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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 804-810, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514282

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The preserved form of all components of the nerve fiber is a prerequisite for the proper conduction of the nerve impulse. various factors can change the shape of nerve fibers. In everyday practice, qualitative histological analysis is the gold standard for detecting changes in shape. Geometric morphometry is an innovative method that objectively enables the assessment of changes in nerve fibers' shape after local anesthetics action. A total of sixty sciatic nerves were used as material, which was intraneural injected with saline solution in the control group (n=30), and a solution of 1.33 % liposomal bupivacaine (n=30) in the test group. After the animals were sacrificed, nerve samples were taken and histological preparations were made. The preparations were first described and examined using a qualitative histological method, after which digital images were made. The images were entered into the MorphoJ program and processed using the method of geometric morphometry. Qualitative histological examination revealed no differences in nerve fibers after intraneurally applied physiological solution and liposomal bupivacaine. Using the method of geometric morphometry, a statistically significant change in the shape of axons was found after intraneurally applied saline solution and liposomal bupivacaine (p=0.0059). No significant differences in histological changes were found after the qualitative histological analysis of nerve fiber cross-section preparations. A statistically significant change in the shape of nerve fiber axons was observed after geometric morphometric analysis of digital images after intraneural application of saline and liposomal bupivacaine.


La forma conservada de todos los componentes de la fibra nerviosa es un requisito previo para la conducción correcta del impulso nervioso. Varios factores pueden cambiar la forma de las fibras nerviosas. En la práctica diaria, el análisis histológico cualitativo es el estándar de oro para detectar cambios de forma. La morfometría geométrica es un método innovador que permite evaluar objetivamente los cambios en la forma de las fibras nerviosas después de la acción de los anestésicos locales. Se utilizó como material un total de sesenta nervios ciáticos, que se inyectaron intraneuralmente con solución salina en el grupo control (n=30), y una solución de bupivacaína liposomal al 1,33 % (n=30) en el grupo de prueba. Después de sacrificados los animales, se tomaron muestras de nervios y se realizaron preparaciones histológicas. Primero se describieron y examinaron las preparaciones utilizando un método histológico cualitativo, después de lo cual se tomaron imágenes digitales. Las imágenes fueron ingresadas al programa MorphoJ y procesadas mediante el método de morfometría geométrica. El examen histológico cualitativo no reveló diferencias en las fibras nerviosas después de la aplicación intraneural de solución fisiológica y bupivacaína liposomal. Usando el método de morfometría geométrica, se encontró un cambio estadísticamente significativo en la forma de los axones después de la aplicación intraneural de solución salina y bupivacaína liposomal (p = 0,0059). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los cambios histológicos después del análisis histológico cualitativo de las preparaciones de secciones transversales de fibras nerviosas. Se observó un cambio estadísticamente significativo en la forma de los axones de las fibras nerviosas después del análisis de morfometría geométrica de imágenes digitales después de la aplicación intraneural de solución salina y bupivacaína liposomal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Histological Techniques/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Fibers/drug effects , Discriminant Analysis , Rats, Wistar , Principal Component Analysis , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Injections , Liposomes/administration & dosage
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 410-416, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440298

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The foramen magnum is an important topographic opening which connects cranial cavity and spinal canal. The analysis of the bone material established that there are differences in the shape of the foramen magnum between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine sex based on shape and size of foramen magnum using geometric morphometrics method. A study was performed on three-dimensional models (3D models) of 214 human skulls of known sex and known age (141 male skulls and 73 female skulls). The skulls are located at the museum of Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo. Skulls belong to Bosnian population from the mid-twentieth century. All examined skulls were scanned with a laser scanner to obtain their 3D models. On 3D models of the examined skulls, four landmarks were marked on foramen magnum. Analysis of sex determination was performed using the MorphoJ program. Results of this study showed that there are sex differences in the shape and size of the foramen magnum. Sex determination based on the shape and size of the foramen magnum was showed 65.25 % accuracy for male and 63.01 % accuracy for female using geometric morphometrics method. Examination of the effect of size of foramen magnum on sexual dimorphism of shape of foramen magnum showed a statistically significant effect. Sex determination based just on the shape of foramen magnum using geometric morphometrics method was possible with 62.41 % accuracy for male and 58.90 % accuracy for female on examined sample. Sex differences on shape and size of foramen magnum were found using geometric morphometrics method on three-dimensional models of the examined skulls. The percentage of accuracy was higher for male based on the shape and size of the foramen magnum than for female.


