Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 57
Filter
1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4579-4586, dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055763

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente artículo indaga sobre la participación popular en salud en barrios de la periferia de La Plata (Argentina) en un contexto de vaciamiento de las políticas sociales de acuerdo a las normativas neoliberales que rigen con fuerza creciente en el país y en el continente. En este marco de crisis económica que afecta particularmente a la salud pública, los movimientos sociales se organizan para defenderla, al mismo tiempo que resisten el empobrecimiento cotidiano y construyen alternativas de salud popular y colectiva. El trabajo, sostenido en una investigación etnográfica, se propone reconstruir los modos en que los sujetos reconfiguran los modos de pensar la salud y la participación política en la vida cotidiana de los territorios a través de distintas tácticas y estrategias de cuidado y construcción político-comunitarias.


Abstract This article investigates the popular participation in health in neighborhoods of the periphery of La Plata (Argentina) in a context of emptying of social policies according to the neo-liberal regulations that govern with increasing force in the country and in the continent. In this framework of economic crisis that especially affects public health, social movements are organized to defend, while resisting daily impoverishment and building popular and collective health alternatives. The work, sustained in an ethnographic investigation, aims to reconstruct the ways in which the subjects reconfigure the ways of thinking about health and political participation in the daily life of the territories through different tactics and strategies of care and community-political construction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Politics , Social Justice , Residence Characteristics , Public Health , Community Participation/methods , Economic Recession , Argentina , Public Sector/economics , Public Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/economics , Qualitative Research , Right to Health/trends , Health Promotion/methods , Health Services Accessibility , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Anthropology, Cultural , National Health Programs/organization & administration
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 252-257, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide, with significantly associated hospitalizations. Considering its growing incidence, the AF related economic burden to healthcare systems is increasing. Healthcare expenditures might be substantially reduced after AF radiofrequency ablation (AFRA). Objective: To compare resource utilization and costs before and after AFRA in a cohort of patients from the Brazilian private healthcare system. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, based on patients' billing information from an administrative database. Eighty-three adult patients who had an AFRA procedure between 2014 and 2015 were included. Healthcare resource utilization related to cardiovascular causes, including ambulatory and hospital care, as well as its costs, were analyzed. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean follow-up was 14.7 ± 7.1 and 10.7 ± 5.4 months before and after AFRA, respectively. The 1-year AF recurrence-free rate was 83.6%. Before AFRA, median monthly total costs were Brazilian Reais (BRL) 286 (interquartile range [IQR]: 137-766), which decreased by 63.5% (p = 0.001) after the procedure, to BRL 104 (IQR: 57-232). Costs were reduced both in the emergency (by 58.6%, p < 0.001) and outpatient settings (by 56%, p < 0.001); there were no significant differences in the outpatient visits, inpatient elective admissions and elective admission costs before and after AFRA. The monthly median emergency department visits were reduced (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this cohort, overall healthcare costs were reduced by 63.5%. A longer follow-up could be useful to evaluate if long-term cost reduction is maintained.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia mais comum em todo o mundo, com hospitalizações significativamente associadas. Considerando sua crescente incidência, a carga econômica relacionada à FA para os sistemas de saúde está aumentando. Os gastos com saúde podem ser substancialmente reduzidos após a ablação por radiofrequência (ARF). Objetivo: Comparar a utilização de recursos e os custos anteriores e posteriores à ARF em uma coorte de pacientes do sistema de saúde privado brasileiro. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com base nas informações de cobrança dos pacientes de um banco de dados administrativo. Foram incluídos oitenta e três pacientes adultos que passaram pelo procedimento de ARF entre 2014 e 2015. A utilização de recursos de saúde relacionados às causas cardiovasculares, incluindo atendimento ambulatorial e hospitalar, assim como seus custos, foram analisados. Um valor de p inferior a 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: O seguimento médio foi de 14,7 ± 7,1 e 10,7 ± 5,4 meses antes e após a ARF, respectivamente. A taxa de FA livre de recidiva em 1 ano foi de 83,6%. Antes da ARF, a mediana dos custos totais mensais foi de R$286,00 (intervalo interquartil [IIQ]: 137-766), com redução de 63,5% (p = 0,001) após o procedimento, para um valor de R$104 (IIQ: 57-232). Os custos foram reduzidos tanto na emergência (em 58,6%, p < 0,001) como no ambiente ambulatorial (em 56%, p < 0,001); não houve diferenças significativas nas consultas ambulatoriais, internações eletivas e custos de internação eletiva antes e depois da ARF. As medianas das consultas mensais no setor de emergência foram reduzidas (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Nesta coorte, os custos gerais com saúde foram reduzidos em 63,5%. Um seguimento mais longo pode ser útil para avaliar se a redução de custos em longo prazo é mantida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/economics , Catheter Ablation/economics , Reference Values , Brazil , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Emergency Medical Services/economics , Hospitalization/economics
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 705-714, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989588

