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Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782254


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies examined the association between fried food intake and hypertension. This study examined whether fried food intake was associated with higher prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension combined in a cross-sectional study of the Filipino Women's Diet and Health Study (FiLWHEL).SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included a total of 428 women aged 20–57 years who have ever been married to Korean men. Prehypertension was defined as 120 - < 140 mmHg of SBP or 80 - < 90 mmHg of DBP and hypertension as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Fried food intake was assessed using one-day 24-hour recall. Fried foods were categorized into total, deep/shallow and pan/stir fried foods. The odds ratio (OR)s and 95% confidence interval (CI)s were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.RESULTS: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension combined was 41.36% in this population. High fried food intake was associated with high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension combined. The odds of having prehypertension and hypertension was higher in the 3rd tertile of fried food intake among fried food consumers compared to non-fried food consumers (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.24, 4.87; P for trend = 0.004). Separate analysis for types of frying showed that deep and shallow fried food intake was associated with prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension combined for comparing the 3rd tertile vs. non-fried food consumers (OR = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.57-5.47; P for trend = < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the evidence that high fried food intake was significantly associated with high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension combined among Filipino women married to Korean men.

Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Eating , Emigrants and Immigrants , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Prehypertension , Prevalence
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811450


PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between physical activity (measured using an accelerometer vs. self-reported) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Differences in accelerometry physical activity between 10-minute bouts and total bouts were also compared.METHODS: Data originated from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to predict cardiovascular disease risk from physical activity levels.RESULTS: Self-reported physical activity could not significantly predict the odds of having cardiovascular risk. However, the insufficiently active group classified according to the total-bout physical activity had significantly greater odds of having hypertension or prehypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00–1.82), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.01–3.19), and dyslipidemia (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17–2.36) than the highly active group. Regarding the 10-minute bout physical activity, the inactive group had significantly greater odds of having only hypertension or prehypertension (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02–2.76) than the highly active group.CONCLUSION: Total-bout physical activity measured using an accelerometer could significantly predict the cardiovascular disease risk compared to 10-minute bout physical activity. However, self-reported physical activity could not significantly predict the cardiovascular disease risk.

Accelerometry , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Motor Activity , Nutrition Surveys , Prehypertension , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Self Report
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(2): 96-102, abr.-junh. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-994667


Fundamento: A pré-hipertensão e a hipertensão estágio I estão associadas ao remodelamento do ventrículo esquerdo (VE). No presente estudo, comparamos os parâmetros ecocardiográficos de lesão de órgãos-alvo pré-clínicos da hiper-tensão arterial em indivíduos com pré hipertensão e hipertensão estágio I selecionados a partir da mesma população. Métodos: Comparou-se as medidas ecocardiográficas basais dos participantes incluídos no estudo PREVER com pré-hi-pertensão (PREVER-prevention; n = 106) ou hipertensão estágio I (PREVER-treatment; n = 128). Investigou-se também as diferenças relacionadas ao sexo, verificadas nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica média mostrou-se significativamente maior no grupo hipertensão estágio I (141,0/90,4 mmHg) quando comparada com o grupo pré-hipertensão (129,3/81,5 mmHg, P<0,001 para ambos os grupos). A média de idade foi de 55 anos (30 a 70), com um número quase igual de homens e mulheres, dos quais 80% eram brancos e 7% tinham diabetes. A maioria dos parâmetros de massa do VE, dimensão do AE e função diastólica mostrou-se semelhante entre os grupos pré-hipertensão e hipertensão estágio I. Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentavam AE com maior diâmetro e maior espessura da parede posterior, além de menores velocidades laterais e, mesmo após ajuste para idade, sexo e índice de massa corporal. A análise em relação ao sexo mostrou VE com maior massa na hipertensão estágio I em comparação à pré-hipertensão apenas em mulheres (141,1 ± 34,1 gvs. 126,1 ± 29,1 g, P<0,05). Conclusões: Em indivíduos de meia-idade com baixo risco cardiovascular, as diferenças nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos relacionadas à lesão de órgãos-alvo são sutis entre a pré-hipertensão e a hipertensão estágio I, embora mulheres com hipertensão estágio I tenham VE com massa significativamente maior, o que pode indicar resposta adaptativa específica do sexo à pressão arterial em estágios iniciais de hipertensão

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Prehypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Cardiovascular Diseases , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Arterial Pressure , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 794-807, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-759478


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population. Many cardiovascular diseases and concomitant conditions increase the risk of the development of AF, recurrent AF, and AF-associated complications. Knowledge of these factors and their management is hence important for the optimal management of patients with AF. Recent studies have suggested that lowering the blood pressure threshold can improve the patients' outcome. Moreover, adverse events associated with a longer duration of hypertension can be prevented through strict blood pressure control. Pre-hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, weight fluctuation, and exposure to air pollution are related to the development of AF. Finally, female sex is not a risk factor of stroke, and the age threshold for stroke prevention should be lowered in Asian populations. The management of diseases related to AF should be provided continuously, whereas lifestyle factors should be monitored in an integrated manner.

