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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus , Cell Biology , Mice , Neuropeptides , Genetics , Metabolism , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Metabolism , Taurolithocholic Acid , Pharmacology , alpha-MSH , Genetics
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 909-914, Nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056917

ABSTRACT

The Labrador Retriever is among the main breeds with the greatest predisposition to obesity. Several factors, especially the interrelationships between food management, exercise and social factors; influence the likelihood of a dog becoming obese. Furthermore, genetic factors are also responsible for obesity in dogs, and in Labrador Retriever, a frameshift mutation (P187fs) in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is strongly associated with obesity. There is no knowledge of studies that have previously evaluated the prevalence of the canine POMC deletion (P187fs) in Brazilian Labrador Retriever. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate this mutation in Labrador Retriever dogs in Brazil. Of the 108 Labrador Retrievers that were assessed in this study, 59 were from a previous study, composed by animals assisted in a veterinary hospital with unknown lineage, and 49 were from a prospective study, composed of 19 pet and 30 assistance/rescue Labrador Retriever dogs. The obesity risk and appetite questionnaire were applied, with some modifications, to tutors of the animals used in the prospective study. Fragments of the DNA, containing the mutation, were amplified by PCR and submitted to direct gene sequencing. The allele frequency of the mutation was 21.3% and was out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05). Using only the data of animals with known lineage, the presence of the mutated allele was higher in the Assistance/rescue Group than Pet Group (P<0.01), furthermore, the allele frequencies observed in Assistance Group (31.7%) was out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05), while that in the Pet Group (18.4%) was in equilibrium (P>0.05). Although the mutation has increased the food-motivation in the assistance/rescue dogs, other variables, especially frequent exercising, favored that these animals maintained the ideal body weight (body condition score = 5). In summary, the Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium observed in the allele distribution of the deletion POMC_P187fs in this study, independently of the Labrador Retriever group assessed, suggesting the possibility of positive selection of the mutated allele, which may lead to the maintenance of this deleterious allele in the studied population.(AU)


O Labrador Retriever é uma das principais raças caninas com maior predisposição à obesidade. Vários fatores, especialmente as interrelações entre a alimentação, exercício e fatores sociais, influenciam a probabilidade de um cão se tornar obeso. Além disso, fatores genéticos são também responsáveis pela obesidade em cães, e no Labrador Retriever a mutação "frameshift" P187fs no gene pró-opiomelanocortina (POMC) está fortemente associada à obesidade. Não existem estudos prévios de prevalência da deleção P187fs no gene POMC em cães Labrador Retriever no Brasil. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar esta mutação em cães da raça Labrador Retriever no Brasil. Dos 108 Labradores Retrievers avaliados neste estudo, 59 eram de um estudo retrospectivo (composto por animais atendido no hospital veterinário e sem linhagem conhecida) e 49 eram de um estudo prospectivo (composto por 19 cães pet e 30 cães de assistência/resgate). Um questionário de risco de obesidade modificado foi aplicado nos tutores dos animais usados no estudo prospectivo. Fragmentos de DNA, contendo a mutação, foram amplificados por PCR e submetidos ao sequenciamento gênico direto. A frequência alélica da mutação foi de 21,3% e estava fora do equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (P<0,05). Usando somente os dados dos animais de linhagem conhecida, a presença do alelo mutado foi maior no Grupo de cães de Assistência/resgate que no Grupo de Pets (P<0,01), além disso, as frequências alélicas nos Grupos de Assistência/resgate (31,7%) e no de pets (18,4%) estavam fora e em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (P<0,05), respectivamente. Embora a mutação tenha aumentado a motivação pelo alimento em cães Labrador Retriever do Grupo de Assistência/resgate, outras variáveis, especialmente o frequente exercício, favoreceu a manutenção o peso corporal ideal (peso corporal = 5). Em resumo, o desequilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg observado na distribuição do alelo POMC_P187fs observado neste estudo, independentemente do grupo de Labrador Retriever avaliado, sugere a possibilidade de uma seleção positiva para o alelo mutado, o qual poderá levar a manutenção desse alelo deletério nesta população.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Pro-Opiomelanocortin/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/veterinary
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT) has been reported to act as a growth regulator in various tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of OXT on cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas. This study aimed to examine whether OXT affects cell growth in pituitary tumor cell lines (AtT20 and GH3 cells) with a focus on corticotroph adenoma cells. METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted with AtT20 cells to confirm the effects of OXT on hormonal activity; flow cytometry was used to assess changes in the cell cycle after OXT treatment. Moreover, the impact of OXT on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear factor κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: OXT treatment of 50 nM changed the gene expression of OXT receptor and pro-opiomelanocortin within a short time. In addition, OXT significantly reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion within 1 hour. S and G2/M populations of AtT20 cells treated with OXT for 24 hours were significantly decreased compared to the control. Furthermore, OXT treatment decreased the protein levels of PCNA and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) in AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: Although the cytotoxic effect of OXT in AtT20 cells was not definite, OXT may blunt cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas by altering the cell cycle or reducing PCNA and P-ERK levels. Further research is required to investigate the role of OXT as a potential therapeutic target in corticotroph adenomas.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Corticotrophs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Oxytocin , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Reverse Transcription
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1433-1440, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771786