El foramen magno es una importante abertura topográfica que conecta la cavidad craneal y el canal espinal. El análisis del material óseo estableció que existen diferencias en la forma del foramen magno entre individuos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el sexo en función de la forma y el tamaño del foramen magno utilizando morfometría geométrica. El estudio se realizó en modelos tridimensionales (modelos 3D) de 214 cráneos humanos de sexo y edad conocidos (141 cráneos masculinos y 73 cráneos femeninos). Los cráneos se encuentran en el museo de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sarajevo. Los cráneos pertenecen a población bosnia de mediados del siglo XX. Todos los cráneos examinados fueron escaneados con un escáner láser para obtener sus modelos 3D. En los modelos 3D de los cráneos examinados, se marcaron cuatro puntos de referencia en el foramen magno. El análisis de determinación de sexo se realizó utilizando el programa MorphoJ. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron que existen diferencias de sexo en la forma y el tamaño del foramen magno. La determinación del sexo basada en la forma y el tamaño del foramen magno mostró una precisión del 65,25 % para los hombres y del 63,01 % para las mujeres utilizando morfometría geométrica. El examen del efecto del tamaño del foramen magno sobre el dimorfismo sexual de la forma del foramen magno mostró un efecto estadísticamente significativo. La determinación del sexo basada solo en la forma del foramen magno utilizando morfometría geométrica fue posible con una precisión del 62,41 % para los hombres y del 58,90 % para las mujeres en la muestra examinada. Se encontraron diferencias de sexo en la forma y el tamaño del foramen magno utilizando morfometría geométrica en modelos tridimensionales de los cráneos examinados. El porcentaje de precisión fue mayor para los hombres en función de la forma y el tamaño del foramen magno que para las mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Foramen Magnum/anatomy & histology , Regression Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970561

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of market classification of Cnidii Fructus, this paper revealed the scientific connotation of evaluating the quality grade of Cnidii Fructus by its appearance traits. Thirty batches of Cnidii Fructus in different grades were selected as the research objects. The canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to explore the measurement values of 15 appearance traits and intrinsic content indexes. The results of correlation analysis showed that except the aspect ratio, the 5 appearance trait indexes(length, width, 1 000-grain weight, broken grain weight proportion, and chroma) and 9 internal content indexes(the content of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, osthole, imperatorin, 5-methoxy psoralen, isopimpinellin, xanthotoxin, and xanthotol) showed significant correlation to varying degrees. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the first typical variable U_1 composed of appearance traits and the first typical variable V_1 composed of internal content indexes(CR_1=0.963, P<0.01). The results of PCA showed that the classification results of appearance traits for 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were consistent with the actual information of the samples. Under the same analysis conditions, 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were reclassified by 9 groups of internal content indexes, and the analysis results were consistent. From the classification standard of the appearance traits of the system study, the statistical results of 6 appearance traits of Cnidii Fructus showed a correlation with grades. There was a good correlation between the appearance and the internal content of Cnidii Fructus, and the appearance quality effectively predicted the level of the internal content. There is a certain scientific basis for the quality classification of Cnidii Fructus by main appearance traits. Appearance classification can replace quality grading to realize the "quality evaluation through morphological identification" of Cnidii Fructus.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Phenotype , Principal Component Analysis , Population Groups
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411397

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a eficiência de filtros de tratamento de água, usando carvão ativado de diferentes fontes de resíduo de biomassa. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo experimental, descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado no Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brasil, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2018. Foram preparados filtros de carvão ativados e, posteriomente, sua eficiência no tratamento de água foi avaliada. Resíduos de descarte de madeira, a entrecasca do coco verde, a casca do fruto do caju e do colmo de bambu foram usados como fonte de matéria-prima. O filtro de tratamento de água foi montado, usando o método coluna de cromatografia, adicionando areia e algodão como outros meios filtrantes. Parâmentros físico-químicos foram utilizados na avaliação da eficiência dos filtros construídos. Resultados: a análise de componente principal selecionou dois componentes da qualidade de água, explicando 80,081% da variância total. O coeficiente de correlação cofenética de r=0.9572 indica que o dendograma estimado foi bom, considerando os parâmetros de qualidade da água. Entre os filtros, o bambu apresentou-se como melhor resposta entre filtros testados, sendo responsável pela redução de diversos fatores como cor, turbidez, dureza total e sódio. Conclusão: os fitros de carvão ativado derivado do descarte de madeira e da entrecasca do fruto do caju obtiveram pouca influência na melhoria da qualidade da água, em relação à amostra controle.


Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of water treatment filters using activated carbon from different sources of biomass residue. Methods: this is a descriptive experimental study of a quantitative nature carried out at the Centro Universitário Católica de Quixadá, Ceará-Brazil, during the period from January to June 2018. Activated carbon filters were prepared, and subsequently, their efficiency in water treatment was evaluated. Wood waste, green coconut husk, cashew nut shell, and bamboo stem were used as a source of raw material. The water treatment filter was assembled using the column chromatography method by adding sand and cotton as other filter media. Physicochemical parameters were used to evaluate the efficiency of the built filters. Results: principal component analysis selected two water quality components, explaining 80.081% of the total variance. The cophenetic correlation coefficient of r=0.9572 indicates that the estimated dendrogram was good, considering the water quality parameters. Among the filters, bamboo showed the best response among the filters tested, being responsible for the reduction of several factors such as color, turbidity, total hardness, and sodium. Conclusion: activated carbon filters derived from discarded wood and cashew nut shells had little influence on improving water quality compared to the control sample.