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente trabalho evidenciou o processo de trabalho do cirurgião-dentista (CD) no setor de saúde suplementar a partir da visão do profissional, sob a luz da Bioética de Intervenção. Foi realizado um estudo observacional-seccional do tipo inquérito circunscrito à região do Distrito Federal. Os dados foram coletados por meio de 108 questionários respondidos por CDs credenciados à duas modalidades de operadora: autogestão e odontologia de grupo, com a finalidade de conhecer a percepção e o grau de satisfação profissional diante do mercado de trabalho odontológico. A insatisfação maior por parte dos profissionais foi relacionada à remuneração dos trabalhos odontológicos pelas operadoras. Para a operadora de autogestão 1, 38,1% dos profissionais responderam que a remuneração era satisfatória, enquanto para a de autogestão 2 e odontologia de grupo, houve 100% de insatisfação. Outro dado encontrado foi que a operadora de odontologia de grupo restringiu os tratamentos selecionados aos pacientes de forma expressiva. Conclui-se que existe a perda de autonomia profissional, desvalorização dos ressarcimentos e precarização do trabalho odontológico na saúde suplementar, demonstrando conflitos éticos nessa relação de trabalho.


Abstract The present study highlighted the labour process of the dental surgeon (DS) in the private healthcare sector from the healthcare professional's perspective based on intervention bioethics. An observational, cross-sectional survey study was performed within the Federal District (Distrito Federal) region. Data were collected from 108 questionnaires completed by DSs affiliated with two types of private health insurers, self-insurance and group insurance, to assess job perception and the degree of job satisfaction in the dentistry market. The main source of dissatisfaction for healthcare professionals was related to the pay for dental procedures by insurers. For self-insurer 1, 38.1% healthcare professionals replied that the pay was satisfactory, whereas in self-insurance 2 and in the group insurance, 100% of healthcare professionals were dissatisfied. Another finding was that the group insurer considerably restricted elective treatments. In conclusion, loss of professional autonomy, depreciation of insurance claims and precarisation of dentistry occurs in the private healthcare sector, thus demonstrating the ethical conflicts in this relationship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Attitude of Health Personnel , Dentistry/organization & administration , Dentists/statistics & numerical data , Job Satisfaction , Bioethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Professional Autonomy , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Health Care Sector/economics , Health Care Sector/organization & administration , Dentists/economics , Dentists/psychology , Insurance, Health/economics
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(7): 2147-2158, jul. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952704

ABSTRACT

Resumo Desde a segunda metade do século XX, reformas tornaram-se contínuas no âmbito dos sistemas de proteção social, ampliando ou, com mais frequência, restringindo o escopo e a escala da provisão pública. Neste artigo, cotejamos a evolução recente dos sistemas de saúde na França e no Brasil, de modo a apreender os mecanismos através dos quais a "financeirização" vem reformatando a provisão pública. Essa abordagem comparada tem por finalidade explicitar dinâmicas diferenciadas de penetração do capital financeiro em sistemas de saúde que se pautaram por princípios universalistas. Após caracterizar brevemente ambos os sistemas de saúde, destacando o alcance da provisão privada seja complementar, seja suplementar, o artigo mostra como o setor financeiro vem ampliando sua participação na oferta de serviços de saúde. Em seguida, analisa como se dá o processo de internacionalização/centralização do setor, e, finalmente, sintetiza o papel regulatório do Estado no fortalecimento da provisão privada. Os resultados indicam que, a despeito de trajetórias institucionais radicalmente opostas, a marcha da financeirização avança no setor de saúde.


