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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411397

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a eficiência de filtros de tratamento de água, usando carvão ativado de diferentes fontes de resíduo de biomassa. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo experimental, descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado no Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brasil, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2018. Foram preparados filtros de carvão ativados e, posteriomente, sua eficiência no tratamento de água foi avaliada. Resíduos de descarte de madeira, a entrecasca do coco verde, a casca do fruto do caju e do colmo de bambu foram usados como fonte de matéria-prima. O filtro de tratamento de água foi montado, usando o método coluna de cromatografia, adicionando areia e algodão como outros meios filtrantes. Parâmentros físico-químicos foram utilizados na avaliação da eficiência dos filtros construídos. Resultados: a análise de componente principal selecionou dois componentes da qualidade de água, explicando 80,081% da variância total. O coeficiente de correlação cofenética de r=0.9572 indica que o dendograma estimado foi bom, considerando os parâmetros de qualidade da água. Entre os filtros, o bambu apresentou-se como melhor resposta entre filtros testados, sendo responsável pela redução de diversos fatores como cor, turbidez, dureza total e sódio. Conclusão: os fitros de carvão ativado derivado do descarte de madeira e da entrecasca do fruto do caju obtiveram pouca influência na melhoria da qualidade da água, em relação à amostra controle.


Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of water treatment filters using activated carbon from different sources of biomass residue. Methods: this is a descriptive experimental study of a quantitative nature carried out at the Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brazil, during the period from January to June 2018. Activated carbon filters were prepared, and subsequently, their efficiency in water treatment was evaluated. Wood waste, green coconut husk, cashew nut shell, and bamboo stem were used as a source of raw material. The water treatment filter was assembled using the column chromatography method by adding sand and cotton as other filter media. Physicochemical parameters were used to evaluate the efficiency of the built filters. Results: principal component analysis selected two water quality components, explaining 80.081% of the total variance. The cophenetic correlation coefficient of r=0.9572 indicates that the estimated dendrogram was good, considering the water quality parameters. Among the filters, bamboo showed the best response among the filters tested, being responsible for the reduction of several factors such as color, turbidity, total hardness, and sodium. Conclusion: activated carbon filters derived from discarded wood and cashew nut shells had little influence on improving water quality compared to the control sample.


Subject(s)
Water , Charcoal , Water Purification , Reference Standards , Therapeutics , Waste Products , Water Quality , Filters , Principal Component Analysis
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 270 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379116

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose é uma zoonose de ampla distribuição mundial, causada pelos parasitas tripanossomatídeos do gênero Leishmania. Infelizmente, o arsenal terapêutico disponível é precário, mas vê-se crescente o interesse científico pela busca do potencial de derivados nitroheterocíclicos como alternativas terapêuticas. Nesse contexto, este trabalho analisou o potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-furfurilidênicos contra diferentes cepas de Leishmania, assim como investigou um possível modo de ação para esta classe de nitrocompostos. Para tal, a quimioteca foi sintetizada de acordo com publicações prévias do grupo. O potencial de inibição de crescimento das culturas de promastigotas de L. (L.) infantum (Linf) e L. (L.) major (Lmaj) foi determinado, utilizando miltefosina (MILT) (Linf - IC50: 8,28±0,33 µM), anfotericina B (AMB) (Linf - IC50: 0,02±0,002 µM) e nifurtimox (NFX) (Lmaj - IC50: 3,5±0,09 µM) como referência. A maioria dos compostos apresentaram maior potencial que as referênias, destacando o composto 40 (Linf - IC50: 0,2±0,019 µM/ Lmaj - IC50: 0,087 ± 0,001 µM) como mais eficaz. Contra as formas amastigotas intracelulares, para Linf os compostos 40, 13 e 15 foram mais eficazes em reduzir a carga parasitária dos macrófagos infectados que fármacos de referência. Para Lmajor, o composto 40 (IC50: 0,006 ± 0,0003 µM) foi mais ativo que o NFX (IC50: 2,15 ± 0,01 µM). Também foi determinada a atividade da quimioteca frente a enzima nitrorredutase (NTR1), utilizando cepas de T. brucei superexpressantes de NTR1, e os compostos analisados foram até 18 vezes mais eficazes que à cepa wild-type. Ademais, a partir da análise exploratória de dados por análise de componentes principais (PCA) e de grupamentos hierárquicos (HCA), foi reconhecida a influência das propriedades relacionadas com o equilíbrio hidrófilo-lipófilo e da natureza estérica/geométrica das moléculas para atividade anti-Leishmania


Leishmaniasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania. Unfortunately, the available therapeutic arsenal is precarious, but there is growing scientific interest in searching the potential of nitroheterocyclic derivatives as therapeutic alternatives. In this context, this work analyzed the potential of 5-nitro-2-furfurylidene derivatives against different Leishmania strains, as well as investigated the potential mode of action for this nitro compounds class. To this end, the chemolibrary was synthesized according to our group's previous publications. The growth inhibitory potential potential for promastigote cultures of L. (L.) infantum (Linf) and L. (L.) major (Lmaj) was determined using miltefosine (MILT) (Linf - IC50: 8.28±0.33 µM), amphotericin B (AMB) (Linf - IC50: 0.02±0.002 µM) and nifurtimox (NFX) (Lmaj - IC50: 3.5±0.09 µM) as reference. Most of the compounds were more potent than the references, highlighting compound 40 (Linf - IC50: 0.2±0.019 µM/ Lmaj - IC50: 0.087 ± 0.001 µM) as the most effective. Against intracellular amastigote, for Linf, compounds 40, 13 and 15 were more effective in reducing the parasite load of infected macrophages than reference drugs. For Lmajor, compound 40 (IC50: 0.006 ± 0.0003 µM) was more active than NFX (IC50: 2.15 ± 0.01 µM). The activity against nitroreductase (NTR1) enzyme was determined using overexpressing NTR1 mutant T. brucei strains, and the analyzed compounds were up to 18 times more effective than wild-type. Furthermore, exploratory data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HCA) methods were used. The influence of properties related to the hydrophiliclipophilic balance and the steric/geometric nature of the molecules was associated with the anti-Leishmanial activity


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies/instrumentation , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Principal Component Analysis/classification , Leishmania/metabolism , Nitroreductases/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Data Analysis , Nitro Compounds/agonists
3.
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 1122022. mapas, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380480

ABSTRACT

A identidade de Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) e a possibilidade de se constituir em mais de uma espécie é testada através de análises da morfometria (19 medidas), dos caracteres merísticos (14 contagens) e do padrão de colorido de 705 exemplares provenientes dos sistemas dos rios Tramandaí/Mampituba, da laguna dos Patos e drenagem do baixo rio Uruguai. Foram diafanizados e corados 40 exemplares. Os dados morfométricos foram utilizados na Análise de Componentes Principais, Análise Discriminante, Morfometria Geométrica e Função Discriminante. As análises foram feitas considerando os sexos em separado dentro de cada sistema hidrográfico, bem como comparando as populações entre os sistemas hidrográficos e finalmente no conjunto de sistemas representando a área de ocorrência da espécie. A partir dos dados analisados não foram encontradas diferenças entre os sexos. Os resultados mostraram variação morfológica que não sustenta o reconhecimento de possíveis espécies crípticas. A variação encontrada nos dados merísticos, morfométricos e no padrão de colorido justifica a redescrição da espécie. Os resultados das comparações entre as populações indicaram variações nesses caracteres indicando que a espécie possui considerável plasticidade fenotípica.(AU)


The identity of Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) and the possibility of constituting more than one species is tested through analyzes of morphometry (19 measurements), meristic characters (14 counts) and the color pattern of 705 specimens from the Tramandaí/Mampituba, from the Patos lagoon and from the lower Uruguay River drainage. Forty specimens were cleared and stained. Morphometric data were used in Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Geometric Morphometry and Discriminant Function. The analysis was carried out considering the sexes separately within each hydrographic system, as well as comparing the populations between the hydrographic systems and finally in the set of systems representing the area of occurrence of the species. No differences were found between the sexes in the analyzed data. The results showed morphological variation that does not support the recognition of possible cryptic species. The variation found in meristic, morphometric and color pattern data justifies the redescription of the species. The species is described to the aforementioned drainages, and the results demonstrate its phenotypic plasticity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Characidae/classification , Discriminant Analysis , Biological Variation, Population
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928197

ABSTRACT

Rapid serial visual presentation-brain computer interface (RSVP-BCI) is the most popular technology in the early discover task based on human brain. This algorithm can obtain the rapid perception of the environment by human brain. Decoding brain state based on single-trial of multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording remains a challenge due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and nonstationary. To solve the problem of low classification accuracy of single-trial in RSVP-BCI, this paper presents a new feature extraction algorithm which uses principal component analysis (PCA) and common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm separately in spatial domain and time domain, creating a spatial-temporal hybrid CSP-PCA (STHCP) algorithm. By maximizing the discrimination distance between target and non-target, the feature dimensionality was reduced effectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of STHCP algorithm is higher than that of the three benchmark algorithms (SWFP, CSP and PCA) by 17.9%, 22.2% and 29.2%, respectively. STHCP algorithm provides a new method for target detection.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Brain , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography/methods , Humans , Principal Component Analysis , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927952

