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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.


Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sex , T-Lymphocytes , Probability , HIV , Colombia , Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Survivorship
2.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.


Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.


Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 403-410, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253926

ABSTRACT

La utilidad de una prueba diagnóstica se cuantifica mediante el cálculo de las medidas de probabilidad y las medidas de razones de probabilidad. Las medidas de probabilidad son la sensibilidad, la especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y el valor predictivo negativo. La sensibilidad y la especificidad se usan para escoger la mejor prueba a utilizar, entre varias disponibles; sin embargo, no pueden ser utilizadas para estimar la probabilidad de determinada enfermedad en un paciente en particular. En la práctica clínica es esencial saber cuál es la probabilidad de que un paciente con un resultado positivo en una prueba diagnóstica presente la enfermedad y cuál es la probabilidad de que un paciente con un resultado negativo en una prueba diagnóstica no presente la enfermedad. Los valores predictivos positivos y negativos nos brindan la respuesta a esta cuestión, sin embargo, dependen tanto de la sensibilidad y especificidad, como de la prevalencia de la enfermedad en la muestra del estudio. Las medidas de razones de probabilidad también describen el rendimiento o utilidad de una prueba diagnóstica y poseen dos propiedades importantes: resumen el mismo tipo de información que la sensibilidad y la especificidad, y pueden utilizarse para calcular la probabilidad de la enfermedad después de una prueba positiva o negativa. El propósito de esta publicación fue definir el concepto de razones de probabilidad, exponer sus principales fortalezas y explicar cómo se calculan las razones de probabilidad cuando la prueba de interés expresa sus resultados en forma dicotómica, en más de dos categorías o de forma ordinal


The usefulness of a diagnostic test is quantified by calculating the probability measures and the probability ratio measures. Probability measures are sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Sensitivity and specificity are used to choose the best test to use, among several available; however, they cannot be used to estimate the probability of a certain disease in a particular patient. In clinical practice it is essential to know what is the probability that a patient with a positive result in a diagnostic test will present the disease and what is the probability that a patient with a negative result in a diagnostic test will not present the disease. The positive and negative predictive values provide us with the answer to this question, however, it depends both on the sensitivity and specificity, and on the prevalence of the disease in the study sample. Probability ratio measures also describe the performance or usefulness of a diagnostic test and possess two important properties: they summarize the type of information that sensitivity and specificity, and they can be used to calculate the probability of disease after a positive or positive test. negative. The purpose of this publication was to define the concept of probability ratio measures, expose its main strengths, and explain how probability ratio measures are calculated when the test of interest expresses its results dichotomously, in more than two categories or ordinally


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Probability , Diagnosis , Laboratory Test
4.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 136-145, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341275

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los sistemas dinámicos, la entropía y la probabilidad han contribuido de forma significativa al desarrollo de nuevas metodologías que caracterizan al grado de complejidad de la dinámica cardíaca. Objetivo: Confirmar la aplicabilidad clínica de la metodología fundamentada en la teoría de los sistemas dinámicos, la probabilidad y la entropía para evaluar la dinámica cardíaca durante 18 horas. Material y métodos: Se tomaron 570 registros Holter normales en diferentes enfermedades. Para cada uno se construyó un atractor en un mapa de retardo y se evaluó la probabilidad de ocupación de pares ordenados de frecuencias cardíacas durante 18 horas, así como la entropía y sus proporciones. Se compararon las medidas obtenidas con los valores de normalidad y enfermedad establecidos previamente para obtener el diagnóstico matemático de cada Holter. Las conclusiones del Holter se revelaron luego de aplicar la metodología fisicomatemática para calcular sensibilidad, especificidad y coeficiente kappa respecto de la norma de referencia clínica. Resultados: Con las proporciones de la entropía de los atractores se diferenciaron dinámicas cardíacas agudas, crónicas, normales y la evolución entre estos estados con resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100% con una concordancia entre la norma de referencia y el diagnóstico fisicomatemático evaluado con el coeficiente kappa de 1. Conclusiones: Este estudio confirma que la metodología aplicada logra diagnosticar objetivamente la dinámica cardíaca, ya que establece predicciones de estados de normalidad o del nivel de agravamiento de la dinámica, y evidencia la aplicabilidad de esta metodología, lo cual sugiere su potencial uso en el contexto clínico.