Abstract Since the post-War period, social protection systems have experienced continuous reforms, either extending or, more often, reducing the scope and the scale of public provision. This paper seeks to present how healthcare systems have evolved both in France and in Brazil recently, in order to comprehend mechanisms through which financialization has been reshaping public care provision. This comparative analysis unveils distinct financialization dynamics of healthcare systems, built upon universalism principles. After featuring both systems, underlying their private dimension - either complementary or supplementary - the article points out how the financial sector is broadening its share in the supply of healthcare services. In what follows, the sector's process of internationalization/centralization is analyzed and lastly the regulatory role of the State in strengthening private provision is defined. Despite radically different institutional paths, the findings corroborate that in both cases finance is a driving force in reshaping the healthcare sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Healthcare Financing , Brazil , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Delivery of Health Care/economics , France
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(7): 2197-2212, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952702

ABSTRACT

Resumo Nas últimas décadas, vários sistemas de saúde latino-americanos passaram por reformas. O artigo analisa as políticas de saúde na Argentina, Brasil e México de 1990 a 2014, explorando estratégias, condicionantes e efeitos das reformas sobre a configuração dos sistemas de saúde. Adotou-se a abordagem histórico-comparativa, considerando os eixos: trajetória da política de saúde; contexto político e econômico; agendas, processos e estratégias de reforma; mudanças na configuração do sistema, em termos de estratificação social e desmercantilização. A pesquisa compreendeu revisão bibliográfica, análise documental e de dados secundários e entrevistas. No período, a Argentina manteve na saúde o sistema corporativo fragmentado, com expansão do setor privado e de programas públicos específicos. O Brasil implantou um sistema público universal, que convive com um setor privado dinâmico e crescente. O México manteve o seguro social dos trabalhadores e criou um seguro de saúde para pobres. Em que pesem as diferenças nos condicionantes e estratégias de reforma, nos três países persistiram a estratificação social e a mercantilização em saúde, sob formas variadas. A transformação dessas características é fundamental para a construção de sistemas de saúde universais na América Latina.


Abstract Over recent decades, several Latin American health systems have undergone reforms. This paper analyzes health policies in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico from 1990 to 2014. It explores the reform strategies, explanatory factors and effects on the configuration of each health system. The analytical framework was based on the historical-comparative approach and considered the following aspects: political and economic context; health reform agendas, processes and strategies; changes in the health system configuration in terms of social stratification and de-commodification. The research methods involved literature review, document and data analysis and interviews. In the period, Argentina maintained an employment-based and fragmented healthcare system, expanded specific public programs and private health plans. Brazil created a public and universal health system, which coexists with a dynamic and growing private sector. Mexico maintained the employment-based health care and created a popular health insurance. Although the reform influences and strategies varied between the countries, social stratification and commodification persisted in the three health systems, under different arrangements.The transformation of these characteristics is essential to build universal health systems in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Politics , Health Care Reform , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Argentina , Brazil , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Commodification , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Mexico
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(7): 2159-2170, jul. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Desde os anos 1980, os sistemas de saúde europeus vêm passando por várias reformas, com ênfase à tendência de sua mercantilização. O objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar formas de implementação de mecanismos de mercado no funcionamento desses sistemas, alemão, britânico e francês - a partir da década de 1980. As reformas "mercantis" eram justificadas a partir da premissa de que a inserção da lógica de mercado poderia tanto diminuir a necessidade de gastos públicos como aumentar a eficiência dos existentes. O trabalho apresenta diferentes formas de mercantilização implementadas nas reformas, com a distinção entre os processos de mercantilização explícita, em que há efetivo aumento da presença privada, e implícita, em que ocorre a incorporação de princípios advindos do setor privado no sistema público, tanto no financiamento como na prestação de serviços de saúde. Além do detalhamento das diferentes maneiras em que este fenômeno se expressa, o artigo apresenta brevemente os potenciais efeitos negativos desse processo para os sistemas de saúde, principalmente em termos de acesso e equidade, explicitando que as premissas iniciais em torno da mercantilização (redução de gastos e melhora na eficiência) parecem ser falsas.


Abstract Since the 1980s, European health systems have undergone several reforms, with emphasis on the tendency of their commodification. The objective of this article is to demonstrate how market mechanisms were implemented in the functioning of these systems, german, british and french - from the 1980s. The "mercantile" reforms were justified on the premise that the insertion of market logic could both reduce the need for public spending and increase the efficiency of existing expenditure. The work presents different forms of commodification implemented in the reforms, with the distinction between processes of explicit commodification, in which there is an effective increase in private, and implicit presence, in which there is incorporation of principles from the private sector in the public system, both in financing and in the provision of health services. In addition to detailing the different ways in which this phenomenon is expressed, the article briefly presents the potential negative effects of this process for health systems, especially in terms of access and equity, stating that the initial assumptions surrounding commodification (cost reduction and efficiency improvement) appear to be false.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Reform , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Commodification , Health Expenditures , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Delivery of Health Care/economics , France , Germany , United Kingdom
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(6): 2027-2034, jun. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952676

ABSTRACT

Resumo Reconstitui, em uma perspectiva histórica, a trajetória do capital em processo na assistência à saúde no Brasil contemporâneo e, em seguida, introduz a discussão sobre dominância financeira na assistência a partir do caso concreto da hipertrofia do esquema de intermediação assistencial privativa existente no país, tomando a tese de José Carlos de Souza Braga como principal referência. Destaca a natureza nebulosa dos fenômenos localizados na interface de articulação público/privada do sistema de saúde brasileiro e os limites inerentes à utilização de modelos explicativos reducionistas/dicotômicos na abordagem dessa problemática.