Air Pollution , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atrial Fibrillation , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fasting , Female , Glucose , Humans , Hypertension , Life Style , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Prehypertension , Risk Factors , Stroke
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786289


BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria (MA) is a predictor for diabetic nephropathy and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic nephropathy can be prevented by blood glucose and blood pressure control. Koreans have been found to have a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, despite having normal weights. It is necessary to consider obesity status in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to determine the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity status in prediabetes.METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in 1,183 prediabetes, aged 30-70 years with fasting blood glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c levels of 5.7–6.4% who health examinees at 16 health promotion centers from 2015 to 2016. Study subjects were classified according to obesity and hypertension. Obesity is defined as body mass index of ≥25 kg/m². Blood pressure was categorized as follows: normal blood pressure, <120/80 mmHg; prehypertension, 120–139/80–89 mmHg; and hypertension, ≥140/90 mmHg. We analyzed the relationship between MA and hypertension according to obesity using multivariable logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: While both prehypertensive and hypertensive subgroups were significantly associated with MA in the nonobese, the hypertensive subgroup was only associated with MA in the obese. In the combined effects of obesity and hypertension, prediabetes with normal weight and hypertension had the highest risk of MA (adjusted odds ratio, 6.39; 95% confidence interval, 2.90–14.10) compared to those with nonobese and normal blood pressure.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nonobese prediabetes with hypertension would need to be more concerned about MA than do obese prediabetes with hypertension.

Albuminuria , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetic Nephropathies , Fasting , Health Promotion , Hypertension , Logistic Models , Mortality , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Prediabetic State , Prehypertension , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 328-332, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-973663


Introducción. La hipertensión enmascarada (HE) en niños se define por registros de presión arterial normal en la consulta y elevados fuera de ella. El monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial de 24 horas (MAPA) permite su diagnóstico. Existe poca información sobre su prevalencia en nuestra población. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de HE en niños con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial. Material y método. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, corte transversal. Se incluyeron en forma consecutiva pacientes asistidos en el Hospital General de Niños P. de Elizalde entre 1/7/2015 y 1/12/2016, de 5 a 11 años, con presión arterial normal y, al menos, un factor de riesgo para hipertensión arterial. Se realizó MAPA durante 24 horas (SpaceLabs 90207/90217). Muestra estimada: 110 pacientes. Se contó con las aprobaciones pertinentes. Resultados. Se incluyeron 110 pacientes, edad de 8,7 ± 1,8 años, 60 mujeres. Tiempo de MAPA: 23,18 ± 1,8 horas. Tenían antecedentes neonatales 23 pacientes; todos tenían, al menos, un antecedente personal (los más frecuentes, ingesta aumentada de sal y obesidad); 101 tenían, al menos, un antecedente familiar. El MAPA permitió identificar a 10 pacientes con HE (9,1%; IC 95%: 5,1-15,9); 7 con hipertensión nocturna aislada (6,4%; IC 95%: 3,1-23,5) y 28, prehipertensión (25,4%; IC 95%: 18,2-34,3). Los 10 pacientes con HE fueron 7 varones, 9 obesos y con, al menos, un antecedente familiar. Conclusión. La prevalencia de HE en niños con factores de riesgo de desarrollar hipertensión arterial fue cercana al 10%.

Introduction. Masked hypertension (MH) in children is defined as normal office blood pressure values and high values outside the clinical setting. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is helpful for diagnosis. There is little information on MH prevalence in our population. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of MH in children with risk factors for arterial hypertension. Material and method. Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Patients seen at Hospital General de Niños "P. de Elizalde" between July 1st, 2015 and December 1st, 2016, aged 5-11 years, with normal blood pressure and at least one risk factor for arterial hypertension were included in consecutive order. A 24-hour ABPM was done (SpaceLabs 90207/90217). Estimated sample: 110 patients. All relevant authorizations were obtained. Results. One hundred and ten patients aged 8.7 ± 1.8 years were included; 60 were girls. ABPM duration: 23.18 ± 1.8 hours. Twenty-three patients had neonatal history; all had at least one factor corresponding to personal history (the most common ones were increased salt intake and obesity); 101 had at least one factor corresponding to family history. ABPM helped to identify 10 patients with MH (9.1%; 95% confidence interval --1;CI--3;: 5.1-15.9); 7 had isolated nocturnal hypertension (6.4%; 95% CI: 3.1-23.5) and 28 had prehypertension (25.4%; 95% CI: 18.234.3). Among the 10 patients with MH, 7 were boys, 9 were obese and had at least one factor corresponding to family history. Conclusion. The prevalence of MH in children with risk factors for arterial hypertension was close to 10%.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Masked Hypertension/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Family Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Prehypertension/epidemiology , Masked Hypertension/diagnosis
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 311-320, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-902292


