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1.
South African Family Practice ; 62(1), p.1-11, fig., tab., 2020
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201805

ABSTRACT

Background: A significant difference in the blood pressure (BP) value of a patient taken by different health workers has been a subject of discussion among health workers. This study investigated the variations between usual-care and guideline-concordant BP measurement protocols and evaluated the implications of the disparities on diagnosis and treatment decision.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 participants. The usual-care and guideline-concordant BP readings taken from each participant by the regular clinic nurses and research-trained nurses, respectively, were obtained.Results: Majority of the regular clinic nurses following the usual-care protocol used the left arm for BP measurement (59.7%). The systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) readings were higher on the right arm in 55.3% and 39.2% of the participants, respectively. The mean guideline-concordant BP was 7.67 mmHg higher than the mean usual-care for SBP (p ≤ 0.05) and 7.14 mmHg higher for DBP (p ≤ 0.05). The proportion of participants classified as having hypertension and uncontrolled BP was 11.8% and 15.0% lower when using usual-care BP compared to guideline-concordant BP, respectively. Fifty-one (24.8%) respondents were advised incorrect treatment based on usual-care BP measurement. The Bland-Altman plot showed that limits of agreement were wider than within the 10 mmHg clinical reference range and unacceptable for clinical purposes.Conclusion: The usual-care and guideline-concordant BP measurement protocols were significantly different, and the disparity had significant consequences on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Health workers should strictly adhere to the guidelines on BP measurement to avoid mismanagement of patients.


Subject(s)
Blood , Pressure/diagnosis , Pressure/therapy , Health , Occupational Groups , Nigeria
2.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 19-25, Sep.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1114973

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia con oxígeno a largo plazo mejoró la supervivencia de los pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Las medidas propuestas en las guías clínicas para evaluar la indicación y seguimiento de esta terapia son la presión arterial de oxígeno y la saturación arterial de oxígeno. Se ha generalizado el uso de la oximetría de pulso, pero la información para determinar si estas medidas son intercambiables es insuficiente. El objetivo es revisar los fundamentos fisiológicos de las variables relacionadas con la oxigenación y sus formas de medición. En la evaluación del paciente con patología respiratoria, la saturación de pulso es una ayuda clínica valiosa, sin embargo, sus limitaciones no le permiten, en ciertos rangos, reemplazar la valoración directa en sangre arterial (gasometría arterial) de la saturación arterial y la presión arterial de oxígeno, para determinar la indicación de la oxigenoterapia. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):19-25


Abstract Long-term oxygen therapy improves the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Measures proposed in clinical clinics to evaluate the indication and monitoring of arterial blood pressure therapy and arterial oxygen saturation. The use of pulse oximetry has been widespread, but the information to determine if these measures are interchangeable is insufficient. The objective is to review the physiological foundations of variables related to oxygenation and their forms of measurement. In the assessment of the patient with respiratory pathology, pulse saturation is a valuable clinical aid., however, its limitations do not allow, in certain ranges, to replace direct arterial blood pressure (arterial blood gas) measurement of arterial saturation and arterial oxygen pressure, to determine the indication of oxygen therapy. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):19-25


Subject(s)
Humans , Oximetry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pathology , Patients , Pressure , Pulse , Survival , Therapeutics , Weights and Measures , Blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Pulmonary Medicine , Oxygenation , Monitoring , Arterial Pressure , Survivorship
3.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 18: 1-14, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095115

