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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(6): 483-488, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Migraine is a prevalent neurological disease that leads to severe headaches. Moreover, it is the commonest among the primary headaches that cause medication overuse headache (MOH). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is one of the structures most associated with medication overuse. Objective: To determine microstructural changes in the OFC among migraine patients who developed MOH, through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique. Methods: Fifty-eight patients who had been diagnosed with migraine based on the Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III-B) were included in the study. Patients were sub-classified into two groups, with and without MOH, based on the MOH criteria of ICHD-III-B. DTI was applied to each patient. The OFC fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean age of all the patients was 35.98±7.92 years (range: 18-65), and 84.5% (n=49) of them were female. The two groups, with MOH (n=25) and without (n=33), were alike in terms of age, gender, family history, migraine with or without aura and duration of illness. It was found that there was a significant difference in FA values of the left OFC between the two groups (0.32±0.01 versus 0.29±0.01; p=0.04). Conclusions: An association was found between MOH and changes to OFC microstructure. Determination of neuropathology and factors associated with medication overuse among migraine patients is crucial in terms of identifying the at-risk patient population and improving proper treatment strategies specific to these patients.


RESUMO Introdução: A migrânea é uma doença neurológica prevalente que causa fortes dores de cabeça. Além disso, é a mais comum entre as cefaleias primárias que causam cefaleia por uso excessivo de medicamentos (CUEM). O córtex orbitofrontal (OF) é uma das estruturas mais associadas ao uso excessivo de medicamentos. Objetivo: Determinar alterações microestruturais no córtex OF em pacientes com migrânea que desenvolveram CUEM, por meio da técnica de imagem por tensor de difusão (ITD). Métodos: Cinquenta e oito pacientes com diagnóstico de migrânea, com base na Classificação das Cefaleias (ICHD-III-B), foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram subclassificados em dois grupos, com e sem CUEM, com base nos critérios de CUEM da ICHD-III-B. A ITD foi aplicada a cada paciente. Os valores de anisotropia fracionada OFC (AF) e coeficiente de difusão aparente (CDA) dos dois grupos foram comparados. Resultados: A média de idade de todos os pacientes foi de 35,98±7,92 anos (variação: 18‒65), sendo 84,5% (n=49) do sexo feminino. Os dois grupos, com CUEM (n=25) e sem (n=33), são semelhantes em termos de idade, sexo, história familiar, migrânea com ou sem aura e duração da doença. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa nos valores de AF do córtex OF esquerdo entre os dois grupos (0,32±0,01 versus 0,29±0,01; p=0,04). Conclusões: Foi encontrada associação entre o CUEM e as alterações na microestrutura do córtex OF. A determinação da neuropatologia e dos fatores associados ao uso excessivo de medicamentos entre pacientes com migrânea é crucial para identificar a população de pacientes em risco e melhorar as estratégias de tratamento adequadas específicas para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Headache Disorders, Secondary/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Prefrontal Cortex , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Prescription Drug Overuse , Middle Aged
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(12): 778-782, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142370

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Migraine is one of the most common disorders in neurological clinical practice and is part of the group of primary headaches. It often affects individuals in the age group of 25-55 years, when people are at their peak of economic productivity. Many patients ultimately overuse analgesics. Overuse is defined by the use of analgesics for at least 15 times a month - within a minimal three-month period. Impulsivity and migraine cause losses in the lives of individuals suffering from them, as they can compromise these individuals' social, emotional, and professional spheres. Regarding the professional sphere, it results in economic losses compared with the overall population. Objective: To investigate the presence of impulsive behavior in patients with migraine and with medication-overuse migraine. Methods: Cross-sectional study on 210 female and male patients; 140 were diagnosed with migraine according to criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and were subdivided into two groups (70 patients each). One of these groups was composed of medication-overuse patients; the control group was composed of non-migraine patients (70 patients). All patients were evaluated with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results: The group of migraine patients accounted for the highest impulsivity level, followed by the control group and, finally, by the medication-overuse group. However, these differences did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions: It was not possible to establish a clear connection between migraine and impulsive behavior. Association was higher among migraineurs without medication overuse.