Abstract This article gives, first, a historical account of the action of capital in healthcare in contemporary Brazil and then introduces a debate on the dominance of finance ('financial dominance') in healthcare based on one case to examine: the hypertrophy of the structure for intermediation in private healthcare existing in Brazil, using the theses of José Carlos de Souza Braga as its principal reference. The article highlights the nebulous nature of what happens at the interface between the public and private elements of the Brazilian health system, and the limits inherent to the use of reductionary, or dichotomic, models to explain details and factors in this interaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Politics , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Healthcare Financing , National Health Programs/economics , Brazil , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Models, Theoretical , National Health Programs/organization & administration
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(6): 2051-2059, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952667

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre o futuro do SUS, baseada em exercícios prospectivos desenvolvidos pela iniciativa Brasil Saúde Amanhã da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. O texto faz uma breve revisão de caminhos e descaminhos percorridos pelo SUS, tendo como marco a Constituição Federal de 1988. Destaca os movimentos pela descentralização e a subtração de recursos da saúde que reduziu a política de incremento de gastos; e acentua os arranjos públicos e privados de financiamento e provisão de serviços que resultaram na privatização setorial decorrente, principalmente, de políticas econômicas articuladas com a concessão de benefícios e tributos. Analisa o financiamento do setor público através das sucessivas emendas constitucionais que resultaram na destruição da proteção social e no enfraquecimento do setor Saúde. Para o futuro, o texto considera o envelhecimento populacional e analisa tendências no perfil epidemiológico, com as consequentes mudanças no modelo de cuidados de atenção à saúde. O artigo conclui apontando os resultados do estrangulamento fiscal na organização do sistema de cuidados e a necessidade da reversão de dispositivos legais que obstaculizam o mandamento constitucional.


Abstract This article reflects on the future of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese), based on the foresight exercises conducted by the Brasil Saúde Amanhã initiative of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The text briefly reviews some paths followed by the SUS as referred to in the Federal Constitution of 1988. It highlights the movement towards the decentralization of care and the constraint of health financial resources that reduced policies of increasing public expenditures. It examines the public and private arrangements for financing and provision of services that have resulted in sectoral privatization, mainly from economic policies articulated with concession of fiscal benefits. It analyzes the changes in the public sector financing through successive constitutional amendments that resulted in the weakening of established social protection policies, particularly of the health sector. For the future, the text considers population aging and analyzes trends in the epidemiological profile, with consequent changes in the health care paradigm. The article concludes by pointing out the consequences of fiscal strangling in the organization of the healthcare system and the need to reverse legal provisions that hamper the fulfillment of the constitutional mandate for equity and universality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Expenditures/trends , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy/trends , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Brazil , Aging , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Healthcare Financing , Financing, Government/trends , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/trends
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903477