ABSTRACT

La evidencia internacional recomienda diferente presión de 'cuff' a utilizar en usuarios con vía aérea artificial. En Chile,algunas instituciones sanitarias han creado protocolos internos referenciando dicha evidencia. Sin embargo, no existe una guía nacional, por lo que distintos profesionales utilizan diferentes criterios. El objetivo de este trabajo fue crear un cuestionario válido y confiable sobre el uso de técnicas y manejo de la presión del 'cuff' en usuarios adultos con vía aérea artificial por parte de profesionales de salud en Chile. Para ello, se utilizó un diseño cualitativo-cuantitativo, descriptivo y longitudinal. El proceso fue dividido en tres fases. En la fase A sedesarrolló un cuestionario en inglés que fue traducido al español con ayuda de tres hablantes hispanos nativos. En la fase B diez expertos chilenos en el manejo de usuarios con vía aérea artificial analizaron la herramienta y recomendaron modificaciones de algunos componentes del cuestionario. Después dedichos cambios, la herramienta fue validada a través de un Índice de Validez de Contenido. En la fase C treinta y tres profesionales de la salud chilenos respondieron voluntariamente el cuestionario en dos ocasiones con un lapso de treinta días entre respuestas, con el fin de medir la confiabilidad a través de 'test-retest'. El cuestionario desarrollado tuvo una validez de 0,93 mientras que 72,73% y 27,27% de sus ítems tuvieron excelente y buena confiabilidad respectivamente. Lo anterior permite concluir que este cuestionario cumple con su objetivo y servirá para conocer las técnicas y presiones del 'cuff' que profesionales de la salud en Chile utilizan para el manejo de usuarios adultos con vía aérea artificial.


International evidence recommends different cuff pressure to use with patients with an artificial airway. In Chile, some health institutions have created internal protocols referencing this evidence. However, there is no national guidelines, thus different health professionals use different criteria to manage these patients. The present researched aimed at creating a valid and reliable questionnaire on the use and management of the cuff pressure in adult patients with an artificial airway for health professionals in Chile. A qualitative-quantitative, descriptive and longitudinal design was implemented. This process was divided in three phases. In phase A, a draft of the questionnaire was developed in English and then translated to Spanish by three native Spanish speakers. In phase B, ten Chilean, ten clinical experts in the management of users with artificial airway analysed the tool and recommended modifications of some of the questionnaire. After the modifications, the tool was validated through a Content Validity Index form. In phase C, thirty-three Chilean health professional voluntarily responded the questionnaire twice, with a period of thirty days between responses, to measure the reliability of the tool through 'test-retest'. The questionnaire had a validity of .93, while 72.73% and 27.27% of the items had an excellent reliability and good reliability, respectively. This allows us to conclude that this questionnaire meets its objectives and will serve to know the techniques and pressure of the cuff that health professionals in Chile use for the management of adult patients with an artificial airway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Competence , Health Personnel , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Pressure , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , Chile , Reproducibility of Results , Longitudinal Studies , Airway Management
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1111-1117, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1012405

ABSTRACT

La carrera descalza ha sido ampliamente estudiada últimamente, pero poco se sabe de cambios anatómicos que produce en el pie. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar estos cambios producidos de forma aguda y a largo plazo en sujetos que entrenan a pie descalzo. 29 sujetos divididos en dos grupos: Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) y Shod (SGr) (n=12), realizaron un protocolo de efecto agudo consistente en correr durante 20 min sobre treadmill a 3.1 m/s y un protocolo de entrenamiento de 8 semanas de carrera de resistencia con aumento progresivo de volumen. BFGr realizó todas las sesiones a pie descalzo. Al finalizar cada protocolo se midió Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI) y Maximum Surface (MS). Se efectuó ANOVA 3x2 para comprobar los efectos que el tiempo y la condición de calzado produjo. La condición de calzado produjo efectos significativos sobre todas las variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983) y el factor tiempo sobre AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) y MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). Hubo interacción significativa Tiempo x Condición en FW (p=0.036, η2p= 0.116) y NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS aumentó luego del protocolo de efecto agudo (p=0.000) y a largo plazo (p=0.001) en BFGr. El porcentaje de sujetos con pie normal aumentó en BFGr y con pie plano aumentó en SGr. El entrenamiento de carrera a pie descalzo produce efectos, principalmente luego de un período de adaptación de 8 semanas, tendientes a un aumento armónico en la superficie de apoyo plantar con tendencia a una disminución relativa del área del mediopié, lo cual se tradujo en una disminución de sujetos con arco plantar de tipología plana.