RESUMO Introdução: A enxaqueca é uma das condições mais comuns na prática clínica neurológica, enquadrando-se no grupo das cefaleias primárias. Sua prevalência é maior na faixa etária de 25 a 55 anos, coincidindo com o pico da produtividade econômica. Muitos pacientes recorrem ao uso abusivo de analgésicos. O uso excessivo desses medicamentos é definido pela sua utilização por pelo menos 15 vezes ao mês, por um período de no mínimo três meses. A impulsividade e a enxaqueca causam prejuízos na vida dos indivíduos afetados, podendo comprometer os âmbitos social, emocional e profissional, resultando em um prejuízo monetário a esse grupo, em relação à população em geral. Objetivo: Investigar a presença de comportamento impulsivo em pacientes com enxaqueca com abuso de analgésico. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal com 210 pacientes, homens e mulheres, sendo 140 com diagnóstico de enxaqueca segundo os critérios da Classificação Internacional das Cefaleias (IHCD-3), subdivididos em dois grupos de 70 pacientes cada, um composto por pacientes em uso excessivo de medicamentos, e um grupo controle composto por indivíduos sem enxaqueca. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados com a Escala de Impulsividade de Barratt - BIS 11. Resultados: O grupo com enxaqueca apresentou maior impulsividade, seguido do grupo controle e, por fim, o grupo com enxaqueca com abuso de medicamentos. No entanto, essas diferenças não atingiram significância estatística. Conclusão: Não foi possível encontrar relação direta entre a enxaqueca e comportamentos impulsivos. No entanto, esta relação foi maior entre os pacientes com enxaqueca sem abuso de analgésico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Headache Disorders, Secondary/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prescription Drug Overuse , Analgesics/adverse effects , Impulsive Behavior
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(2): 44-65, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100307

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O alto consumo de medicamentos no Brasil impulsiona o desenvolvimento de estratégias para promoção do uso racional dos mesmos, especialmente em população mais vulneráveis. Objetivo: Traçar o perfil socioeconômico, demográfico e farmacoterapêutico dos alunos incluídos na presente pesquisa; bem como, promover atividades de educação em saúde.Metodologia: Trata-se de uma pesquisa epidemiológica transversal, quantitativa e descritiva realizada com 33 alunos do terceiro e quarto ciclos do programa de Educação de Jovens e Adultos de uma escola pública de João Pessoa-PB. Os dados foram coletados através de formulário, ficha de medicamentos e atividades de educação em saúde. Resultados:A maioria dos estudantes jovens e adultos com idade abaixo de 60 anos(75,7%), predominando o sexo feminino(69,6%)e parda(63,3%). Quase metade dos participantes é constituída de desempregados(45,5%). Parte dos alunos(39,9%) afirmaram ter renda mensal de até um salário mínimo. Para realização desse projeto foram efetuadas atividades que proporcionavam, através de metodologias ativas, a educação e promoção do uso racional de medicamentos e o autocuidado. Quanto ao perfil farmacoterapêutico observa-se interações medicamentosas entre anti-hipertensivos, hipoglicemiantes, anti-tireoidiano e medicamentos isentos de prescrição, apresentando presença de automedicação. As classes medicamentosas predominantes foram os analgésicos, anti-hipertensivos, anti-inflamatórios,antiácidos e hipoglicemiantes. Conclusões:O desenvolvimento de práticas educativas no âmbito da Educação de Jovens e Adultos incentivam o diálogo e a participação dos envolvidos, com grande potencial para ampliação do acesso às informações associadas ao autocuidado em saúde em suas famílias, escola e comunidade (AU).