Subject(s)
Water , Charcoal , Water Purification , Reference Standards , Therapeutics , Waste Products , Water Quality , Filters , Principal Component Analysis
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 148-156, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385580

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Missing data may occur in every scientific studies. Statistical shape analysis involves methods that use geometric information obtained from objects. The most important input to the use of geometric information in statistical shape analysis is landmarks. Missing data in shape analysis occurs when there is a loss of information about landmark cartesian coordinates. The aim of the study is to propose F approach algorithm for estimating missing landmark coordinates and compare the performance of F approach with generally accepted missing data estimation methods, EM algorithm, PCA based methods such as Bayesian PCA, Nonlinear Estimation by Iterative Partial Least Squares PCA, Inverse non-linear PCA, Probabilistic PCA and regression imputation methods. Landmark counts were taken as 3, 6, 9 and sample sizes were taken as 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 in the simulation study. The data are generated based on multivariate normal distribution with positively defined variance-covariance matrices from isotropic models. In simulation study three different simulation scenarios and simulation based real data are considered with 1000 repetations. The best and the most different result in the performance evaluation according to all sample sizes is the Min (F) criteria of the F approach algorithm proposed in the study. In case of three landmarks which is only the proposed F approach and regression assignment method can be applied, Min (F) criteria give best results.


RESUMEN: Los datos faltantes pueden ocurrir en todos los estudios científicos. El análisis estadístico de formas involucra métodos que utilizan información geométrica obtenida de objetos. La entrada más importante para el uso de información geométrica en el análisis estadístico de formas son los puntos de referencia. Los datos que faltan en el análisis de formas se producen cuando hay una pérdida de información sobre las coordenadas cartesianas históricas. El objetivo del estudio es proponer el algoritmo de enfoque F para estimar las coordenadas de puntos de referencia faltantes y comparar el rendimiento del enfoque F con métodos de estimación de datos faltantes generalmente aceptados, algoritmo EM, métodos basados en PCA como Bayesian PCA, Estimación no lineal por Iterative Partial Least Squares PCA, PCA no lineal inverso, PCA probabilístico y métodos de imputación de regresión. Los recuentos de puntos de referencia se tomaron como 3, 6, 9 y los tamaños de muestra se tomaron como 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 en el estudio de simulación. Los datos se generan en base a una distribución normal multivariada con matrices de varianza-covarianza definidas positivamente a partir de modelos isotrópicos. En el estudio de simulación se consideran tres escenarios de simulación diferentes y se consideran datos reales basados en simulación con 1000 repeticiones. El mejor y más diferente resultado en la evaluación del desempeño según todos los tamaños de muestra es el criterio Min (F) del algoritmo de enfoque F propuesto en el estudio. En el caso de tres puntos de referencia, que es solo el enfoque F propuesto y se puede aplicar el método de asignación de regresión, los criterios Min (F) dan mejores resultados.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Anatomic Landmarks , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Principal Component Analysis
6.
Iheringia, Sér. zool ; 1122022. mapas, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380480

ABSTRACT

A identidade de Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) e a possibilidade de se constituir em mais de uma espécie é testada através de análises da morfometria (19 medidas), dos caracteres merísticos (14 contagens) e do padrão de colorido de 705 exemplares provenientes dos sistemas dos rios Tramandaí/Mampituba, da laguna dos Patos e drenagem do baixo rio Uruguai. Foram diafanizados e corados 40 exemplares. Os dados morfométricos foram utilizados na Análise de Componentes Principais, Análise Discriminante, Morfometria Geométrica e Função Discriminante. As análises foram feitas considerando os sexos em separado dentro de cada sistema hidrográfico, bem como comparando as populações entre os sistemas hidrográficos e finalmente no conjunto de sistemas representando a área de ocorrência da espécie. A partir dos dados analisados não foram encontradas diferenças entre os sexos. Os resultados mostraram variação morfológica que não sustenta o reconhecimento de possíveis espécies crípticas. A variação encontrada nos dados merísticos, morfométricos e no padrão de colorido justifica a redescrição da espécie. Os resultados das comparações entre as populações indicaram variações nesses caracteres indicando que a espécie possui considerável plasticidade fenotípica.(AU)


The identity of Psalidodon eigenmanniorum (Cope, 1894) and the possibility of constituting more than one species is tested through analyzes of morphometry (19 measurements), meristic characters (14 counts) and the color pattern of 705 specimens from the Tramandaí/Mampituba, from the Patos lagoon and from the lower Uruguay River drainage. Forty specimens were cleared and stained. Morphometric data were used in Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Geometric Morphometry and Discriminant Function. The analysis was carried out considering the sexes separately within each hydrographic system, as well as comparing the populations between the hydrographic systems and finally in the set of systems representing the area of occurrence of the species. No differences were found between the sexes in the analyzed data. The results showed morphological variation that does not support the recognition of possible cryptic species. The variation found in meristic, morphometric and color pattern data justifies the redescription of the species. The species is described to the aforementioned drainages, and the results demonstrate its phenotypic plasticity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Characidae/classification , Discriminant Analysis , Biological Variation, Population
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928197

