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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE0381345, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374041

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a adesão de gestantes e acompanhantes à realização da massagem perineal digital durante a gestação e seu efeito na prevenção do trauma perineal no parto e na redução de morbidade associada nos 45 e 90 dias pós-parto. Métodos Estudo piloto de ensaio clínico randomizado com 153 gestantes de risco habitual, 78 mulheres no grupo de intervenção realizaram a massagem perineal digital e 75 mulheres do grupo controle receberam os cuidados habituais. Para a análise do desfecho principal (trauma perineal) e dos desfechos secundários, permaneceram em cada grupo 44 mulheres que tiveram parto vaginal. A intervenção foi realizada pela gestante ou acompanhante de sua escolha, diariamente, a partir de 34 semanas de gestação, por 5 a 10 minutos. Resultados A massagem perineal foi fator de proteção para edema nos primeiros 10 dias pós-parto (RR 0,64 IC95%0,41-0,99) e perda involuntária de gases nos 45 dias pós-parto (RR0,57 IC95%0,38-0,86). O ajuste residual ≥ 2 observado na análise das condições do períneo pós-parto mostrou uma tendência das mulheres do grupo intervenção terem períneo íntegro. As mulheres e os acompanhantes que realizaram a massagem perineal aceitaram bem a prática, recomendariam e fariam novamente em futura gestação. Conclusão A massagem perineal digital realizada diariamente, a partir de 34 semanas de gestação, foi uma prática bem aceita pelas mulheres e acompanhantes deste estudo. Apesar de não proteger a mulher de trauma perineal, esta prática reduziu o risco de edema 10 dias pós-parto e incontinência de gases 45 dias pós-parto. Registro Brasileiro de ensaio clínico: RBR-4MSYDX


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la participación de mujeres embarazadas y acompañantes en la realización del masaje digital perineal durante el embarazo y su efecto en la prevención del trauma perineal durante el parto y en la reducción de la morbilidad asociada con los 45 y 90 días post parto. Métodos Estudio piloto de ensayo clínico aleatorizado con 153 mujeres embarazadas con riesgo normal, 78 mujeres en el grupo de intervención realizaron el masaje digital perineal y 75 mujeres del grupo control recibieron los cuidados habituales. Para el análisis del desenlace principal (trauma perineal) y de los desenlaces secundarios, permanecieron en cada grupo 44 mujeres que tuvieron parto vaginal. La intervención la realizó la mujer embarazada o el acompañante por ella elegido, diariamente, a partir de las 34 semanas de embarazo, por 5 a 10 minutos. Resultados El masaje perineal fue factor de protección para el edema en los primeros 10 días postparto (RR 0,64 IC95%0,41-0,99) y la pérdida involuntaria de gases en los 45 días post parto (RR0,57 IC95%0,38-0,86). El ajuste residual ≥ 2 observado en el análisis de las condiciones del perineo postparto mostró una tendencia en las mujeres del grupo intervención a que tengan el perineo íntegro. Las mujeres y los acompañantes que realizaron el masaje perineal recibieron bien la práctica, la recomendarían y la harían nuevamente en un futuro embarazo. Conclusión El masaje digital perineal realizado diariamente, a partir de las 34 semanas de embarazo, fue una práctica bien recibida por las mujeres y acompañantes de este estudio. Pese a que no protege a la mujer de un trauma perineal, esta práctica redujo el riesgo de edema a los 10 días post parto y la incontinencia de gases 45 días post parto.


Abstract Objective To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women and companions to the performance of digital perineal massage during pregnancy and its effect on the prevention of perineal trauma during childbirth and on the reduction of associated morbidity at 45 and 90 days postpartum. Methods A pilot study of a randomized clinical trial with 153 normal risk pregnant women; 78 women in the intervention group underwent digital perineal massage and 75 women in the control group received usual care. For the analysis of the main outcome (perineal trauma) and secondary outcomes, 44 women who had vaginal delivery remained in each group. The intervention was performed daily by the pregnant woman or the companion of her choice from 34 weeks of gestation during 5-10 minutes. Results Perineal massage was a protective factor for edema in the first 10 days postpartum (RR 0.64 95%CI 0.41-0.99) and involuntary gas loss at 45 days postpartum (RR0.57 95%CI 0.38-0.86). The residual adjustment ≥ 2 observed in the analysis of perineal conditions postpartum showed a trend of women in the intervention group having an intact perineum. The women and companions who performed perineal massage accepted the practice well, recommended it and would do it again in a future pregnancy. Conclusion The digital perineal massage performed daily from 34 weeks of gestation was a practice well accepted by women of this study and their companions. Although not protecting women from perineal trauma, this practice reduced the risk of edema at 10 days postpartum and gas incontinence at 45 days postpartum. Brazilian Clinical Trial Registry: RBR-4MSYDX