Introduction:The high consumption of medicines in Brazil drives the development of strategies to promote their rational use, especially in the most vulnerable populations. Objective:Draw the socioeconomic, demographic and pharmacotherapeutic profile of the students included in this research; as well as promoting health education activities. Methodology:This is a cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive epidemiological research carried out with 33 students from the third and fourth cycles of the Youth and Adult Education program of a public school in João Pessoa-PB. The data were collected through a form, medication form and health education activities. Results:The majority of young and adult students under the age of 60 (75.7%), predominantly female (69.6%) and brown (63.3%). Almost half of the participants are unemployed (45.5%). Part of the students (39.9%) said they had a monthly income of up to one minimum wage. In order to carry out this project, activities were carried out that provided, through active methodologies, education and promotion of the rational use of medicines and self-care. Regarding the pharmacotherapeutic profile, drug interactions are observed between antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic agents, anti-thyroid agents and non-prescription drugs, with the presence of self-medication. The predominant drug classes were analgesics, antihypertensives, anti-inflammatories, antacids and hypoglycemic agents. Conclusions:The development of educational practices within the scope of Youth and Adult Education encourages dialogue and the participation of those involved, with great potential for expanding access to information associated with self-care in health in their families, school and community (AU).


Introducción: El alto consumo de medicamentos en Brasil impulsa el desarrollo de estrategias para promover su uso racional, especialmente en las poblaciones más vulnerables. Objetivo:Dibujar el perfil socioeconómico, demográficoy farmacoterapéutico de los estudiantes incluidos en esta investigación; así como promover actividades de educación para la salud. Metodología:Esta es una investigación epidemiológica transversal, cuantitativa y descriptiva realizada con 33 estudiantes del tercer y cuarto ciclo del programa de Educación para Jóvenes y Adultos de una escuela pública en João Pessoa-PB. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un formulario, formulario de medicamentos y actividades de educación para la salud.Resultados:La mayoría de los estudiantes jóvenes y adultos menores de 60 años (75.7%), predominantemente mujeres (69.6%) y marrones (63.3%). Casi la mitad de los participantes están desempleados (45,5%). Parte de los estudiantes (39.9%) dijeron que tenían un ingreso mensual de hasta un salario mínimo. Para llevar a cabo este proyecto, se llevaron a cabo actividades que proporcionaron, a través de metodologías activas, educación y promoción del uso racional de medicamentos y autocuidado. En cuanto al perfil farmacoterapéutico, se observan interacciones farmacológicas entre fármacos antihipertensivos, agentes hipoglucemiantes, agentes antitiroideos y medicamentos sin receta, con presencia de automedicación. Las clases de drogas predominantes fueron analgésicos, antihipertensivos, antiinflamatorios, antiácidos y agentes hipoglucemiantes. Conclusiones:El desarrollo de prácticas educativas en el ámbito de la educación de jóvenes y adultos fomenta el diálogo y la participación de los involucrados, con un gran potencial para ampliar el acceso a la información asociada con el autocuidado en salud en sus familias, escuelas y comunidades (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Mainstreaming, Education/methods , Health Education , Prescription Drug Overuse , Health Promotion , Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies , Demography
5.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 68, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020892

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess whether the incidence of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism decreased after the implementation of the restrictive measure of the National Health Surveillance Agency for the commercialization of antimicrobials. METHODS A historical cohort study of medical records of adult patients admitted to a general and public hospital from May 2010 to July 2011. A cohort was formed with patients admitted in the period before the restrictive measure for the commercialization of antimicrobials (Phase I) and a second cohort was formed with patients admitted after the implementation of the restrictive measure (Phase II). RESULTS The instantaneous risk of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism was estimated at seven by 1,000 people-time (95%CI 0.006-0.008) in Phase I, and four by 1,000 people-time (95%CI 0.003-0.005) in Phase II of the study. The differences between the survival curves in the different phases of the study and stratified by age group were also significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the implementation of the restrictive measure of the commercialization of antimicrobials by the National Health Surveillance Agency reduced the incidence of hospital infection by a resistant microorganism.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se a incidência de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente diminuiu após a implementação da medida restritiva da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária para comercialização de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte histórica de registros de prontuários de pacientes adultos admitidos para internação em um hospital geral e público no período de maio de 2010 a julho de 2011. Foi formada uma coorte com pacientes internados em período anterior à medida restritiva para comercialização de antimicrobianos (Fase I) e uma segunda coorte com pacientes admitidos após a implantação da medida restritiva (Fase II). RESULTADOS O risco instantâneo de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente foi estimado em sete por 1.000 pessoas-tempo (IC95% 0,006-0,008) na Fase I, e quatro por 1.000 pessoas-tempo (IC95% 0,003-0,005) na Fase II do estudo. As diferenças entre as curvas de sobrevida nas diferentes fases do estudo e estratificadas pela faixa etária também foram significativas (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES Os resultados sugerem que a implantação da medida restritiva de comercialização de antimicrobianos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária reduziu a incidência de infecção hospitalar por microrganismo resistente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Prescription Drug Overuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Infection Control/methods , Drug Monitoring , Drug Utilization/legislation & jurisprudence , Prescription Drug Overuse/adverse effects , Prescription Drug Overuse/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
6.
Arch. med ; 18(2): 404-412, 2018/11/19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980811