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the household expenditure per capita and to estimate the percentage of Brazilian households that have spent with dental insurance. METHODS We analyzed data from 55,970 households that participated in the research Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares in 2008-2009. We have analyzed the annual household expenditure per capita with dental insurance (business and private) according to the Brazilian states and the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the households (sex, age, race, and educational level of the head of the household, family income, and presence of an older adult in the household). RESULTS Only 2.5% of Brazilian households have reported spending on dental insurance. The amount spent per capita amounted to R$5.10 on average, most of which consisted of private dental insurance (R$4.70). Among the characteristics of the household, higher educational level and income were associated with higher spending. São Paulo was the state with the highest household expenditure per capita (R$10.90) and with the highest prevalence of households with expenditures (4.6%), while Amazonas and Tocantins had the lowest values, in which both spent less than R$1.00 and had a prevalence of less than 0.1% of households, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Only a small portion of the Brazilian households has dental insurance expenditure. The market for supplementary dentistry in oral health care covers a restricted portion of the Brazilian population.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Quantificar as despesas domiciliares per capita e estimar o percentual de domicílios brasileiros que gastaram com planos exclusivamente odontológicos. MÉTODOS Foram analisados dados de 55.970 domicílios que participaram da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares em 2008-2009. Os gastos domiciliares anuais per capita com planos exclusivamente odontológicos (empresarial e particular) foram analisados segundo os estados da federação e as características socioeconômicas e demográficas dos domicílios (sexo, idade, cor da pele e escolaridade do chefe do domicílio, renda familiar e presença de idoso no domicílio). RESULTADOS Apenas 2,5% dos domicílios brasileiros relataram gastos com planos exclusivamente odontológicos. O valor per capita despendido somou em média R$5,10, sendo a maior parte composta por planos odontológicos particulares (R$4,70). Entre as caraterísticas do domicílio, maior escolaridade e renda estiveram associadas com maior gasto. São Paulo foi o estado com maior gasto domiciliar per capita (R$10,90) e maior prevalência de domicílios com dispêndios (4,6%), enquanto Amazonas e Tocantins apresentaram os menores valores, ambos com gasto inferior a R$1,00 e com menos de 0,1% de domicílios, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Apenas uma pequena parcela dos domicílios brasileiros desembolsa com planos exclusivamente odontológicos. O mercado de odontologia suplementar na assistência em saúde bucal abrange uma restrita parcela da população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oral Health/economics , Private Sector/economics , Insurance, Dental/economics , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Income , Insurance, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(4): 1065-1074, Abr. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890283

ABSTRACT

Resumo O trabalho apresenta os argumentos favoráveis à intervenção governamental no financiamento e na regulação na área de saúde. Descreve o arranjo organizacional do sistema de saúde brasileiro para refletir sobre a agenda da austeridade proposta para o país. Com base na literatura da economia da saúde, o artigo discute a hipótese de que o setor saúde no Brasil funciona sob a dominância privada. Utiliza as categorias de análise das despesas nacionais com saúde. Os dados são analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. A comparação internacional dos indicadores de despesas com saúde mostra que a participação do gasto público brasileiro na saúde é pouco expressivo. Os gastos por desembolso direto são elevados e comprometem a equidade. O setor de planos privados de saúde desempenha um papel crucial na provisão e no financiamento. Ao contrário da crença da agenda da austeridade, a despesa pública não pode ser constrangida porque o governo tem fracassado na provisão adequada de serviços aos pobres. O artigo argumenta que, como a Constituição não vetou a atuação do segmento privado, os interesses com maior capacidade de vocalização foram bem sucedidos em impor as suas preferências na configuração do setor.


Abstract This paper presents the arguments in favor of government intervention in financing and regulation of health in Brazil. It describes the organizational arrangement of the Brazilian health system, for the purpose of reflection on the austerity agenda proposed for the country. Based on the literature in health economics, it discusses the hypothesis that the health sector in Brazil functions under the dominance of the private sector. The categories employed for analysis are those of the national health spending figures. An international comparison of indicators of health expenses shows that Brazilian public spending is a low proportion of total spending on Brazilian health. Expenditure on individuals' health by out-of-pocket payments is high, and this works against equitability. The private health services sector plays a crucial role in provision, and financing. Contrary to the belief put forward by the austerity agenda, public expenditure cannot be constrained because the government has failed in adequate provision of services to the poor. This paper argues that, since the Constitution did not veto activity by the private sector segment of the market, those interests that have the greatest capacity to vocalize have been successful in imposing their preferences in the configuration of the sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Financing, Government/economics , Poverty , Brazil , Health Expenditures , Delivery of Health Care/economics
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(8): 748-754, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829531

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To analyze the health care costs specifically related to cardiovascular diseases, which were spent by patients of a private healthcare provider in southern Brazil, after their diagnosis of cancer. Method: We developed an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, with a qualitative-quantitative strategy, through the activity of analytical internal audit of medical accounts. Results: 860 accounts from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed, 73% referred to female users, with average age of 62.38 years, and a total direct cost of BRL 241,103.72. There was prevalence of 37% of breast cancer, 15% of prostate cancer and 9% of colon cancer. In relation to the cardiovascular care, 44% were consultations, 44% were complementary exams, 10% were emergency care, and 3% were hospitalizations. Regarding the health care costs with cardiovascular services, higher costs were in hospitalizations (51%), followed by complementary exams (37%), consultations (8%) and emergency care (4%). Conclusion: The cancer survivors commonly use health care in other specialties such as cardiology, and the main cost refers to hospitalization. It is recommended to invest in prevention (consultation and complementary exam) as well as in programs of chronic disease management to reduce costs and improve the quality of health care.