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Perineum/injuries , Prenatal Care/methods , Pelvic Floor/injuries , Lacerations/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Massage/methods , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Pilot Projects , Health Education
2.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2022.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1373168
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 317-322, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280043

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fetal thyroid complications in pregnancy are uncommon, and are commonly related to the passage of substances through the placenta. The excessive iodine intake during the pregnancy is a well-known mechanism of fetal thyroid enlargement or goiter, and invasive procedures have been proposed for the treatment of fetal thyroid pathologies. In the present report, we demonstrate two cases from different centers of prenatal diagnosis of fetal thyroid enlargement and/or goiter in three fetuses (one pair of twins, wherein both fetuses were affected, and one singleton pregnancy). The anamnesis revealed the ingestion of iodine by the patients, prescribed from inadequate vitamin supplementation. In both cases, the cessation of iodine supplement intake resulted in a marked reduction of the volume of the fetal thyroid glands, demonstrating that conservative treatmentmay be an option in those cases. Also, clinicians must be aware that patients may be exposed to harmful dosages or substances during pregnancy.


Resumo As complicações fetais da tireoide na gravidez são incomuns e são comumente relacionadas à passagem de substâncias pela placenta. A ingestão excessiva de iodo durante a gravidez é um mecanismo bem conhecido de aumento da tireoide ou bócio fetal, e procedimentos invasivos foram propostos para o tratamento de patologias da tireoide fetal. No presente relato de caso, demonstramos dois casos de diferentes centros de diagnóstico pré-natal de aumento da tireoide fetal e/ou bócio em três fetos (um par de gêmeos, em que ambos os fetos foram afetados, e uma gravidez única). A anamnese revelou a ingestão de iodo pelos pacientes prescrita por suplementação inadequada de vitaminas. Nos dois casos, a interrupção da ingestão de suplemento de iodo resultou em uma redução acentuada do volume das glândulas tireoides fetais, demonstrando que o tratamento conservador pode ser uma opção nestes casos. Além disso, os médicos devem estar cientes de que as pacientes podem ser expostas a doses ou substâncias nocivas durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Goiter/etiology , Iodine/adverse effects , Self Care/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Diseases in Twins/etiology , Diseases in Twins/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Diseases/etiology , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Goiter/diagnostic imaging , Iodine/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 283-290, Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280044

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Cesarean section (CS) delivery, especially without previous labor, is associated with worse neonatal respiratory outcomes. Some studies comparing neonatal outcomes between term infants exposed and not exposed to antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) before elective CS revealed that ACS appears to decrease the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), transient tachypnea of the neonate (TTN), admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and the length of stay in the NICU. Methods The present retrospective cohort study aimed to compare neonatal outcomes in infants born trough term elective CS exposed and not exposed to ACS. Outcomes included neonatal morbidity at birth, neonatal respiratory morbidity, and general neonatal morbidity. Maternal demographic characteristics and obstetric data were analyzed as possible confounders. Results A total of 334 newborns met the inclusion criteria. One third of the population study (n=129; 38.6%) received ACS. The present study found that the likelihood for RDS (odds ratio [OR]=1.250; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.454-3.442), transient TTN (OR=1.,623; 95%CI: 0.556-4.739), and NIUC admission (OR=2.155; 95%CI: 0.474-9.788) was higher in the ACS exposed group, although with no statistical significance. When adjusting for gestational age and arterial hypertension, the likelihood for RDS (OR=0,732; 95%CI: 0.240-2.232), TTN (OR=0.959; 95%CI: 0.297--3.091), and NIUC admission (OR=0,852; 95%CI: 0.161-4.520) become lower in the ACS exposed group. Conclusion Our findings highlight the known association between CS-related respiratory morbidity and gestational age, supporting recent guidelines that advocate postponing elective CSs until 39 weeks of gestational age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/prevention & control , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pregnancy Outcome , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn/prevention & control , Length of Stay
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3133-3146, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251931