Barefoot running has been studied extensively recently, but little is known of the anatomical changes that take place in the foot. The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic changes that are produced in subjects who train barefoot. 29 subjects divided into two groups, Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) and Shod (SGr) (n=12), followed an acute effect protocol which consisted in running during 20 min on a treadmill at 3.1 m/s, and an eight-week long chronic effect protocol covering eight weeks of resistance running with progressively increasing volume. BFGr did all the sessions barefoot. At the end of each protocol Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI), and Maximum Surface (MS) were measured. ANOVA 3x2 was run to verify the effects caused by time and the shod condition produced. Shod/ Unshod factor caused significant effects on all the variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983), and the time factor on AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) and MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). There was a significant Time x Condition interaction in FW (p=0.036, η2p=0.116) and NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS increased after the acute (p=0.000) and the chronic (p=0.001) protocols in the BFGr. The percentage of subjects with normal feet increased in the BFGr and that with flat feet increased in SGr. Barefoot running training causes effects, mainly after an adaptation period of eight weeks, tending to a harmonic surface increase on the support plantar area, with a relative decrease of the midfoot area, which meant a decrease of subjects with plantar arch of flat type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Pressure , Running/physiology , Foot/anatomy & histology , Shoes , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Anthropometry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
5.
Av. enferm ; 37(1): 19-26, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1011384

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo é realizar levantamento de dados clínicos e epidemiológicos dos pacientes com feridas em uma unidade do sistema prisional no estado de São Paulo. Metodologia: Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo onde foram coletados dados dos prontuários de uma unidade prisional anotados em livros de registros e prontuários de saúde entre janeiro de 2015 e janeiro de 2016. Resultados: Foram analisados 52 prontuários de pacientes com feridas. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo masculino, sendo 51,92 % brancos e 53,85 % possuíam entre 30-39 anos. Foram encontradas lesões de 10 etiologias diferentes, sendo as queimaduras as mais frequentes (22,95 %), seguidas de lesões por pressão (21,31 %). A doença mais constante nos pacientes em tratamento de feridas foi lesão medular. Conclusão: Os pacientes com feridas no sistema prisional eram em sua maior parte brancos, do sexo masculino, com idade média de 37,21 anos, sendo mais frequentes as queimaduras e as lesões por pressão.


Resumen Objetivo: Realizar el levantamiento de los datos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los pacientes con heridas en una unidad del sistema penitenciario en el estado de São Paulo. Metodología: Estudio retrospec-tivo-descriptivo donde se recolectan datos de los prontuarios de una unidad penitenciaria registrados en libro-acta y prontuarios de salud entre enero de 2015 y enero de 2016. Resultados: Fueron analizados 52 prontuarios de pacientes con heridas. Todos los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, 51,92 % blancos, 53,85 % tenían entre 30-39 años. Se encontraron lesiones de 10 etiologías diferentes, siendo las quemaduras las más frecuentes 22,95 %, seguidas de lesiones por presión 21,31 %. La enfermedad más común de los pacientes en tratamiento de heridas fue lesión medular. Conclusión: Los pacientes con heridas en el sistema penitenciario eran en su mayor parte blancos, todos del sexo masculino, con una edad media de 37,21 años, siendo más frecuentes las quemaduras y las lesiones por presión.


Abstract Objective: To perform the lifting of the epidemiological and clinical data of patients with wounds in a unit of the prison system in the State of São Paulo. Methodology: Retrospective and descriptive study where there are collected data of compendium of a prison unit registered in a record book and health compendium between January 2015 and January 2016. Results: 52 compendia of patients with wounds were analyzed. All patients were male, 51.92 % white, 53.85 % were between 30 and 39 years old. Injuries of 10 different etiologies were found, being burns the most frequent (22.95 %), followed by lesions by pressure (21.31 %). The most common disease among patients in treatment of wounds was spinal cord injury. Conclusion: In the prison system, patients with wounds are predominantly white, all male, with an average age of 37.21 years old, being more frequent burns and injuries by pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prisons , Wounds and Injuries , Pressure , Spinal Cord Injuries , Burns , Male
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900801, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1038129