Introducción: la hipertensión arterial es la más común de las condiciones que afectan mundialmente la salud de los individuos adultos, por lo que es importante que aumente la percepción de riesgo desde edades pediátricas. Objetivo: diseñar un proyecto de intervención educativa en adolescentes de la ESBU "Antonio Rodríguez", de Colón, para prevenir la hipertensión arterial en edades adultas y promover estilos de vida y entornos saludables. Materiales y métodos: constituyó un corte de un proyecto comunitario del Policlínico "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, durante febrero-mayo de 2016. La muestra fueron 158 adolescentes, de 9no grado, de la ESBU "Antonio Rodríguez" del municipio Colón. Se efectuaron las mediciones correspondientes y se elaboró una encuesta para la recogida de datos. Se estudiaron las variables siguientes: edad, sexo, raza, índice de masa corporal, hábitos tóxicos y hábitos alimentarios. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino y los estudiantes de raza blanca. Se diagnosticaron 58 pre-hipertensos y 3 hipertensos grado 1, que se estudiaron y trataron. Los factores de riesgo alimentario más frecuentes fueron la ingestión de potasio, calcio y sodio de riesgo. El tabaquismo pasivo prevaleció, y aunque, el estado nutricional normal fue el más frecuente, resultó alarmante el número de adolescentes bajo peso. Conclusiones: los malos hábitos alimentarios y estilos de vida poco saludables fueron los factores de riesgo que más incidieron en los adolescentes de la muestra estudiada (AU).

Background: arterial hypertension is the most common of the conditions that affect health of adult persons all over the world, therefore it is very important to increase risk perception since pediatric ages. Objective: to design a project of educative intervention in teenagers from "Antonio Rodríguez" secondary school in the municipality of Colón to prevent arterial hypertension in adult ages and to promote healthy life styles and surroundings. Materials and methods: it was made a cut of a communitarian project of the polyclinic "Dr Carlos J. Finlay". A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out during the period February-May 2016. The sample were 158 ninth-grade teenagers belonging to "Antonio Rodríguez" secondary school of Colón municipality. The corresponding measures were taken and an inquiry was elaborated for collecting data. The studied variables were the following: age, sex, race, corporal mass index, toxic habits, and alimentary habits. Results: the female sex and white students predominated. 58 pre-hypertensive students and 3 grade-1 hypertensive ones were diagnosed. They were studied and treated. The most frequent alimentary risk factors were the ingestion of risk levels of potassium, calcium and sodium. Passive smoking prevailed and, although the normal nutritional status was the most frequent, it was alarming the number of low weight teenagers. Conclusions: bad alimentary habits and unhealthy life styles were the risk factors that stroke the most on the teenagers of the studied sample (AU).

Humans , Adolescent , Primary Health Care , School Health Services , Health Education , Risk Factors , Prehypertension , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Social Planning , Health Programs and Plans , Local Strategies , Epidemiologic Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Community Health Services , Population Education , Early Medical Intervention , Public Health Surveillance , Healthy Lifestyle , Life Style/ethnology
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-717595


BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of blood pressure (BP) with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and cadmium and lead together (cadmium + lead) in a representative sample of adolescents from Korea. METHODS: We used 2010–2016 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This cross-sectional study enrolled adolescents aged at 10–18 years-old who completed a health examination survey and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. The association of adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic BP with doubling of blood lead and cadmium were estimated by regression of BP against log2-transformed blood metals and their quartiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratio for prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their quartiles. RESULTS: Our analysis of adolescents in Korea indicated that blood levels of lead and cadmium were not significantly associated with increased BP or risk of prehypertension. However, the cadmium + lead level was associated with prehypertension. Previous studies showed that blood levels of lead and cadmium were associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension in adult populations. We found no such association in Korean adolescents. CONCLUSION: We found that the cadmium + lead level was associated with prehypertension. The differences between adults and adolescents are because adolescents generally have lower levels of these blood metals or because adolescents only rarely have hypertension.

Adolescent , Adult , Blood Pressure , Cadmium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Metals , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Prehypertension
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-742002


OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents and to find the relationship between an increase of body mass index and waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP). METHODS: Four hundred twenty-nine adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 at high school in Seoul were enrolled and their anthropometric data and body composition were measured. BP was measured by oscillometric devices at least twice. Hypertension was defined according to the normative BP reference for Korean children and adolescents. RESULTS: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 14.0%, 9.2% in boys and 9.0%, 10.2% in girls. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 9.0%, 6.0% in the normal body mass index group, 14.6 %, 16.7% in the overweight group, 21.7%, 29.8% in the obese group. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 3.6% in the normal group, 12.5% in the overweight group and 29.8% in the obese group. However, the prevalence of diastolic hypertension had significant differences between the groups, which were 3.3% in the normal group, 6.3% in the overweight group and 4.3% in the obese group. According to WC, the prevalence of hypertension was 6.2% in the below 75th percentile WC group, 22.2% in the75th to 90th percentile WC group and 25.6% in ≥90th percentile WC group. The risk of hypertension was 5.55 times higher in the obese group and 2.04 times higher in the overweight group, 3.93 times higher in ≥90th percentile of WC group. CONCLUSION: The risk of hypertension is markedly increased with obesity in high school students.