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los efectos embriofetales derivados de la exposición a la diabetes mellitus, durante el período prenatal de la vida, se extienden a la etapa posnatal con importantes repercusiones para la salud, incluyendo el efecto transgeneracional de la enfermedad. Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de una intervención educativa para incrementar el nivel de conocimientos en prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes mellitus en mujeres en edad fértil, pertenecientes al Consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, del municipio Matanzas, entre enero de 2018 y diciembre de 2019. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención que constó de tres etapas. Un universo de 198 mujeres en edad fértil pertenecientes al Consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, durante el período señalado. Se empleó la encuesta para medir factores de riesgo de diabetes mellitus y conocimientos de las féminas en prevención preconcepcional de los efectos embriofetales de la enfermedad. Resultados: la edad superior a 30 años y la presencia de sobrepeso u obesidad fueron los factores de riesgo más detectados. Resultó calificado de malo el nivel de conocimientos en prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes, previo a la intervención. Conclusiones: después de la implementación del programa educativo, se elevó el conocimiento sobre prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes mellitus en las mujeres en edad fértil del consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, del municipio Matanzas, lo que demostró su efectividad (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the embryo-fetal effects derived of the exposition to diabetes mellitus during the prenatal period of the life, extend to the postnatal stage, with important repercussions for health, including the disease's transgenerational effect. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention for increasing knowledge on pre-conceptional prevention of embryo-fetal effects of diabetes mellitus in fertile-aged women belonging to Family Doctor's office 1, of the University Policlinic Carlos Verdugo, municipality of Matanzas, from January 2018 to December 2019. Materials and methods: an interventional study was carried out, divided into three stages. The universe were 198 fertile-aged women belonging to Family Doctor's office 1, of the University Policlinic Carlos Verdugo, during the stated period. A survey was used to measure diabetes mellitus risk factors and women's knowledge on pre-conceptional preventing the disease's embryo-fetal effects. Results: age over 30 and being overweight or obese were the most frequently found risk factors. The knowledge level on pre-conceptional preventing diabetes mellitus embryo-fetal effects was poor before the intervention. Conclusions: after implementing the educational program, knowledge on pre-conceptional prevention of diabetes mellitus embryo-fetal effects increased among fertile-aged women of the Family Doctor's 1, of the policlinic Carlos Verdugo, of the municipality of Matanzas, demonstrating its effectiveness (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prenatal Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Postnatal Care/trends , Risk-Taking , Health Education/methods , Maternal-Fetal Relations , Fetal Diseases/prevention & control
7.
Femina ; 49(3): 173-176, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224083

ABSTRACT

A epilepsia, doença cerebral caracterizada pela predisposição à geração de crises epilépticas, representa a patologia neurológica grave mais frequente na gravidez. Quando não acompanhada corretamente, possui um acentuado nível de morbimortalidade materno-fetal, sendo especialmente relacionada a riscos de convulsão materna na gestação e malformações fetais. Este artigo discute o acompanhamento da gestante epiléptica, trazendo recomendações de cuidados no período pré-concepcional, manejo durante o pré-natal, condução do trabalho de parto, peculiaridades no puerpério e tratamento de crises convulsivas, quando necessário. Serão abordados tanto aspectos de tratamento farmacológico quanto de monitoramento e orientações gerais, com o objetivo de contribuir para um suporte mais abrangente e adequado a esse grupo mais vulnerável de pacientes sob o cuidado do médico ginecologista-obstetra e neurologista.(AU)


Epilepsy, which is a brain disease defined for a greater predisposition for epileptic crisis, represents the most frequent neurological pathology during pregnancy. Without proper monitoring it is related to high morbidity and mortality to both mother and baby, especially due to the risks of mother seizure during pregnancy and fetus malformation. This article discusses about health care giving and follow-up for the epileptic pregnant women, pointing recommendations for preconception care, prenatal management, labor conduct, peculiarities in puerperium and treatment of convulsive crisis when needed. There will be approached pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects, such as follow up exams and general orientations, having as a goal to contribute to an more abrangent and proper support of this more vulnerable group of patients under the care responsibility of obstetrician-gynecologist ad neurologist doctors.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/prevention & control , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Seizures/drug therapy , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Time-to-Pregnancy/drug effects , Lamotrigine/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Obstetric Labor Complications/prevention & control , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 460-466, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1151554

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o perfil das gestantes que buscam atendimento em unidades de pronto socorro a partir das evidências encontradas na literatura. Método: revisão integrativa, com busca de artigos em bases de dados na área da saúde, no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2016, nas bases Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online. Resultados: dos 3.964 artigos selecionados por meio das bases de dados, 22 pesquisas estavam elegíveis para a leitura na íntegra, destes apenas 4 artigos estavam de acordo com a questão norteadora do estudo. Quanto aos artigos incluídos dois eram de língua portuguesa e um inglesa e espanhola e todos dos últimos 3 anos. Conclusão: a clientela que busca atendimento obstétrico precisa ser mais informada na atenção básica por ocasião do pré-natal sobre os sinais e sintomas que caracterizam emergência e urgência, pois a grande a maioria das gestantes procuraram os serviços de prontos socorros desnecessariamente


Objective: to identify the profile of pregnant women seeking care in emergency room units based on the evidence found in the literature. Method: integrative review, with search of articles in databases in the health area, from January 2007 to December 2016, in the databases Index of Spanish Health Sciences, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences Health and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online. Results: of the 3,964 articles selected through the databases, 22 surveys were eligible for full reading, of which only 4 articles were in agreement with the guiding question of the study. As for the articles included two were Portuguese and one English and Spanish and all of the last 3 years. Conclusion: the clientele seeking obstetric care needs to be more informed in the basic prenatal care about the signs and symptoms that characterize emergency and urgency, since the great majority of pregnant women have sought emergency care services unnecessarily


Objetivo: identificar el perfil de las gestantes que buscan atención en unidades de socorro a partir de las evidencias encontradas en la literatura. Método: revisión integrativa, con búsqueda de artículos en bases de datos en el área de la salud, en el período de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2016, en las bases Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud Salud y Medicina Literatura Análisis y Recuperación del sistema en línea. Resultados: de los 3.964 artículos seleccionados a través de las bases de datos, 22 encuestas eran elegibles para la lectura íntegra, de estos sólo 4 artículos estaban de acuerdo con la cuestión orientadora del estudio. En cuanto a los dos artículos fueron incluidos en portugués y en Inglés y Español y todos los últimos tres años. Conclusión: la clientela que busca atención obstétrica necesita ser más informada en la atención básica con ocasión del prenatal sobre los signos y síntomas que caracterizan emergencia y urgencia, pues la gran mayoría de las gestantes buscaban los servicios de prontos auxilios innecesariamente


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Pregnant Women/education , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Signs and Symptoms , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on newborns and infants. Data sources: The present study is an integrative review of literature based on clinical trials published in journals indexed in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Two searches were carried out, starting with the association (and) of the health term "vitamin D" with "pregnancy". In the search for information, selection criteria were established, and there was no language limitation and year of publication. Data synthesis: The final selection resulted in 44 clinical trials, most of which were randomized and double blind, which were carried out in outpatient clinics, referral hospitals and universities, mainly in Europe. The samples studied were predominantly of newborns. In these 44 trials, 23 types of different doses of vitamin D during pregnancy, with different doses, regimens and times of use, and 14 different outcomes were studied in newborns (NB) and infants. Of the 44 studies performed, 35 showed statistically significant beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on newborns and infants compared to control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for at least three months before delivery has the potential of positively influencing calcium metabolism, physical growth and immune system development in newborns and infants. However, there is insufficient knowledge to define the optimal dose and to guarantee the absence of possible long-term adverse effects.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina D durante a gestação no recém-nascido e lactente. Fontes de dados: Revisão integrativa da literatura baseada em ensaios clínicos publicados em revistas indexadas nas bases de dados PubMed e Web of Science. Foi realizada uma busca em cada base de dados, que partiu da associação (and) dos descritores de saúde vitamin D e pregnancy. Na busca pelas informações, foram estabelecidos critérios de seleção e não houve limitação de idioma nem de ano de publicação. Síntese de dados: A seleção final resultou em 44 ensaios clínicos - a maioria randomizada e duplo-cego -, que foram realizados em ambulatórios, hospitais de referência e universidades sobretudo da Europa. As amostras estudadas foram predominantemente de recém-nascidos. Nesses 44 ensaios, foram testadas 23 formas de suplementação de vitamina D na gestação, com diferentes doses, regimes e tempos de uso, e estudaram-se 14 desfechos diferentes nos recém-nascidos e lactentes. Dos 44 estudos, 35 demonstraram efeitos benéficos da suplementação de vitamina D durante a gestação nos recém-nascidos e lactentes de forma estatisticamente significante, quando comparados aos do grupo controle. Conclusões: A suplementação de vitamina D na gestação, por no mínimo três meses antes do parto, potencialmente influencia de forma positiva o metabolismo do cálcio, o crescimento físico e o desenvolvimento do sistema imunológico dos recém-nascidos e lactentes, entretanto não há conhecimento suficiente para a definição da dose ideal nem para garantir a inexistência de possíveis efeitos adversos em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Care/methods , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2659-2673, nov.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150045