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of fibrin glue on staple-line leak after sleeve gastrectomy. Methods Fourteen adult wistar rats 300 gr were randomized into two groups: Control group (n=7) and study group (n=7). All the rats underwent sleeve gastrectomy using lineer stapler. In the study group, fibrin glue was used to reinforce the staple-line. The rats were sacrificed 7 days after surgery. The stomach was resected, submerged in saline and exposed to excess pressure to obtain a burst pressure value. The gastric staple line was evaluated histopathologically according to the Ehrlich Hunt scale. The results of the two groups were compared. Results The mean Ehrlich-Hunt scores for inflammation, fibroblastic activity and neo-angiogenesis were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Collagen deposition was significantly higher in study group (3.42±0.53) when compared with control group (2.57±0.78) (p=0.035). The mean burst pressure was 137.8±8.5 mmHg for control group and 135.0±8.1 mmHg for study group (p=0.536). Conclusion Reinforcement of the staple-line with fibrin glue has no effect on the burst pressure after sleeve gastrectomy. More studies are needed to evaluate the precautions against leak after sleeve gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/prevention & control , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/pharmacology , Surgical Stapling/adverse effects , Gastrectomy/methods , Pressure , Random Allocation , Suture Techniques , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200118

ABSTRACT

Background: Correct estimation of intravascular volume is crucial in critically ill and traumatized patients. Measurement of the central venous pressure (CVP) is invasive and time consuming. Studies have shown that inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) correlates with CVP. Sonographic assessment of IVCD and its respirophasic changes (collapsibility index; CI) is a non-invasive, quick and reliable means of estimating CVP and hence, intravascular fluid volume. Data on such studies are scanty among adult Nigerians. Aim: To establish normograms of IVCD and CI for healthy adults in Benin City, Nigeria as well as determine the relationship of IVCD and CI with height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and gender. Method: Four hundred apparently healthy adult volunteers were prospectively studied by means of ultrasound. Demographic data and BMI were obtained. The IVCD was measured during inspiration, expiration and sniff. The CI was subsequently calculated for each subject. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 was used for data analysis including tests of significance. Probability values less than or equal to 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean IVCD in this study was 6.1±2.2mm and 13.0±4.0 mm for inspiration and expiration respectively. The mean CI was 49.7±0.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between IVCD and CI with height and BMI. Conclusion: This study has determined normal IVCD and CI reference range for healthy Nigerian adults. The CI is independent of height, weight, BMI and gender. Since the CI is not dependent on physical attributes and gender, it may serve as an objective tool for monitoring the fluid status of patient


Subject(s)
Pressure , Ultrasonography , Adult , Nigeria
8.
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 75(3), p.2346-2352, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200326

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes is a rapidly-growing global health problem with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality due to diabetes-related complications. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of type II diabetes on the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Patients and Methods: This prospective case-control study was performed at the ophthalmic department of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. It was conducted on 30 participants with type II diabetes and 10 healthy control (both eyes were included). Diabetics were categorized into 3 groups, diabetics without retinopathy, with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).Each group contained 10 participants. Complete ophthalmic examination was done for all participants including, visual acuity, slitlamp, fundus examination, measurement of IOP and CCT. Fundus photography and measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were done for diabetics. Results: Diabetics with PDR exhibited significantly higher IOP and CCT values compared to other groups. The IOP was significantly correlated with CCT and with the duration of diabetes. Conclusion: Diabetics with PDR had a significantly elevated IOP and thicker corneas than normal subjects. These data emphasize the importance of considering CCT measurements in diabetics for proper interpretation of IOP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , /epidemiology , /diagnosis , /complications , Pressure , Egypt
9.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200331

