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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 949-960, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the clinical and obstetric aspects of pregnant women with COVID-19. Methods A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO, and CNKI databases was performed from March to May 2020, with the descriptors: Pregnancy; 2019-nCov; Coronavirus; SARS-Cov-2, Covid-19. Of those chosen were original titles, without language and period restriction and that addressed pregnant women with a clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Revisions, editorials, and duplicate titles were excluded. The Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS) and Murad et al. scales were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results We included 34 articles with 412 pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2), with an average age of 27.5 years of age and 36.0 gestational weeks. The most common symptom was fever (205 [49.7%]), and 89 (21.6%) pregnant women progressed to severe viral pneumonia. Laboratory tests showed an increase in C-reactive protein (154 [37.8%]), and radiological tests showed pneumonia with peripheral ground-glass pattern (172 [51.4%]). Emergency cesarean delivery was indicated for most pregnant women, and the most common gestational complication was premature rupture of ovarian membranes (14 [3.4%;]). We detected 2 (0.5%) neonatal deaths, 2 (0.5%) stillbirths, and 1 (0.2%) maternal death. Conclusion Pregnant women with COVID-19 presented a clinical picture similar to that of non-infected pregnant women, with few obstetric or neonatal repercussions. There was a greater indication of cesarean deliveries before the disease aggravated, and there was no evidence of vertical transmission of the infection.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar os aspectos clínicos e obstétricos de gestantes com COVID-19. Métodos Revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases: MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO e CNKI, realizada de março a maio de 2020, com os descritores Pregnancy; 2019-nCov; Coronavirus; SARS-Cov-2, Covid-19. Elegeram-se títulos originais, sem restrição de idioma e período e que abordassem gestantes com diagnóstico clínico e/ou laboratorial de COVID-19. Excluíram-se revisões, editoriais, títulos duplicados. As escalas de Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS, na sigla em inglês) e a de Murad et al. foram utilizadas para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. Resultados Foram incluídos 34 artigos com 412 gestantes infectadas pela síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS-Cov, na sigla em inglês) com idade média de 27,5 anos e média de 36,0 semanas gestacionais. O sintoma mais incidente foi a febre (49,7%;205). e 89 (21,6%) gestantes evoluíram para pneumonia viral grave. Os exames laboratoriais demonstraram aumento da proteína C reativa (37,8%; 154) e os radiológicos mostraram pneumonia com padrão em vidro fosco periférico (51,4%; 172). O parto cesáreo de emergência foi indicado para a maior parte das gestantes, e a complicação gestacional mais comum foi a ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares (3,4%; 14). Foram detectados 2 (0,5%) mortes neonatais, 2 (0,5%) natimortos, e 1 (0,2%) morte materna. Conclusão Gestantes com doença coronavírus (COVID-19, na sigla em inglês apresentaram quadro clínico semelhante a gestantes não infectadas, com poucas repercussões obstétricas ou neonatais. Houve uma maior indicação de partos cesáreos antes do agravamento da doença e não se observaram evidências de transmissão vertical da infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Parturition , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1358322

ABSTRACT

Se describe los casos de tres pacientes a quien se les realiza diagnóstico de colestasis intrahepática del embarazo (CIE) de aparición temprana. En dos de ellos el diagnóstico se relacionó con infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). Reconocer que esta enfermedad puede presentarse de manera temprana en el embarazo y su relación con la infección por el VHC es fundamental para hacer un diagnóstico oportuno de ambas enfermedades y tomar las conductas terapéuticas adecuadas, mejorando así el pronóstico materno y fetal.


It is of great importance to acknowledge that this disease can occur early in pregnancy and that its relationship with HCV infection is a key point for a prompt diagnosis, allowing taking timely appropriate therapeutic decisions, aimed at improving the fetal prognosis.