ABSTRACT

The present study established the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the content of eight major active components in Caesalpinia decapetala and performed the quality evaluation of C. decapetala from different habitats with the chemical pattern recognition. The analysis was carried out on a Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) at 40 ℃, with the mobile phase of water containing 0.1% formic acid(A) and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid under gradient elution, the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the injection volume of 1 μL. The electrospray ionization(ESI) source in the negative mode and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) were used for MS quantitative analysis. The content results were analyzed by the hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) for the evaluation of the quality difference. Eight components showed good linear relationships within their respective concentration ranges(r>0.999), with the average recoveries of 96.85%-103.4% and RSD of 0.52%-2.8%. The analysis results showed that the quality of samples from different batches was different. The samples were classified into three clusters by HCA and PCA. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and efficient, and can be used for the quality evaluation of C. decapetala.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Principal Component Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927950

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 518-522, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: There were many constraints produced by training time and joint injury to analyze the influence of the training intensity on the elbow and knee joints of athletes during the training process. Methods: An improved algorithm-based master component analysis (PCA) modeling method is proposed .1 4 4 athletes were selected in xxx and compared in three groups. Results: The improved PCA models for injury prediction were applied to athletes from group A, the traditional injury models for prediction were adopted for athletes from group B, and athletes from group C received the hospital physical examinations. The results showed that the accuracy of elbow injury in group A due to excessive exercise was 66.86%, the accuracy of hospital physical examination in group C was 67%, and the accuracy of the traditional algorithm in group B was 50%, finding that the accuracy of group A was obviously different from group B (P < 0.05). Compared with other injuries caused by excessive friction, the detection accuracy of knee injuries caused by excessive friction in group A was 62%, that in group B was 44%, and that in group C was 63%. There was a statistically marked difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A PCA - based model of athletes' overtraining injury has high accuracy and adaptability, predicting elbow injury. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Houve uma grande quantidade de restrições produzidas pelo tempo de treinamento e lesão articular a fim de analisar a influência da intensidade do treinamento nas articulações do cotovelo e joelho dos atletas durante o processo de treinamento. Métodos: É proposto um método de modelagem aprimorado de análise de componentes mestre (PCA) baseado em algoritmo .1 4 4 atletas foram selecionados em xxx e comparados em três grupos. Resultados: Os modelos aprimorados de PCA para previsão de lesões foram aplicados a atletas do grupo A, os modelos tradicionais de lesões para previsão foram adotados para atletas do grupo B e os atletas do grupo C receberam os exames físicos hospitalares. Os resultados mostraram que a acurácia da lesão de cotovelo no grupo A devido ao exercício excessivo foi de 66,86%, a acurácia do exame físico hospitalar no grupo C foi de 67% e a acurácia do algoritmo tradicional no grupo B foi de 50%, achando que a acurácia do grupo A era obviamente diferente do grupo B (P <0,05). Em comparação com outras lesões causadas por atrito excessivo, a precisão de detecção de lesões no joelho causadas por atrito excessivo no grupo A foi de 62%, no grupo B foi de 44% e no grupo C foi de 63%. Houve uma diferença estatisticamente marcada entre os grupos A e B (P <0,05). Conclusões: Um modelo baseado na PCA de lesão por overtraining em atletas tem alta precisão e adaptabilidade, o que pode prever lesões de cotovelo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Hubo una gran cantidad de restricciones producidas por el tiempo de entrenamiento y la lesión articular para analizar la influencia de la intensidad del entrenamiento en las articulaciones del codo y la rodilla de los atletas durante el proceso de entrenamiento. Métodos: Se propone un método mejorado de modelado de análisis de componentes maestros (PCA) basado en algoritmos .1 4 Se seleccionaron 4 atletas en xxx y se compararon en tres grupos. Resultados: Los modelos mejorados de PCA para la predicción de lesiones se aplicaron a los atletas del grupo A, los modelos tradicionales de predicción de lesiones se adoptaron para los atletas del grupo B y los atletas del grupo C recibieron los exámenes físicos hospitalarios. Los resultados mostraron que la precisión de la lesión del codo en el grupo A por ejercicio excesivo fue del 66,86%, la precisión del examen físico hospitalario en el grupo C fue del 67% y la precisión del algoritmo tradicional en el grupo B fue del 50%, encontrando que la precisión del grupo A fue obviamente diferente del grupo B (P <0.05). En comparación con otras lesiones causadas por fricción excesiva, la precisión de detección de las lesiones de rodilla causadas por fricción excesiva en el grupo A fue del 62%, en el grupo B del 44% y en el grupo C del 63%. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente marcada entre el grupo A y B (P <0.05). Conclusiones: Un modelo basado en PCA de la lesión por sobreentrenamiento de los atletas tiene una alta precisión y adaptabilidad, lo que puede predecir la lesión del codo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Exercise , Elbow/injuries , Knee Injuries/diagnosis , Algorithms , Principal Component Analysis , Forecasting