Abstract Introduction: Dynamic systems, entropy and probability have contributed significantly in the development of new methodologies that characterize the degree of complexity of cardiac dynamics. Objective: To confirm the clinical applicability of the methodology based on the theory of dynamic systems, probability and entropy to evaluate cardiac dynamics during 18 hours. Material and methods: 570 normal Holter records with different pathologies were taken. For each one an attractor was built on the delay map and the probability of occupation of ordered pairs of heart rates during 18 hours was evaluated, as well as the entropy and its proportions. The measurements obtained were compared with the values of normality and illness established previously to obtain the mathematical diagnosis of each Holter. The conclusions of the Holter were unblinded after having applied the physical-mathematical methodology to calculate sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient with respect to the Gold-Standard. Results: With the proportions of the entropy of the attractors, acute, chronic, normal, and evolution cardiac dynamics were differentiated between these states. the application of the methodology showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100 %. The agreement between the Gold-Standard and the physical-mathematical diagnosis evaluated with the kappa coefficient was 1. Conclusions: This study confirms that the applied methodology manages to objectively diagnose cardiac dynamics, establishing predictions of normality states or the level of aggravation of the dynamics, evidencing the applicability of this methodology, suggesting its potential use in the clinical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nonlinear Dynamics , Probability , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Heart Rate
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888208

ABSTRACT

Vision is an important way for human beings to interact with the outside world and obtain information. In order to research human visual behavior under different conditions, this paper uses a Gaussian mixture-hidden Markov model (GMM-HMM) to model the scanpath, and proposes a new model optimization method, time-shifting segmentation (TSS). The TSS method can highlight the characteristics of the time dimension in the scanpath, improve the pattern recognition results, and enhance the stability of the model. In this paper, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method is used for multi-dimensional feature pattern recognition to evaluates the rationality and the accuracy of the proposed model. Four sets of comparative trials were carried out for the model evaluation. The first group applied the GMM-HMM to model the scanpath, and the average accuracy of the classification could reach 0.507, which is greater than the opportunity probability of three classification (0.333). The second set of trial applied TSS method, and the mean accuracy of classification was raised to 0.610. The third group combined GMM-HMM with TSS method, and the mean accuracy of classification reached 0.602, which was more stable than the second model. Finally, comparing the model analysis results with the saccade amplitude (SA) characteristics analysis results, the modeling analysis method is much better than the basic information analysis method. Via analyzing the characteristics of three types of tasks, the results show that the free viewing task have higher specificity value and a higher sensitivity to the cued object search task. In summary, the application of GMM-HMM model has a good performance in scanpath pattern recognition, and the introduction of TSS method can enhance the difference of scanpath characteristics. Especially for the recognition of the scanpath of search-type tasks, the model has better advantages. And it also provides a new solution for a single state eye movement sequence.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Discriminant Analysis , Eye Movements , Humans , Markov Chains , Normal Distribution , Probability
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 470-475, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence of family history of rotator cuff tear and the presence of tendinopathy in other joints in patients with rotator cuff tears and to compare them with paired controls. To estimate the odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for these two risk factors. Methods We performed a case-control study comparing patients submitted to treatment for rotator cuff tear with asymptomatic controls. All cases and controls were evaluated by imaging exams and matched by age (±2 years) and gender. We conducted an interview using a standardized questionnaire, and collected data on various risk factors. Results We evaluated 144 patients, 72 per group. Patients with rotator cuff tears reported a higher number of consanguineous relatives who underwent treatment for the same disease and tendon injuries in other joints compared to the controls (p= 0.005 and p= 0.045 respectively). Individuals with a family history of treatment for rotator cuff tear or with tendinopathies in other joints were more likely to present a rotator cuff tear, with odds ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.4-7.7) and 2.7 (95%CI = 1.1-6.9) respectively. Conclusions Patients with rotator cuff tear have a higher prevalence of family members with the same disease and tendinopathies or tendon injuries in other joints. The presence of consanguineous relatives with treatment for rotator cuff and tendinopathies in other joints are risk factors for the presence of rotator cuff tears.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar as prevalências de antecedente familiar de rotura do manguito e de tendinopatia em outras articulações em pacientes com rotura do manguito rotador e compará-las com controles pareados. Estimar a razão de chances de uma rotura do manguito rotador para estes dois fatores de risco. Métodos Realizamos um estudo de caso-controle comparando pacientes submetidos ao tratamento para rotura do manguito rotador com controles assintomáticos. Todos os casos e controles foram avaliados por exames de imagem e pareados por idade (±2 anos) e sexo. Realizamos uma entrevista utilizando um questionário padronizado, e coletamos dados referentes a vários fatores de risco. Resultados Avaliamos 144 pacientes, 72 por grupo. Os pacientes com rotura do manguito rotador relataram, em maior número, a presença de familiares consanguíneos que realizaram tratamento para a mesma doença e de lesões tendíneas em outras articulações em relação aos indivíduos controles (p= 0,005 e p= 0,045, respectivamente). Indivíduos com antecedente familiar de tratamento para rotura do manguito rotador ou com tendinopatias em outras articulações tiveram maior probabilidade de apresentar rotura do manguito rotador, com razões de chances de 3,3 (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] = 1,4-7,7) e 2,7 (IC95% = 1,1-6,9), respectivamente. Conclusões Os pacientes com rotura do manguito rotador têm maior prevalência de familiares com a mesma doença e de tendinopatias ou lesões tendíneas em outras articulações. A presença de familiares consanguíneos com tratamento para rotura do manguito rotador e tendinopatias em outras articulações são fatores de risco para presença de roturas do manguito rotador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tendon Injuries , Case-Control Studies , Probability , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Rotator Cuff , Trust , Tendinopathy , Control , Gender Identity , Genetics , Medical History Taking
7.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 26 jul 2020. 11 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1150751