ABSTRACT

Rapid serial visual presentation-brain computer interface (RSVP-BCI) is the most popular technology in the early discover task based on human brain. This algorithm can obtain the rapid perception of the environment by human brain. Decoding brain state based on single-trial of multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording remains a challenge due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and nonstationary. To solve the problem of low classification accuracy of single-trial in RSVP-BCI, this paper presents a new feature extraction algorithm which uses principal component analysis (PCA) and common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm separately in spatial domain and time domain, creating a spatial-temporal hybrid CSP-PCA (STHCP) algorithm. By maximizing the discrimination distance between target and non-target, the feature dimensionality was reduced effectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of STHCP algorithm is higher than that of the three benchmark algorithms (SWFP, CSP and PCA) by 17.9%, 22.2% and 29.2%, respectively. STHCP algorithm provides a new method for target detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Algorithms , Brain , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927952

ABSTRACT

The present study established the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the content of eight major active components in Caesalpinia decapetala and performed the quality evaluation of C. decapetala from different habitats with the chemical pattern recognition. The analysis was carried out on a Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) at 40 ℃, with the mobile phase of water containing 0.1% formic acid(A) and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid under gradient elution, the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the injection volume of 1 μL. The electrospray ionization(ESI) source in the negative mode and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) were used for MS quantitative analysis. The content results were analyzed by the hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) for the evaluation of the quality difference. Eight components showed good linear relationships within their respective concentration ranges(r>0.999), with the average recoveries of 96.85%-103.4% and RSD of 0.52%-2.8%. The analysis results showed that the quality of samples from different batches was different. The samples were classified into three clusters by HCA and PCA. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and efficient, and can be used for the quality evaluation of C. decapetala.


Subject(s)
Caesalpinia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Principal Component Analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927950

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 270 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379116

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose é uma zoonose de ampla distribuição mundial, causada pelos parasitas tripanossomatídeos do gênero Leishmania. Infelizmente, o arsenal terapêutico disponível é precário, mas vê-se crescente o interesse científico pela busca do potencial de derivados nitroheterocíclicos como alternativas terapêuticas. Nesse contexto, este trabalho analisou o potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-furfurilidênicos contra diferentes cepas de Leishmania, assim como investigou um possível modo de ação para esta classe de nitrocompostos. Para tal, a quimioteca foi sintetizada de acordo com publicações prévias do grupo. O potencial de inibição de crescimento das culturas de promastigotas de L. (L.) infantum (Linf) e L. (L.) major (Lmaj) foi determinado, utilizando miltefosina (MILT) (Linf - IC50: 8,28±0,33 µM), anfotericina B (AMB) (Linf - IC50: 0,02±0,002 µM) e nifurtimox (NFX) (Lmaj - IC50: 3,5±0,09 µM) como referência. A maioria dos compostos apresentaram maior potencial que as referênias, destacando o composto 40 (Linf - IC50: 0,2±0,019 µM/ Lmaj - IC50: 0,087 ± 0,001 µM) como mais eficaz. Contra as formas amastigotas intracelulares, para Linf os compostos 40, 13 e 15 foram mais eficazes em reduzir a carga parasitária dos macrófagos infectados que fármacos de referência. Para Lmajor, o composto 40 (IC50: 0,006 ± 0,0003 µM) foi mais ativo que o NFX (IC50: 2,15 ± 0,01 µM). Também foi determinada a atividade da quimioteca frente a enzima nitrorredutase (NTR1), utilizando cepas de T. brucei superexpressantes de NTR1, e os compostos analisados foram até 18 vezes mais eficazes que à cepa wild-type. Ademais, a partir da análise exploratória de dados por análise de componentes principais (PCA) e de grupamentos hierárquicos (HCA), foi reconhecida a influência das propriedades relacionadas com o equilíbrio hidrófilo-lipófilo e da natureza estérica/geométrica das moléculas para atividade anti-Leishmania


Leishmaniasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania. Unfortunately, the available therapeutic arsenal is precarious, but there is growing scientific interest in searching the potential of nitroheterocyclic derivatives as therapeutic alternatives. In this context, this work analyzed the potential of 5-nitro-2-furfurylidene derivatives against different Leishmania strains, as well as investigated the potential mode of action for this nitro compounds class. To this end, the chemolibrary was synthesized according to our group's previous publications. The growth inhibitory potential potential for promastigote cultures of L. (L.) infantum (Linf) and L. (L.) major (Lmaj) was determined using miltefosine (MILT) (Linf - IC50: 8.28±0.33 µM), amphotericin B (AMB) (Linf - IC50: 0.02±0.002 µM) and nifurtimox (NFX) (Lmaj - IC50: 3.5±0.09 µM) as reference. Most of the compounds were more potent than the references, highlighting compound 40 (Linf - IC50: 0.2±0.019 µM/ Lmaj - IC50: 0.087 ± 0.001 µM) as the most effective. Against intracellular amastigote, for Linf, compounds 40, 13 and 15 were more effective in reducing the parasite load of infected macrophages than reference drugs. For Lmajor, compound 40 (IC50: 0.006 ± 0.0003 µM) was more active than NFX (IC50: 2.15 ± 0.01 µM). The activity against nitroreductase (NTR1) enzyme was determined using overexpressing NTR1 mutant T. brucei strains, and the analyzed compounds were up to 18 times more effective than wild-type. Furthermore, exploratory data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HCA) methods were used. The influence of properties related to the hydrophiliclipophilic balance and the steric/geometric nature of the molecules was associated with the anti-Leishmanial activity