8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 249-252, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction High-intensity rehabilitation training will produce exercise fatigue. Objective A backpropagation (BP) network neural algorithm is proposed to predict sports fatigue based on electromyography (EMG) signal images. Methods The principal component analysis algorithm is used to reduce the dimension of EMG signal features. The knee joint angle is estimated by the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm and the BP neural network algorithm. Results The RMSE value of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm is lower than that of the BP neural network algorithm. At the same time, the ρ value of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm is closer to 1, indicating its higher accuracy. Conclusions The model training time of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm has been greatly reduced, which improves efficiency. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O treinamento de reabilitação de alta intensidade produzirá fadiga ao exercício. Objetivo Um algoritmo neural de backpropagation network (BP) é proposto para prever a fadiga esportiva com base em imagens de sinais de eletromiografia (EMG). Métodos O algoritmo de análise de componente principal é usado para reduzir a dimensão das características do sinal EMG. O ângulo da articulação do joelho é estimado usando o algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina de limite regularizado acima e o algoritmo de rede neural BP. Resultados o valor RMSE do algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado é menor que o do algoritmo de rede neural BP. Ao mesmo tempo, o valor de ρ do algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado está próximo de 1, indicando sua maior precisão. Conclusões O tempo de treinamento do modelo de algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado foi bastante reduzido, o que melhora a eficiência. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El entrenamiento de rehabilitación de alta intensidad producirá fatiga por ejercicio. Objetivo Se propone un algoritmo neuronal de red de retropropagación (BP) para predecir la fatiga deportiva basándose en imágenes de señales de electromiografía (EMG). Métodos El algoritmo de análisis de componentes principales se utiliza para reducir la dimensión de las características de la señal EMG. El ángulo de la articulación de la rodilla se estima mediante el algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado y el algoritmo de red neuronal BP. Resultados el valor de RMSE del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado es menor que el del algoritmo de red neuronal de BP. Al mismo tiempo, el valor ρ del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado está más cerca de 1, lo que indica su mayor precisión. Conclusiones El tiempo de entrenamiento del modelo del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado se ha reducido en gran medida, lo que mejora la eficiencia. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Principal Component Analysis , Fatigue , High-Intensity Interval Training , Algorithms , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Electromyography , Knee Joint/physiology
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e945, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desde marzo de 2020 Cuba está siendo afectada por el SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus altamente infeccioso y causante de la COVID-19. La COVID-19 presenta un conjunto de síntomas asociados y la evolución de los pacientes puede estar influenciada por la presencia de ciertos antecedentes patológicos personales en el hospedero. Objetivo: Identificar mediante componentes principales el agrupamiento de variables clínicas en los pacientes con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. La población de estudio se conformó por los 49 casos confirmados con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba desde el 20 de marzo hasta el 30 de abril del 2020. Se seleccionaron diez variables clínicas: nueve relacionadas con los síntomas y los antecedentes patológicos personales, y una con el estado fallecido. Se aplicó como técnica estadística el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se obtuvo la representación de las variables en el plano de los dos primeros componentes principales. El primer componente estuvo asociado a los síntomas y el segundo componente a los antecedentes patológicos personales no asociados al aparato respiratorio. Esta representación reveló que en el primer y cuarto cuadrantes del plano se ubicaron las variables que llevaron a una evolución desfavorable de los casos, siendo notable para los que se ubican en el cuarto cuadrante. El segundo y tercer cuadrantes fueron indicadores de la evolución favorable, marcada en el segundo cuadrante. Conclusiones: El análisis de componentes principales agrupa las variables clínicas y corrobora que los antecedentes patológicos personales tienen el rol esencial en la evolución desfavorable de los pacientes con COVID-19(AU)