Adolescent , Blood Pressure , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Overweight , Prehypertension , Prevalence , Seoul , Waist Circumference
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-741756


OBJECTIVES: The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) established 4 health centers to provide hypertension screening and a health support program in a deprived urban area of Lima, Peru. This case report provides a mid-term evaluation of the KOICA’s hypertension prevention and control programs. METHODS: A follow up study was performed on 663 residents who were diagnosed with prehypertension or hypertension (Stage 1 and 2) in the 4 KOICA health centers. Patients participated in programs designed to prevent and control hypertension through education sessions over the course of 6 months. Using simple descriptive statistics and computer simulations, we evaluated the effect of hypertension prevention and control programs on the participants. RESULTS: The KOICA health programs appeared to significantly contribute to lowering the blood pressure (BP) of the participants. The total number of participants with normal BP increased from none to 109. Overall, the female and younger patients responded better to the KOICA programs than the male and older participants. In addition, the average systolic BP, diastolic BP, and body mass index of all participants was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: The KOICA programs were effective at lowering blood pressure, particularly amongst the prehypertension group than the Stage 1 and 2 hypertension groups. This suggests that providing an extensive screening service for adults with prehypertension will help control hypertension in the early stages.

Adult , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Computer Simulation , Education , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , International Cooperation , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Peru , Prehypertension
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018026-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-721371


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-hypertension and its sub-classification on the development of diabetes. METHODS: In this cohort study, 2,941 people 40 to 64 years old without hypertension or diabetes were followed from 2009 through 2014. According to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC)-7 criteria, we classified participants into normal and pre-hypertension groups. The effect of pre-hypertension on the 5-year incidence rate of diabetes was studied using inverse probability of treatment weighting. We modeled the exposure and censored cases given confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, economic status, and education. RESULTS: The 5-year incidence rate of diabetes among people with pre-hypertension and those with normal blood pressure (BP) was 12.7 and 9.7%, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) for people with pre-hypertension was estimated to be 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.41). The RRs among people with normal BP and high-normal BP, according to the JNC-6 criteria, compared to those with optimal BP were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.25) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that participants who had higher levels of BP (high-normal compared to optimal BP) had a higher risk of diabetes development. With regard to the quantitative nature of BP, using the specifically distinguishing of stage 1 hypertension or high-normal BP may be a more meaningful categorization for diabetes risk assessment than the JNC-7 classification.

Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Classification , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Education , Hypertension , Incidence , Iran , Joints , Models, Structural , Odds Ratio , Prehypertension , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Smoke , Smoking
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018026-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786847


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-hypertension and its sub-classification on the development of diabetes.METHODS: In this cohort study, 2,941 people 40 to 64 years old without hypertension or diabetes were followed from 2009 through 2014. According to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC)-7 criteria, we classified participants into normal and pre-hypertension groups. The effect of pre-hypertension on the 5-year incidence rate of diabetes was studied using inverse probability of treatment weighting. We modeled the exposure and censored cases given confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, economic status, and education.RESULTS: The 5-year incidence rate of diabetes among people with pre-hypertension and those with normal blood pressure (BP) was 12.7 and 9.7%, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) for people with pre-hypertension was estimated to be 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.41). The RRs among people with normal BP and high-normal BP, according to the JNC-6 criteria, compared to those with optimal BP were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.25) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that participants who had higher levels of BP (high-normal compared to optimal BP) had a higher risk of diabetes development. With regard to the quantitative nature of BP, using the specifically distinguishing of stage 1 hypertension or high-normal BP may be a more meaningful categorization for diabetes risk assessment than the JNC-7 classification.

Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Classification , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Education , Hypertension , Incidence , Iran , Joints , Models, Structural , Odds Ratio , Prehypertension , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Smoke , Smoking
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 90 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-882680