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El gran desarrollo del programa materno infantil en Cuba y la gran atención que a este se brinda hace que muchos médicos limitan a la embarazada al reposo y todavía hay muchas mujeres que se enfrentan al parto sin un entrenamiento previo. Por la importancia de este tema en materia de salud materno infantil se realizó esta revisión bibliográfica con el propósito de aumentar el nivel de conocimientos de los profesionales sobre los beneficios de la misma y lograr un trabajo en equipo del personal que integre el programa, para de esta manera, conseguir el máximo beneficio para las madres, bebés y sus familias. Está demostrado que le hace bien a la mujer embarazada y al bebé. Una gestante preparada es una gestante colaboradora. Por tanto, el entrenamiento junto a hábitos sanos de vida conllevara a que la embarazada tenga un parto en las mejores condiciones físicas y psíquicas, para de esta forma lograr un hijo sano, fuerte y una gran gratificación para toda la familia. La participación activa del padre conseguirá mayor armonía familiar (AU).


SUMMARY The great development of the maternal-infantile program in Cuba and the great attention provided to this, leads to the limitation of pregnant women to rest by doctors, and there are still many women facing the childbirth without a previous training. Due to the importance of this topic in the matter of maternal-infantile health, the authors carried out the current bibliographical review with the purpose of increasing the level of the professionals' knowledge about its benefits and of achieving a team work of the staff integrating the program, and that way, to get the maximum benefit for mothers, babies and their families. It is proved that it makes well to pregnant woman and to the baby. A trained pregnant woman is a collaborative pregnant woman. Therefore, training together with healthy life habits leads pregnant women to childbirth in the better physical and health conditions, delivering this way a healthy, strong child and achieving a great gratification for the whole family. The father's active participation will get bigger family harmony (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Psychological Techniques/standards , Obstetrics/methods , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/psychology , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Family/psychology , National Health Strategies , Pregnant Women/psychology
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 672-683, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144265

ABSTRACT

La prevención de la transmisión vertical de VIH es un desafío para todos los países del mundo. Esto se ve complejizado por la construcción permanente de sociedades globales, con grado variable de población migrante internacional. Las políticas, programas y acciones sanitarias para la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en gestantes migrantes demandan una perspectiva intercultural, en donde se aborden todas las dimensiones sociales, culturales y de género asociadas a la infección. El entender la realidad local en cuanto a la prevención de transmisión vertical de VIH en población migrante internacional en Chile es esencial para llevar acciones concretas que favorezcan la prevención de transmisión madre-hijo de VIH. En este artículo se presentan algunos conceptos esenciales relacionados a esta temática. También se expone información internacional y nacional sobre riesgos de transmisión vertical de VIH en migrantes gestantes, la importancia del plan nacional de preven ción de transmisión vertical de VIH en nuestro país, y algunos esfuerzos que se están realizando para adaptar dicho plan a la realidad de diversidad social y cultural que migrantes gestantes presentan hoy en Chile, como un valioso insumo de salud pública con perspectiva intercultural.