Introduction: Since March 2020, Cuba has been affected by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious coronavirus that causes COVID-19. In COVID-19 a set of associated symptoms is presented and its evolution can be influenced by the presence of certain personal pathological antecedents in the host. Objective: To identify through principal components the grouping of clinical variables in cases with COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba province, Cuba. Methods: We conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study. The study population consisted of the 49 confirmed cases with COVID-19 in the province of Santiago de Cuba. Ten clinical variables were selected: nine related to symptoms and personal pathological history, and one to the state "deceased". Principal component analysis was applied as a statistical technique. Results: Variables were represented at the level of the first two principal components. The first component was associated to symptoms and the second component to personal pathological antecedents not associated to the respiratory system. This representation revealed that variables leading to an unfavorable evolution of cases were located in the first and fourth quadrants of the plane, being remarkable for those located in the fourth quadrant. The second and third quadrants were indicators of the favorable evolution, being marked in the second quadrant. Conclusions: The principal component analysis groups the clinical variables and corroborates that personal pathological antecedents have an essential role in the unfavorable evolution of patients with COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Principal Component Analysis/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Indicators and Reagents , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medical History Taking/methods
10.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-12, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363209

ABSTRACT

Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world; however, it may contain toxic compounds such as ochratoxin A (OTA). Objectives: Determine the OTA's presence in different types of coffee, intended for beverage preparation and marketed in Colombia through the application of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyze its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties. Methods: 8 samples of coffee commercialized in the Colombian market were selected, in which the OTA content was determined by applying the ELISA method. Likewise, a microbiological analysis was performed, and physicochemical properties were determined, such as moisture content, aw, percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS), and extraction yield (%EY). Physical properties such as free-flow densities, compacted bulk densities (CBD), porosity, average particle size (ASP), and color. The data were treated with multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) to quantitatively investigate the relationships between the coffee samples concerning their physical, physicochemical properties, and OTA content. LSD test was applied with a significance level of 95 % and Pearson correlation test. Results:All the samples had OTA content, but only 2 exceeded the limits allowed by the regulations, with a maximum value of 15.449 µg/Kg, which represents 31.449 % of the tolerable daily intake according to the parameters defined by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). According to the PCA and CA, the samples were grouped harmonically according to the type of coffee associated with its commercial presentation and industrial process, OTA content, and ASP. OTA content was significantly and positively correlated (p< 0.05) with %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosity, CBD and moisture. Conclusions: The coffees marketed in Colombia showed a variable range of OTA, where soluble coffees had higher OTA contents than roasted coffees, and 25 % of the coffees analyzed do not meet the levels defined by Colombian regulations. The OTA content in coffee is related to properties that define the ability to extract solutes from coffee


Antecedentes: El café es una de las bebidas más consumidas en el mundo, sin embargo, puede contener compuestos tóxicos como la ocratoxina A (OTA). Objetivos: Determinar la presencia de OTA en diferentes tipos de café destinados a la preparación de bebida y comercializados en Colombia mediante la aplicación del ensayo inmunoabsorbente ligado a enzimas (ELISA) y analizar su relación con las propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 8 muestras de café comercializado en el mercado colombiano, en las cuales se determinó el contenido de OTA mediante la aplicación del método ELISA. Así mismo se realizó análisis microbiológico y se determinaron propiedades fisicoquímicas como contenido de humedad, aw, porcentaje de sólidos disueltos totales (%TDS) y rendimiento de extracción (%EY); y propiedades físicas como densidad por caída libre, densidad compactada (CBD), porosidad, tamaño promedio de partícula (ASP) y color. Los datos fueron tratados con análisis multivariado empleando análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y análisis de conglomerados (CA) para investigar cuantitativamente las relaciones entre las muestras de café con respecto a sus propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y contenido de OTA. Se aplicó prueba LSD con un nivel de significación del 95 % y prueba de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Todas las muestras presentaron contenido de OTA, pero solo 2 sobrepasaron los límites permitidos por la normatividad, con un valor máximo de 15.449 µg/Kg, el cual representa un 31.449 % de la ingesta diaria tolerable según los parámetros definidos por el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios (JECFA). De acuerdo al PCA y CA, las muestras se agruparon armónicamente de acuerdo al tipo de café asociado a su presentación comercial y proceso industrial, contenido de OTA y ASP; el contenido de OTA se correlacionó significativa y positivamente (p < 0.05) con el %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosidad, CBD y humedad. Conclusión: Los cafés comercializados en Colombia presentan un rango variable de OTA, en donde los cafés solubles presentan contenidos de OTA mayores que los cafés tostados y el 25 % de los cafés analizados no cumplen con niveles definidos por la normatividad colombiana. El contenido de OTA en el café está relacionado con propiedades que definen la capacidad de extracción de solutos del café