ABSTRACT

Background: Surgical site infections are major complications of coronary artery bypass grafting using bilateral internal thoracic arteries. In this study we reviewed the results of using INPWT for high risk patients with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using bilateral internal mammary arteries. Patients and methods: From January 2013 to December 2016, patients with coronary artery bypass grafting using bilateral mammary arteries were enrolled in this study. Patients were from Kasr El-Einy, Beni-Suef and Fayoum University Hospitals. The total number was 427 patients, where INPWT was used in 161 patient, and conventional sterilized dressing was done in 266 patients. 2 groups were matched for statistical analysis, the first group was the control and the second group was where INPWT was used. Results: The results related to sternal wound infections were similarly attributed to the conventional group (10.9%) and the INPWT group (10.2%) (P=1.00). Patients treated with INPWT had less rate of infection than those with conventional dressing (5.5% versus 10.2%, P= 0.210), this difference was not statistically significant. Interaction tests also showed comparable results for SSI (surgical site infections) among patients with or without significant co-morbidities. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of INPWT did not decrease the incidence of sternal wound infections in patients who had CABG surgery using bilateral internal mammary harvesting (BIMA). A larger randomized study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of this technique.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Pressure , Wounds and Injuries , Therapeutics , Infections , Egypt
10.
South African Family Practice ; 62(2), p.24-26, 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200433

ABSTRACT

Globally more than 1 billion people have hypertension and it is predicted that because of ageing populations and increasing sedentary lifestyles, this figure will rise to about 1.5 billion by 2025. Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of premature death and morbidity due to stroke and ischemic heart disease. Hypertension is also a major risk factor for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease and cognitive decline. This article discusses the current evidencebased treatment guidelines and pressing temporal issues in optimal blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
Blood , Pressure , Determination , Hypertension , Diagnosis , Therapeutics
11.
Postgraduate Medical Journal of Ghana ; 8(2), p.86-92, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200975

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic sleep deficiency is a stressful situation which has an association with high blood pressure. After delivery, mothers have disrupted sleep due to frequent awakenings by their infants. What is not known is how significant this relationship is in women during the postpartum period as well as other factors that may affect their Sleep quality. Sleep quality is a measure of duration and disruption. Aim and Objectives: Study is aimed at determining the relationship between Sleep quality and new onset postpartum hypertension. The specific objectives are; to determine the Sleep quality of mothers in the postpartum period using the Pittsburgh Sleep quality index (PSQI), identify factors that affect Sleep quality of mothers in the post-partum period and determine blood pressure patterns of mothers in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal study. Using systematic random sampling, a sample size of 126 women were recruited between June and August 2016 in the Postnatal clinic of the 37 Military Hospital. Written consent was obtained from participants. Sitting blood pressure was checked and recorded and a modified form of the Pittsburgh Sleep quality index (PSQI) was used to assign a global score for Sleep quality. A global score of more than 5 indicated poor Sleep quality in that mother. Clients were first recruited at the 1st postnatal visit with follow-up at the 2nd routine postnatal visit (6weeks). Only mothers whose blood pressures were normal during pregnancy and upon discharge from hospital were included. For categorical data, Pearson’s chisquare test was used for comparisons and logistic regression as used to determine significant factors that contribute to new onset hypertension in postpartum women. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Majority of mothers (92.1% and 90.5% at first and second visits respectively) had poor Sleep quality. Mothers who slept away from their babies at the sixth week visit had better sleep. Mean global Sleep quality scores had no significant association with new onset hypertension but mean scores of some Age , p=0.001, OR =1.20 (C.I: 1.09-1.32) and some sleep components sleep disturbance, p=0.041, OR =1.86(C.I: 1.02-3.37), and use of sleep medicine, p=0.031, OR =1.54 (C.I:1.04- 2.29) were significantly associated with new onset postpartum hypertension. Conclusion: Global poor Sleep quality is not associated with increased odds of new onset hypertension but the Sleep quality components, sleep disturbance and increased use of sleep medicine, were significantly associated with new onset hypertension in mothers.