ABSTRACT

Aborda, desde los conceptos básicos sobre gestión de riesgo, pasando por los tipos del mismo, así como proponer métodos sencillos de análisis de riesgo de contagios de COVID-19. Especialmente enfocados para las instalaciones de empresas e instituciones, a manera de orientar y prevenir el bienestar del personal que trabaja en las mismas. Busca sobre todo, identificar y analizar participativamente las amenazas y la vulnerabilidad de la población frente al virus Sars-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Management/methods , Probability , Risk Factors , Health Status Indicators , Safety Management/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Guatemala
8.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(2): 14-21, Jan.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third cause of cardiovascular death worldwide. The evaluation of pre-test probability using the Wells, Geneva and Pisa clinical prediction rules has been amply validated in prior studies. However, there are insufficient data for evaluating their diagnostic yield in a Colombian population. The goal of this article is to evaluate the yield of these scales in our population. Methods: this was a retrospective cohort study with diagnostic test analysis in a tertiary level hospital from 2009 to 2017, which included all subjects over the age of 18 who had undergone a chest computed tomography angiography (CTA) due to a clinical suspicion of PE. All the necessary variables for constructing the Wells, Geneva and Pisa rules were recorded. Each score was calculated numerically and then classified according to probability. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed through a CTA read by a radiologist. The data were entered on an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using a licensed SPSS statistical program. Results: a total of 507 subjects were included for Wells and Geneva scores and 339 for the Pisa score. The average age was 56 years (SD: 19.8) and 56.6% were males. A statistically significant relationship was found between the different calculated scores and the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: low, intermediate and high Wells probability p<0.001; less probable and probable Wells p<0.001; low, intermediate and high Geneva p=0.006; and low, intermediate, moderate and high Pisa p=0.001. The ACOR for Wells was 0.715 (95% CI:0.663-0.767) (p<0.001), for Geneva was 0.611 (95% CI:0.553-0.668) (p<0.001), and for Pisa was 0.643 (95% CI:0.574-0.713) (p<0.001). Conclusions: the study showed a greater PE diagnostic yield using the Wells score in our setting. There are limitations to the application and development of the Pisa score asociated with a lower yield in our patients.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1384).