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies/instrumentation , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Principal Component Analysis/classification , Leishmania/metabolism , Nitroreductases/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Data Analysis , Nitro Compounds/agonists
11.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 249-252, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction High-intensity rehabilitation training will produce exercise fatigue. Objective A backpropagation (BP) network neural algorithm is proposed to predict sports fatigue based on electromyography (EMG) signal images. Methods The principal component analysis algorithm is used to reduce the dimension of EMG signal features. The knee joint angle is estimated by the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm and the BP neural network algorithm. Results The RMSE value of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm is lower than that of the BP neural network algorithm. At the same time, the ρ value of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm is closer to 1, indicating its higher accuracy. Conclusions The model training time of the regularized over-limit learning machine algorithm has been greatly reduced, which improves efficiency. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O treinamento de reabilitação de alta intensidade produzirá fadiga ao exercício. Objetivo Um algoritmo neural de backpropagation network (BP) é proposto para prever a fadiga esportiva com base em imagens de sinais de eletromiografia (EMG). Métodos O algoritmo de análise de componente principal é usado para reduzir a dimensão das características do sinal EMG. O ângulo da articulação do joelho é estimado usando o algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina de limite regularizado acima e o algoritmo de rede neural BP. Resultados o valor RMSE do algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado é menor que o do algoritmo de rede neural BP. Ao mesmo tempo, o valor de ρ do algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado está próximo de 1, indicando sua maior precisão. Conclusões O tempo de treinamento do modelo de algoritmo de aprendizado de máquina acima do limite regularizado foi bastante reduzido, o que melhora a eficiência. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El entrenamiento de rehabilitación de alta intensidad producirá fatiga por ejercicio. Objetivo Se propone un algoritmo neuronal de red de retropropagación (BP) para predecir la fatiga deportiva basándose en imágenes de señales de electromiografía (EMG). Métodos El algoritmo de análisis de componentes principales se utiliza para reducir la dimensión de las características de la señal EMG. El ángulo de la articulación de la rodilla se estima mediante el algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado y el algoritmo de red neuronal BP. Resultados el valor de RMSE del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado es menor que el del algoritmo de red neuronal de BP. Al mismo tiempo, el valor ρ del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado está más cerca de 1, lo que indica su mayor precisión. Conclusiones El tiempo de entrenamiento del modelo del algoritmo de la máquina de aprendizaje por encima del límite regularizado se ha reducido en gran medida, lo que mejora la eficiencia. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Principal Component Analysis , Fatigue , High-Intensity Interval Training , Algorithms , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Electromyography , Knee Joint/physiology
12.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 518-522, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: There were many constraints produced by training time and joint injury to analyze the influence of the training intensity on the elbow and knee joints of athletes during the training process. Methods: An improved algorithm-based master component analysis (PCA) modeling method is proposed .1 4 4 athletes were selected in xxx and compared in three groups. Results: The improved PCA models for injury prediction were applied to athletes from group A, the traditional injury models for prediction were adopted for athletes from group B, and athletes from group C received the hospital physical examinations. The results showed that the accuracy of elbow injury in group A due to excessive exercise was 66.86%, the accuracy of hospital physical examination in group C was 67%, and the accuracy of the traditional algorithm in group B was 50%, finding that the accuracy of group A was obviously different from group B (P < 0.05). Compared with other injuries caused by excessive friction, the detection accuracy of knee injuries caused by excessive friction in group A was 62%, that in group B was 44%, and that in group C was 63%. There was a statistically marked difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A PCA - based model of athletes' overtraining injury has high accuracy and adaptability, predicting elbow injury. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Houve uma grande quantidade de restrições produzidas pelo tempo de treinamento e lesão articular a fim de analisar a influência da intensidade do treinamento nas articulações do cotovelo e joelho dos atletas durante o processo de treinamento. Métodos: É proposto um método de modelagem aprimorado de análise de componentes mestre (PCA) baseado em algoritmo .1 4 4 atletas foram selecionados em xxx e comparados em três grupos. Resultados: Os modelos aprimorados de PCA para previsão de lesões foram aplicados a atletas do grupo A, os modelos tradicionais de lesões para previsão foram adotados para atletas do grupo B e os atletas do grupo C receberam os exames físicos hospitalares. Os resultados mostraram que a acurácia da lesão de cotovelo no grupo A devido ao exercício excessivo foi de 66,86%, a acurácia do exame físico hospitalar no grupo C foi de 67% e a acurácia do algoritmo tradicional no grupo B foi de 50%, achando que a acurácia do grupo A era obviamente diferente do grupo B (P <0,05). Em comparação com outras lesões causadas por atrito excessivo, a precisão de detecção de lesões no joelho causadas por atrito excessivo no grupo A foi de 62%, no grupo B foi de 44% e no grupo C foi de 63%. Houve uma diferença estatisticamente marcada entre os grupos A e B (P <0,05). Conclusões: Um modelo baseado na PCA de lesão por overtraining em atletas tem alta precisão e adaptabilidade, o que pode prever lesões de cotovelo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Hubo una gran cantidad de restricciones producidas por el tiempo de entrenamiento y la lesión articular para analizar la influencia de la intensidad del entrenamiento en las articulaciones del codo y la rodilla de los atletas durante el proceso de entrenamiento. Métodos: Se propone un método mejorado de modelado de análisis de componentes maestros (PCA) basado en algoritmos .1 4 Se seleccionaron 4 atletas en xxx y se compararon en tres grupos. Resultados: Los modelos mejorados de PCA para la predicción de lesiones se aplicaron a los atletas del grupo A, los modelos tradicionales de predicción de lesiones se adoptaron para los atletas del grupo B y los atletas del grupo C recibieron los exámenes físicos hospitalarios. Los resultados mostraron que la precisión de la lesión del codo en el grupo A por ejercicio excesivo fue del 66,86%, la precisión del examen físico hospitalario en el grupo C fue del 67% y la precisión del algoritmo tradicional en el grupo B fue del 50%, encontrando que la precisión del grupo A fue obviamente diferente del grupo B (P <0.05). En comparación con otras lesiones causadas por fricción excesiva, la precisión de detección de las lesiones de rodilla causadas por fricción excesiva en el grupo A fue del 62%, en el grupo B del 44% y en el grupo C del 63%. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente marcada entre el grupo A y B (P <0.05). Conclusiones: Un modelo basado en PCA de la lesión por sobreentrenamiento de los atletas tiene una alta precisión y adaptabilidad, lo que puede predecir la lesión del codo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Exercise , Elbow/injuries , Knee Injuries/diagnosis , Algorithms , Principal Component Analysis , Forecasting
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e945, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347455