Descrevemos os casos de três pacientes com diagnóstico de colestase intra-hepática da gravidez de início precoce. Em dois deles o diagnóstico estava relacionado à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC). Reconhecer que esta doença pode se manifestar precocemente na gravidez e sua relação com a infecção pelo VHC é fundamental para fazer um diagnóstico oportuno de ambas as doenças e assumir condutas terapêuticas adequadas, melhorando assim o prognóstico materno e fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pruritus , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Chlorpheniramine/therapeutic use , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 433-439, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287047

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We sought to describe the prevalence of microcephaly and to compare the different cutoff points established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health at various times during a Zika virus epidemic. As a secondary aim, we investigated the possible etiology of the microcephaly. Method This retrospective study utilized newborn participants in the Zika Cohort Study Jundiaí. Newborns from the Zika Cohort Study Jundiaí with an accurate gestational age determination and complete anthropometric data were analyzed, and microcephaly was diagnosed according to the INTERGROWTH-21st curve. At delivery, fluids were tested for specific antibodies and for viruses. Brain images were evaluated for microcephaly. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted to define the accuracy of different cutoff points for microcephaly diagnosis. Results Of 462 eligible newborns, 19 (4.1%) were positive for microcephaly. Cutoff points corresponding to the curves of the World Health Organization yielded the best sensitivity and specificity. Three of the microcephaly cases (15.8%) were positive for Zika virus infections; nine (47.4%) had intrauterine growth restriction; one had intrauterine growth restriction and was exposed to Zika virus; three had a genetic syndrome (15.8%); and three had causes that had not been determined (15.8%). Conclusions Microcephaly prevalence was 4.1% in this study. Cutoff values determined by the World Health Organization had the highest sensitivity and specificity in relation to the standard IG curve. The main reason for microcephaly was intrauterine growth restriction. All possible causes of microcephaly must be investigated to allow the best development of an affected baby.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Microcephaly/epidemiology
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e531-e535, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292781

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), causada por el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), se convirtió en la primera pandemia del siglo XXI. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 se transmite principalmente a través de las gotículas. Si bien se han informado algunos casos de transmisión perinatal, no es claro si estas infecciones fueron resultado de la vía de contagio transplacentario o transcervical o de la exposición ambiental. En este artículo, presentamos el caso de un recién nacido que falleció por síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda neonatal con compromiso pulmonar grave. El bebé nació por cesárea de una madre con una PCR positiva para COVID-19 y se detectó que tenía una PCR positiva para COVID-19 mediante un hisopado nasofaríngeo en el transcurso de las 24 horas posteriores al parto debido a una sospecha de transmisión transplacentaria del SARS-CoV-2 de la madre al feto.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the first pandemic of the 21st century. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mainly transmitted via droplets. Although some cases of peri-natal transmission have been reported, it is unclear whether these infections occurred via transplacental or transcervical routes or via environmental exposure. Herein, we present the case of a newborn who died with neo-natal acute respiratory distress syndrome exhibiting severe pulmonary involvement. The baby was born to a COVID-19 PCR (+) mother by C-section and was found to be COVID-19 PCR (+) from a nasopharyngeal swab sample tested within 24 hours of birth due to the suspected transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the mother to the fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 384-394, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), which usually leads to non-specific respiratory symptoms. Although pregnant women are considered at risk for respiratory infections by other viruses, such as SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), little is known about their vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this study aims to identify and present the main studies on the topic, including the postpartum period. Methods In this narrative review, articles were searched in various databases, organizations, and health entities using keywords compatible with medical subject headings (MeSH), such as: COVID-19, pregnancy, vertical transmission, coronavirus 2019, and SARS-CoV-2. Results The review of the scientific literature on the subject revealed that pregnant women with COVID-19 did not present clinical manifestations significantly different from those of non-pregnant women; however, there are contraindicated therapies. Regarding fetuses, studies were identified that reported that infection by SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women can cause fetal distress, breathing difficulties and premature birth, but there is no substantial evidence of vertical transmission. Conclusion Due to the lack of adequate information and the limitations of the analyzed studies, it is necessary to provide detailed clinical data on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 and on the maternal-fetal repercussions caused by this infection. Thus, this review may contribute to expand the knowledge of professionals working in the area as well as to guide more advanced studies on the risk related to pregnant women and their newborns. Meanwhile, monitoring of confirmed or suspected pregnant women with COVID-19 is essential, including in the postpartum period.


Resumo Objetivo A Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) é uma doença causada por um coronavírus recém descoberto, o severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), que geralmente leva a sintomas respiratórios não específicos. Embora mulheres grávidas sejam consideradas em risco de infecções respiratórias por outros vírus, como SARS e Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), pouco se sabe sobre sua vulnerabilidade ao SARS-CoV-2. Portanto, este estudo tem como objetivo identificar e apresentar os principais estudos sobre o tema incluindo o período pós-parto. Métodos Nesta revisão narrativa, foram pesquisados artigos em diversas bases de dados, organizações e entidades de saúde, utilizando palavras-chave compatíveis com o MeSH, tais como: COVID-19, gravidez, transmissão vertical, coronavírus 2019, e SARSCoV-2. Resultados A revisão da literatura científica sobre o assunto revelou que as gestantes com COVID-19 não apresentaram manifestações clínicas significativamente diferentes das não gestantes, porém existem terapias contraindicadas. Em relação aos fetos, foramidentificados estudos que relataram que a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 em mulheres grávidas pode causar sofrimento fetal, dificuldades respiratórias e parto prematuro, mas não há evidências substanciais de transmissão vertical. Conclusão Devido à falta de informações adequadas e às limitações dos estudos analisados, é necessário fornecer dados clínicos detalhados sobre as gestantes infectadas pelo SARS-CoV-2 e sobre as repercussões materno-fetais causadas por esta infecção. Assim, esta revisão pode contribuir para ampliar o conhecimento dos profissionais que atuam na área, bem como para orientar estudos mais avançados sobre o risco relacionado à gestante e seu recém-nascido. Enquanto isso, o monitoramento de gestantes confirmadas ou suspeitas com COVID-19 é essencial, incluindo o pós-parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , COVID-19/transmission
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 200-206, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Covid-19 became a pandemic, and researchers have not been able to establish a treatment algorithm. The pregnant population is also another concern for health care professionals. There are physiological changes related to pregnancy that result in different laboratory levels, radiological findings and disease progression. The goal of the present article is to determine whether the laboratory results and radiological findings were different in non-pregnant women (NPWs) of reproductive age and pregnant women (PWs) diagnosed with the Covid-19 infection. Methods Out of 34 patients, 15 (44.11%) PWs and 19 (55.8%) NPWs were included in the study. Age, comorbidities, complaints, vitals, respiratory rates, computed tomography (CT) findings and stages, as well as laboratory parameters, were recorded from the hospital database. Results Themean age of the PWs was of 27.6 ± 0.99 years, and that of the NPWs was of 37.63 ± 2.00; when agewas compared between the groups, a statistically significant difference (p=0.001) was found. The mean systolic blood pressure of the PWs was of 116.53 ± 11.35, and that of the NPWs was of 125.53 ± 13.00, and their difference was statistically significant (p=0.05). The difference in the minimum respiratory rates of the patients was also statistically significant (p=0.05). The platelet levels observed among the PWs with Covid-19 were lower than those of the NPWs (185.40 ± 39.09 x 109/mcL and 232.00 ± 71.04 x 109/mcL respectively; p=0.05). The mean D-dimer value of the PWs was lower in comparison to that of the NPWs (p<0.05). Conclusion The laboratory findings and imaging studiesmay differ between pregnant and non-pregnant populations. It is important to properly interpret these studies. Future studies with a higher number of patients are required to confirm these preliminary data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , COVID-19/blood , Lung/diagnostic imaging
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283958

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a need for studies to know the real situation and outline measures to guarantee a reduction in the rates of pregnant women diagnosed with HIV, Syphilis and Toxoplasmosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Syphilis, HIV and toxoplasmosis in puerperal women assisted at the largest public maternity hospital in Campos dos Goytacazes in 2016. Methods: Cross-sectional study, using secondary data from the puerperal women assisted at the largest maternity hospital in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, in the year 2016. Results: There were 970 puerperal women, with a prevalence of HIV, Syphilis and Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy of 1.6, 2.7 and 2%, respectively. Most pregnant women were diagnosed at delivery due to low serological coverage during pregnancy. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Syphilis, HIV and Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy requires efficient prenatal care for its identification and approach.


Introdução: São necessários estudos para conhecer a real situação e delinear medidas que garantam a redução dos índices de gestantes com diagnóstico de vírus da imunodeficiência humana, sífilis e toxoplasmose. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de sífilis, vírus da imunodeficiência humana e toxoplasmose em puérperas atendidas na maior maternidade pública de Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ) no ano de 2016. Métodos: Estudo transversal, utilizando dados secundários das puérperas atendidas na maior maternidade do Norte Fluminense no ano de 2016. Resultados: Foram 970 puérperas, com prevalência de vírus da imunodeficiência humana, sífilis e toxoplasmose na gestação de 1,6, 2,7 e 2%, respectivamente. A maioria das gestantes foi diagnosticada no momento do parto em razão da baixa cobertura sorológica durante a gestação. Conclusão: A alta prevalência de sífilis, vírus da imunodeficiência humana e toxoplasmose na gravidez requer um pré-natal eficiente para sua identificação e abordagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(8): 595-599, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351765

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To describe the hematological changes, the platelet indices in particular, in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to healthy pregnant women. Methods A retrospective case-control study conducted at the Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, in Baghdad, Iraq, involving 100 pregnant women, 50 with positive viral DNA for COVID-19 (case group), and 50 with negative results (control group); both groups were subjected to a thorough hematological evaluation. Results Among the main hematological variables analyzed, the platelet indices, namely the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), showed statistically significant differences (MPV: 10.87±66.92 fL for the case group versus 9.84±1.2 fL for the control group; PDW: 14.82±3.18 fL for the case group versus 13.3±2.16 fL for the controls). The criterionvalue of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve forPDWat a cutoffpoint of>11.8 fL showed a weak diagnostic marker, while the MPV at a cutoff value of>10.17 fL showed a good diagnostic marker. Conclusion The MPV and PDW are significantly affected by the this viral infection, even in asymptomatic confirmed cases, and we recommend that both parameters be included in the diagnostic panel of this infection.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever as alterações hematológicas, em particular os índices plaquetários em gestantes com doença coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) em comparação com gestantes saudáveis. Métodos Estudo caso-controle retrospectivo realizado no Hospital Universitário Al Yarmouk, em Bagdá, Iraque envolvendo 100 gestantes, 50 com DNA viral positivo para COVID-19 (grupo caso) e 50 com resultados negativos (grupo controle); ambos os grupos foram submetidos a uma avaliação hematológica completa. Resultados Entre as principais variáveis hematológicas analisadas, os índices plaquetários, nomeadamente o volume plaquetário médio (VPM) e a largura de distribuição plaquetária (PDW), apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (VPM: 10,87±66,92 fL para o grupo caso versus 9,84±1.2 fL para o o grupo controle; PDW: 14,82±3,18 fL para o grupo caso versus 13,3±2,16 fL para os controles). O valor de critério da curva de característica de operação do receptor (ROC) para PDW em um ponto de corte de> 11,8 fL mostrou um marcador diagnóstico fraco, enquanto o do VPM emumvalor de corte de> 10,17 fL mostrou um bom marcador de diagnóstico. Conclusão OMPVe PDWsão significativamente afetados por esta infecção viral, mesmo em casos confirmados assintomáticos, e recomendamos que ambos os parâmetros sejam incluídos no painel de diagnóstico desta infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Blood Platelets/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Asymptomatic Diseases , Mean Platelet Volume , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
11.
In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.177-185.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1377617
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020549, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250847

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article summarizes the chapter on epidemiological surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STI) that comprises the 2020 Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT) for Comprehensive Care for People with STI, published by the Health Surveillance Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. It presents some reflections on the new case definitions for surveillance of acquired syphilis, syphilis in pregnant women, and congenital syphilis. The 2020 PCDT-IST was elaborated grounded on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. Epidemiological and clinical aspects are addressed, and health service managers' guidelines regarding programmatic and operational management of these diseases are presented. Guidelines for health professionals on screening, diagnosing, and treating people with STI and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control actions, are also published.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Syphilis, Congenital , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020597, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250846

ABSTRACT

Abstract The topics of congenital syphilis and children exposed to syphilis compose the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Such document was elaborated based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article provides guidelines for syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis clinical management, emphasizing the vertical transmission of Treponema pallidum prevention. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of these infections are presented and recommendations for managers in the programmatic and operational management of syphilis. The article also includes guidelines for health professionals in screening, diagnosing, and treating people with sexually transmitted infections and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions, prevention, and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnostic imaging , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology
14.
Medwave ; 20(11)dic. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146022

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El SARS-CoV-2 tiene una rápida expansión por todo el mundo, sin embargo, su capacidad para causar enfermedad grave no es homogénea según sexo y edad. OBJETIVO: Determinar las características perinatales, morbilidad, mortalidad y resultados serológicos en neonatos de gestantes seropositivas para SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Participaron todos los neonatos cuyas madres presentaron resultado seropositivo para SARS-CoV-2 antes del parto, entre el 15 de abril y 10 de mayo de 2020 en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Perú. Se recogió información materna y neonatal a partir de sus historias clínicas. En el análisis se usó estadística descriptiva y prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 114 neonatos, el 36,8% presentó inmunoglobulinas M y G positivas para SARS-CoV-2; el 7% inmunoglobulinas G y 56,2% fue no reactivo. Las complicaciones obstétricas más frecuentes fueron rotura prematura de membranas (14,9%) y parto pretérmino (8,8%). El 8,8% de los neonatos presentaron un puntaje Apgar al minuto menor o igual a seis, y de ellos solo uno persistió a los cinco minutos; tres neonatos fallecieron. Se evidenció asociación entre el tipo de inmunoglobulina materna y la serología de su recién nacido (p < 0,05). No se observó asociación entre resultados perinatales y el tipo de inmunoglobulinas materna (p > 0,05), ni con los resultados serológicos en el neonato para SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El 43,9% de neonatos de madre seropositiva a SARS-CoV-2 tuvo un resultado serológico positivo, siendo más frecuente de tipo Inmunoglobulinas M e Inmunoglobulinas G. El 10,5% de los neonatos presentó alguna morbilidad, siendo más frecuente prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer y el 2,6% falleció. Los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociadas al tipo de inmunoglobulina de las madres seropositivas a SARS-CoV-2. De igual modo, los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociados a los resultados serológicos en el neonato.


INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly throughout the world. However, its ability to cause severe disease is not homogeneous according to sex and the different age groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine perinatal characteristics, morbidity, mortality, and serological results in neonates from seropositive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. We included all newborns from positive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2, between April 15 and May 10, 2020, who delivered in the National Perinatal Maternal Institute of Peru. The study extracted maternal and neonatal variables collected from the medical charts. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen neonates were identified, 36.8% IgM/IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2, 7% IgG, and 56.2% had negative serology. The obstetric complications were premature rupture of membranes (14.9%) and preterm birth (8,8%). 8.8% of newborns had an Apgar score of less than or equal to six minutes, and of those, only one persisted after five minutes; three newborns died. There was an association between the type of maternal immunoglobulin and the serology of the newborn (p < 0.05). No association was observed between perinatal results and maternal immunoglobulin type (p > 0.05) or serological results in the newborn for SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: 43.9% of seropositive mothers' neonates to SARS-CoV-2 had a positive serological result, more frequently type IgM/IgG. 10.5% of the neonates had some morbidity, more frequent prematurity, low birth weight, and 2.6% died. Perinatal results were not associated with the type of immunoglobulin of mothers seropositive to SARS-CoV-2; similarly, perinatal results were not associated with serological results in the newborn.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 672-683, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144265

ABSTRACT

La prevención de la transmisión vertical de VIH es un desafío para todos los países del mundo. Esto se ve complejizado por la construcción permanente de sociedades globales, con grado variable de población migrante internacional. Las políticas, programas y acciones sanitarias para la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en gestantes migrantes demandan una perspectiva intercultural, en donde se aborden todas las dimensiones sociales, culturales y de género asociadas a la infección. El entender la realidad local en cuanto a la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en población migrante internacional en Chile es esencial para llevar acciones concretas que favorezcan la prevención de transmisión madre-hijo de VIH. En este artículo se presentan algunos conceptos esenciales relacionados a esta temática. También se expone información internacional y nacional sobre riesgos de transmisión vertical de VIH en migrantes gestantes, la importancia del plan nacional de preven ción de transmisión vertical de VIH en nuestro país, y algunos esfuerzos que se están realizando para adaptar dicho plan a la realidad de diversidad social y cultural que migrantes gestantes presentan hoy en Chile, como un valioso insumo de salud pública con perspectiva intercultural.


Preventing vertical transmission of HIV is a challenge for all countries worldwide. The permanent construction of global societies with a variable degree of international migrant population has made it more complex. Health policies, programs, and actions for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in pregnant migrants demand an intercultural perspective, where social, cultural, and gender dimen sions associated with the infection are addressed. Understanding the local reality regarding the pre vention of vertical transmission in the international migrant population in Chile is essential to carry out concrete actions that favor the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This article presents some essential concepts related to this topic. It also presents international and national in formation on risks of vertical transmission in pregnant migrants, the importance of the national plan for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in our country, and some ongoing efforts to adapt such plan to the reality of social and cultural diversity that pregnant migrants currently present in Chile, as a useful public health instrument with an intercultural perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Culturally Competent Care/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Health Policy
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(10): 669-671, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144154

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present report describes the case of a 31-year-old primigravida, with dichorionic twins at 31 weeks. She presented with history of myalgia, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort. No flu-like symptoms as fever or cough. She was not aware of exposure to COVID-19. Normal blood pressure and O2 saturation. Laboratory tests showed platelet count of 218,000 mm3, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 558 IU and serum creatinine 2.3 mg/dl. Doppler ultrasound in one twin was compatible with brain sparing. Partial hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome was the hypothesis, and a cesarean section was performed. On day 2, the white-cell count reached 33,730, with decreased consciousness and mild respiratory distress. Tomography revealed both lungs with ground-glass opacities. Swab for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. Thrombocytopenia in patients with COVID-19 appears to be multifactorial, similar to what occurs in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. We assume that the synergism of these pathophysiological mechanisms could accelerate the compromise of maternal conditions and could be a warning to the obstetric practice.


Resumo O presente relato descreve o caso de uma gestante de 31 anos, gemelar dicoriônica com 31 semanas, com queixa de mialgia, icterícia e desconforto abdominal. A paciente não apresentava sintomas gripais como febre ou tosse e não tinha conhecimento de exposição ao COVID-19. Pressão arterial e saturação de oxigênio normais. Os exames laboratoriais apresentaram contagem de plaquetas de 218,000 mm3, ALT 558 IU e creatinina 2.3 mg/dl. Doppler compatível com centralização de um dos fetos. Síndrome de hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP) parcial foi a hipótese diagnóstica inicial e a cesariana foi realizada. No segundo dia, a paciente apresentou leucócitos de 33.730 com queda do nível de consciência e desconforto respiratório leve. A tomografia revelou opacidade pulmonar em vidro fosco bilateralmente. A pesquisa de COVID-19 por polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/swab teve resultado positivo. Trombocitopenia em pacientes com COVID-19 é multifatorial, semelhante ao que ocorre na pré-eclâmpsia e na síndrome HELLP. Acreditamos que o sinergismo da fisiopatologia das doenças em questão pode acelerar o comprometimento materno e deve servir de alerta para a prática obstétrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Gestational Age , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , Pregnancy, Twin , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 562-568, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy. Methods Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID- 19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included. Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of pretermbirth and C-section. Vertical transmission


Resumo Objetivo A presente revisão detalhada busca fornecer dados objetivos para avaliar o que se sabe até o momento e possibilitar uma visãomais ampla dos efeitos do SARSCoV2 na gravidez. Métodos Entre 29 demarço e 2 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed e Google Scholar com as palavras COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 e gravidez, SARS-CoV2 e gravidez, e SARS e gravidez. As recomendações dos principais órgãos sobre o tema também foram acessadas. Conclusão O surto de COVID-19 resultou em uma pandemia com> 3.3 milhões de casos e 230 mil mortes até 2 de maio. É uma condição causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV2 e pode levar ao acometimento pulmonar difuso e à falência de múltiplos órgãos. Características únicas da gestante tornam essa população mais propensas a complicações de infecções virais. Até o momento, essa tendência não foi observada para esse novo vírus. Os fatores que parecem estar associados à maior morbidade materno-fetal são obesidade (índice demassa corporal [IMC] > 35), asma e doença cardiovascular. Há descrição de aumento de parto prematuro e parto cesáreo. Não se pode descartar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical da doença, devido a relatos de positividade de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RT-PCR) de swab nasal, RT-PCR de líquido amniótico e imunoglobulina M (IgM) de recém-nascidos. Tratamentos devem ser analisados caso a caso, dada a falta de qualidade de estudos que comprovem a sua eficácia e segurança na gravidez. O corpo clínico deve utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) ao manusear pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados e ficar atento aos sinais de descompensação respiratória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S2-S8, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138642

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: El Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa y que puede ser transmitida por pacientes asintomáticos. Por esto surge el interés de poder determinar la prevalencia de la infección por SARS-Cov-2 en pacientes embarazadas que ingresan para interrupción de la gestación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, retrospectivo en el Servicio de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Hospital de Carabineros de Chile entre el 15 de mayo y el 30 junio del 2020. Se incluyeron todas las mujeres embarazadas que ingresaron para interrupción de la gestación, a las que se les realizó el examen PCR SARS-CoV-2; y una encuesta de signos y síntomas sugerentes de la enfermedad. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 73 interrupciones de la gestación, con toma de PCR a 72 mujeres; de estas pacientes 65 (90.3%) fueron negativas, 5 (6.9%) positivas y 2 (2.8%) indeterminadas; los resultados indeterminados fueron considerados como positivos, por lo que la prevalencia de positividad fue de 9,5%. De estas pacientes, sólo 1 de ellas tenía síntomas sugerentes de la enfermedad, todas las demás (6) eran pacientes asintomáticas, y se mantuvieron así durante toda la hospitalización. CONCLUSIÓN: La realización del examen PCR para SARS-CoV-2 a todas las embarazadas que ingresan a un servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia ayuda a identificar a las pacientes asintomáticas contagiadas con el virus. Ya que la consulta por presencia de signos y síntomas no permite identificar los casos positivos, es necesario considerar la realización de este examen en los protocolos de ingreso hospitalario a lo largo de nuestro país.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARSCoV-2) is a highly contagious disease that can be transmitted by asymptomatic patients. Therefore, is of interest to determine the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 infection in pregnant patients entering for interruption. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective analysis was performed in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Service of the Hospital de Carabineros de Chile between May 15 and June 30, 2020. Pregnant women who entered for interruption of their pregnancy and who were given the SARS-CoV-2 PCR exam were included. A survey of signs and symptoms suggestive of the disease was applied. RESULTS: There were 73 pregnancy interruptions, 72 of them were tested by SARS-CoV-2 PCR exam. Among these patients, 65 (90.3%) resulted negative, 5 (6.9%), were positive and 2 (2.8%) were indeterminate; indeterminate results were considered positive, so the prevalence of positivity was 9.5%. Of these patients only 1 had symptoms suggestive of the disease, all the others (6) were asymptomatic, and remained so throughout the hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Conducting the PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 for all pregnant women entering a Gynecology and Obstetrics service helps to identify asymptomatic patients infected with the virus. As a survey of signs and symptoms cannot identify positive patiens, it is necessary to consider conducting universal screeing in hospital admission protocols throughout our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics
19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S50-S58, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138648

