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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365209

ABSTRACT

The present study offers a broad comparative analysis of the dorsolateral head musculature in the Gymnotiformes, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of the dorsolateral head muscles of 83 species representing combined all valid genera. Results permit a detailed assessment of primary homologies and taxonomically-relevant variation across the order. This provides the basis for a myological synonymy, which organizes 33 previously proposed names for 15 recognized muscles. Morphological variation derived from dorsolateral head musculature was coded into 56 characters. When analyzed in isolation, that set of characters results in Gymnotidae as the sister group of remaining gymnotiforms, and all other currently recognized families as monophyletic groups. In a second analysis, myological characters were concatenated with other previously proposed characters into a phenotypic matrix. Results of that analysis reveal new myological synapomorphies for nearly all taxonomic categories within Gymnotiformes. A Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) was used to asses the significance of comparative myology in elucidating phylogenetic relationships. PBS values show strongly non-uniform distributions on the tree, with positive scores skewed towards more inclusive taxa, and negative PBS values concentrated on less inclusive clades. Our results provide background for future studies on biomechanical constraints evolved in the early stages of gymnotiform evolution.(AU)


O presente estudo fornece uma ampla análise comparativa da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça dos Gymnotiformes, com descrições detalhadas e ilustrações dos músculos dorsolaterais da cabeça de 83 espécies representando quase todos os gêneros válidos. Resultados permitem uma avaliação das homologias primárias e da variação taxonomicamente relevante na ordem. Isto fornece a base para uma sinonímia da nomenclatura miológica que organiza 33 nomes previamente propostos para os 15 músculos reconhecidos. As variações morfológicas da musculatura dorsolateral da cabeça foram codificadas em 56 caracteres. Este conjunto de dados foi inicialmente analisado isoladamente, resultando em Gymnotidae como grupo-irmão dos demais Gymnotiformes; e todas as famílias como grupos monofiléticos. Numa segunda análise, os caracteres musculares foram concatenados com uma matriz fenotípica previamente proposta compondo uma ampla matriz morfológica combinada. Os resultados desta análise revelaram novas sinapomorfias miológicas para todas as categorias taxonômicas em Gymnotiformes. O Suporte de Bremer Particionado (SBP) foi implementado para acessar a influência da miologia em elucidar os relacionamentos filogenéticos. Os valores de SBP exibem uma distribuição não uniforme na árvore, com indicadores positivos para agrupamentos mais inclusivos e valores negativos de SBP em clados menos inclusivos. Nossos resultados fornecem subsídios para investigações futuras sobre as restrições biomecânicas envolvidas nos estágios inicias da evolução dos Gymnotiformes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Prefrontal Cortex , Gymnotiformes/genetics
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1303-1313, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922625

ABSTRACT

Food deprivation can rescue obesity and overweight-induced mood disorders, and promote mood performance in normal subjects. Animal studies and clinical research have revealed the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction, but little is known about the mechanism of calorie restriction-induced mood modification. Previous studies have found that astrocytes modulate depressive-like behaviors. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) is the predominant isoform in mediating astrocyte Ca


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Caloric Restriction , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Prefrontal Cortex
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921820

ABSTRACT

Analyzing the influence of mixed emotional factors on false memory through brain function network is helpful to further explore the nature of brain memory. In this study, Deese-Roediger-Mc-Dermott (DRM) paradigm electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment was designed with mixed emotional memory materials, and different kinds of music were used to induce positive, calm and negative emotions of three groups of subjects. For the obtained false memory EEG signals, standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) was applied in the source localization, and then the functional network of cerebral cortex was built and analyzed. The results show that the positive group has the most false memories [(83.3 ± 6.8)%], the prefrontal lobe and left temporal lobe are activated, and the degree of activation and the density of brain network are significantly larger than those of the calm group and the negative group. In the calm group, the posterior prefrontal lobe and temporal lobe are activated, and the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are larger than those of the positive and negative groups. The negative group has the least false memories [(73.3 ± 2.2)%], and the prefrontal lobe and right temporal lobe are activated. The brain network is the sparsest in the negative group, the degree of centralization is significantly larger than that of the calm group, but the collectivization degree and the information transmission rate of brain network are smaller than the positive group. The results show that the brain is stimulated by positive emotions, so more brain resources are used to memorize and associate words, which increases false memory. The activity of the brain is inhibited by negative emotions, which hinders the brain's memory and association of words and reduces false memory.