Subject(s)
Humans , Coffee , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Principal Component Analysis , Ochratoxins
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190760, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249208

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this research was to discriminate soil fractions using mineralogical and elemental analyses and to show those fractions that present greater contribution to the soil mass attenuation coefficient (μ) as well as their partial cross-sections for photoelectric absorption (PA), coherent scattering (CS) and incoherent scattering (IS). Soil samples from different places of Brazil classified as Yellow Argisol, Yellow Latosol and Gray Argisol were submitted to elemental and mineralogical analyses through energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Rietveld Method with X-ray diffraction data (RM-XRD). The mixture rule was utilized to calculate μ of each soil. The EDXRF analysis showed as predominant elements Si, Al, Fe and Ti oxides. The highest contents were Si (914.3 to 981.3 g kg-1) in the sand fractions, Al (507.9 to 543.7 g kg-1) and Fe (32.5 to 76.7 g kg-1) in the clay fractions, and Ti (18.0 to 59.0 g kg-1) in the silt fractions. The RM-XRD allowed identifying that the sand fractions are predominantly made of quartz (913.3 to 995.0 g kg-1), while the clay greatest portion is made of kaolinite (465.0 to 660.6 g kg-1) and halloysite (169.0 to 385.0 g kg-1). The main effect responsible for μ was IS (50 to 61.4%) followed by PA (28 to 40.1%) and CS (9.9 to 10.6%). By using the principal component analysis (PC-1: 57.5% and PC-2: 20.9%), the samples were differentiated through the discrimination between physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. The results obtained suggest that general information about the radiation interaction in soils can be obtained through the elemental and mineralogical analyses of their fractions.


Subject(s)
Soil Characteristics/analysis , Disaster Management , Least-Squares Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
13.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(4): e13520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to verify the possibility of administering a simple questionnaire to family members who communicate with their children to identify communication functional characteristics of children with different manifestations of language development. Methods: 95 parents/guardians were individually interviewed. Their children were afterwards diagnosed with language disorder (LD), speech production disorder (SPD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). The interviews were conducted with the Communicative Skills Questionnaire to characterize the pragmatic performance. The Student's t-test and the principal component analysis were used in statistical analysis, considering significant p-values < 0.05. Results: the statistical analyses reveal that the questionnaire distinguished the groups of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and language disorder from the groups of children with speech production disorders and typical development. Conclusion: the questionnaire proved to be capable of distinguishing and characterizing, from the pragmatic standpoint, the children with different manifestations of communication development, revealing the impaired pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders and language disorders.


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a possibilidade de uso de um questionário simples, aplicado a interlocutores familiares da criança, para identificar as características funcionais de comunicação de crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento da linguagem. Métodos: foram realizadas 95 entrevistas individualmente com os responsáveis de crianças posteriormente diagnosticadas com Distúrbio de Linguagem (DL), com Distúrbio de Produção da Fala (DPF), com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) e com Desenvolvimento Típico (DT). Nas entrevistas foi aplicado o Questionário de Habilidades Comunicativas para caracterização do desempenho pragmático. Foram utilizados o teste t de Student e a Análise de Componentes Principais para análise estatística, considerando-se como significante p-valor<0,05. Resultados: as análises estatísticas evidenciam que o uso do questionário desenvolvido permitiu a diferenciação entre os grupos de crianças com diagnósticos de Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo e Distúrbio de Linguagem e o grupo de crianças com diagnóstico de Distúrbios de Produção da Fala e com desenvolvimento típico. Conclusão: o questionário proposto mostrou-se capaz de diferenciar e caracterizar, do ponto de vista pragmático, as crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento de comunicação, evidenciando o comprometimento das habilidades pragmáticas de crianças com Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo e com Distúrbios de Linguagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Communication , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Speech Sound Disorder/diagnosis , Language Development , Language Disorders/diagnosis , Parents , Principal Component Analysis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879073

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the status property(boiling time) is a challenge for the quality control of extraction process in pharmaceutical enterprises. In this study, the pilot extraction process of Phellodendron chinense was used as the research carrier to develop an online near-infrared(NIR) quality control method based on the status property(boiling time). First, the NIR spectra of P. chinense were collected during the two pilot-scale extraction processes, and the status property(boiling time) was assessed by observing the state of bubbles in the extraction tank using a transparent window during the extraction process, which was then used as a reference standard. Based on the moving block standard deviation(MBSD) algorithm, the assessment model using online NIR spectra for boiling time during extraction process was established. In addition, the model was optimized as follows: standard normal variable(SNV) for spectral pretreatment, modeling band of 800-2 200 nm, and window size of 4. The results showed that, with 0.002 0 as the MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process. Furthermore, the principal component analysis-moving block standard deviation(PCA-MBSD) model was developed by our group to reduce the influence of online NIR spectral noise and background signal on the model, and the number of principal components was optimized into 2 in the PCA-MBSD model. The results showed that, with 0.000 075 as the PCA-MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process, with improved reliability. This study can provide a assessment method for boiling time during extraction process using online NIR spectra, which can replace the empirical judgment in manual observation, and realize the digitalization of the extraction process for big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878909