Resumo Objetivo: analisar os custos assistenciais com afecções cardiovasculares utilizados por usuários sobreviventes do câncer de uma operadora de saúde suplementar na região Sul do Brasil. Método: foi desenvolvido um estudo observacional, transversal, retrospectivo, com estratégia quali-quantitativa, através de atividade de auditoria interna analítica de contas médico-hospitalares. Resultados: foram analisadas 860 contas, de 2012 a 2015, com 73% de usuários femininos e uma média etária de 62,38 anos, somando um custo total direto de R$ 241.103,72. Houve predomínio de 37% de neoplasias de mamas, 15% de próstata e 9% de cólon. Com relação à assistência cardiovascular, 44% foram consultas, 44% foram exames complementares, 10% foram atendimentos de emergência e 3% foram hospitalizações. Os custos em assistência cardiovascular foram maiores nas hospitalizações (51%), seguidos pelos exames complementares (37%), pelas consultas (8%) e pelos atendimentos emergenciais (4%). Conclusão: os sobreviventes de câncer habitualmente utilizam a assistência à saúde em outras especialidades, como a cardiologia, e o principal custo é em hospitalização. Recomenda-se investir em prevenção (consultas e exames), assim como em programas de gestão de casos crônicos para reduzir os custos e melhorar a qualidade da assistência à saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/economics , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cardiotoxicity/diagnosis , Government Agencies , Hospitalization/economics , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(5): 504-513, sep.-oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830837

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre modelos de financiamiento y la organización con costos y desempeño de los servicios de los subsistemas de salud de Rosario,Argentina. Material y métodos: Los modelos de financiamiento y organización se caracterizaron utilizando información secundaria. Se calcularon los costos utilizando la metodología SHA/ OMS. Se midió el desempeño con una encuesta poblacional (n=822). Resultados: Subsistema público: financiamiento integrado verticalmente y servicios organizados desde la estrategia de atención primaria contribuyeron a bajos costos y alto desempeño en continuidad y orientación de la atención con debilidades en accesibilidad e integralidad. Subsistema privado: integración contractual y débiles mecanismos de regulación y coordinación condujeron a resultados opuestos a los del subsistema público. Seguridad social: integración contractual y fuertes mecanismos de regulación y coordinación contribuyeron a costos intermedios y un alto desempeño general. Conclusiones: El modelo de financiamiento y organización tiene una fuerte influencia sobre los costos y el desempeño de los servicios.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the relationship between health system financing and services organization models with costs and health services performance in each of Rosario's health sub-systems. Materials and methods: The financing and organization models were characterized using secondary data. Costs were calculated using the WHO/SHA methodology. Healthcare quality was measured by a household survey (n=822). Results: Public subsystem:Vertically integrated funding and primary healthcare as a leading strategy to provide services produced low costs and individual-oriented healthcare but with weak accessibility conditions and comprehensiveness. Private subsystem: Contractual integration and weak regulatory and coordination mechanisms produced effects opposed to those of the public sub-system. Social security: Contractual integration and strong regulatory and coordination mechanisms contributed to intermediate costs and overall high performance. Conclusion: Each subsystem financing and services organization model had a strong and heterogeneous influence on costs and health services performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Financing , Health Services/economics , Argentina , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Urban Health/economics , Public Sector/economics , Private Sector/economics , Health Care Surveys , Financing, Government
14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(5): 1425-1434, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-747195

ABSTRACT

As despesas com planos de saúde correspondem a uma parcela importante dos gastos privados com saúde no Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a evolução dos gastos com planos de saúde das famílias brasileiras, segundo sua renda. Foram utilizados dados das Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009. Para a comparação dos valores dos gastos entre as POF, foi feita correção mediante o Índice de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo (IPCA). A proporção de famílias que tiveram gastos com planos de saúde permaneceu estável, nas duas POF estudadas (2002-2003 e 2008-2009), em torno de 24%. Todavia, o valor do gasto das famílias com planos de saúde aumentou. Entre aquelas que tiveram gasto com planos de saúde, o valor médio elevou-se de R$ 154,35 para R$ 183,97. O gasto médio com planos de saúde foi maior à medida que aumentava a renda das famílias, assim como as parcelas da renda e da despesa comprometidas com esses gastos. O gasto com planos de saúde está concentrado entre as famílias com maior renda. Para estas, os planos de saúde foram o principal componente do gasto total com saúde.


Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Budgets , Family , Health Expenditures , Insurance, Health/economics , Private Sector/economics , Brazil , Income , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
15.
Rev. saúde pública ; 48(4): 632-641, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution of catastrophic health expenditure and the inequalities in such expenses, according to the socioeconomic characteristics of Brazilian families. METHODS Data from the National Household Budget 2002-2003 (48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (55,970 households) were analyzed. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as excess expenditure, considering different methods of calculation: 10.0% and 20.0% of total consumption and 40.0% of the family’s capacity to pay. The National Economic Indicator and schooling were considered as socioeconomic characteristics. Inequality measures utilized were the relative difference between rates, the rates ratio, and concentration index. RESULTS The catastrophic health expenditure varied between 0.7% and 21.0%, depending on the calculation method. The lowest prevalences were noted in relation to the capacity to pay, while the highest, in relation to total consumption. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure increased by 25.0% from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 when the cutoff point of 20.0% relating to the total consumption was considered and by 100% when 40.0% or more of the capacity to pay was applied as the cut-off point. Socioeconomic inequalities in the catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 increased significantly, becoming 5.20 times higher among the poorest and 4.17 times higher among the least educated. CONCLUSIONS There was an increase in catastrophic health expenditure among Brazilian families, principally among the poorest and those headed by the least-educated individuals, contributing to an increase in social inequality. .


OBJETIVO Analisar a evolução dos gastos catastróficos em saúde e as desigualdades nesses gastos, segundo características socioeconômicas das famílias brasileiras. MÉTODOS Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2002-2003 (48.470 domicílios) e 2008-2009 (55.970 domicílios). Gasto catastrófico em saúde foi definido como despesas em excesso, considerando diferentes métodos de cálculo: 10,0% e 20,0% do consumo total e 40,0% da capacidade de pagamento da família. Consideraram-se indicadores socioeconômicos o Indicador Econômico Nacional e a escolaridade. As medidas de desigualdade utilizadas foram a diferença relativa entre taxas, razão das taxas e índice de concentração. RESULTADOS Os gastos catastróficos variaram entre 0,7% e 21,0%, a depender do método de cálculo. As menores prevalências foram observadas em relação à capacidade de pagamento, enquanto as maiores, em relação ao total do consumo. Houve aumento na prevalência de gastos catastróficos em saúde de 25,0%, entre 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, quando utilizado o ponto de corte de 20,0% em relação ao total de consumo, e de 100% quando aplicado o ponto de corte de 40,0% da capacidade de pagamento. Houve expressiva e crescente desigualdade socioeconômica na prevalência de gasto catastrófico em saúde no Brasil entre 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, chegando a ser 5,2 vezes maior o gasto catastrófico entre os mais pobres e 4,2 vezes maior nos menos escolarizados. CONCLUSÕES Houve crescimento da prevalência do gasto catastrófico entre as famílias brasileiras, principalmente entre aquelas mais pobres e chefiadas por indivíduos menos escolarizados, contribuindo para o aumento das desigualdades socioeconômicas. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs , Private Sector/economics
16.
Cad. saúde pública ; 27(11): 2175-2187, nov. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606626

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the relationship between the financial health and organizational form of private health care providers in Brazil. It also examines the major determinants of customer satisfaction associated with the provider's organ-izational form. An adjusted Altman's z-score is used as an indicator of financial health. A proxy variable based on customer complaints filed at the Brazilian National Agency for Supplementary Health is used as an indicator for customer satisfaction. The study uses a sample of 270 private health care providers and their operations over the period 2003-2005. Panel data analysis includes control variables related to market, operations, and management. Principal results indicate that: (1) private health care providers benefit from economies of scale; (2) self-funded health plans have better financial health; (3) spending on marketing does not have a signif-icant impact on customer satisfaction in Brazil; (4) weak empirical evidence exists showing that good financial performance enhances customer's satisfaction.


Este artigo analisa a situação financeira das operadoras de saúde suplementar no Brasil, de acordo com a modalidade de gestão. Adicionalmente, examina os principais determinantes para a satisfação do consumidor desses serviços. Como indicador principal de saúde financeira, utiliza-se uma versão adaptada do z-score de Altman. A proxy para satisfação do consumidor é o nível de reclamações fundamentadas registradas junto à Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar. Utilizamos uma amostra de 270 operadoras de saúde suplementar para o período 2003-2005, e regressões de dados em painel, com variáveis de controle de mercado, operacionais e de gestão. Os resultados principais indicam que (1) as operadoras de saúde se beneficiam de economias de escala; (2) as empresas que operam no modelo de autogestão têm situação financeira melhor que as demais; (3) as despesas com marketing não impactam a satisfação dos consumidores dos planos de saúde; (4) finalmente, encontra-se também alguma evidência empírica indicando que a boa situação financeira implica maior satisfação do consumidor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accountable Care Organizations/economics , Consumer Behavior , Insurance, Health/economics , Prepaid Health Plans/economics , Private Sector/economics , Supplemental Health , Accountable Care Organizations/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Prepaid Health Plans/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 74(5): 323-325, set.-out. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608401