Subject(s)
Electroencephalography , Emotions , Humans , Memory , Music , Prefrontal Cortex
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 10-16, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878230

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mice, and the expression of the marker genes of the disease-associated microglia (DAM) associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Sixty healthy adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups, normal control (CON) group and T1DM group. Streptozocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to induce T1DM mice. The spatial learning and memory function of mice was detected by Morris water maze at the 8th week after the successful model establishment. The number and activation of microglia in the prefrontal cortex of mice were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Changes in the mRNA level of several DAM molecular markers were detected by RT-FQ-PCR. The results showed that, compared with CON mice, the fasting blood glucose of T1DM mice increased significantly, while the body weight of T1DM mice decreased remarkably (P < 0.05). The escape latency of water maze in T1DM mice was longer than that in CON mice (P < 0.05). Compared with CON group, the Iba1 protein expression and the number of microglia in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA levels of several DAM markers in prefrontal cortex of T1DM group were increased significantly (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the microglia are activated and transformed to DAM type in the prefrontal cortex of T1DM mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia , Prefrontal Cortex
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 34, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130780

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS), is a chronic pain disorder with poorly understood pathophysiology. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been recommended for pain relief in various chronic pain disorders. The objective of the present research was to study the effect of low frequency rTMS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on pain status in FMS. Methods Ninety diagnosed cases of FMS were randomized into Sham-rTMS and Real-rTMS groups. Real rTMS (1 Hz/1200 pulses/8 trains/90% resting motor threshold) was delivered over the right DLPFC for 5 consecutive days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was assessed by subjective and objective methods along with oxidative stress markers. Patients were followed up for 6 months (post-rTMS;15 days, 3 months and 6 months). Results In Real-rTMS group, average pain ratings and associated symptoms showed significant improvement post rTMS. The beneficial effects of rTMS lasted up to 6 months in the follow-up phase. In Sham-rTMS group, no significant change in pain ratings was observed. Conclusion Right DLPFC rTMS can significantly reduce pain and associated symptoms of FMS probably through targeting spinal pain circuits and top-down pain modulation . Trial registration: Ref No: CTRI/2013/12/004228.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Chronic Pain , Prefrontal Cortex , Oxidative Stress , Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787141

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 765-776, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878224

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that single-unit activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum represented visual stimulus and reward information. But how to encode these pieces of information is quite complex from the view of single-neuron activity. Different neurons represented stimulus or reward information in different task epochs with increasing or decreasing their activities relative to their baseline firing rates. The present paper was aimed to study whether population neurons in the two brain areas could stably encode task-relevant parameters in a whole trial period. We recorded single-unit activities in the lateral PFC (LPFC) and striatum while the monkey was performing a stimulus- reward prediction task, and analyzed the neuronal activities by the method of a multi-variable regression model and the linear support vector machine. The results showed that, although proportions of task-related neurons in the two areas varied largely in the whole trial period, LPFC population neurons encoded reward and stimulus information stably and reliably. Population neurons in the striatum encoded only reward information, not stimulus information. A group of neurons in the two areas represented combined information of stimulus and reward. Further analysis showed that LPFC neurons encoded reward information for a group of relevant stimuli, while striatal neurons encoded reward information for a specific stimulus. These results suggest that both LPFC and striatal population neurons are able to stably represent task-relevant information, but from different aspects of the task. The different strategies to encode information in the LPFC and striatum suggest their different contributions in reward-based decision making.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Primates , Reward
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879219

ABSTRACT

Cognitive enhancement refers to the technology of enhancing or expanding the cognitive and emotional abilities of people without psychosis based on relevant knowledge of neurobiology. The common methods of cognitive enhancement include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and cognitive training (CT). tDCS takes effect quickly, with a short effective time, while CT takes longer to work, requiring several weeks of training, with a longer effective time. In recent years, some researchers have begun to use the method of tDCS combined with CT to regulate the cognitive function. This paper will sort out and summarize this topic from five aspects: perception, attention, working memory, decision-making and other cognitive abilities. Finally, the application prospect and challenges of technology are prospected.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychological Tests , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879202