ABSTRACT

The social problems and medical burdens caused by obesity have become more serious in recent years. Obesity is mainly caused by the imbalance of energy intake and consumption in the body. The central nervous system and related neurons regulate the balance of energy metabolism. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) contains anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and orexigenic neuropeptid Y(NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons that regulate the feeding behavior of body. High-fat diet induces phosphorylation of Rb protein in POMC neurons, and inactivation of Rb phosphorylation leads to re-entry of POMC neurons from the resting-state into the cell cycle, which rapidly shifts to apoptosis. High-fat diet also causes the inhibition of neuronal regeneration, induces inflammation and neuronal damage, loss of neuronal homeostasis, leptin resistance, and ultimately leads to obesity. This review discusses the relationship between loss of neuronal homeostasis and dietary obesity, as well as the underlying mechanisms, which might provide the evidence for prevention and treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus , Homeostasis , Humans , Leptin , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738872

ABSTRACT

The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved three anti-obesity drugs for long-term management in the past decade. In addition, since 2019, bariatric surgery has been financially supported by National Health Insurance Service in Korea. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of the recently approved anti-obesity drugs, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide are explained. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons and inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which results in the activation of melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Naltrexone/bupropion stimulates POMC neurons through bupropion; this stimulation is augmented by blocking the autoinhibitory mechanism of POMC with naltrexone. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide is mediated through the direct activation of POMC/CART neurons and the indirect suppression of NPY/AgRP neurons through γ-aminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with adjunctive suppression of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. In addition to liraglutide, another glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, semaglutide, is expected to be added to the list of anti-obesity drugs in the near future. In patients with obesity and high cardiovascular risk, lorcaserin was considered neutral and liraglutide was considered favorable, whereas inconclusive results were obtained for naltrexone/bupropion.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , Bariatric Surgery , Bupropion , Dopamine , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Korea , Liraglutide , Naltrexone , National Health Programs , Neurons , Neuropeptide Y , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Reward
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742347

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High-fat (HF) feeding induces hypothalamic leptin resistance via the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4 deficiency confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Udenafil, an anti-impotence drug, inhibits TLR4 in airway epithelial cells in vitro. In this study, we evaluated whether udenafil suppressed the hypothalamic expression of TLR4 and reduced body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hypothalamic expression of TLR4, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction after treating mice for 2 days with udenafil (0, 12, 120, or 600 µg/d). Furthermore, the hypothalamic expression of TLR4, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was analyzed after 9 days' treatment with udenafil and/or leptin. We also measured body weight and food intake following 9 days of udenafil and/or leptin treatment in control- and HF-fed mice. RESULTS: Udenafil suppressed hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA expression dose-dependently. The changes were associated with decreased PDE5, NF-κB, and Myd88 expression. Udenafil treatment for 9 days reduced body weight and caloric intake in HF-fed mice. This may have been associated with the suppression of NPY expression that was elevated by HF feeding. POMC expression was not affected by udenafil. However, udenafil did not augment the effects of leptin on the reduction of body weight and caloric intake in HF-fed mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that udenafil reduced body weight by suppressing hypothalamic TLR4 mRNA expression in HF-fed mice and the combination effect of udenafil and leptin was additive rather than synergistic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Eating , Energy Intake , Epithelial Cells , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Leptin , Mice , Neuropeptide Y , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors
7.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 114-117, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718263

ABSTRACT

Postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC) is relatively common complication among patients who underwent Caldwell-Luc surgery. Patients with POMC usually have no symptoms, although cyst extension can result in bone destruction or cystic infection with pain. The trigeminal nerve consists of the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve. Among these branches, the maxillary nerve runs to the lateral and frontal sides of the maxillary sinus wall. POMC can rarely lead to trigeminal neuropathy caused by cyst enlargement that compresses some branches of the trigeminal nerve. Recently, we experienced a case with trigeminal neuralgia due to POMC. The patient was successfully treated with inferior meatal antrostomy. We report this rare case with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandibular Nerve , Maxillary Nerve , Maxillary Sinus , Ophthalmic Nerve , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases , Trigeminal Neuralgia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764774

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical features of postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC) according to the patient's medical history of previous sinus operation and symptoms with radiological characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were 41 patients who had been diagnosed with POMC via clinical and histological examination from 2007 to 2016. RESULT: Thirty-five patients had medical histories of Caldwell-Luc procedures and four patients had maxillary sinus surgery, such as cyst enucleation and open reduction for maxillary bony fractures. From the computed tomography images, 25.6% (11/43) showed multilocular cysts and 74.4% (32/43) showed unilocular lesions. As for the treatment methods, cyst enucleation was conducted on 34 patients, and among them, three were treated previously with marsupialization. Their symptoms included diverse locations of pain and swelling. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of POMC varied from unilocular to multilocular and the symptoms included pain and swelling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maxillary Sinus , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Sinusitis
9.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2017; 18 (1): 67-73
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189219

ABSTRACT

Background: Melanocortinergic system represents a known system involved in the central regulation of body weight with the central proopiomelanocortin [POMC] neurons forming a potent anorexigenic network. Polymorphisms in the POMC gene locus are associated with obesity phenotypes


Aim: To assess the contribution of the POMC gene 9-bp insertional polymorphism in the susceptibility to obesity and its relation to body mass index [BMI] and adiposity-related co-morbidities in obese children and adolescents; as well as binge eating behavior


Patients and methods: Fifty obese children and adolescents with simple obesity were screened for Binge Eating Disorder [BED] by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition [DSM-5], they were compared to 50 age, sex and pubertal stage-matched non obese controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver, measurement of fasting lipid profile, fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose and assessment of POMC gene 9-bp insertional polymorphism were done


Results: Obese patients had significantly higher anthropometric measurements, blood pressure percentiles, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and fasting lipid profiles, and higher frequency of occurrence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and BED. Allelic frequencies of POMC gene 9 bp insertional polymorphism were comparable in patients and controls [p= 0.956]. Fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the heterozygous cases having the polymorphism than in wild homozygous cases; whereas no difference was observed among the controls


Conclusion: This polymorphism was associated with higher fasting insulin levels in the obese patients only. These findings support the hypothesis that the melanocortin pathway may modulate glucose metabolism in obese subjects indicating a possible gene-environment interaction. POMC variant may be involved in the natural history of polygenic obesity, contributing to the link between type 2 diabetes and obesity


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pro-Opiomelanocortin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Feeding Behavior , Body Mass Index , Adiposity , Child , Adolescent , Metabolism , Case-Control Studies
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 121-126, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65773