Subject(s)
Sleep , Hygiene , Postpartum Period , /complications , Hypertension , Blood , Pressure , Women , Ghana
12.
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 76(7), p.4506-4513, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201014

ABSTRACT

Background: Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) also known as Secondary cataract is the most common complication following cataract surgery. It can occur between few months and many years after implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs), with incidence figures ranging from <5% to as high as 50%. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of intraocular pressure elevation after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy for treatment of PCO. Patients and Methods: A prospective non-randomized study that was conducted at Al Zahraa University Hospital. The study included a total of 40 eyes of 31 patients. All patients underwent Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Patients were followed up at 4 hours, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after laser capsulotomy. Nine cases were bilateral, 15 were males (48%) and 16 were females (52%). Results: The majority of patients (90%) showed significant improvement in visual acuity after capsulotomy and about 87.5% of patients had final BCVA of 6/6-6/12, visual acuity after 24 hours was 6/9 in 20 eyes (50%) and 20 eyes (30%) had VA of 6/12. All the 40 patients had visual acuity improvement of 1 or more lines after capsulotomy. No one had further decline in visual acuity after capsulotomy. Conclusion: The present study depicts the Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy as a good, successful treatment of PCO, because it was found to be modern, non-invasive, effective mode of treatment of PCO with lesser complications and it does not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Lasers , State , Pressure
13.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 29(1), p.819-830, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) offers considerable health benefits for diabetic patients. However, extensive high levels of inactivity has been reported among diabetic patients. This study sought to assess the patterns of physical activity and its relationship with two management-relevant outcomes (glycaemic and blood pressure control)among people living with diabetes in the Ho Municipality, Ghana. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2017 to April 2017 among 150 purposively recruited diabetic patients who were receiving care at the diabetes clinics of the Volta Regional Hospital and the Ho Municipal Hospital. A semi structured questionnaire was used in capturing socio-demographic information. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form. Glycaemic and blood pressure control were evaluated within a three-month period from patients’ records. RESULTS: Physical activity estimates among participants were 21.33%, 48% and 30.67% for high, moderate and low PA respectively. Glycaemic control among the study participants was 33.33% and blood pressure control was 58.67%. Both glycaemic and blood pressure control were significantly associated with PA. CONCLUSION:In this group of PLWD in the Ho Municipality, high levels of inactivity, uncontrolled glycaemia and blood pressure exist. However, glycaemic and blood pressure control may be modulated by moderate-intensity physical activity.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Exercise , Blood , Pressure , Ghana
14.
Nigerian Journal of Surgery ; 25(1), p.14-20, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201206

ABSTRACT

Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of wounds. However, evidence of its benefit in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), especially with respect to Indian population, is sparse. Methodology: This randomized controlled trial included DFUs of Wagner's Grades 1 and 2. Patients were further stratified with respect to DFU size <10 cm and ≥10 cm. Patients with vascular disease, osteomyelitis, and bilateral DFUs were excluded from the study. The enrolled patients were randomized to receive VAC therapy or conventional dressing. The time to wound healing, granulation tissue formation, and complications such as pain, infection, and bleeding were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of sixty patients were randomized, of which 27 in each group were analyzed. The mean time to healing in days was significantly less in VAC group (22.52 vs. 3.85; P < 0.0001). Mean time to achieve 75%–100% granulation tissue cover was significantly less in VAC group (23.33 vs. 32.15; P < 0.0001). Rate of granulation tissue formation was also found to be significantly better in VAC group (2.91 cm2/day vs. 2.16 cm2/day; P = 0.0306). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to wound infection and bleeding which are commonly attributed to VAC therapy. VAC therapy group had significantly lesser pain at week 3 (Visual Analog Scale score 3 vs. 4; P = 0.004). Conclusion: VAC therapy significantly decreases the time to complete wound healing, hastens granulation tissue formation, and reduces the ulcer area compared to conventional dressing. The study did not find any significant increase in the bleeding and infection in the VAC therapy group.