ABSTRACT

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive method for stimulation and modulation in the field of cognitive neuroscience research and clinical neurological regulation. In this paper, adult Wistar rats were divided into the rTMS group and control group randomly. Rats in the rTMS group were stimulated with 5 Hz rTMS for 14 days, while the rats in the control group did not accept any stimulation. Then, the behavior and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded synchronously when the rats perform a working memory (WM) task with T-maze. Finally, the time-frequency distribution and coherence characteristics of the LFPs signal in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory task were analyzed. The results showed that the rats in the rTMS group needed less training days to reach the task correction criterion than the control group (


Subject(s)
Animals , Memory, Short-Term , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
13.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 447-457, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039106

ABSTRACT

Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 17(2): 201-222, may.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013870

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction : Aging is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The central nervous system is particularly susceptible to progressive functional deterioration associated with age, among the brain regions the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has one of the highest involvements. Transcriptomics studies of this brain region have identified the decrease in synaptic function and activation of neuroglia cells as fundamental characteristics of the aging process. The aim of this study was to identify hub genes in the transcriptomic deregulation in the PFC aging to advance in the knowledge of this process. Materials and methods : A gene co-expression analysis was carried out for 45 people 60 to 80 years old compared with 38 people 20 to 40 years old. The networks were visualized and analyzed using Cytoscape; citoHubba was used to determine which genes had the best topological characteristics in the co-expression networks. Results : Five genes with high topological characteristics were identified. Four of them -HPCA, CACNG3, CA10, PLPPR4- were repressed and one was over-expressed -CRYAB-. Conclusion: The four repressed genes are expressed preferentially in neurons and regulate the synaptic function and the neuronal plasticity, while the overexpressed gene is typical of glial cells and is expressed as a response to neuronal damage, facilitating myelination and neuronal regeneration.


Resumen Introducción : el envejecimiento es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas como el cáncer, la diabetes, el Parkinson y el Alzheimer. El sistema nervioso central es particularmente susceptible al deterioro funcional progresivo asociado con la edad, entre las regiones cerebrales con mayor compromiso se encuentra la corteza prefrontal (CPF). Estudios de transcriptómica de esta región han identificado como características fundamentales del proceso de envejecimiento la disminución de la función sináptica y la activación de las células de la neuroglia. No es claro cuáles son las causas iniciales, ni los mecanismos moleculares subyacentes a estas alteraciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar genes clave en la desregulación transcriptómica en el envejecimiento de la CPF para avanzar en el conocimiento de este proceso. Materiales y métodos : se hizo un análisis de coexpresión de genes de los transcriptomas de 45 personas entre 60 y 80 años con el de 38 personas entre 20 y 40 años. Las redes fueron visualizadas y analizadas usando Cytoscape, se usó citoHubba para determinar qué genes tenían las mejores características topológicas en las redes de coexpresión. Resultados : se identificaron cinco genes con características topológicas altas. Cuatro de ellos -HPCA, CACNG3, CA10, PLPPR4- reprimidos y uno sobreexpresado -CRYAB-. Conclusión : los cuatro genes reprimidos se expresan preferencialmente en neuronas y regulan la función sináptica y la plasticidad neuronal, mientras el gen sobreexpresado es típico de células de la glía y se expresa como respuesta a daño neuronal facilitando la mielinización y la regeneración neuronal.