Introdução: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), destaca-se entre as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) por ser a mais prevalente entre idosos. Objetivos: Estimar a prevalência de pré-hipertensão, HAS não diagnosticada, controlada e não controlada de idosos na cidade de São Paulo; descrever suas condições de vida e saúde; motivos de não realização de tratamento, verificar a associação entre tipos de tratamento e controle; analisar fatores associados ao diagnóstico e controle da HAS. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional utilizando dados do Estudo SABE Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento, coletados em 2010. Foram avaliados 1233 idosos, classificados em cinco grupos de acordo com a medida de pressão arterial e realização ou não de tratamento: 1) normotensos, 2) pré-hipertensos, 3) hipertensos sem diagnóstico, 4) controlados e 5) não controlados. Foram realizadas análises descritivas por meio de proporções e médias ponderadas, e regressão logística para avaliar os fatores associados à presença de hipertensão não diagnosticada, diagnosticada, e não controlada. As análises foram realizadas no software estatístico Stata 13.0 em modo survey. Resultados: Na população de idosos da cidade de São Paulo, a prevalência de hipertensão foi de 79,4 por cento (sendo 43,2 por cento hipertensos controlados e 56,7 por cento não controlados). 11,4 por cento dos hipertensos não referiram ter a doença no momento da avaliação. A prevalência de pré-hipertensão foi de 12 por cento. Idosos de até 69 anos foram observados com mais frequência entre os normotensos e pré-hipertensos, enquanto os mais velhos foram frequentemente observados entre os hipertensos com diagnóstico. As mulheres apresentaram maiores frequências de hipertensão controlada, enquanto os homens apresentaram maiores frequências de não diagnóstico e não controle. Os fatores associados a hipertensão não controlada foram: sexo feminino (OR:0,67; IC:0,46;0,97), utilizar o SUS (OR:1,37; IC:0,99;1,89) e ser viúvo (OR:1,74; 1,20;2,52) e consultas no último ano (OR:0,52; IC:0,28;0,94). Os fatores associados a hipertensão não diagnosticada foram: ser moreno, mulato e pardo (OR:2,21; IC:1,21; 3,96), consultas no último ano (OR: 0,52; IC:0,27;0,99), ser ex-fumante (OR: 2,34; IC:1,28; 4,26), ter sobrepeso (OR: 2,45; IC:1,09;5,51), ser usuário do SUS (OR:1,75; IC:1,01; 3,03), e ter pelo menos uma DCNT (OR: 0,28; IC:0,13;0,59). Foram associados com a HAS diagnosticada: faixa etária (OR: 2,03; IC:1,34;3,08 para pessoas de 70 a 79 anos e OR: 2,59; IC: 1,61;4,17 para pessoas de 80 anos ou mais), utilizar o SUS (OR: 1,67; IC:1,15;2,43), consultas no último ano (OR: 1,78; IC:1,62;3,13), ser ex-fumante (OR: 1,79; IC:1,17;2,76), ser obeso (OR: 2,49; IC:1,61;3,86) e ter pelo menos uma DCNT (OR: 2,70; IC:1,85;3,94). Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos fornecem informações representativas sobre as condições de vida e saúde dos idosos da cidade. A prevalência da doença nos idosos de São Paulo foi mais alta que em outras partes do país, e uma parte da população idosa com pressão arterial elevada não possui diagnóstico médico de HAS. Idosos com excesso de peso e outras doenças crônicas frequentam mais serviços de saúde e apresentam maiores chances de ter a doença diagnosticada, enquanto homens entre 60 e 69 anos são observados com mais frequência entre os não diagnosticados. Usuários do SUS e viúvos apresentaram chances elevadas para a doença não controlada

Background: Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) stands out among chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCD) for being the most prevalent among the elderly population. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of prehypertension, undiagnosed, controlled and uncontrolled SAH in the elderly living in São Paulo; to describe their life and health conditions; to describe the reasons for not having treatment, to evaluate the association between types of treatment and control; to analyze the associated factors with diagnosis and control of SAH. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study using data from the SABE Study - Health, Well-Being and Aging, collected in 2010. A total of 1233 elderly subjects were classified into five groups according to blood pressure measurement and treatment or non-treatment: 1) normotensive, 2) prehypertensive, 3) hypertensive without previous diagnosis, 4) controlled hypertension and 5) uncontrolled hypertension. Descriptive analyzes were performed by means of weighted proportions, and logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the factors associated with the presence of undiagnosed, diagnosed, and uncontrolled hypertension. All analyzes were performed in statistical software Stata 13.0 in survey mode. Results: In the elderly population of São Paulo, the prevalence of hypertension was 79.4 per cent (43.2 per cent were controlled and 56.7 per cent were uncontrolled). 11.4 per cent of the hypertensive elderly did not report having the disease at the time of the evaluation. In addition, the prevalence of prehypertension was 12 per cent. Elderly patients up to age 69 were observed more frequently among normotensive and prehypertensive subjects, while older subjects were frequently observed among hypertensive with diagnosis. Women had higher frequencies of controlled hypertension, while the men presented higher frequencies of non-diagnosis and non-control. The factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension were: being female (OR:0,67; CI:0,46;0,97), being uninsured (OR: 1,37; CI:0,99;1,89), widowhood (OR:1,74; CI:1,20;2,52) and medical consultations in the last year (OR:0,52; CI:0,28;0,94). The factors associated with undiagnosed hypertension were: being brown or mulatto (OR: 2,21; CI:1,23;3,96), medical consultation in the last year (OR: 0,52; CI:0,27;0,99), being a former -smoker (OR: 2,34; CI:1,28;4,26), being overweight (OR: 2,45; CI:1,09;5,51), uninsured (OR:1,75; CI:1,01;3,03) and having at least one CNCD (OR: 0,28; CI:013;0,59). Age (OR: 2,03; CI:1,34;3,08 for people aged 70 to 79 years and OR: 2,59; CI:1,61;3,86 for people aged 80 years or over), being uninsured (OR: 1,67; CI:1,15;2,43), (OR: 1,78; CI:1,62;3,13), former smoker (OR: 1,79; CI:1,17; 2,76), being obese (OR: 2,49; CI:1,61;3,86) and having at least one CNCD (OR: 2,70; CI:1,85;3,94). Conclusion: The results provide representative information on the life and health conditions of the elderly in the city of Sao Paulo. The prevalence of the disease in the elderly of São Paulo was higher than in other parts of the country, and a portion of this population had high blood pressure without medical diagnosis of SAH. People with chronic diseases and overweight are more likely to be diagnosed due the frequency of medical services, while men between the ages of 60 and 69 are more likely to be undiagnosed. Uninsured elderlies and widows presented higher odds for the uncontrolled disease