Subject(s)
Tissues , Pressure , Wounds and Injuries , Therapeutics , India
15.
Annals of Health Research ; 5(1), p.1-10, tab., fig., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201300

ABSTRACT

Background:The health benefits ofblood donation are well known. However, the overall effect of long term regular blood donation on body iron store and blood pressure need to be evaluated among voluntary blood donors.Objective:To determine the effect of long term, regular blood donation onbody iron store and blood pressure amongregular voluntary non-remunerated blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria.Methods:Consenting adult blood donors (n = 320), ranging from the first time to regular blood donors were studied over six months. Supine blood pressure (BP) readings were taken twice at 30 minutes interval with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Venous whole blood was drawn into EDTA anti-coagulated and plain tubes for haematological parameters and serum ferritin estimation using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Results:The mean serum ferritin levels declined significantly from 95.5ng/mL amongfirst time donors to 68.9ng/mL among Category IIIdonors (p = 0.035). Male voluntary blood donors had increased risk of low serum ferritin level (OR = 5.02; 95%CI= 1.12-22.51; p = 0.035). Lower values of serum ferritin were recorded more frequently among donors within the 21-30 year age category (OR = 1.54; 95%CI = 1.0-2.71; p= 0.042). Long term regular voluntary blood donation was associated with significant reduction in mean systolic blood pressure (p = 0.01).Conclusion:Long term blood donation resulted in the reduction of blood pressure. Progressive increase in the duration of donation resulted in reduced iron stores even as haemoglobin concentration levels remained acceptable for blood donation


Subject(s)
Blood , Pressure , Tissue Donors , Male , Nigeria , Lakes
16.
Southern African Journal of Critical Care ; 35(1), p.8-12, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201407

ABSTRACT

Background. Intubated patients with a high tracheal tube cuff pressure (CP) are at risk of developing tracheal or subglottic stenosis. Recently an increasing number of patients have presented to our hospital with these complications.  Objectives. To determine the frequency of tracheal tube CP measurements and the range of CP and to explore nursing knowledge regarding CP monitoring. Methods. Frequency of CP measurement was assessed using a prospective chart review, followed by an interventionalcomponent. In the final stage nurses completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results. A total of 304 charts from 61 patients were reviewed. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 to 71 years, with a male preponderance (1.5:1). The majority of charts (87%) did not reflect a documented CP measurement and only 12 charts showed at least one measurement per shift. Only 17% of recorded CPs were within the recommended range; 59% were too low. The questionnaire was completed by only 51% of the 75 respondents. Nursing experience ranged from 3 to 35 years and 92% of respondents were trained in critical care. Knowledge of current critical care CP monitoring guidelines was reported by 62% of the respondents (n=23/37). Only 53% (20/38) reported routinely measuring CP. Almost all respondents (94%) knew of at least one complication of abnormal CP. Conclusion. Having a basic knowledge of CP measurement, having awareness of the complications of abnormal CP and the availability of national best practice guidelines did not translate into appropriate ICU practice. Research into effective implementation strategies to achieve best practice is needed.


Subject(s)
Trachea , Pressure , Malawi
17.
Nigerian Journal of Medicine ; 28(1), p.63-72, 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noise is everywhere in our daily lives and becomes very important as it affects our health. Religion is anintegr al part of daily lives and the use of acoustic and electronic instruments in worship. With the increase in sophistry of these instruments come their attendant untoward effects on the auditory organs of the body. This study was to assess noise exposure levels amongst instrumentalists in Pentecostal churches in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria.MATERIALS & METHODS: Following ethical consideration, 216 consenting respondents from 30 churches in Port Harcourt were recruited by table of random numbers. Structured close ended interviewer administered questionnaire incorporating the Hearing Health Quick Test (HHQT) was used to access demographic data. Hearing assessments were also performed using tonal audiometry. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics.RESULTS: Most 90.28% and 37.96% of respondents were male and within the 39-45 year-old age range respectively. Also, 80.56% of respondents were aware that loud music can cause permanent hearing loss. The prevalence of NIHL andTinnitus was 39% and 38% respectively; and only 19% used Hearing Protection Devices (HPD). Statistically significant risk of NIHL was observed in musicians who had experienced tinnitus, played only amplified instruments and Music experience greater or equal to 10 years (p=0.001).CONCLUSION: Gospel instrumentalists are exposed to noise in the course of their duties which have significant effect on their hearing. Use of Hearing Protection Devices (HPD) as a personal protective equipment is encouraged just as health education of this group of workers is necessary.


Subject(s)
Noise , Sound , Pressure , Hearing , Noise , Nigeria , Lakes
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-774163

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the problem of the influence of preloading force on its mechanical response in soft tissue compression experiments, an elimination method of preloading force based on linear loading region is proposed. Unconfined compression experiments under a variety of different preloading forces are performed. The influence of the preloading force on the parameters of constitutive model is analyzed. In the preload phase, the mechanical response of the soft tissue is taken as a linear model. The preloading force is eliminated by taking the preloading phase into account throughout the response process. According to five different preloading forces of the unconfined compression experiments, the elimination method is validated with two different constitutive models of soft tissue, and the error between the models obtained by the preloading force elimination method and the traditional method with the experimental results is compared. The results show that the error obtained by preloading force elimination method is significantly smaller than the traditional method. The preloading force elimination method can eliminate the influence of preloading force on mechanical response to a certain extent, and constitutive model parameters which are closer to the true properties of soft tissue can be obtained.


Subject(s)
Elasticity , Linear Models , Models, Biological , Pressure , Stress, Mechanical
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of intermittent negative pressure therapy on the skin microcirculation perfusion of quadriceps in male rowers, and to provide basis for the practical application of this method.@*METHODS@#Fourteen male rowers were selected from the national rowing team and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The daily training plans of two groups were the same. The recovery intervention for experimental group was implemented by 20 minutes in the cube of Vacusport Regeneration System (German), 5 times per week for 4 weeks, no recovery intervention for control group. Microcirculation markers were collected by PeriFlux5000 system before and after the 4-week intervention. The markers included microcirculatory blood perfusion(MBP), average velocity of blood cells(AVBC), concentration of moving blood cells (CMBC), and values of the markers included basic values and post-heating values (44℃), difference before and after heating of the values was considered as the reserve capacity of those markers.@*RESULTS@#The test results before the 4 weeks intervention showed there was no statistical difference between the two groups(P>0.05). After the 4 weeks intervention: ①MBP: The post-heating value and the difference of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). But there was no statistical inner-group difference. ②AVBC: The post-heating values and the difference in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Intra-group comparison found that the post-heating values after post-intervention were significantly reduced, compared with those of pre-intervention (P< 0.01); the difference after post-intervention was reduced significantly, compared with those in the pre-intervention (P<0.05). ③CMBC: The post-heating values and the difference in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). There were no statistical significant inner-group difference.@*CONCLUSION@#Lower limb intermittent negative pressure therapy can improve the skin microcirculation of the quadriceps of the male rowers, which has a positive effect on the rapid recovery of physical fitness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Microcirculation , Pressure , Quadriceps Muscle , Skin , Water Sports
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the expression and relationship of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in local skin tissues of pressure injury and investigate the possible mechanism of stage 3 pressure injury refractory wound.@*METHODS@#Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, compressed 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, and 9 d groups. Stage 3 pressure injury animal model were established by magnet compression. The morphology of skin was observed by HE staining. The expression of VEGF was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGF and KDR protein in skin tissue were detected by Western blot. One-way analysis of variance and LSD test were performed on the data.@*RESULTS@#①The HE results showed that compared with the normal control group, the epidermis of the compressed group was gradually thickened, the number of blood vessels was decreased, the collagen arrangement disordered and inflammatory cells infiltration were increased. ②Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression of VEGF protein in the 3 d group was significantly higher than that in the normal control group (P<0.01). The expression of VEGF protein in the skin tissue of 5 d, 7 d and 9 d groups was lower than that in normal control group (P<0.05). WB results were consistent with immunohistochemistry results. ③WB results showed that the expression of HIF-1α in the skin tissues of the rats in 3 d, 5 d and 7 d groups was higher than that in the normal control group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The expression of KDR protein was lower than that of the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#HIF-1α mediated reduction of VEGF and KDR protein expression and decreased tissue angiogenesis may be one of the important causes of chronic dysfunction of stage 3 pressure injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Pressure , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin , Wounds and Injuries , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 , Genetics , Metabolism
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