Resumo Introdução : o envelhecimento é o principal fator de risco pra o desenvolvimento de doenças crónicas como o câncer, a diabetes, o Parkinson e o Alzheimer. O sistema nervoso central é particularmente susceptível ao deterioro funcional progressivo associado à idade, uma das regiões do cérebro com maior compromisso é o pré-frontal (CPF). Estudos de transcritoma desta região têm identificado como características fundamentais do processo de envelhecimento a diminuição da função sináptica e ativação das células da neuroglia. Não é claro quais são as causas iniciais, nem os mecanismos moleculares subjacentes a estas alterações. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar genes chave na desregulação transcritoma no envelhecimento da CPF para avançar no conhecimento deste processo. Materiais e métodos : se fez uma análise de co-expressão de genes dos transcritomas de 45 pessoas entre 60 e 80 anos com o de 38 pessoas entre 20 e 40 anos. As redes foram visualizadas e analisadas usando Cytoscape, usou-se citoHubba para determinar que genes tinham as melhores características topológicas nas redes de co-expressão. Resultados : identificaram-se cinco genes com características topológicas altas. Quatro deles -HPCA, CACNG3, CA10, PLPPR4- reprimidos e um superexpresso -CRYAB-. Conclusão : os quatro genes reprimidos se expressam preferencialmente em neurônios e regulam a função sináptica e plasticidade neuronal, enquanto o gene superexpresso é típico de células da glia e se expressa como resposta ao dano neuronal facilitado a mielinização e a regeneração neuronal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcriptome
15.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 104-111, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder. While some antipsychotic medications have demonstrated efficacy in treating positive symptoms, there is no widely recognized treatment for negative symptoms, which can cause significant distress and impairment for patients with schizophrenia. Here we describe the rationale and design of the STARTS study (Schizophrenia TreAtment with electRic Transcranial Stimulation), a clinical trial aimed to test the efficacy of a non-pharmacological treatment known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia Methods The STARTS study is designed as a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial evaluating tDCS for the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. One-hundred patients will be enrolled and submitted to 10 tDCS sessions over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anodal stimulation) and left temporoparietal junction (cathodal stimulation) over 5 consecutive days. Participants will be assessed using clinical and neuropsychological tests before and after the intervention. The primary outcome is change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale score over time and across groups. Biological markers, including blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, and motor cortical excitability, will also be assessed. Results The clinical results will provide insights about tDCS as a treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and the biomarker investigation will contribute towards an improved understanding of the tDCS mechanisms of action. Conclusion Our results could introduce a novel therapeutic technique for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02535676 .


Resumo Introdução A esquizofrenia é um transtorno mental grave. Embora alguns medicamentos antipsicóticos tenham demonstrado eficácia no tratamento de sintomas positivos, não há tratamento amplamente reconhecido para sintomas negativos, o que pode causar sofrimento e prejuízo significativos para pacientes com esquizofrenia. Aqui descrevemos a fundamentação teórica e o design do estudo STARTS (Schizophrenia TreAtment with electRic Transcranial Stimulation), um ensaio clínico destinado a testar a eficácia de um tratamento não farmacológico conhecido como estimulação transcraniana por corrente contínua (ETCC) para tratar os sintomas negativos da esquizofrenia. Métodos O estudo STARTS foi concebido como um ensaio clínico randomizado, controlado por simulação, duplo-cego, avaliando a ETCC para o tratamento dos sintomas negativos da esquizofrenia. Cem pacientes serão incluídos e submetidos a 10 sessões de ETCC sobre o córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo (estimulação anódica) e a junção temporoparietal esquerda (estimulação catodal) durante 5 dias consecutivos. Os participantes serão avaliados através de testes clínicos e neuropsicológicos antes e após a intervenção. O desfecho primário é a mudança na pontuação da subescala negativa da Escala da Síndrome Positiva e Negativa (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]) ao longo do tempo e entre os grupos. Marcadores biológicos, incluindo neurotrofinas e interleucinas do sangue, polimorfismos genéticos e excitabilidade cortical motora, também serão avaliados. Resultados Os resultados clínicos fornecerão informações sobre a ETCC como um tratamento para os sintomas negativos da esquizofrenia, e a investigação dos biomarcadores contribuirá para uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de ação da ETCC. Conclusão Nossos resultados podem trazer uma nova técnica terapêutica para o tratamento dos sintomas negativos da esquizofrenia. Registro do ensaio clínico: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02535676.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/therapy , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8334, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001529

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that an injection with the histamine H4 receptor agonist VUF-8430 modulates emotional memory processes. In the present study, the aim was to verify if intraperitoneal (ip) injection of VUF-8430 (500 ng/kg) in mice affects the synthesis of proteins required for memory consolidation processes by activating the phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB) in classical structures linked to emotional memory (prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus) and the cerebellar vermis, a structure that has also been recently implicated in emotional memory. The results obtained using western blot analysis demonstrated that VUF-8430 induced a decrease in CREB and pCREB levels in the cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this dose impaired the activation of cell signaling pathways in these structures. There was no change in protein expression in the amygdala and hippocampus. Our results are preliminary, and further investigations are needed to investigate the role of the H4 receptors in the central nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Cerebellar Vermis/metabolism , Receptors, Histamine H4/metabolism , Memory/physiology , Phosphorylation , Stress, Physiological , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Emotions , Cerebellar Vermis/drug effects , Memory Consolidation/physiology , Hippocampus , Histamine Antagonists/pharmacology
17.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 474-484, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763780