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aging , Health of the Elderly , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Prehypertension
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 637-651, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-738727


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Supervised lifestyle interventions, including dietary and exercise programs, may be infeasible to implement in real-world settings. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based lifestyle modification intervention on blood pressure (BP) management. METHODS: Eighty-five patients aged over 20 years and diagnosed with prehypertension or mild hypertension were randomly assigned to an advice-only comparison group (C group, n=28), a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet education group (D group, n=30), or a DASH and home-based exercise group (D+Ex group, n=27). The intervention lasted for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference in office systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after the study period (Trial registry at, NCT01637909). RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (87.8%) completed the trial. The degree of change in office SBP did not significantly differ among the intervention groups; however, the D+Ex group demonstrated a tendency toward decreased SBP. Upon analysis of 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements, daytime ambulatory SBP was significantly lower in the D+Ex group (134 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 131 to 137; p=0.011) than in the C group (139.5 mmHg; 95% CI, 130.9 to 137), and daytime ambulatory SBP was significantly decreased in the D+Ex group (−5.2 mmHg; 95% CI, −8.3 to −2.1; p=0.011) compared to the C group (0.4 mmHg, 95% CI, −2.5 to 3.3). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, lifestyle modification emphasizing both diet and exercise was effective for lowering BP and should be favored over diet-only modifications.

Blood Pressure , Diet , Education , Humans , Hypertension , Life Style , Prehypertension
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(10): e00139516, oct. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-952327


Resumo: A pré-hipertensão arterial é precursora da hipertensão arterial e fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Populações vulneráveis estão mais propensas a esse tipo de agravo devido às dificuldades de acesso aos serviços de saúde. Pesquisa anterior realizada em comunidades quilombolas reportou elevada prevalência de hipertensão arterial. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar a prevalência de pré-hipertensão em quilombolas e avaliar fatores associados. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de base populacional realizado com indivíduos com 18 anos ou mais. A pré-hipertensão foi definida como pressão arterial sistólica ≥ 121mmHg e < 140mmHg e/ou diastólica ≥ 81mmgH e < 90mmHg. Empregou-se análise multivariada valendo-se de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Também foram calculadas frações atribuíveis populacionais (FAPs) para os fatores associados modificáveis. A prevalência de pré-hipertensão foi de 55% (IC95%: 50,2-59,7). O sexo masculino (RP = 1,54), a escolaridade de 1-4 anos completos de estudos (RP = 1,44) e as categorias de IMC sobrepeso (RP = 1,39) e obesidade (RP = 1,87) apresentaram associação positiva com a pré-hipertensão. Maiores frações atribuíveis foram observadas entre os indivíduos com escolaridade de 1-4 anos de estudos (13,7%) e entre os classificados com sobrepeso (9,35%) e obesidade (4,6%). A prevalência de pré-hipertensão nas comunidades quilombolas foi elevada, e sua identificação pode permitir o rastreamento e a sensibilização de um grupo com maior risco cardiovascular e de progressão para a hipertensão arterial. Observa-se a necessidade de amplo acesso a serviços de saúde e ações específicas voltadas à orientação, prevenção e promoção da saúde nessa população.

Abstract: Arterial prehypertension is a precursor of arterial hypertension and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations are more prone to this condition due to difficulties in access to health services. A previous study in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) reported a high prevalence of arterial hypertension. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of arterial prehypertension in quilombolas and to assess associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in individuals 18 years and older. Prehypertension was defined as arterial systolic pressure ≥ 121mmHg and < 140mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 81mmHg and < 90mmHg. Multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) were also calculated for the modifiable associated factors. Prevalence of prehypertension was 55% (95%CI: 50.2-59.7). Male gender (PR = 1.54), 1 to 4 complete years of schooling (PR = 1.44), and BMI classified as overweight (PR = 1.39) and obesity (PR = 1.87) showed positive association with prehypertension. Higher attributable fractions were observed in individuals with 1 to 4 years of schooling (13.7%) and those classified as overweight (9.35%) and obese (4.6%). Prevalence of prehypertension in quilombola communities was high, and its identification may allow screening and awareness-raising in a group with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and progression to full-blown hypertension. The study highlights the need for broad access to health services and specific measures for orientation, prevention, and health promotion in this population.