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar el consumo y automedicación de psicofármacos en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C (Colombia) y caracterizar la población consumidora. Un psicofármaco es cualquier sustancia que se usa en el diagnóstico, tratamiento, mitigación, modificación o prevención de una enfermedad, de un estado físico o mental anormal o los síntomas de los mismos en los seres humanos. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en la ciudad de Bogotá, D.C, a través de una encuesta aplicada a los participantes del estudio. Resultados: este estudio mostró que el 26% de los participantes manifestó consumir o haber consumido psicofármacos y la mayoría reportó su consumo para trastornos relacionados con el sueño seguido por la ansiedad y la depresión; se encontró asociación entre los grupos etarios y el consumo de psicofármacos (Chi2 = 14,3955 p=0,0061). Los participantes no reportaron automedicación. Conclusiones: el consumo de psicofármacos ha ido en aumento debido al incremento de las enfermedades de la esfera mental, así como las relacionadas con los trastornos del sueño..(AU)


Objective: to estimate the consumption and self-medication of psychotropic drugs in the city of Bogotá and to characterize the consumer population. A psychotropic drug is any substance that is used in: the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation, modification or prevention of a disease, an abnormal physical or mental state or their symptoms in humans. Materials and methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study realized in the city of Bogotá, D.C (Colombia), through a survey applied to the study participants. Results: this study showed that 26% of the participants reported consuming or having consumed psychotropic drugs and the majority reported their consumption for sleep-related disorders followed by anxiety and depression; There was an association between the age groups and the consumption of psychotropic drugs (Chi2 = 14.3955 p = 0.0061). The participants did not report self-medication. Conclusions: the consumption of psychotropic drugs has been increasing due to the increase of diseases of the mental sphere, as well as those related to sleep disorders..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prescription Drug Overuse
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766505

ABSTRACT

Chronic migraine (CM) is a common and disabling neurologic disorder. CM is defined as more than 15 days a month over a 3-month period, including at least 8 days per month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Quality of life is highly compromised in patients with this condition, and comorbidities are more frequent than with episodic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully-conducted patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate CM from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches. CM typically develops from episodic migraine over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of episodic migraine developing into CM, including the frequent use of abortive migraine drugs. Through identification of risk factors for progression to CM, clinicians can educate patients about modifiable risk factors and can begin appropriate individualized preventive therapy. There is a high frequency of medication overuse in CM. The first step in the management of CM complicated by medication overuse is withdrawal of the overused drugs and detoxification treatment. This article provides an overview of CM, including its epidemiology, risk factors for its development, and information on its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Epidemiology , Headache , Headache Disorders , Headache Disorders, Secondary , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , Neurologic Examination , Prescription Drug Overuse , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739383

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the daily practice patterns of Symbicort® Maintenance and Reliever Therapy (SMART) in Korean asthmatic patients and to analyze clinical signs related to overuse. This study used an observational, multicenter, noninterventional, prospective, uncontrolled design for examining asthmatic patients prescribed SMART to assess the frequency and pattern of Symbicort® usage as a maintenance and reliever medication. The characteristics of patients showing signs of overuse (frequency of inhalation: 8 or more times per day) were also analyzed. Among the 1,518 patients analyzed, 1,292 (85.1%) completed the trial. The number of mean inhalations per day was 2.14±1.15; the number of patients who had at least 1 as needed usage (PRN) inhalation per day was 843 (55.5%); the mean frequency of PRN use was 0.25±0.67 inhalations per day. The number of patients who overused for at least 1 day was 260 (17.1%). In particular, young patients, patients with limited physical activity, and patients with nocturnal symptoms demonstrated high frequency of overuse. The frequency of overuse during SMART was not high in Korean asthmatic patients and the asthma status of follow-up outpatients improved overall. However, there is a need for careful education targeted toward younger patients, patients with limited physical activity, and patients with nocturnal symptoms owing to their tendency to frequently overuse.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Budesonide , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Formoterol Fumarate , Humans , Inhalation , Korea , Motor Activity , Outpatients , Prescription Drug Overuse , Prospective Studies
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 375-377, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787291

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Methotrexate is one of the most used drugs in the treatment of psoriasis with indication of systemic therapy. Cutaneous and mucous side effects are described by pharmacological characteristics of the drug itself or due to overdose. We report the case of a patient with ulcerations in oral mucosa and psoriatic plaques after incorrect use of Methotrexate. Prescribed in a weekly dose, it was used continuously for 10 days and without simultaneous intake of folic acid. It is important to ensure correct comprehension of the prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Skin Ulcer/chemically induced , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Oral Ulcer/chemically induced , Folic Acid Antagonists/adverse effects , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Oral Ulcer/pathology , Prescription Drug Overuse/adverse effects , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Leukopenia/chemically induced , Medication Errors/adverse effects
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic daily headache (CDH) is defined as a headache disorder in which headaches occur on a daily or near-daily basis (at least 15 days/month) for more than 3 months. Chronic migraine (CM) and medication overuse headache (MOH) are very disabling headaches that remain underdiagnosed. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of CDH and its various subtypes, and examine the associations with MOH among first-visit headache patients presenting at neurology outpatient clinics in Korea. METHODS: Eleven neurologists enrolled first-visit patients with complaints of headaches into outpatient clinics for further assessment. Headache disorders were classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorder (third edition beta version) by each investigator. RESULTS: Primary CDH was present in 248 (15.2%) of the 1,627 included patients, comprising CM (143, 8.8%), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) (98, 6%), and definite new daily persistent headache (NDPH) (7, 0.4%). MOH was associated with headache in 81 patients (5%). The association with MOH was stronger among CM patients (34.5%) than patients with CTTH (13.3%) or NDPH (14.3%) (p=0.001). The frequency of CDH did not differ between secondary and tertiary referral hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of CDH and MOH diagnoses were 15.2% and 5%, respectively in first-visit headache patients presented at secondary or tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. CM was the most common subtype of CDH and was most frequently associated with MOH.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Classification , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Headache Disorders , Headache Disorders, Secondary , Headache , Humans , Korea , Migraine Disorders , Neurology , Prescription Drug Overuse , Research Personnel , Tension-Type Headache , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. METHODS: We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. RESULTS: In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Aged , Classification , Diagnosis , Electrooculography , Female , Headache Disorders , Headache Disorders, Primary , Headache Disorders, Secondary , Headache , Humans , Korea , Migraine Disorders , Prescription Drug Overuse , Prospective Studies , Tension-Type Headache , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 14(483): 1-8, 2015. Mapa, Tab.
Article in English | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1352513

ABSTRACT

Background: Current World Health Organization and national protocols recommend the 'test and treat' strategy for the management of uncomplicated malaria, to reduce over prescription of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). Therefore, adherence to these protocols varies in different sub-Saharan African countries and no information is available for Mozambique. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prescription practices of ACT in Mozambique. Methods: Retrospective audit of medical records corresponding to the period between July and December 2011 was conducted in 22 health units across 11 provinces in Mozambique. Two health units were selected per province according to availability of laboratory data (performing microscopy and rapid diagnostics testing-RDT or RDT only) and geographic setting (rural versus urban). At each facility, demographic data, laboratory results (blood smear or RDT), and prescription of ACT were all collected from the existing records. Results: Between July and December 2011, a total of 61,730 cases were tested for malaria, of which 42.7 % (26,369/61,730) were positive. A total of 35.361 patients were malaria negative, and ACT was prescribed to 72.0 % (25.448/35.361) of them. Prescription of ACT to malaria negative patients was higher in the central region of the country as compared to the northern and southern (81.1 % in the central region versus 72.4 and 63.7 % in the northern and southern, respectively, p = 0.000) and in urban settings (88.7 % in rural versus 58.0 % in urban settings, p = 0.000). Stock out of RDT was observed in six (27.3 %) of the health facilities. When no RDT was available, patients were empirically treated with ACT. Conclusion: Findings from this study demonstrate that health care worker's adherence to the new guidelines for malaria treatment is poor in Mozambique and prescription of ACT to malaria negative patients remains very high. Enhanced training and supervision activities, community education and external quality assurance might lead to significant improvements in the clinician's adherence to the new guideline for malaria treatment in Mozambique. Keywords: Malaria management, Over-treatment of malaria vs under-diagnosis of test-based malaria, Overtreatment of malaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/epidemiology , Organization and Administration , Patients , Therapeutics/adverse effects , World Health Organization , Medical Records , Public Health , 59597 , Guidelines as Topic/methods , Prescriptions , Prescription Drug Overuse/mortality , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/blood , Mozambique/epidemiology
14.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 48(4)oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-748776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: en la actualidad, el plan para erradicar las faltas, evaluar la distribución y el consumo de medicamentos, así como para actividades relacionadas con los fármacos, se controla periódica y sistemáticamente por la más alta dirección del partido y el gobierno del país a fin de analizar la situación existente y adoptar decisiones conjuntas. La Droguería La Habana lleva a cabo el análisis y planificación del consumo de medicamentos en la ciudad y asume las pérdidas por concepto de vencimiento de los medicamentos año tras año. OBJETIVO: establecer acciones de mejora continua en el proceso de distribución de medicamentos en la Droguería La Habana, para la disminución de vencimientos de los medicamentos. MÉTODOS: se revisaron todos los dictámenes técnicos elaborados por concepto de vencimiento, por el grupo profesional de la Droguería La Habana, cuya fecha de vencimiento del medicamento coincidió con el período de estudio, que comprendió enero 2008-diciembre 2009. Los indicadores analizados fueron: cantidad de medicamentos vencidos por laboratorios y años, causas del vencimiento e importe económico que representó. Se determinaron las causas del vencimiento de medicamentos durante el proceso de distribución, combinando el trabajo en equipo con la tormenta de ideas; además considerando los aspectos regulatorios vigentes y las no conformidades detectadas en auditorías internas. El orden de prioridad de las acciones de mejora se determinó al aplicar la herramienta de gestión de la calidad: selección ponderada. Para la confirmación del mejoramiento se analizaron los mismos indicadores establecidos en el diagnóstico, para el período enero de 2010-octubre de 2011. RESULTADOS: en el diagnóstico se detectaron 102 renglones afectados, del total de medicamentos que conformó el Cuadro Básico. Se vencieron 92 530 medicamentos, para un importe económico de $264 365,80. Se propusieron seis factores críticos para el éxito y cuatro opciones de mejoras. Una vez implementadas las acciones de mejora, se disminuyó significativamente la cantidad de medicamentos vencidos (31 724 unidades), con un nivel de afectación de 44 renglones; lo que representó el 5,07 por ciento del total de medicamentos que conformó el Cuadro Básico, lo cual confirmó el progreso alcanzado en la actividad. CONCLUSIONES: la eficacia de las acciones implementadas para la mejora del proceso de distribución de medicamentos, se evidencia con la reducción de medicamentos con riesgo de vencimiento, el mejor aprovechamiento de las existencias, el mejor funcionamiento de la Comisión de Vencimiento, la capacitación del personal de las áreas involucradas; lo que reduce la contribución de los laboratorios al vencimiento de medicamentos en la etapa de seguimiento(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the present plan for eradication of failures, evaluation of distribution and consumption of drugs and the pharmaceutical-related activities are systematically controlled by the highest governmental and party authorities with the objective of analyzing the existing situation and of making joint decisions. Droguería La Habana is making analysis and planning the drug consumption in the capital and is taking responsibility on the losses caused by drug expiration year after year. OBJECTIVE: to set actions to improve the drug distribution process on a continuous basis in Droguería La Habana, so that the expiration of drugs be reduced. METHODS: the professional group of Droguería La Habana revised all the technical reports on drug expiration whose expiration date coincided with the study period from January 2008 to December 2009. The analysis indicators were number of drugs that had expired per laboratory and year, causes of expiration and economic cost. The causes of expiration were determined during the distribution process by combining the teamwork with the brainstorm and taking the present regulatory aspects and the non-conformity claims detected in the internal auditing. The order of priority for the improvement actions was determined by the quality management tool called weighed selection. For confirmation of improvement, the same indicators set in the diagnosis were considered for the January 2010-October 2011 period. RESULTS: the diagnosis detected 102 affected items out of the total number of drugs included in the Basic Drug Program. The expired drugs amounted to 92 530 for an economic cost of $ 264 365.80. Six critical factors for success and four improvement options were then put forward. Once the improvement actions were implemented, the number of expired drugs significantly lowered (31 724 units) representing 44 items for 5.07 percent of the total number of drugs included in the Basic Drug Program. This confirmed the advances attained in this activity. CONCLUSIONS: effectiveness of actions that were implemented to improve the drug distribution process is seen in the reduction of drugs at risk of expiration; the best utilization of stocks, better functioning of the drug expiration commission, the training of staff in the involved areas, all of which decreases the contribution of labs to the expiration of drugs in the follow-up phase(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Good Distribution Practices , Prescription Drug Overuse/prevention & control
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(1): 79-86, Jan.-Mar. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622891

ABSTRACT

Potentially inappropriate medication use by the Diamantina (Minas Gerais State) population was investigated by analyzing medicine consumption, self-medication, polypharmacy and drug interactions of medicines prescribed among those interviewed. Level of knowledge about rational drug use and its relationship to socio-economic variables was also evaluated using a semi-structured questionnaire. This survey was based on stratified sampling of 423 individuals selected randomly. The prevalence of prescription drug consumption was 42.32% (n=179) and cardiovascular drugs were the most prescribed. Drug interactions were found in 45.81% (n=82) of prescriptions and 92.68% (n=76) of these interactions were moderate, with co-administration of cardiovascular drugs occurring in more than half of the cases. The inappropriate use of medication, according to Beers criteria, occurred in 44.73% of prescriptions to the elderly. The prevalence of self-medication was 63.34% (n=268) while 21.99% (n=91) of individuals administered medications to their children without formal prescriptions, where this practice was associated to analgesic/antipyretic consumption. The population showed a high prevalence of inappropriate use of drugs across all strata of society, representing an issue requiring effective actions to promote rational use of medicines.


O consumo inapropriado de medicamentos pela população de Diamantina-MG foi investigado através da análise do consumo de medicamentos, automedicação, polifarmácia e interações medicamentosas prescritas aos entrevistados. Também foi avaliado o nível de conhecimento sobre uso racional de medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis sócio-econômicas através de um questionário semi-estruturado. Este estudo transversal foi baseado em amostragem estratificada e contou com a participação de 423 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos prescritos foi de 42,32% (n=179), sendo os medicamentos cardiovasculares os mais prescritos. Entre as prescrições foram encontradas 45,81% (n=82) de interações medicamentosas, sendo 92,68% (n=76) destas interações moderadas e a co-administração de medicamentos cardiovasculares presente em mais da metade dos casos. O uso inadequado de medicamentos, segundo os critérios de Beers, esteve presente em 44,73% das prescrições de idosos. Com relação à automedicação, 63,34% (n=268) dos entrevistados admitem fazer uso de medicamento sem prescrição e 21,99% (n=91) administram medicamentos aos filhos sem prescrição profissional, sendo os analgésicos e antitérmicos os mais comumente administrados em ambas as situações. A população avaliada apresentou alta prevalência de uso inadequado de medicamentos observados em todas as camadas da sociedade, sendo necessário estabelecer medidas eficazes para promoção do uso racional de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prescription Drug Misuse , Prescription Drug Overuse/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacoepidemiology/classification , Self Medication/statistics & numerical data
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