ABSTRACT

Absence seizures (AS) are generalized non-convulsive seizures characterized by a brief loss of consciousness and spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A number of animal models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of AS, and thalamo-cortical networks are considered to be involved. However, the cortical foci have not been well described in mouse models of AS. This study aims to use a high density EEG in pathophysiologically different AS models to compare the spatiotemporal patterns of SWDs. We used two AS models: a pharmacologically induced model (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB model) and a transgenic model (phospholipase beta4 knock-out, PLCβ4 model). The occurrences of SWDs were confirmed by thalamic recordings. The topographical analysis of SWDs showed that the onset and propagation patterns were markedly distinguishable between the two models. In the PLCβ4 model, the foci were located within the somatosensory cortex followed by propagation to the frontal cortex, whereas in the GHB model, a majority of SWDs was initiated in the prefrontal cortex followed by propagation to the posterior cortex. In addition, in the GHB model, foci were also observed in other cortical areas. This observation indicates that different cortical networks are involved in the generation of SWDs across the two models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Absence , Frontal Lobe , Mice , Models, Animal , Prefrontal Cortex , Seizures , Somatosensory Cortex , Unconsciousness
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 173-185, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777198

ABSTRACT

Working memory (WM) refers to the process of temporally maintaining and manipulating input information. WM is the global workspace of cognitive functions, however, with severely restricted capacity and precision. Previous cognitive and computational models discussed the methods of calculating capacity and precision of WM and the reason why they are so limited. It still remains debated which model is the best across all datasets, and whether there exists upper limits of items. Besides, sensory cortices and the frontal-parietal loop are suggested to represent WM memorandum. Yet recently, the sensory recruitment hypothesis that posits an important role of sensory cortices in WM is strongly argued. Meanwhile, whether the prefrontal cortex shows sustained activity or bursting γ oscillations is intensely debated as well. In the future, disentangling the contribution to WM of feedforward γ vs feedback α/β oscillations, and/or dopamine vs serotonin systems, is critical for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying WM. It will further do help to recognize the basis for the psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia) or neurological (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders, and potentially to develop effective training and intervening methods.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Models, Neurological , Parietal Lobe , Physiology , Prefrontal Cortex , Physiology
19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of aripiprazole treatment during adolescence on behavior, cognitive function, and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in adult rats. METHODS: Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with aripiprazole, risperidone, or vehicle control for 3 weeks (postnatal day 36–56). After a 2-week washout period, locomotion, anxiety, and spatial working memory were evaluated in adulthood (postnatal day 71–84), using an open field test, elevated plus maze, and Y-maze, respectively. In addition, we assessed D2R levels in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal and ventral striatum, and hippocampus using western blot analysis. RESULTS: Spontaneous alternation performance (SAP) in the Y-maze, a measure of spatial working memory, differed significantly among the 3 groups (F = 3.89, p = 0.033). A post-hoc test confirmed that SAP in the aripiprazole group was significantly higher than that in the risperidone group (post-hoc test p = 0.013). D2R levels in the medial PFC (F = 8.72, p = 0.001) and hippocampus (F = 13.54, p < 0.001) were different among the 3 groups. D2R levels in the medial PFC and hippocampus were significantly lower in the aripiprazole-treated rats than that in the risperidone-treated rats (post-hoc test p = 0.025 and p < 0.001, respectively) and controls (post-hoc test p < 0.001, all). CONCLUSION: This study showed that aripiprazole treatment in adolescence could influence cognitive function and dopaminergic neurotransmission into early adulthood.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anxiety , Aripiprazole , Blotting, Western , Cognition , Dopamine , Hippocampus , Humans , Locomotion , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Models, Animal , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Dopamine D2 , Risperidone , Synaptic Transmission , Ventral Striatum
20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763547

ABSTRACT

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) are frequently comorbid with schizophrenia, though the exact clinical and etiological relationship between them is poorly understood. Here we describe a case that, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of new-onset OCD in a patient who was receiving high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex as an adjuvant therapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Thisreport supports our understanding of OCD as a brain disorder involving hyper-activity of pre-frontal cortex and cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuit dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Prefrontal Cortex , Schizophrenia , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
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