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En comparación con pandemias anteriores por otros virus, el SARS-CoV-2 ha afectado a la población obstétrica en menor número, por lo que registrar la historia clínica en pacientes con COVID 19 de nuestra población se hacía imperativo. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal no analítico en la maternidad del Hospital El Pino. Se realizaron test PCR para SARS-CoV-2 entre abril y junio del 2020 a todas las usuarias con: (1) síntomas sugerentes de COVID 19, (2) antecedente de contacto estrecho o (3) que requiera hospitalización independientemente del motivo. En ellas se analizaron variables demográficas, evolución clínica y se estimaron "outcomes" obstétricos. RESULTADOS: Se tomaron 409 PCR y de éstas 365 en población obstétrica alcanzando en ella una incidencia acumulada de positividad de 19.7%. El 55.6% (40 pacientes) asintomáticas, 4.2% (9 pacientes) contacto estrecho y 40.3% (29 pacientes) sintomáticas. De estas pacientes la mayoría resulto ser de nacionalidad chilena (79.2%) con una prevalencia de HTA y DM tipo 1 o 2 entre el 8-10%. La media de la edad gestacional en la cual se realizó el diagnóstico fue en el 3er trimestre y la del momento del parto fue de 37.1 semanas (+/-3.9). Los síntomas más comunes presentados fueron tos, cefalea y mialgias; sin embargo, 7 requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos. En el seguimiento de usuarias asintomáticas 6,9% y 2,8% presentaron síntomas al día 7 y 14 respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La pandemia SARS-CoV-2 ha afectado la población obstetrica de igual manera, presentandose en su mayoría de forma asintomática, destacando la importancia del screening universal a la hora de hospitalizar nuestras usuarias y evitar transmisión intrahospitalaria.


INTRODUCTION: Compared to previous pandemics caused by other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 has affected the obstetric population in a smaller number, thus recording the medical history in patients with COVID 19 in our population became imperative. METHODOLOGY: A non-analytical, cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the maternity section of Hospital El Pino. PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed between April and June 2020 to all patients with: (1) symptoms suggestive of COVID 19, (2) a history of close contact or (3) requiring hospitalization regardless of motive. In them, demographic variables, clinical evolution were analysed and obstetric outcomes were estimated. RESULTS: 409 PCR were taken, raising a cumulative incidence of positivity of 19.7%. 55.6% (40 patients) were asymptomatic, 4.2% (9 patients) were close contact and 40.3% (29 patients) symptomatic. Within these patients, the majority turned out to be Chilean (79.2%) with a prevalence of HT and DM type 1 or 2 between 8-10%. The average of the gestational age at which the diagnosis was made was in the 3rd trimester and that of the moment of delivery was 37.1 weeks (+/- 3.9). The most common symptoms presented were cough, headache and myalgia, however, 7 patients required admission to the intensive care unit. In the monitoring stage of asyntomatic patients, 6.9% and 2.8% had symptoms on day 7 and 14 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected the obstetric population with no difference, with the majority presenting asymptomatic, fact which highlights the importance of universal screening when hospitalizing our users and avoiding intra-hospital transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Signs and Symptoms , Pregnancy Outcome , Chile , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Hospitals , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S106-S110, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138655

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ha tenido repercusión también en nuestra región. Las embarazadas constituyen un grupo especial dentro de la población. Casos Clínicos: Se reportan 6 casos de pacientes embarazadas interrumpidas en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren hasta Julio de 2020 con PCR positivo para SARS-CoV-2, donde una cursó con neumonía grave, 3 con síntomas leves y 2 asintomáticas. El 100% fue interrumpido por cesárea. 50% de los recién nacidos fue ingresado a neonatología. En ninguno se evidenció transmisión vertical. Conclusiones: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 no constituye una indicación inmediata por cesárea, sin embargo, se ha visto un gran aumento. No se ha observado clara evidencia de transmisión vertical, pero faltan estudios de mejor calidad.


Introduction: The pandemic caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has also had repercussions in our region. Among others, pregnant women constitute a special group within the affected population. Clinical Cases: There are 6 reported cases of pregnant patients interrupted in Hospital Carlos Van Buren are reported until July 2020 with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, where one was treated with severe pneumonia, 3 with mild symptoms and 2 were asymptomatic. The 100% was interrupted by caesarean section. 50% of the newborns were admitted to neonatology. Vertical transmission was not evident in any of them. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection is not an immediate indication for cesarean section. However, a considerable increase in the tendency for the surgery has been observed. No clear evidence of vertical transmission has been observed, but better quality studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus , Apgar Score , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics
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