Resumen: La pre-hipertensión arterial es precursora de la hipertensión arterial y un factor de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares. Las poblaciones vulnerables están más propensas a este tipo de problema de salud, debido a sus dificultades de acceso a los servicios de salud. La investigación anterior, realizada en comunidades quilombolas, reportó una elevada prevalencia de hipertensión arterial. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar la prevalencia de pre-hipertensión en quilombolas y evaluar sus factores asociados. Se trata de un estudio transversal de base poblacional, realizado con individuos con 18 años o más. La pre-hipertensión se definió como presión arterial sistólica ?≥ 121mmHg y < 140mmHg y/o diastólica ≥ 81mmHg y < 90mmHg. Se empleó un análisis multivariado, valiéndose de la regresión de Poisson con estimación robusta de la variancia. También se calcularon Fracciones Atribuibles Poblacionales (FAP) para los factores asociados modificables. La prevalencia de pre-hipertensión fue de un 55% (IC95%: 50,2-59,7). El sexo masculino (RP = 1,54), una escolaridad de 1 a 4 años completos de estudios (RP = 1,44) y las categorías de IMC sobrepeso (RP = 1,39) y obesidad (RP = 1,87) presentaron una asociación positiva con la pre-hipertensión. Mayores fracciones atribuibles se observaron entre los individuos con escolaridad de 1 a 4 años de estudios (13,7%) y entre los clasificados con sobrepeso (9,35%) y obesidad (4,6%). La prevalencia de pre-hipertensión en las comunidades quilombolas fue elevada, y su identificación puede permitir el rastreo y sensibilización de un grupo con mayor riesgo cardiovascular y con progresión hacia la hipertensión arterial. Se observa la necesidad de un amplio acceso a servicios de salud y acciones específicas dirigidas a la orientación, prevención y promoción de la salud en esa población.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prehypertension/ethnology , Brazil/ethnology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , African Continental Ancestry Group , Overweight/ethnology , Overweight/epidemiology , Waist Circumference , Prehypertension/prevention & control , Prehypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-814968


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the epidemiological features of prehypertension in community of Changsha and its relevant risk factors.
@*METHODS@#A total of 15 000 participants from 5 communities in Changsha were surveyed by randomly stratified cluster sampling. The questionnaire interviews and physical examination were conducted for these people, and their serum biochemical indexes were also collected and analyzed.
@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of prehypertension was 34.6%. The prevalence for males was higher than that in females (44.7% vs 21.7%, P<0.01). The prevalence for males was declined in older age, but for females was increased. Central obesity, age, overweight, male, drinking, smoking, high-level total cholesterol, high-level triglyceride, high-level density-lipoprotein cholesterol, low-level density-lipoprotein cholesterol, high-level fasting blood glucose, high-level creatinine, high-level uric acid were the risk factors for prehypertension, while high level of education was a protective factor.
@*CONCLUSION@#The prevalence for prehypertension is 34.6% in community of Changsha, and the prevalence for males is higher than that for females. It is important to strengthen the health publicity and education in community for earlier prevention.

Alcohol Drinking , China , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight , Prehypertension , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 536-541, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-227798


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is known to be a marker of myocardial damage, in particular myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension (HT). However, few studies have shown an association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and blood pressure classification. We investigated the association between diastolic dysfunction and prehypertension (preHT) in apparently healthy adults who underwent routine health examinations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study sample included 4261 Koreans, 45 to 64 years of age with no previous history of HT, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or valvular heart disease based on echocardiography, who underwent routine health examinations including echocardiography. The subjects were classified into three groups based on resting blood pressure: prehypertensive, hypertensive, and normotensive. RESULTS: The prevalence of preHT in our study was 42.1%. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile, and body mass index, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grades 1 and 2 were significantly more frequent in subjects with preHT (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.40-1.96] and 1.37 [95% CI 0.95-1.97], respectively). When analyzed according to gender, the increased OR was especially notable in males. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction appears to be significantly associated with preHT in Korean middle-aged males.

Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Classification , Coronary Artery Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Echocardiography , Fasting , Fibrosis , Heart Valve Diseases , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Prehypertension , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(4): 347-354, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-761719


SummaryIntroduction:overweight and obesity in adolescents are major public health problems with particular interest, because of their potential association with risk factors for development of diseases. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in southern Portugal and investigate the association with risk factors for development of cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases.Methods:the sample consisted of 966 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years. The calculation of body mass index (BMI), evaluation of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, blood pressure, spirometry and application of low back pain (LBP) questionnaire were performed.Results:178 (18.4%) adolescents were overweight and 52 (5.4%) obese. None of the variables revealed a statistically significant association with overweight and obesity. The presence of high blood pressure was observed in 200 (20.7%) individuals and hypertension in 158 (16.4%) adolescents. Overweight and obese adolescents are 2.3 times more likely to develop signs of pre-hypertension and hypertension. 559 (57.9%) students had restrictive respiratory disorders and 23 (2.4%) had obstructive disorders. Those who were overweight and obese had 0.64 probability of having restrictive respiratory disorders.Conclusion:there was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents and these showed a statistically significant relationship with the development of pre-hypertension and hypertension, and restrictive respiratory disorders.