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desde marzo de 2020 Cuba está siendo afectada por el SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus altamente infeccioso y causante de la COVID-19. La COVID-19 presenta un conjunto de síntomas asociados y la evolución de los pacientes puede estar influenciada por la presencia de ciertos antecedentes patológicos personales en el hospedero. Objetivo: Identificar mediante componentes principales el agrupamiento de variables clínicas en los pacientes con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. La población de estudio se conformó por los 49 casos confirmados con COVID-19 en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba desde el 20 de marzo hasta el 30 de abril del 2020. Se seleccionaron diez variables clínicas: nueve relacionadas con los síntomas y los antecedentes patológicos personales, y una con el estado fallecido. Se aplicó como técnica estadística el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se obtuvo la representación de las variables en el plano de los dos primeros componentes principales. El primer componente estuvo asociado a los síntomas y el segundo componente a los antecedentes patológicos personales no asociados al aparato respiratorio. Esta representación reveló que en el primer y cuarto cuadrantes del plano se ubicaron las variables que llevaron a una evolución desfavorable de los casos, siendo notable para los que se ubican en el cuarto cuadrante. El segundo y tercer cuadrantes fueron indicadores de la evolución favorable, marcada en el segundo cuadrante. Conclusiones: El análisis de componentes principales agrupa las variables clínicas y corrobora que los antecedentes patológicos personales tienen el rol esencial en la evolución desfavorable de los pacientes con COVID-19(AU)


Introduction: Since March 2020, Cuba has been affected by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious coronavirus that causes COVID-19. In COVID-19 a set of associated symptoms is presented and its evolution can be influenced by the presence of certain personal pathological antecedents in the host. Objective: To identify through principal components the grouping of clinical variables in cases with COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba province, Cuba. Methods: We conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study. The study population consisted of the 49 confirmed cases with COVID-19 in the province of Santiago de Cuba. Ten clinical variables were selected: nine related to symptoms and personal pathological history, and one to the state "deceased". Principal component analysis was applied as a statistical technique. Results: Variables were represented at the level of the first two principal components. The first component was associated to symptoms and the second component to personal pathological antecedents not associated to the respiratory system. This representation revealed that variables leading to an unfavorable evolution of cases were located in the first and fourth quadrants of the plane, being remarkable for those located in the fourth quadrant. The second and third quadrants were indicators of the favorable evolution, being marked in the second quadrant. Conclusions: The principal component analysis groups the clinical variables and corroborates that personal pathological antecedents have an essential role in the unfavorable evolution of patients with COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Principal Component Analysis/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Indicators and Reagents , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medical History Taking/methods
14.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-12, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363209

ABSTRACT

Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world; however, it may contain toxic compounds such as ochratoxin A (OTA). Objectives: Determine the OTA's presence in different types of coffee, intended for beverage preparation and marketed in Colombia through the application of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyze its relationship with the physical, physicochemical and microbiological properties. Methods: 8 samples of coffee commercialized in the Colombian market were selected, in which the OTA content was determined by applying the ELISA method. Likewise, a microbiological analysis was performed, and physicochemical properties were determined, such as moisture content, aw, percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS), and extraction yield (%EY). Physical properties such as free-flow densities, compacted bulk densities (CBD), porosity, average particle size (ASP), and color. The data were treated with multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) to quantitatively investigate the relationships between the coffee samples concerning their physical, physicochemical properties, and OTA content. LSD test was applied with a significance level of 95 % and Pearson correlation test. Results:All the samples had OTA content, but only 2 exceeded the limits allowed by the regulations, with a maximum value of 15.449 µg/Kg, which represents 31.449 % of the tolerable daily intake according to the parameters defined by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). According to the PCA and CA, the samples were grouped harmonically according to the type of coffee associated with its commercial presentation and industrial process, OTA content, and ASP. OTA content was significantly and positively correlated (p< 0.05) with %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosity, CBD and moisture. Conclusions: The coffees marketed in Colombia showed a variable range of OTA, where soluble coffees had higher OTA contents than roasted coffees, and 25 % of the coffees analyzed do not meet the levels defined by Colombian regulations. The OTA content in coffee is related to properties that define the ability to extract solutes from coffee


Antecedentes: El café es una de las bebidas más consumidas en el mundo, sin embargo, puede contener compuestos tóxicos como la ocratoxina A (OTA). Objetivos: Determinar la presencia de OTA en diferentes tipos de café destinados a la preparación de bebida y comercializados en Colombia mediante la aplicación del ensayo inmunoabsorbente ligado a enzimas (ELISA) y analizar su relación con las propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 8 muestras de café comercializado en el mercado colombiano, en las cuales se determinó el contenido de OTA mediante la aplicación del método ELISA. Así mismo se realizó análisis microbiológico y se determinaron propiedades fisicoquímicas como contenido de humedad, aw, porcentaje de sólidos disueltos totales (%TDS) y rendimiento de extracción (%EY); y propiedades físicas como densidad por caída libre, densidad compactada (CBD), porosidad, tamaño promedio de partícula (ASP) y color. Los datos fueron tratados con análisis multivariado empleando análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y análisis de conglomerados (CA) para investigar cuantitativamente las relaciones entre las muestras de café con respecto a sus propiedades físicas, fisicoquímicas y contenido de OTA. Se aplicó prueba LSD con un nivel de significación del 95 % y prueba de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Todas las muestras presentaron contenido de OTA, pero solo 2 sobrepasaron los límites permitidos por la normatividad, con un valor máximo de 15.449 µg/Kg, el cual representa un 31.449 % de la ingesta diaria tolerable según los parámetros definidos por el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios (JECFA). De acuerdo al PCA y CA, las muestras se agruparon armónicamente de acuerdo al tipo de café asociado a su presentación comercial y proceso industrial, contenido de OTA y ASP; el contenido de OTA se correlacionó significativa y positivamente (p < 0.05) con el %EY, %TDS, ASP, porosidad, CBD y humedad. Conclusión: Los cafés comercializados en Colombia presentan un rango variable de OTA, en donde los cafés solubles presentan contenidos de OTA mayores que los cafés tostados y el 25 % de los cafés analizados no cumplen con niveles definidos por la normatividad colombiana. El contenido de OTA en el café está relacionado con propiedades que definen la capacidad de extracción de solutos del café


Subject(s)
Humans , Coffee , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Principal Component Analysis , Ochratoxins
15.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(4): e13520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to verify the possibility of administering a simple questionnaire to family members who communicate with their children to identify communication functional characteristics of children with different manifestations of language development. Methods: 95 parents/guardians were individually interviewed. Their children were afterwards diagnosed with language disorder (LD), speech production disorder (SPD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). The interviews were conducted with the Communicative Skills Questionnaire to characterize the pragmatic performance. The Student's t-test and the principal component analysis were used in statistical analysis, considering significant p-values < 0.05. Results: the statistical analyses reveal that the questionnaire distinguished the groups of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and language disorder from the groups of children with speech production disorders and typical development. Conclusion: the questionnaire proved to be capable of distinguishing and characterizing, from the pragmatic standpoint, the children with different manifestations of communication development, revealing the impaired pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders and language disorders.


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a possibilidade de uso de um questionário simples, aplicado a interlocutores familiares da criança, para identificar as características funcionais de comunicação de crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento da linguagem. Métodos: foram realizadas 95 entrevistas individualmente com os responsáveis de crianças posteriormente diagnosticadas com Distúrbio de Linguagem (DL), com Distúrbio de Produção da Fala (DPF), com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) e com Desenvolvimento Típico (DT). Nas entrevistas foi aplicado o Questionário de Habilidades Comunicativas para caracterização do desempenho pragmático. Foram utilizados o teste t de Student e a Análise de Componentes Principais para análise estatística, considerando-se como significante p-valor<0,05. Resultados: as análises estatísticas evidenciam que o uso do questionário desenvolvido permitiu a diferenciação entre os grupos de crianças com diagnósticos de Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo e Distúrbio de Linguagem e o grupo de crianças com diagnóstico de Distúrbios de Produção da Fala e com desenvolvimento típico. Conclusão: o questionário proposto mostrou-se capaz de diferenciar e caracterizar, do ponto de vista pragmático, as crianças com diferentes manifestações do desenvolvimento de comunicação, evidenciando o comprometimento das habilidades pragmáticas de crianças com Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo e com Distúrbios de Linguagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Communication , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Speech Sound Disorder/diagnosis , Language Development , Language Disorders/diagnosis , Parents , Principal Component Analysis
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190760, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249208

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this research was to discriminate soil fractions using mineralogical and elemental analyses and to show those fractions that present greater contribution to the soil mass attenuation coefficient (μ) as well as their partial cross-sections for photoelectric absorption (PA), coherent scattering (CS) and incoherent scattering (IS). Soil samples from different places of Brazil classified as Yellow Argisol, Yellow Latosol and Gray Argisol were submitted to elemental and mineralogical analyses through energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Rietveld Method with X-ray diffraction data (RM-XRD). The mixture rule was utilized to calculate μ of each soil. The EDXRF analysis showed as predominant elements Si, Al, Fe and Ti oxides. The highest contents were Si (914.3 to 981.3 g kg-1) in the sand fractions, Al (507.9 to 543.7 g kg-1) and Fe (32.5 to 76.7 g kg-1) in the clay fractions, and Ti (18.0 to 59.0 g kg-1) in the silt fractions. The RM-XRD allowed identifying that the sand fractions are predominantly made of quartz (913.3 to 995.0 g kg-1), while the clay greatest portion is made of kaolinite (465.0 to 660.6 g kg-1) and halloysite (169.0 to 385.0 g kg-1). The main effect responsible for μ was IS (50 to 61.4%) followed by PA (28 to 40.1%) and CS (9.9 to 10.6%). By using the principal component analysis (PC-1: 57.5% and PC-2: 20.9%), the samples were differentiated through the discrimination between physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. The results obtained suggest that general information about the radiation interaction in soils can be obtained through the elemental and mineralogical analyses of their fractions.


Subject(s)
Soil Characteristics/analysis , Least-Squares Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 539-545, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985246

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop an SNP Panel for East Asian population, which has a high individual identification rate and the capability of ancestry analysis. Methods The 55 SNP Panel by Professor KIDD of Yale University and the 128 SNP Panel by Professor SELDIN of Davis School of California University, 170 SNP Panel in total was used as the basis and its test data in the East Asian population was collected. The genetic parameters of SNP loci were calculated and combined with the results of heatmap analysis to screen SNP loci suitable for East Asian population. Some Tibetan and Han samples were tested. The possibility of using the SNP loci in ancestry inference was analyzed by means of STRUCTURE analysis, principal component analysis and heatmap analysis. Results A Panel with 45 SNPs (45 SNP Panel) was screened out, and the average genetic parameters of each SNP were better than 170 SNP Panel, with the same ancestry analysis and inference ability. Conclusion In terms of ancestry inference information, the 45 SNP Panel can completely replace the 170 SNP Panel and achieve the same ancestry analysis and inference ability. In genetic parameters, 45 SNP Panel is better than 170 SNP Panel in the East Asian population, which shows its important potential forensic application value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetics, Population , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Principal Component Analysis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888785

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Chinese herbal medicine is a current challenge for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional quality evaluation methods lack quantitative analysis, while modern quality evaluation methods ignore the origins and appearance traits. Therefore, an integrated quality evaluation method is urgent in need. Raw Rehmanniae Radix (RRR) is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. At present, much attention has been drwan towards its quality control, which however is limited by the existing quality evaluation methods. The present study was designed to establish a comprehensive and practical method for the quality evaluation and control of RRR pieces based on its chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins. Thirty-three batches of RRR pieces were collected from six provinces, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the following five constituents, including catalpol, rehmannioside A, rehmannioside D, leonuride and verbascoside in RRR pieces. Their appearance traits were quantitatively observed. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and t-test were performed to evaluate the qualities of RRR pieces. These batches of RRR pieces were divided into three categories: samples from Henan province, samples from Shandong and Shanxi provinces, and those from other provinces. Furthermore, the chemical constituents and appearance traits of RRR pieces were significantly different from diverse origins. The combined method of chemical contituents, appearance traits and origins can distinguish RRR pieces with different qualities, which provides basic reference for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Rehmannia/chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888014

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma has many active components,which are the key to the quality of Curcumae Rhizoma. Exploring the difference between volatile oil of different kinds of Curcumae Rhizoma facilitates the quality control and rational application of resources. In this study,GC-MS was applied to realize online qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of the chemical composition spectrum of volatile oil from Curcuma wenyujin( CW),C. phaeocaulis( CP),and C. kwangsiensis( CK). Forty components were identified and their fingerprints were compared and evaluated. Hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),principal component analysis( PCA),and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis( OPLS-DA) were adopted to analyze the overall and outlier data. The results showed that the whole data could be divided into three kinds according to each analysis mode,and the volatile components of Curcumae Rhizoma vary greatly among species. PCA explored the difference between outliers and the mean value of the group and found that some volatile oils from CW may be greatly affected by the origin. By OPLS-DA,the samples from Zhejiang were able to gather,but those from Guizhou remained isolated,indicating the influence of growing environment on Curcumae Rhizoma metabolites. Based on VIP results combined with the heat map,characteristic volatile oil components of Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties were screened out: curdione and linalool for CW; 2-undecanone for CP; humulene,γ-selinene,and zederone for CK. The GCMS method established in this study describes Curcumae Rhizoma samples comprehensively and accurately,and the characteristic components screened based on chemometrics can be used to distinguish Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties and give them unique pharmacodynamic significance,which is fast,convenient,stable,and reliable and supports the rational application of Curcu-mae Rhizoma resources. It is found that the region of origin has great influence on CW,which is worthy of further study.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome
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