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar o valor dos Projetos Catarata para a comunidade, identificando características e dificuldades de acesso ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento da catarata na rotina de atendimento de diversos Sistemas de Saúde. MÉTODOS: Durante uma campanha de catarata realizada em um hospital universitário foi aplicado um questionário de múltipla escolha somente aos pacientes selecionados para a cirurgia de catarata. Foram avaliadas, dentre outras, as seguintes variáveis: acesso prévio à consulta oftalmológica (serviço público ou privado); motivo(s) para a não realização da cirurgia no serviço inicial. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 627 pacientes com diagnóstico de catarata. A maioria 595 (95 por cento) já havia consultado um oftalmologista previamente, sendo que em 63 por cento das situações (375 pacientes) a consulta havia sido realizada há menos de um ano. A última avaliação oftalmológica foi realizada pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em 52 por cento dos casos (307 pacientes), e entre estes, a fila de espera foi apontada pela maioria como sendo a causa da não realização da cirurgia. Com relação aos pacientes previamente atendidos em serviços privados, o motivo da não realização da cirurgia foi o custo da cirurgia e custo da lente intraocular. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que a rotina de atendimento oftalmológico no SUS em São Paulo não está preparada para atender a demanda por cirurgias de catarata, e o sistema de saúde privado ainda exclui uma parcela da população que possuí acesso à consulta clínica da cirurgia de catarata. É importante a continuidade da realização de campanhas comunitárias para atender a população que não teria como acessar a cirurgia pelas vias convencionais.


PURPOSE: To identify the difficulties in access to diagnosis and treatment of cataract in patients attended during a cataract campaign. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to patients selected for cataract surgery. We evaluated, among others, the following variables: prior access to ophthalmologists (public or private), reason(s) for not having surgery early in the initial service, the average cost charged by cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) (private services and agreements). RESULTS: A total of 627 patients was evaluated. Most of them - 595 (95 percent) had previously attended an ophthalmologist, and in 63 percent of cases (375 patients) the consultation had been held for less than a year. The last evaluation was performed by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) in 52 percent of the cases (307 patients). Regarding the reason for not having surgery in the initial service, the high cost of the surgery (R$ 2.000 - R$ 4.000) and the cost of IOLs (R$ 1.000 - R$ 1.500) was the main obstacle for most attended services and private covenants. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the routine of ophthalmologic care in SUS at São Paulo is not prepared to answer the demand for cataract surgeries and private healthcare system still excludes a portion of the population. It is important to continue the implementation of community campaigns to serve the population that would be unable to access the surgery through conventional ways.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cataract Extraction/economics , Educational Status , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/economics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Waiting Lists
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s96-s109, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597130

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS), que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.


This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Argentina , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s109-s119, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597131

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.


This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Bolivia , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s120-s131, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597132

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Brasil, que está compuesto por un sector público que cubre alrededor de 75 por ciento de la población y un creciente sector privado que ofrece atención a la salud al restante 25 por ciento de los brasileños. El sector público está constituido por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y su financiamiento proviene de impuestos generales y contribuciones sociales recaudadas por los tres niveles de gobierno (federal, estatal y municipal). El SUS presta servicios de manera descentralizada a través de sus redes de clínicas, hospitales y otro tipo de instalaciones, y a través de contratos con establecimientos privados. El SUS es además responsable de la coordinación del sector público. El sector privado está conformado por un sistema de esquemas de aseguramiento conocido como Salud Suplementaria financiado con recursos de las empresas y/o las familias: la medicina de grupo (empresas y familias), las cooperativas médicas, los llamados Planes Autoadministrados (empresas) y los planes de seguros de salud individuales. También existen consultorios, hospitales, clínicas y laboratorios privados que funcionan sobre la base de pagos de bolsillo, que utilizan sobre todo la población de mayores ingresos. En este trabajo se analizan los recursos con los que cuenta el sistema, las actividades de rectoría que se desarrollan y las innovaciones más recientemente implantadas, incluyendo el Programa de Salud de la Familia y el Programa Más Salud.


This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75 percent of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Brazil , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL