree (ki).@*RESULTS@#Repeated measures 2-factor ANCOVA showed significant main effects on group on the ei and ki values of left superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) (P=0.003 and P=0.008, respectively), and on the ei and ki values of left medial orbital-frontal gyrus (LMOFG) (P=0.004 and P=0.008, respectively). Compared with the MDD-MA group, the significantly higher ei and ki values of the LSFG (P=0.015 and P=0.021, respectively), and the significantly higher ei and ki values of the LMOFG (P=0.015 and P=0.037, respectively) were observed in the MDD-SA group at baseline. Meanwhile, higher SHAPS scores could result in higher ei and ki values of LSFG (P=0.019 and P=0.026, respectively), and higher ei value of LMOFG (P=0.040) at baseline; higher SHAPS scores could result in higher ei values of LSFG (P=0.049) at the end of 6-months treatment. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sex were negatively correlated with the ei and ki values of LSFG (r= -0.014, P=0.004; r=-1.153, P=0.001, respectively). The onset age of MDD was negatively correlated with the ki value of LSFG (r=-0.420, P=0.034) at the end of 6-months treatment. We also found that SHAPS scores at baseline were positively correlated with the HAMD-24 scores (r=0.387, P=0.022) at the end of 6-months treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are obvious differences in nodal properties between the MDD-SA and the MDD-MA patients, such as the high ei of LSFG in the MDD-SA patients, which may be associated with the severity of anhedonia. These nodal properties could be potential biomarkers for the prognosis of MDD. The increased ei and ki values in the LSFG of MDD-SA patients may underlie a compensatory mechanism or protective mechanism. The mechanism may be an important component of the pathological mechanism of MDD-SA. The poor prognosis in the MDD-SA patients suggests that anhedonia may predict a worse prognosis in MDD patients. Sex and onset age of MDD may affect the nodal properties of LSFG at baseline and the end of 6-months treatment.

Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anhedonia , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 101-107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936290


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of valproic acid (VPA) -induced impairment of the dendritic spines and synapses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for causing core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mice.@*METHODS@#Female C57 mice were subjected to injections of saline or VPA on gestational days 10 and 12, and the male offspring mice in the two groups were used as the normal control group and ASD model group (n=10), respectively. Another 20 male mice with fetal exposure to VPA were randomized into two groups for stereotactic injection of DMSO or Wortmannin into the PFC (n=10). Open field test, juvenile play test and 3-chamber test were used to evaluate autistic behaviors of the mice. The density of dendrite spines in the PFC was observed with Golgi staining. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expressions of p-PI3K, PI3K, p-AKT, AKT, p-mTOR, mTOR and the synaptic proteins PSD95, p-Syn, and Syn in the PFC of the mice.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control mice, the mice with fetal exposure to VPA exhibited obvious autism-like behaviors with significantly decreased density of total, mushroom and stubby dendritic spines (P < 0.05) and increased filopodia dendritic spines (P < 0.05) in the PFC. The VPA-exposed mice also showed significantly increased expressions of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR (P < 0.01) and lowered expressions of PSD95 and p-Syn/Syn in the PFC (P < 0.05 or 0.001). Wortmannin injection into the PFC obviously improved the ASD-like phenotype and dendritic spine development, down-regulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and up-regulated the synaptic proteins in VPA-exposed mice.@*CONCLUSION@#In male mice with fetal exposure to VPA, excessive activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and decreased expressions of the synaptic proteins PSD95 and p-Syn cause dendritic spine damage and synaptic development disturbance in the PFC, which eventually leads to ASD-like phenotype.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Autism Spectrum Disorder/chemically induced , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Dendritic Spines , Disease Models, Animal , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prefrontal Cortex , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Valproic Acid/adverse effects
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 1-5, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927888


Objective: To investigate the effects of PM2.5 exposure at different stages of early life on the prefrontal cortex of offspring rats. Methods: Twelve pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (CG), Maternal pregnancy exposure group (MG), Early postnatal exposure group (EP) and Perinatal period exposure group (PP), 3 rats in each group. The pregnant and offspring rats were exposed to clean air or 8-fold concentrated PM2.5. MG was exposed from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD21. EP was exposed from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND21, and PP was exposed from GD1 to PND21. After exposure, the prefrontal cortex of 6 offspring rats in each group was analyzed. HE staining was used to observe the pathological damage in the prefrontal cortex. ELISA was employed to detect neuroinflammatory factors, and HPLC/MSC was applied to determine neurotransmitter content. Western blot and colorimetry were applied for detecting astrocyte markers and oxidative stress markers, respectively. Results: Compared with MG and CG, the pathological changes of prefrontal cortex in PP and EP were more obvious. Compared with MG and CG, the neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) in PP and EP were increased significantly (P<0.01), the level of MT were decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the level of oxytocin (OT) showed a downward trend; the level of neurotransmitter ACh was also increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with MG and CG, the GFAP level of PP and EP showed an upward trend, the level of oxidative stress index SOD in PP and EP was decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the level of ROS was increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the offspring rats of CG and MG, the CAT level of PP was decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the offspring rats of CG, the CAT level of EP was decreased significantly (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MT, OT, ACh, GFAP, SOD, ROS and CAT levels between PP and EP, or MG and CG. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure in early life has adverse effects on the prefrontal cortex of offspring male rats, and early birth exposure may be more sensitive.

Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Neurotransmitter Agents , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365209


The present study offers a broad comparative analysis of the dorsolateral head musculature in the Gymnotiformes, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of the dorsolateral head muscles of 83 species representing combined all valid genera. Results permit a detailed assessment of primary homologies and taxonomically-relevant variation across the order. This provides the basis for a myological synonymy, which organizes 33 previously proposed names for 15 recognized muscles. Morphological variation derived from dorsolateral head musculature was coded into 56 characters. When analyzed in isolation, that set of characters results in Gymnotidae as the sister group of remaining gymnotiforms, and all other currently recognized families as monophyletic groups. In a second analysis, myological characters were concatenated with other previously proposed characters into a phenotypic matrix. Results of that analysis reveal new myological synapomorphies for nearly all taxonomic categories within Gymnotiformes. A Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) was used to asses the significance of comparative myology in elucidating phylogenetic relationships. PBS values show strongly non-uniform distributions on the tree, with positive scores skewed towards more inclusive taxa, and negative PBS values concentrated on less inclusive clades. Our results provide background for future studies on biomechanical constraints evolved in the early stages of gymnotiform evolution.(AU)

O presente estudo fornece uma ampla análise comparativa da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça dos Gymnotiformes, com descrições detalhadas e ilustrações dos músculos dorsolaterais da cabeça de 83 espécies representando quase todos os gêneros válidos. Resultados permitem uma avaliação das homologias primárias e da variação taxonomicamente relevante na ordem. Isto fornece a base para uma sinonímia da nomenclatura miológica que organiza 33 nomes previamente propostos para os 15 músculos reconhecidos. As variações morfológicas da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça foram codificadas em 56 caracteres. Este conjunto de dados foi inicialmente analisado isoladamente, resultando em Gymnotidae como grupo-irmão dos demais Gymnotiformes; e todas as famílias como grupos monofiléticos. Numa segunda análise, os caracteres musculares foram concatenados com uma matriz fenotípica previamente proposta compondo uma ampla matriz morfológica combinada. Os resultados desta análise revelaram novas sinapomorfias miológicas para todas as categorias taxonômicas em Gymnotiformes. O Suporte de Bremer Particionado (SBP) foi implementado para acessar a influência da miologia em elucidar os relacionamentos filogenéticos. Os valores de SBP exibem uma distribuição não uniforme na árvore, com indicadores positivos para agrupamentos mais inclusivos e valores negativos de SBP em clados menos inclusivos. Nossos resultados fornecem subsídios para investigações futuras sobre as restrições biomecânicas envolvidas nos estágios inicias da evolução dos Gymnotiformes.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Prefrontal Cortex , Gymnotiformes/genetics
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(3): 224-229, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1426279


Introducción: los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventriculares son una entidad sumamente infrecuente, solo 45 casos han sido reportados en la literatura. La mayoría de los ependimomas se localizan a nivel infratentorial e intraventricular, solo en un grupo pequeño de casos no presentan continuidad con el sistema ventricular. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y presentar el caso de un tumor inusual, cuya importancia radica en la baja prevalencia de casos reportados en la literatura y en la particularidad del abordaje quirúrgico seleccionado. Descripción del caso: paciente de sexo masculino, de 16 años de edad, con diagnóstico de lesión ocupante de espacio sólida-quística, a nivel frontal izquierdo, entre el giro frontal superior y giro del cíngulo. Se optó por realizar un abordaje interhemisférico contralateral transfalcino, logrando la resección total de la lesión tumoral. Se obtuvo el diagnóstico histopatológico de ependimoma Grado II según clasificación de la OMS. Discusión: en base a la información analizada en los diferentes artículos, los hallazgos imagenológicos y anatomopatológicos del caso presentado coinciden con lo relatado en la literatura acerca de los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventricualres. Es imprescindible la utilización de técnicas de inmunohistoquímica para la correcta tipificación del tumor ya que las características del mismo son fácilmente confundibles con otras entidades y su correcta graduación tiene implicancias pronósticas y terapéuticas. Conclusión: los ependimomas supratentoriales extraventricualares son neoplasias sumamente inusuales. La resección quirúrgica es considerada el tratamiento de primera línea para mejorar el pronóstico y la sobrevida. El abordaje interhemisférico contralateral transfalcino nos permitió lograr la exéresis total de la lesión tumoral, favoreciéndonos un adecuado ángulo de trabajo y reduciendo así la transgresión del parénquima cerebral

ntroduction: extraventricular supratentorial ependymomas are an extremely rare entity, only 45 cases have been reported in the literature. Most ependymomas are located at the infratentorial and intraventricular level, only in a small group of cases don ́t present continuity with the ventricular system. The aim of this paper is to describe and to present the case of an unusual tumor, the importance lies in the low prevalence of cases reported in the literature and in the particularity of the selected surgical approach. Case description: a 16-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of a solid-cystic space-occupying lesion, at the left frontal level, between the superior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, measuring 40mm x 50mm x 60mm. A contralateral transfalcine interhemispheric approach was chosen, achieving total resection of the lesion. The histopathological diagnosis of Grade II ependymoma was obtained according to WHO. Discussion: based on the information analyzed in the different articles, the imaging and pathological findings of the case presented coincide with what is reported in the literature about supratentorial extraventricular ependymomas. The use of immunohistochemical techniques is essential for the correct typing of the tumor since its characteristics are easily confused with other entities and its correct graduation has prognostic and therapeutic implications Conclusion: extraventricular supratentorial ependymomas are extremely rare neoplasms. Surgical resection is considered the first-line treatment to improve prognosis and survival. The contralateral transfalcine interhemispheric approach allowed us to achieve a total resection of the lesion, favoring an adequate working angle and thus reducing the transgression of the brain parenchyma

Male , Ependymoma , Therapeutics , Brain , Prefrontal Cortex , Parenchymal Tissue
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 483-488, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285363


Abstract Background: Migraine is a prevalent neurological disease that leads to severe headaches. Moreover, it is the commonest among the primary headaches that cause medication overuse headache (MOH). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the structures most associated with medication overuse. Objective: To determine microstructural changes in the OFC among migraine patients who developed MOH, through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who had been diagnosed with migraine based on the Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III-B) were included in the study. Patients were sub-classified into two groups, with and without MOH, based on the MOH criteria of ICHD-III-B. DTI was applied to each patient. The OFC fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean age of all the patients was 35.98±7.92 years (range: 18-65), and 84.5% (n=49) of them were female. The two groups, with MOH (n=25) and without (n=33), were alike in terms of age, gender, family history, migraine with or without aura and duration of illness. It was found that there was a significant difference in FA values of the left OFC between the two groups (0.32±0.01 versus 0.29±0.01; p=0.04). Conclusions: An association was found between MOH and changes to OFC microstructure. Determination of neuropathology and factors associated with medication overuse among migraine patients is crucial in terms of identifying the at-risk patient population and improving proper treatment strategies specific to these patients.

RESUMO Introdução: A migrânea é uma doença neurológica prevalente que causa fortes dores de cabeça. Além disso, é a mais comum entre as cefaleias primárias que causam cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos (CUEM). O córtex orbitofrontal (OF) é uma das estruturas mais associadas ao uso excessivo de medicamentos. Objetivo: Determinar alterações microestruturais no córtex OF em pacientes com migrânea que desenvolveram CUEM, por meio da técnica de imagem por tensor de difusão (ITD). Métodos: Cinquenta e oito pacientes com diagnóstico de migrânea, com base na Classificação das Cefaleias (ICHD-III-B), foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram subclassificados em dois grupos, com e sem CUEM, com base nos critérios de CUEM da ICHD-III-B. A ITD foi aplicada a cada paciente. Os valores de anisotropia fracionada OFC (AF) e coeficiente de difusão aparente (CDA) dos dois grupos foram comparados. Resultados: A média de idade de todos os pacientes foi de 35,98±7,92 anos (variação: 18‒65), sendo 84,5% (n=49) do sexo feminino. Os dois grupos, com CUEM (n=25) e sem (n=33), são semelhantes em termos de idade, sexo, história familiar, migrânea com ou sem aura e duração da doença. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa nos valores de AF do córtex OF esquerdo entre os dois grupos (0,32±0,01 versus 0,29±0,01; p=0,04). Conclusões: Foi encontrada associação entre o CUEM e as alterações na microestrutura do córtex OF. A determinação da neuropatologia e dos fatores associados ao uso excessivo de medicamentos entre pacientes com migrânea é crucial para identificar a população de pacientes em risco e melhorar as estratégias de tratamento adequadas específicas para esses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Headache Disorders, Secondary/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Prefrontal Cortex , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Prescription Drug Overuse , Middle Aged
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(1): 65-69, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153282


Objective: Current treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves psychological and pharmacological interventions. However, neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may positively affect BPD symptomatology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and neuropsychological effects of rTMS on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in BPD patients. Methods: Fourteen patients with BPD were randomized into two groups (active vs. sham) for 15 sessions of rTMS on the DMPFC. Clinical effects were measured using the Borderline Symptoms List (BSL), Clinical Global Impression Scale for BPD (CGI-BPD), Borderline Evaluation of Severity over Time (BEST), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Neuropsychological effects were determined by a Stop-Signal Task (SST), the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT). Results: Within-group comparison showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in CGI-BPD (total score and six of nine psychopathologic domains), BEST, HDRS, HARS, and IGT scores for active modality. Conclusion: The 5 Hz-DMPFC rTMS technique was well tolerated and lessened the severity of BPD symptomatology, especially abandonment, affective issues, interpersonal relationships, suicidal behavior, anger, and paranoid ideation. Cognitive improvement was seen in decision-making. Additional studies are needed to fully evaluate the effects of rTMS on BPD symptomatology. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03832777.

Humans , Borderline Personality Disorder/therapy , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Treatment Outcome , Prefrontal Cortex
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 34-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1303-1313, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922625


Food deprivation can rescue obesity and overweight-induced mood disorders, and promote mood performance in normal subjects. Animal studies and clinical research have revealed the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction, but little is known about the mechanism of calorie restriction-induced mood modification. Previous studies have found that astrocytes modulate depressive-like behaviors. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) is the predominant isoform in mediating astrocyte Ca

Animals , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Caloric Restriction , Mice, Knockout , Prefrontal Cortex