Resumen Objetivo: la embolia pulmonar (EP) es la tercera causa de muerte cardiovascular en el mundo. La evaluación de la probabilidad pre test a través de reglas de predicción clínica Wells, Ginebra y Pisa ha sido ampliamente validada en estudios previos. Sin embargo, hay datos insuficientes que evalúen el rendimiento diagnóstico de las mismas en población colombiana, este artículo tiene como fin evaluar el rendimiento de estas escalas en nuestra población. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo con análisis de prueba diagnóstica en un hospital de III nivel de atención entre los años 2009 y 2017, donde se incluyeron todos los sujetos mayores de 18 años con realización de angiotomografía de tórax (ATC) solicitada por sospecha clínica de EP. Se registraron todas las variables necesarias para la construcción de las reglas de Wells, Ginebra y Pisa. Cada uno de los puntajes se calculó de manera numérica y posteriormente se clasificó según la probabilidad. El diagnóstico de EP se realizó mediante ATC leída por radiólogo. Los datos se ingresaron en una hoja de cálculo de Excel y se analizaron con el programa estadístico SPPS licenciado. Resultados: se ingresaron 507 sujetos para los puntajes de Wells y Ginebra y 339 para el puntaje de Pisa. El promedio de edad fue de 56 años (DS:19.8) y 56.6% de sexo masculino, se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre los diferentes puntajes evaluados y el diagnóstico de embolia pulmonar, Wells probabilidad baja, intermedia y alta p<0.001, Wells menos probable y probable p<0.001, Ginebra bajo, intermedio y alto p=0.006, Pisa bajo, intermedio, moderada y alta p=0.001. El ACOR para Wells fue 0.715(IC95%:0.663-0.767) (p<0.001), Ginebra 0.611(IC95%:0.553-0.668) (P<0.001), Pisa 0.643(IC95%:0.574-0.713) (p<0.001). Conclusiones: se determinó un rendimiento superior para el diagnóstico de EP con el puntaje de Wells en nuestro medio, hay limitaciones con la aplicación y desarrollo del puntaje de Pisa asociado a un rendimiento inferior en nuestros pacientes.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1384).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Probability , Reproducibility of Results , Computed Tomography Angiography
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e620, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estrés en la gestación es un problema de salud mental que puede incrementar el riesgo de las complicaciones maternas y perinatales. Objetivo: Determinar si el estrés durante el embarazo es un factor de riesgo para el bajo peso en el recién nacido. Métodos: Estudio no experimental, analítico de casos y controles, desarrollado en el Hospital San Juan de Lurigancho, en el 2019. En el grupo caso se incluyeron a 37 recién nacidos con peso menor de 2500 g, y en el grupo control, a 74 recién nacidos con peso entre 2500 y 3999 g. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadísticas chi cuadrado, odds ratio (OR) y sus intervalos de confianza al 95 %, y la de U de Mann Whitney. Resultados: El 43,3 por ciento de los recién nacidos con bajo peso tuvieron una madre de 18 a 24 años y 91,9 por ciento tuvo una madre que era ama de casa. El estado actual emocional fue más estresante en las madres de un recién nacido con bajo peso (x= 2,38 ± 1,3; p< 0,001), del mismo modo con los problemas relacionados al trabajo (x= 1,73 ± 1,3; p= 0,004). El estrés materno durante el embarazo se asoció al bajo peso del recién nacido. [p= 0,003; OR= 5,6; IC 95 por ciento = 1,6 - 19,7]. Conclusiones: El estrés materno es un factor de riesgo significativo para presentar bajo peso en el recién nacido, que eleva casi 6 veces la probabilidad de padecer esta complicación frente a la exposición del estrés(AU)


Introduction: Stress in pregnancy is a mental health problem that can increase the risk of maternal and perinatal complications. Objective: Determine if stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for low weight in the newborn. Methods: Non-experimental, analytical case-control study, carried out at the San Juan de Lurigancho Hospital, Peru in 2019. In the case group, 37 newborns weighing less than 2500 gr. were included, and in the control group, to 74 newborns weighing between 2500 and 3999 gr. The chi-square statistical tests, odds ratio (OR) and their 95 percent confidence intervals, and Mann Whitney's U test were used. Results: 43.3% of newborns with low weight had a mother aged 18 to 24 years and 91.9 percent had a mother who was a housewife. The current emotional state was more stressful in mothers of newborn underweight (x=2.38 ± 1.3; p<0.001), in the same way with the problems related to work (x=1.73 ± 1.3; p=0.004). Maternal stress during pregnancy was associated with the low weight of the newborn. [p=0.003; OR=5.6; 95 percent CI =1.6 - 19.7]. Conclusions: Maternal stress is a significant risk factor for presenting low weight in the newborn, which increases the probability of suffering this complication almost 6 times compared to exposure to stress(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological , Pregnancy/psychology , Mental Health , Risk , Probability , Risk Factors , Infant, Low Birth Weight/physiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature
10.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 16(1): 1-10, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094440

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: analisar as evidências científicas acerca da presença de transtornos mentais e o risco de suicídio em usuários de substâncias psicoativas. MÉTODO: revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada na LILACS, MEDLINE e SCOPUS, mediante os descritores: transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias, suicídio e transtornos mentais. Selecionaram-se os artigos completos disponíveis nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol, sem recorte temporal, todavia, foram excluídos os duplicados e que não responderam diretamente à pergunta norteadora, totalizando 17 artigos para análise. RESULTADOS: os usuários de substâncias psicoativas apresentam qualidade de vida reduzida e maior comprometimento na saúde mental, que aumentam a probabilidade para comorbidades psiquiátricas associadas, como a depressão, esquizofrenia, transtorno bipolar e ansiedade, principalmente quando há o uso de múltiplas substâncias. Essa associação eleva as chances de os indivíduos cometerem suicídio em até 5,7 vezes. CONCLUSÃO: observa-se a relação direta entre os três fatores investigados, em que o uso de substâncias psicoativas aumenta a probabilidade de transtornos mentais e o risco de suicídio, tornando-se necessária a elaboração de estratégias eficazes em saúde para a identificação precoce dessas problemáticas e, assim, desenvolver intervenções a fim de minimizá-las.


OBJECTIVE: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the presence of mental disorders and risk for suicide in psychoactive substance users. METHOD: integrative literature review conducted on LILACS, MEDLINE and SCOPUS, using the descriptors: substance-related disorders, suicide and mental disorders. Full articles available in Portuguese, English or Spanish were selected without a time frame. However, duplicates as well as articles that did not answer the guiding question directly were excluded, thus totaling 17 articles for analysis. RESULTS: psychoactive substance users presented reduced quality of life and more severely impaired mental health, which increases the probability of associated psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety, especially when multiple substances are used. This association increases the chances of individuals' committing suicide up to 5.7-fold. CONCLUSION: there is a direct relation between the three investigated facts, in which psychoactive substance use increases the probability of mental disorders and suicide risk, making it necessary to design efficient health strategies for the early identification of such problems and thus develop interventions to minimize them.


OBJETIVO: analizar las evidencias científicas sobre la presencia de trastornos mentales y el riesgo de suicidio en usuarios de sustancias psicoactivas. MÉTODO: revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada en LILACS, MEDLINE y SCOPUS, mediante los descriptores: trastornos relacionados al uso de sustancias, suicidio y trastornos mentales. Se seleccionaron los artículos completos disponibles en portugués, inglés o español, sin recorte temporal, fueron excluidos los duplicados y los que no respondieron directamente a la pregunta orientadora, totalizando 17 artículos para análisis. RESULTADOS: los usuarios de sustancias psicoactivas presentan calidad de vida reducida y mayores problemas de salud mental lo que aumenta la probabilidad para comorbilidades psiquiátricas asociadas, como depresión, esquizofrenia, trastorno bipolar y ansiedad, principalmente cuando se usan múltiples sustancias. Esta asociación eleva las posibilidades de que los individuos cometan suicidio en hasta 5,7 veces. CONCLUSIÓN: se observa una relación directa entre los tres factores investigados, en que el uso de sustancias psicoactivas aumenta la probabilidad de trastornos mentales y el riesgo de suicidio, siendo necesario la elaboración de estrategias eficaces en salud para la identificación precoz de estas problemáticas y así, desarrollar intervenciones para minimizarlas.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Mental Health , Probability , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users , Mental Disorders , Drug-Seeking Behavior
11.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(1): 29-35, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1138750

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: se han establecido diagnósticos cuantitativos de los sistemas cardiacos, partiendo de teorías como los sistemas dinámicos, la geometría fractal y la teoría de probabilidad. Objetivo: evaluar la dinámica cardiaca con base en una metodología fundamentada en la teoría de probabilidad y los sistemas dinámicos, en dieciséis horas. Metodología: a partir de ochenta registros electrocardiográficos de dinámicas cardiacas, diez normales y setenta con enfermedad, se tomaron los valores máximos y mínimos de la frecuencia cardiaca y el número de latidos/hora durante cada hora, con los cuales se construyó el atractor. Posteriormente, se calculó la dimensión fractal por el método de box counting, los espacios de ocupación y la probabilidad de los espacios de ocupación del atractor. Se determinó el diagnóstico matemático y se hizo una validación estadística respecto al diagnóstico convencional, tomado como estándar de oro. Resultados: se evidenció que la probabilidad de ocupación espacial de los atractores de dinámicas patológicas estuvo entre 0,029 y 0,144 y para dinámicas en estado de normalidad entre 0,164 y 0,329. Se hallaron valores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo de 100% y coeficiente kappa de 1. Conclusiones: se pudo confirmar la capacidad diagnóstica y predictiva de la metodología para diferenciar estados normales de patológicos a nivel clínico.


Abstract Introduction: Quantitative diagnostics of cardiac systems have been established using theories such as, dynamic systems, fractal geometry, and probability theory. Objective: To evaluate cardiac dynamics using a methodology based on probability theory and dynamic systems in sixteen hours. Methods: Using a total of 80 cardiac dynamic electrocardiograph traces (10 normal and 70 with disease), a record was made of the maximum and minimum heart rate values, as well as the number of heart beats/hour during each hour. These values were used to construct the attractor. The fractal dimension was then calculated using the "box counting" method, the spatial occupation, and the probability of spatial occupation by the attractor. The mathematic diagnosis was determined, and a statistical validation was made as regards the conventional diagnosis, which was taken as the reference standard. Results: It was shown that the probability of spatial occupation of the pathological attractor dynamics was between 0.29 and 0.144, and for dynamics in the normal state it was between 0.164 and 0.329. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100%, and the kappa coefficient was 1. Conclusions: The diagnostic and predictive capacity of the methodology to differentiate normal from disease states at clinical level was demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fractals , Heart Rate , Reference Standards , Probability , Sensitivity and Specificity , Electrocardiography
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 31-38, feb. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125035

ABSTRACT

Un modelo estocástico de simulación permite estudiar y represen tar de manera simplificada el comportamiento de variables complejas en términos de probabilidad. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar, a través del uso de herramientas de tecnologías de la información y comunicación, la aplicabilidad de modelos y métodos de simulación, en estudios de indicadores dentro del sector de la salud. A través del desarrollo de un caso de estudio, este trabajo demuestra el potencial de las herramientas tecnológicas @Risk y Excel en la construcción de modelos estocásticos que permiten a los profesionales de la salud predecir, monitorizar y dar soporte en la toma de decisiones en el tratamiento y seguimiento de indicadores e índices de una población.