ResumoIntrodução:o sobrepeso e a obesidade em adolescentes são atualmente considerados problemas de saúde pública, com interesse decorrente de sua associação a fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças.Objetivo:determinar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes do sul de Portugal e investigar os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, respiratórias e musculoesqueléticas.Métodos:a amostra foi constituída por 966 adolescentes com idade entre 10 e 16 anos. Foi calculado o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e foram realizadas avaliações de glicemia, colesterol total, triglicerídeos, pressão arterial, espirometria, além da aplicação de um questionário para avaliar a presença de lombalgia.Resultados:cento e setenta e oito (18,4%) adolescentes apresentaram sobrepeso e 52 (5,4%) eram obesos. Nenhuma das variáveis analisadas revelou associação estatisticamente significativa com sobrepeso e obesidade. Duzentos (20,7%) adolescentes apresentaram pressão arterial elevada e 158 (16,4%), hipertensão. Os adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade revelaram 2,3 vezes mais chances de desenvolver pré-hipertensão e hipertensão. Quinhentos e cinquenta e nove (57,9%) alunos apresentaram doenças respiratórias restritivas e 23 (2,4%), distúrbios obstrutivos, sendo que os indivíduos com sobrepeso e obesidade apresentaram 0,64 de probabilidade de desenvolver doenças respiratórias restritivas.Conclusão:observou-se uma elevada prevalência de adolescentes portugueses com sobrepeso e obesidade. Essas variáveis demonstraram uma relação estatisticamente significativa com o desenvolvimento de pré-hipertensão e hipertensão arterial e com doenças respiratórias restritivas.

Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Low Back Pain/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/complications , Blood Glucose/analysis , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , Logistic Models , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Prevalence , Portugal/epidemiology , Prehypertension/blood , Prehypertension/complications , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Spirometry
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(3): 278-283, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-752411


OBJECTIVE: To compare different methods of screening for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents. METHOD: A database with 17,083 medical records of patients from a pediatric cardiology clinic was used. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,650 were selected. These were divided into two age groups: between 5 and 13 years and between 13 and 18 years. The blood pressure measurement was classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, or hypertensive, consistent with recent guidelines and the selected screening methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were then calculated according to gender and age range. RESULTS: The formulas proposed by Somu and Ardissino's table showed low sensitivity in identifying pre-hypertension in all age groups, whereas the table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results. The ratio between blood pressure and height showed low specificity in the younger age group, but showed good performance in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Screening tools used for the assessment of blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents may be useful to decrease the current rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. The table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results; however, the ratio between BP and height demonstrated specific advantages, as it does not require tables. .

OBJETIVO: Comparar diferentes métodos de rastreamento para distúrbios da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODO: Foi usado um banco de dados com 17.083 prontuários de pacientes de uma clínica de cardiologia pediátrica. Após análise dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 5.650 foram selecionados. Esses foram divididos em duas faixas etárias: entre cinco e 13 anos e entre 13 e 18 anos De acordo com a aferição, a pressão arterial era classificada como normal, pré-hipertensiva ou hipertensiva de acordo com guidelines recentes e os métodos de rastreamento selecionados. Posteriormente, foram calculadas a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia de cada um de acordo com o gênero e faixa etária. RESULTADOS: As fórmulas de Somu e a tabela proposta por Ardissino apresentaram baixa sensibilidade na identificação de pré-hipertensão em todas as faixas etárias, enquanto a tabela proposta por Kaelber apresentou os melhores resultados. A razão entre pressão arterial e altura apresentou baixa especificidade na faixa etária menor, mas apresentou bom desempenho em adolescentes. CONCLUSÃO: As ferramentas de rastreamento para distúrbios da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes podem ser úteis para diminuir o subdiagnóstico que ocorre atualmente nessa condição. A tabela proposta por Kaelber apresentou os melhores resultados, entretanto a razão entre PA e altura apresenta vantagens específicas, como a não necessidade de tabelas. .

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination/standards , Hypertension/diagnosis , Prehypertension/diagnosis , Age Factors , Body Height , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Factors
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-159280


Aim : To study the co-relation between pre-hypertension and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and glycemic status in young adults of a medical university. Objective : 1) To study the prevalence of pre-hypertension among the young adults of a medical university. 2) To co-relate prehypertension with other factors such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and glycemic status. Methods : This study was conducted in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, JN Medical College, Wardha .The students of Jawaharlal Nehru College were the participants for this study. Each participant was examined only after the undertaking of their informed consent. Students who fulfilled the criteria of prehypertensives as per the criteria of JNC, 7 where included in this study. A total of 55 students who were prehypertensive were included in the study. These 55 participants where further examined for anthropometric parameters like height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR). For statistical analysis Chi - Square statistic method was employed. Results : The study showed that the prevalence of pre-hypertension was quite high (75%). There was a strong co-relation of pre-hypertension with BMI and WHR, and pre-hypertension was more prevalent in males as compared to females (49.8% versus 46.7%). Conclusion :Medical students are advised to adopt lifestyle changes to prevent the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity.

Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Glycemic Index , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Prehypertension/epidemiology , Prehypertension/etiology , Prehypertension/statistics & numerical data , Waist-Hip Ratio , Young Adult