ABSTRACT

There have recently been many advances in obesity treatment, including lifestyle modifications and pharmacological and surgical treatments. Specifically, pharmacological strategies have improved significantly. However, the history of the development of medications aimed at weight loss is complicated. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew anti-obesity drugs such as fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, and phenylpropylamine due to their unwanted side effects. Moreover, sibutramine was voluntarily withdrawn from the market and a new drug, rimonabant, has been suspended in the middle of a clinical trial due to unacceptable side effects. The FDA has approved four new anti-obesity drugs in recent years. Lorcaserin is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2c (5-HT2c) agonist. The pharmacological mechanism of action of this drug is similar to fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, but lorcaserin is specific for 5-HT2c, which are located almost exclusively in the central nervous system and are not found in heart valves. Three phase 3 clinical trials for lorcaserin have been published recently; weight reduction was successful and no side effects involving the heart were found. Furthermore, the FDA has also approved phentermine/topiramate controlled-release (PHEN/TPM CR), which is composed of a combination of immediate-release phentermine and controlled-release topiramate. Weight reduction achieved with PHEN/TPM CR was demonstrated to be better than all other anti-obesity drugs. Lastly, the combination therapy bupropion/naltrexone activates proopiomelanocortin neurons and inhibits opioid-mediated negative feedback by synergism. Similar to liraglutide, a long-acting analogue of the hormone glucagon-like peptide-1, this treatment showed significant weight loss and metabolic improvements. However, in addition to its efficacy, clinicians should consider its side effects before use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , Central Nervous System , Dexfenfluramine , Fenfluramine , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Heart , Heart Valves , Life Style , Neurons , Obesity , Phentermine , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Serotonin , Weight Loss , Liraglutide
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 8(1): 19-24, ene.2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-789319

ABSTRACT

Arquate nucleus, a convergence site of peripheral and central signals, plays a fundamental role in the control of food intake. Orexigenic neurons that secrete neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic neurons secreting Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) are involved in this action. Both groups of neurons respond to peripheral signals such as insulin and leptin and are reciprocally inhibited. alpha Type melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), liberated by POMC neurons, reduces food intake activating melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), located in second order neurons of the paraventricular nucleus. NPY/AgRP antagonize the effects of this peptide on MC4R receptors,maintaining an inhibitory tone on áMHS liberation, mediated by the activation of gabaergic receptors of POMC neurons. The study of these mechanisms will allow the development of new medications, especially MC4R agonists, to reduce nutrient intake...


Subject(s)
Humans , Eating/physiology , Energy Intake/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , /physiology , Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones/physiology , Pro-Opiomelanocortin/physiology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287183

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether Epimedium brevicornu Maxim (EB) and icariin could exert their protective effects on hydrocortisone induced (HCI) rats by regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endocrine system and the possible mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male 10-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allotted to 6 groups (A-F) with 12 each, group A was injected normal saline (NS) 3 mL/kg day intraperitoneally, group A and B were given NS 6 mL/kg day by gastrogavage, group B-F were injected hydrocortisone 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally, group C and D were given EB 8 or 5 g/(kg day) by gastrogavage, group E and F were given icariin 25 or 50 mg/(kg day) by gastrogavage. Gene expressions of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein of pituitary POMC by Western-blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum T4, testosterone, cortisol and POMC mRNA expression were increased after treatment with EB or icariin in HCI rats, the serum CRH and the hypothalamus CRH mRNA expression released from hypothalamus corticotropin decreased compared with group B (P<0.05).The treatment with only icariin increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) compared with group B (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EB and icariin might be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of HCI rats through attuning the HPA axis and endocrine system which was involved in the release of CRH in hypothalamic, and the production of POMC-derived peptide ACTH in anterior pituitary, the secretion of corticosteroids in adrenal cortex.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blood , Animals , Blotting, Western , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Blood , Genetics , Epimedium , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Gene Expression , Hydrocortisone , Pharmacology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Hypothalamus , Chemistry , Male , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Chemistry , Genetics , Proteins , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52095

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of postoperative maxillary cyst (POMC) diagnosis by panoramic radiographs versus computed tomography (CT) and by oral and maxillofacial radiologists versus non-specialists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five maxillary sinuses with POMCs and 63 without any lesion were assessed using panoramic radiographs and CT images by five oral and maxillofacial radiologists and five non-specialists on a five-point scale. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to determine the differences in diagnostic accuracy between the two imaging modalities and between the two groups of observers. The intra-observer agreement was determined, too. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of CT images was higher than that of panoramic radiographs in both groups of observers (p<0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of oral and maxillofacial radiologists for each method was higher than that of non-specialists (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of CT improves the diagnosis of POMC, and radiological training and experience leads to more accurate evaluation.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Maxillary Sinus , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Radiography, Panoramic , ROC Curve
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271319

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the central mechanism of moxibustion on analgesic effect.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Wistar rats were screened by pain threshold value before making model, and 48 rats whose pain threshold was (250 +/- 25) g were selected. Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly selected as a normal group. For the rest rats the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model was duplicated by raising in a windy, cold and wet environment combined with injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and then they were randomly divided into a model group, a moxibustion group and a moxa volatile oil group, 12 rats in each group. The moxibustion and the moxa volatile oil igroup were treated with moxibustion and moxa volatile oil at "Shenshu"(BL 23) and "Zusanli"(ST 36), respectively, for 15 days. No interventions were added on the model group and the normal group. The pain threshold in Iinjured foot and the expression of hypothalamic POMC mRNA and PDYN mRNA in rats were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal group, the pain threshold and the expression of hypothalamic POMC mRNA and PDYN mRNA in the model group were increased (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the pain threshold and the expression of hypothalamic POMC mRNA and PDYN mRNA in the moxibustion group were increased significantly (all P < 0.01), but no statistically significance in the moxa volatile oil group (P > 0.05). Compared with the moxa volatile oil group, the above-mentioned observative indices in moxibustion group were all increased significantly (all P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Moxibustion has obvious analgesic effect and its mechanism may be related to the increasing expression of hypothalamic POMC and PDYN mRNA through the warming effect of moxibustion.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Enkephalins , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus , Metabolism , Male , Moxibustion , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Precursors , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146611

ABSTRACT

To understand the etiology of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type II diabetes, it is essential to gain better insight into how stored and available energy sources are monitored by the central nervous system. In particular, a comprehension of the fine cellular interplay and intracellular mechanisms that enable appropriate hypothalamic and consequent endocrine and behavioral responses to both circulating hormonal and nutrient signals remains elusive. Recent data, including those from our laboratories, raised the notion that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is not merely a by-product of substrate oxidation, but it plays a crucial role in modulating cellular responses involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. These review summarizes the published recent data on the effect of ROS levels in the regulation of neuronal function, including that of hypothalamic melanocortin neurons, pro-opiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y-/agouti related peptide-neurons, in the modulation of food intake.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Comprehension , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Hypothalamus , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Corticosterone , DNA, Complementary , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression , Ghrelin , Humans , Hypothalamus , Leptin , Male , Mice , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , RNA, Messenger
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. RESULTS: Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Corticosterone , DNA, Complementary , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression , Ghrelin , Humans , Hypothalamus , Leptin , Male , Mice , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , RNA, Messenger
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120065

ABSTRACT

Leptin, a 16-kDa cytokine, is secreted by adipose tissue in response to the surplus of fat store. Thereby, the brain is informed about the body's energy status. In the hypothalamus, leptin triggers specific neuronal subpopulations (e.g., POMC and NPY neurons) and activates several intracellular signaling events, including the JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI3K, and mTOR pathway, which eventually translates into decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure. Leptin signal is inhibited by a feedback inhibitory pathway mediated by SOCS3. PTP1B involves another inhibitory pathway of leptin. Leptin potently promotes fat mass loss and body weight reduction in lean subjects. However, it is not widely used in the clinical field because of leptin resistance, which is a common feature of obesity characterized by hyperleptinemia and the failure of exogenous leptin administration to provide therapeutic benefit in rodents and humans. The potential mechanisms of leptin resistance include the following: 1) increases in circulating leptin-binding proteins, 2) reduced transport of leptin across the blood-brain barrier, 3) decreased leptin receptor-B (LRB), and/or 4) the provocation of processes that diminish cellular leptin signaling (inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, feedback inhibition, etc.). Thus, interference of the cellular mechanisms that attenuate leptin signaling improves leptin action in cells and animal models, suggesting the potential utility of these processes as points of therapeutic intervention. Various experimental trials and compounds that improve leptin resistance are introduced in this paper.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Blood-Brain Barrier , Body Weight , Brain , Eating , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus , Leptin , Models, Animal , Neurons , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Receptors, Leptin , Rodentia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10177

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus plays a key role in the regulation of body weight by balancing the intake of food, energy expenditure, and body fat stores, as evidenced by the fact that most monogenic syndromes of morbid obesity result from mutations in genes expressed in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic obesity is a result of impairment in the hypothalamic regulatory centers of body weight and energy expenditure, and is caused by structural damage to the hypothalamus, radiotherapy, Prader-Willi syndrome, and mutations in the LEP, LEPR, POMC, MC4R and CART genes. The pathophysiology includes loss of sensitivity to afferent peripheral humoral signals, such as leptin, dysregulated insulin secretion, and impaired activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Dysregulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity and melatonin may also have a role in the development of hypothalamic obesity. Intervention of this complex entity requires simultaneous targeting of several mechanisms that are deranged in patients with hypothalamic obesity. Despite a great deal of theoretical understanding, effective treatment for hypothalamic obesity has not yet been developed. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that control food intake and energy homeostasis and pathophysiology of hypothalamic obesity can be the cornerstone of the development of new treatments options. Early identification of patients at-risk can relieve the severity of weight gain by the provision of dietary and behavioral modification, and antiobesity medication. This review summarizes recent advances of the pathophysiology, endocrine characteristics, and treatment strategies of hypothalamic obesity.


Subject(s)
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases , Adipose Tissue , Adolescent , Body Weight , Child , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypothalamus , Insulin , Leptin , Melatonin , Obesity , Obesity, Morbid , Prader-Willi Syndrome , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Radiotherapy , Sympathetic Nervous System , Weight Gain
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(4): 853-859, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647684

ABSTRACT

There is a high incidence of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in Poodle dogs, with family members being affected by the disease, suggesting a genetic involvement. Tpit is an obligate transcription factor for the expression of pro-opiomelanocortingene and for corticotroph terminal differentiation. The aim of the present study was to screen the Tpit gene for germline mutations in Poodles with PDH. Fifty Poodle dogs (33 female, 8.71±2.8 years) with PDH and 50 healthy Poodle dogs (32 females, 9.4241 2.8 years) were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, amplified by PCR and submitted to automatic sequence. No mutation in the coding region of Tpit was found, whereas the new single nucleotide polymorphism p.S343G, in heterozygous state, was found in the same frequency in both PDH and control groups. We concluded that Tpit gain-of-function mutations are not involved in the etiology of PDH in Poodle dogs.


O hiperadrenocorticismo ACTH-dependente (HACAD) apresenta elevada incidência em cães da raça Poodle, sendo que membros da mesma família têm sido acometidos pela doença, sugerindo envolvimento genético. Tpit é um fator de transcrição obrigatório para a expressão do gene da pro-opiomelanocortina e para a diferenciação terminal dos corticotrofos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar mutações germinativas no gene Tpit em Poodles com HACAD. Cinquenta cães da raça Poodle, 33 fêmeas, média de idade de 8,71±2,8 anos, com HACAD, e 50 cães Poodles saudáveis, 32 fêmeas, média de idade de 9,4±2,8 anos, foram estudados. Mutações na região codificadora do gene Tpit não foram identificadas. Foi observado um novo polimorfismo em heterozigose, p.S343G, com a mesma frequência no grupo de cães com HACAD e no grupo-controle. Conclui-se que a mutação ativadora no gene Tpit não está envolvida na patogênese do hiperadrenocorticismo ACTH-dependente em cães da raça Poodle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Germ-Line Mutation , Adrenocortical Hyperfunction/veterinary , Polymorphism, Genetic , Corticotrophs , Pro-Opiomelanocortin
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