ABSTRACT

Oscillating chemical fingerprint is a nonlinear dynamic fingerprint technology that reflects the overall redox activity of the entire system based on potential-time changes in multi-stage chemical reactions. This article summarizes the application of oscillating chemical fingerprint technology combined with mathematical analysis method in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine and food in recent years, including similarity analysis, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and other qua-litative analysis methods, as well as linear, logarithmic, exponential, polynomial, multivariate analysis and other quantitative analysis methods, so as to provide meaningful information for further quality control analysis of the oscillation chemical fingerprint technology in the field of traditional Chinese medicine and food.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Food , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888785

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Chinese herbal medicine is a current challenge for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional quality evaluation methods lack quantitative analysis, while modern quality evaluation methods ignore the origins and appearance traits. Therefore, an integrated quality evaluation method is urgent in need. Raw Rehmanniae Radix (RRR) is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. At present, much attention has been drwan towards its quality control, which however is limited by the existing quality evaluation methods. The present study was designed to establish a comprehensive and practical method for the quality evaluation and control of RRR pieces based on its chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins. Thirty-three batches of RRR pieces were collected from six provinces, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the following five constituents, including catalpol, rehmannioside A, rehmannioside D, leonuride and verbascoside in RRR pieces. Their appearance traits were quantitatively observed. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and t-test were performed to evaluate the qualities of RRR pieces. These batches of RRR pieces were divided into three categories: samples from Henan province, samples from Shandong and Shanxi provinces, and those from other provinces. Furthermore, the chemical constituents and appearance traits of RRR pieces were significantly different from diverse origins. The combined method of chemical contituents, appearance traits and origins can distinguish RRR pieces with different qualities, which provides basic reference for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Rehmannia/chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888014

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma has many active components,which are the key to the quality of Curcumae Rhizoma. Exploring the difference between volatile oil of different kinds of Curcumae Rhizoma facilitates the quality control and rational application of resources. In this study,GC-MS was applied to realize online qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of the chemical composition spectrum of volatile oil from Curcuma wenyujin( CW),C. phaeocaulis( CP),and C. kwangsiensis( CK). Forty components were identified and their fingerprints were compared and evaluated. Hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),principal component analysis( PCA),and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis( OPLS-DA) were adopted to analyze the overall and outlier data. The results showed that the whole data could be divided into three kinds according to each analysis mode,and the volatile components of Curcumae Rhizoma vary greatly among species. PCA explored the difference between outliers and the mean value of the group and found that some volatile oils from CW may be greatly affected by the origin. By OPLS-DA,the samples from Zhejiang were able to gather,but those from Guizhou remained isolated,indicating the influence of growing environment on Curcumae Rhizoma metabolites. Based on VIP results combined with the heat map,characteristic volatile oil components of Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties were screened out: curdione and linalool for CW; 2-undecanone for CP; humulene,γ-selinene,and zederone for CK. The GCMS method established in this study describes Curcumae Rhizoma samples comprehensively and accurately,and the characteristic components screened based on chemometrics can be used to distinguish Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties and give them unique pharmacodynamic significance,which is fast,convenient,stable,and reliable and supports the rational application of Curcu-mae Rhizoma resources. It is found that the region of origin has great influence on CW,which is worthy of further study.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome
19.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e500, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138929

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El delineador de señales electrocardiográficas (ECG) multiderivación basado en la transformada wavelet posee alta resolución espacial y permite eliminar las diferencias interderivación que aparecen tradicionalmente en los métodos uniderivación. Para esto necesita de derivaciones de señales electrocardiográficas ortogonales entre sí para la obtención de un bucle espacial. Objetivo: Desarrollar métodos de ortogonalización de dos o tres derivaciones de señales electrocardiográficas que permitan la generalización del delineador multiderivación basado en la transformada wavelet en cualquier base de datos señales electrocardiográficas con más de una derivación. Métodos: Se implementaron tres métodos de ortogonalización de derivaciones de señales electrocardiográficas: ortogonalización de dos derivaciones a partir de la proyección de vectores, ortogonalización a partir de componentes principales y ortogonalización a partir del método clásico de Gram-Schmidt. Resultados: Se comparó el funcionamiento del delineador multiderivación de ECG cuando es usado cada método de ortogonalización, mediante el cálculo de la media aritmética y la desviación estándar teniendo en cuenta diferentes combinaciones de derivaciones de ambas bases de datos para cada una de las marcas analizadas. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con el método análisis de componentes principales y el peor comportamiento con el método de ortogonalización de dos derivaciones. Conclusiones: Los algoritmos de ortogonalización que obtuvieron los mejores resultados fueron los basados en tres derivaciones ortogonales, en la que fue ligeramente superior la descomposición en componentes principales y, por tanto, se considera el método más adecuado para la generalización del delineador multiderivación(AU)


Introduction: The wavelet transform-based multiderivation electrocardiographic (ECG) signal delineator has high spatial resolution and makes it possible to eliminate interderivation differences traditionally appearing in uniderivation methods. But this requires electrocardiographic signal derivations orthogonal to one another to obtain a spatial loop. Objective: Develop orthogonalization methods of two or three electrographic signal derivations allowing generalization of the wavelet transform-based multiderivation delineator in any electrographic signal database with more than one derivation. Methods: Three orthogonalization methods were implemented for electrocardiographic signal derivations: vector projection-based two-derivation orthogonalization, principal component-based orthogonalization, and orthogonalization based on the Gram-Schmidt classic method. Results: A comparison was performed between the operation of the ECG multiderivation delineator when used with each orthogonalization method. The comparison was based on estimation of the arithmetic mean and standard deviation bearing in mind different combinations of derivations from both databases for each of the marks analyzed. The best results were obtained with the principal component analysis method and the worst ones with the two-derivation orthogonalization method. Conclusions: The orthogonalization algorithms obtaining the best results were those based on three orthogonal derivations, in which decomposition into principal components was slightly higher. This is therefore considered to be the most appropriate method for generalization of the multiderivation delineator(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Algorithms , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Wavelet Analysis
20.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(3): 735-745, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136444

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to identify dietary patterns (DP) and associated factors in first grade school-children in elementary schools in the South of Brazil. Methods: school-based cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 782 schoolchildren aged 6 to 8. Food intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. DP were identified using the principal component analysis and the prevalence ratios were obtained by Poisson regression with a robust variance. Results: four DP were identified and accounted for 25.3% of the total variance: "fruit, vegetables and fish" (8.5%), "sweets and salty snacks" (7.0%), "dairy, ham and biscuits" (5.0%) and "common Brazilian food" (4.8%). After the adjustment, breakfast habit and lower frequency of meals in front of a screen increased the probability of adherence to a high consumption of DP of "fruit, vegetables and fish". The maternal schooling level was linearly and inversely associated with DP of "sweets and salty snacks" and "common Brazilian food", and positively related to the DP of "dairy, ham and biscuits". Schoolchildren with food inse-curity and sufficiently active had higher probability of adherence to DP of "common Brazilian food". Conclusions: four DP were identified and associated with food insecurity, maternal socioeconomic characteristics and schoolchildren's behavioral characteristics.


Resumo Objetivos: identificar padrões alimentares (PA) e fatores associados em escolares do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de escolas municipais do sul do Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base escolar, com uma amostra não-probabilística de 782 escolares, de 6 a 8 anos. A ingestão alimentar foi avaliada por questionário de frequência alimentar. Os PA foram identificados através da análise de componentes princi-pais e razões de prevalência foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: foram identificados quatro PA que explicaram 25.3% da variância total: "frutas, verduras e peixe" (8,5%), "doces e salgadinhos" (7.0%); "laticínios, presunto e biscoitos" (5.0%) e "comum brasileiro" (4.8%). Após ajuste, hábito de realizar desjejum e baixa frequência de refeições em frente à tela aumentaram a probabilidade de adesão ao consumo elevado do PA "frutas, verduras e peixe". Escolaridade materna associou-se linear-mente e inversamente com o PA "doces e salgadinhos" e "comum brasileiro", e positiva-mente com o PA "laticínios, presunto e biscoitos". Escolares com insegurança alimentar e suficientemente ativos apresentaram maior probabilidade de adesão ao PA "comum brasileiro". Conclusões: identificaram-se quatro PA e foram observadas associações com insegu-rança alimentar, características socioeconômicas maternas e características comportamen-tais dos escolares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Socioeconomic Factors , Education, Primary and Secondary , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Child Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Food Insecurity , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating
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