Preventing vertical transmission of HIV is a challenge for all countries worldwide. The permanent construction of global societies with a variable degree of international migrant population has made it more complex. Health policies, programs, and actions for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in pregnant migrants demand an intercultural perspective, where social, cultural, and gender dimen sions associated with the infection are addressed. Understanding the local reality regarding the pre vention of vertical transmission in the international migrant population in Chile is essential to carry out concrete actions that favor the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This article presents some essential concepts related to this topic. It also presents international and national in formation on risks of vertical transmission in pregnant migrants, the importance of the national plan for preventing vertical transmission of HIV in our country, and some ongoing efforts to adapt such plan to the reality of social and cultural diversity that pregnant migrants currently present in Chile, as a useful public health instrument with an intercultural perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/ethnology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Prenatal Care/methods , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Culturally Competent Care/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Health Policy
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 139-145, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136181

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate two different criteria, one or two cut-off values, of oral glucose tolerance test with 75g of glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 120 records of pregnant women who received prenatal care at the service of a Brazilian university was carried out. Bivariate analysis of obstetric and perinatal outcomes was performed using the chi-square test. RESULTS Considering criterion I, 12.5% of patients were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients were 3.57 times more likely to have a large fetus for the gestational age at birth (p=0.038). Using criterion II, gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 5.8% of patients, macrosomia was 7.73 times more likely to be found in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and a large fetus for the gestational age at birth was 8.17 times more likely (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS There was a difference in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus between the two criteria analyzed. The new criterion proposed increased prevalence.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar dois critérios distintos, um ou dois valores de corte, do teste oral de tolerância à glicose com 75 g de glicose para o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional. Métodos Estudo transversal envolvendo 120 prontuários de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em um ambulatório de uma universidade brasileira. Análise bivariada dos resultados obstétricos e perinatais foi realizada pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Considerando o critério I, 12,5% das pacientes foram diagnosticadas com diabetes mellitus gestacional. As pacientes apresentaram uma chance 3,57 maior de ter um feto grande para a idade gestacional (p=0,038). Utilizando o critério II, o diabetes mellitus gestacional foi diagnosticado em 5,8% das pacientes. Mediante esse critério diagnóstico, a chance de macrossomia foi 7,73 vezes mais provável na presença de diabetes mellitus gestacional (p=0,004) e a chance de um feto grande para a idade gestacional foi 8,17 vezes maior de ocorrer (p=0,004). Conclusões Observou-se diferença na prevalência de diabetes melittus gestacional entre os dois critérios analisados, sendo que o novo critério proposto aumentou a prevalência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Glucose Tolerance Test/standards , Prenatal Care/methods , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods
17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200012, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092614

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: A sífilis é uma doença de transmissão sexual de diagnóstico e tratamento fáceis, mas de incidência crescente no Brasil. Este estudo mediu prevalência, avaliou tendência e identificou fatores associados à não realização de exame sorológico para sífilis no pré-natal em Rio Grande, RS. Metodologia: Trata-se de inquérito transversal que incluiu todas as gestantes residentes nesse município que tiveram filho entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro nos anos de 2007, 2010 e 2013. Aplicou-se à mãe questionário único, padronizado em até 48 horas após o parto, quando ainda na maternidade. Utilizaram-se teste χ2 para proporções e para tendência linear e regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto na análise multivariável. A medida de efeito usada foi razão de prevalências (RP). Resultados: Entre as 7.351 mães que passaram por pelo menos uma consulta, a prevalência de não realização de sorologia para sífilis nos três anos foi de 2,9% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 2,56 - 3,33), sendo de 3,3% (IC95% 2,56 - 3,97) em 2007, 2,8% (IC95% 2,20 - 3,52) em 2010 e 2,7% (IC95% 2,12 - 3,38) em 2013. Mães de cor da pele preta, de baixa renda familiar e escolaridade e que passam por poucas consultas apresentaram maior RP à não realização desse exame. Discussão: A prevalência de não realização praticamente não se modificou no período, com maior probabilidade de não realização entre aquelas de maior risco gestacional. Conclusões: Alcançar mães de pior nível socioeconômico, reestruturar os serviços locais de saúde, aperfeiçoar sua operacionalização a fim de melhorar a qualidade da assistência pré-natal parecem mandatórios nesse município.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease, easy to diagnose and treat, but whose incidence is increasing in Brazil. This study estimated the prevalence of the non-performance of serological tests for syphilis during prenatal care, in addition to evaluating its trend and identifying its associated factors in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that included all pregnant women living in this municipality who gave birth between January 1 and December 31, 2007, 2010, and 2013. A single standardized questionnaire was administered to the mothers within 48 hours of delivery, while they were still in the maternity ward. We used the χ2 test for proportions and linear trend, and Poisson regression with robust adjustment in the multivariate analysis. The effect measure adopted was prevalence ratio (PR). Results: Among the 7,351 mothers who had at least one prenatal visit, the prevalence of non-performance of serological tests for syphilis in the three years studied was 2.9% (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 2.56 - 3.33), with 3.3% (95%CI 2.56 - 3.97) in 2007, 2.8% (95%CI 2.20 - 3.52) in 2010, and 2.7% (95%CI 2.12 - 3.38) in 2013. Black mothers, those with low household income and schooling, and who had few prenatal visits showed higher PR of non-performance of this test. Discussion: The prevalence of non-performance has virtually not changed in the period, and women with high-risk pregnancy showed a greater probability of not undergoing the test. Conclusions: This municipality needs to reach mothers with lower socioeconomic status, restructure the local health services, and enhance their operationalization to improve the quality of prenatal care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Syphilis Serodiagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pregnancy, High-Risk
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine maternal and fetal risk factors associated with the birth of late preterm infants in comparison to those born at term. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in a tertiary center for high-risk pregnancies. For the cases, the study enrolled post-partum mothers and their respective newborns with gestational ages equal or greater than 34 weeks and less than 37 weeks. As controls, the post-partum mothers and their newborns with gestational ages of 37 weeks or greater were selected. The sample was calculated with a ratio of two controls for each case, resulting in 423 patients. Association studies were performed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The variables associated with late prematurity were inadequate prenatal (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.23; confidence interval of 95% [95%CI] 1.12-1.34; p≤0.001), premature rupture of membranes (OR 4.98; 95%CI 2.66-9.31; p≤0.001), length of hospital stay ≥24 hours until birth (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.06-0.52; p≤0.001), cesarean section (OR 2.74; 95%CI 1.69-4.44; p≤0.001) and small for gestational age newborn (OR 3.02; 95%CI 1.80-5.05; p≤0.001). Conclusions: Inadequate prenatal care and membranes' premature rupture were found as factors associated with the late preterm birth. It is important to identify the factors that allow intervention with adequate prenatal care in order to reduce poor outcomes due to late prematurity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar fatores maternos e fetais associados ao nascimento de recém-nascidos prematuros tardios, quando comparados aos nascidos a termo. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em um hospital terciário de referência para atendimento de gestações de alto risco. Foram considerados casos as puérperas e seus respectivos recém-nascidos com idade gestacional maior ou igual a 34 semanas e menor de 37 semanas. Para os controles foram selecionadas as puérperas e seus recém-nascidos com idade gestacional de 37 semanas completas ou mais. A amostra foi calculada com razão de dois controles para cada caso, resultando em um total de 423 pacientes. Estudos de associação foram efetuados utilizando-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher e posterior regressão logística. Resultados: As variáveis associadas à prematuridade tardia foram a realização de pré-natal inadequado (Odds Ratio - OR 1,23; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,12-1,34; p≤0,001), a rotura prematura de membranas amnióticas (OR 4,98; IC95% 2,66-9,31; p≤0,001), o tempo de internação ≥24 horas até o nascimento (OR 0,18; IC95% 0,06-0,52; p≤0,001), o parto operatório (OR 2,74; IC95% 1,69-4,44; p≤0,001) e o recém-nascido pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR 3,02; IC95% 1,80-5,05; p≤0,001). Conclusões: Assistência pré-natal inadequada e rotura prematura de membranas destacaram-se como fatores associados ao nascimento de prematuros tardios. Ressalta-se a relevância da identificação de fatores passíveis de intervenção por meio de adequada assistência pré-natal, a fim de reduzir os desfechos desfavoráveis decorrentes da prematuridade tardia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/trends , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Length of Stay/trends
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