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Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 34-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8334, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001529


Studies have shown that an injection with the histamine H4 receptor agonist VUF-8430 modulates emotional memory processes. In the present study, the aim was to verify if intraperitoneal (ip) injection of VUF-8430 (500 ng/kg) in mice affects the synthesis of proteins required for memory consolidation processes by activating the phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB) in classical structures linked to emotional memory (prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus) and the cerebellar vermis, a structure that has also been recently implicated in emotional memory. The results obtained using western blot analysis demonstrated that VUF-8430 induced a decrease in CREB and pCREB levels in the cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this dose impaired the activation of cell signaling pathways in these structures. There was no change in protein expression in the amygdala and hippocampus. Our results are preliminary, and further investigations are needed to investigate the role of the H4 receptors in the central nervous system.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Cerebellar Vermis/metabolism , Receptors, Histamine H4/metabolism , Memory/physiology , Phosphorylation , Stress, Physiological , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Emotions , Cerebellar Vermis/drug effects , Memory Consolidation/physiology , Hippocampus , Histamine Antagonists/pharmacology
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 37(3): 143-151, jul. set. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764667


Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36) were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND) 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16), 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12), or water (n = 12) every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test) and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze) during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da exposição ao etanol em ratos adolescentes durante a idade adulta sobre os comportamentos agressivos e semelhantes à ansiedade, bem como sobre as medidas de níveis de marcadores inflamatórios.Métodos:Os grupos de ratos Wistar machos (peso médio de 81,4 g; n = 36) foram alojados em grupos de quatro até o dia pós-natal (DPN) 60. Entre os DPNs 30 e 46, os ratos receberam um dos três tratamentos: 3 g/kg de etanol (15% w/v, oralmente, n = 16), 1.5 g/kg de etanol (12,5% w/v, oralmente, n = 12), ou água (n = 12) a cada 48 horas. Os comportamentos agressivos (teste residente-intruso) e semelhantes à ansiedade (labirinto em cruz elevado) foram avaliados durante a idade adulta dos animais.Resultados:Os animais que receberam doses menores de álcool mostraram níveis reduzidos de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) no hipocampo quando comparados ao grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada no córtex pré-frontal.Conclusões:A exposição intermitente ao álcool durante a adolescência é associada com menores níveis de BDNF no hipocampo, provavelmente divido a administração episódica de álcool, mas o uso não alterou o nível de agressão contra o macho intruso ou os comportamentos semelhantes à ansiedade durante a fase adulta.

Animals , Male , Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Binge Drinking/metabolism , Binge Drinking/psychology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Hippocampus/drug effects , Anxiety/physiopathology , Risk-Taking , Central Nervous System Depressants/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Prefrontal Cortex/growth & development , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/drug effects , Aggression/physiology , Aggression/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Interleukin-1alpha/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 32(3): 761-766, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728263


Nicotine is the most important alkaloid compound in tobacco. One of the major effects of nicotine is stimulation of mesocorticolimbic system. Prefrontal cortex plays a pivotal role in personality and mental state. It is considered the main cause of addiction as it is located in mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Twenty four male rats were divided into four groups based on nicotine administration dose (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg). After animals were anesthetized, their brains were fixed using transcardiac method. Tissue processing and Golgi staining were performed and the stained tissue sections were analyzed by optic microscope and Motic software. By increasing the dose, nicotine significantly decreased the number of neuronal processes. In the higher dose, nicotine caused a significant decrease and increase in the size of pericarions and dendritic spines, respectively (p<0.05). Nicotine administration can decrease the size of pericarion and number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex.

La nicotina es el compuesto alcaloide más importante del tabaco. Uno de sus principales efectos es la estimulación del sistema mesocorticolímbico. La corteza prefrontal desempeña un papel fundamental en la personalidad y estado mental. Esta es considerada la principal causa de la adicción, ya que se encuentra en el sistema mesocorticolímbico dopaminérgico. Veinticuatro ratas macho fueron divididas en cuatro grupos basados en la dosis de administración de nicotina (0, 0,5, 1 y 1,5 g/kg). Luego fueron anestesiados y sus cerebros se fijaron mediante perfusión transcardíaca. Se realizó el procesamiento de tejidos y las secciones bajo tinción de Golgi fueron analizadas mediante microscopia óptica y el software Motic. Con el aumento de dosis, la nicotina redujo significativamente el número de procesos neuronales. En la dosis más alta, la nicotina causó una disminución y aumento significativo en el tamaño de pericarion y espinas dendríticas, respectivamente (p<0,05). La administración de nicotina puede disminuir el tamaño del pericarion y el número de espinas dendríticas en la corteza prefrontal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Prefrontal Cortex/ultrastructure , Dendritic Spines/drug effects , Dendritic Spines/ultrastructure , Microscopy , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure , Nicotine/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 36(1): 39-46, Jan-Mar. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702639


Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH) exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li), 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT), 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB), or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity. .

Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Dextroamphetamine/pharmacology , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylases/analysis , Motor Activity/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Antimanic Agents/pharmacology , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Histone Deacetylases/drug effects , Lithium/pharmacology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Valproic Acid/pharmacology
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 35(3): 262-266, Jul-Sep. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687934


Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg) for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Dissociative/administration & dosage , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Amygdala/drug effects , Amygdala/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/metabolism , Motor Activity/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Swimming , Time Factors
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2009; 19 (3): 139-145
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91618


To investigate the effects of orally supplemented amino acids L-Tryptophan [Trp] and L-Valine [Val] in rats repeatedly injected with haloperidol following one week of drug withdrawal, with particular reference to extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS] and serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT] metabolism in medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC]. Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi from December 2007 to February 2008. The study was conducted on thirty six locally bred male Albino Wistar rats. Freshly prepared amino acids [Val and Trp] were added in the drinking water of rats on alternate days and haloperidol at doses of 5.0 mg/kg or saline were injected twice daily for three weeks following one week of withdrawal. Locomotor/ exploratory activities were scored in activity boxes and open field apparatuses. Catalepsy was monitored on an inclined surface. The animals tested for locomotor activity and catalepsy for two weeks follow-up post-injections plus one week of drug withdrawal were decapitated to collect mPFC regions of rat brain for neurochemical analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection [HPLC-EC]. There was significant increase [p < 0.01] in locomotor activity in rats orally supplemented with Val and Trp following one week of drug withdrawal from repeated administration. Marked reduction in cataleptogenic effects of the drug was also observed. Significant [p < 0.01] increases in the brain Trp and mPFC 5-HT metabolism in Val and Trp supplemented animals were also noticed. These findings help to demonstrate the effect of dietary amino acids, in particular, Trp to potentiate mPFC serotonergic modulation of neuroleptic activity

Animals, Laboratory , Tryptophan , Valine , Serotonin/chemical synthesis , Serotonin/metabolism , Catalepsy , Haloperidol/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Amino Acids , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Dietary Supplements
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(6): 825-830, June 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-452681


Serotonin (5-HT1B) receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO) prefrontal cortex (PFC). The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129), microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8) or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9) was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Aggression/drug effects , Maternal Behavior/drug effects , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , /drug effects , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Microinjections , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(10): 1349-53, Oct. 1996. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-186185


The effects of haloperidol on circling and spying behaviors induced by electrical simulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) were evaluated. Male Wistar rats with an electrode implanted into the left medial PFC (B:2.5 mmA, 0.6 mm L and 2.7 mm V) were electrically stimulated in a sequence of ten 30-sec trains separeted by 30-sec intervals (60 Hz) in each session, and simultaneously observed in the open field. The animals with circling (CI) and spying (SP) behaviors were treated with intraperitoneal haloperidol (HAL ip, 5 mg/Kg, N=6) and saline (SAL ip, N=7) or intracortical HAL (ic, 5 mug, N=6) and SAL (ic, N=9), 20 min before the session of eletrical stimulation. HAL ic significantly decreased (p<0.05) CI (mean frequency+ SEM: 0.5 + 0.16) and monsignificantly decreased SP behavior (0.6 + 0.17) compared to SAL ic (CI:0.9 + 0.02, SP: 1+ 0). HAL ip fully abolished these behaviors P<0.05) (CI:0.02 + 0,SP: 0.01 + 0) compared to SAL ip (CI: 0.86 + 0.06, SP: 0.93 + 0.06. These results show that haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist and antipsychotic agent, interfered significantly with the expression of behaviors induced by electrical stimulation of the left medial PFC, suggesting that the induction of these behaviors may involve the dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Rats , Animals , Male , Electric Stimulation , Haloperidol/pharmacology , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Rats, Wistar