A stochastic simulation model allows to study and represents in a simplified manner the behavior of complex variables in terms of probability. In this context, the objective of this work is to present, through the use of information and communication technology tools, the applicability of simulation models and methods, in studies of indicators within the health sector. Through the development of a case study, this work demonstrates the potential of the @Risk and Excel technological tools in the construction of stochastic models that allow health professionals to predict, monitor and support decision making in the treatment and monitoring of indicators and indices of a population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Probability , Stochastic Processes , Information Technology/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Monte Carlo Method , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Ecuador/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 17-23, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to identify the frequency of monogenic diabetes, which is poorly studied in multiethnic populations, due to GCK or HNF1A mutations in patients with suggestive clinical characteristics from the Brazilian population, as well as investigate if the MODY probability calculator (MPC) could help patients with their selection. Subjects and methods Inclusion criteria were patients with DM diagnosed before 35 years; body mass index < 30 kg/m2; negative autoantibodies; and family history of DM in two or more generations. We sequenced HNF1A in 27 patients and GCK in seven subjects with asymptomatic mild fasting hyperglycemia. In addition, we calculated MODY probability with MPC. Results We identified 11 mutations in 34 patients (32.3%). We found three novel mutations. In the GCK group, six cases had mutations (85.7%), and their MODY probability on MPC was higher than 50%. In the HNF1A group, five of 27 individuals had mutations (18.5%). The MPC was higher than 75% in 11 subjects (including all five cases with HNF1A mutations). Conclusion Approximately one third of the studied patients have GCK or HNF1A mutations. Inclusion criteria included efficiency in detecting patients with GCK mutations but not for HNF1A mutations (< 20%). MPC was helpful in narrowing the number of candidates for HNF1A screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha/genetics , Glucokinase/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability
14.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 21(1): 1-10, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123686

ABSTRACT

El objetivo es verificar si existe relación entre la probabilidad de lesión en extremidades del tren inferior y el índice de grasa corporal en estudiantes que participan de talleres deportivos en la Universidad Adventista de Chile. Participaron 66 alumnos entre las áreas deportivas voleibol, básquetbol, fútbol y hándbol por un método de muestreo censal. Todos los participantes de la investigación fueron evaluados por medio del instrumento "Y balance Test", para verificar si son propensos a sufrir una lesión de tren inferior y además se les realizó una evaluación antropométrica para conocer su índice de grasa corporal. Los resultados no encontraron correlación entre porcentaje de grasa y probabilidad de lesión, sin embargo, se encontró correlación entre probabilidad de lesión entre una pierna y otra


The objective is to verify if there is a relationship between the likelihood of limb injury in the lower body and the body fat index in students participating in sports workshops at the Adventist University of Chile. 66 students participated in sports areas such as volleyball, basketball, soccer and handball by a census sampling method. All the participants of the investigation were evaluated by means of the "Y balance Test" instrument, to verify if they are prone to suffer a lower train injury and also an anthropometric evaluation was done to know their body fat index. The results did not find correlation between fat percentage and injury probability, however, a correlation was found between the injury probability between one leg and the another


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sports , Students , Adipose Tissue , Lower Extremity/injuries , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878860

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to construct a Bayesian(BN) fault diagnosis model of traditional Chinese medicine dry granulation based on the failure model and effect analysis(FMEA), effectively control risk factors and ensure the quality of granules.Firstly, the risk ana-lysis of dry granulation process was carried out with FMEA, and the selected medium and high risk factors were taken as node variables to establish corresponding BN network with causality.According to the mathematical reasoning method of probability theory, the model was accurately inferred and verified by Netica, and the granule nonconformance was used as the evidence for reversed reasoning to determine the most likely cause of the failure that affected the granule quality.The BN fault diagnosis model of traditional Chinese medicine dry gra-nulation was established based on the medium and high risk factors of process, prescription and equipment screened out by FMEA, such as roller pressure, raw material viscosity, clearance between rollers in the paper.The fault diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine dry granulation process was then carried out according to the model, and the posterior probability of each node under the premise of nonconforming granule quality was obtained.This method could provide strong support for operators to quickly eliminate faults and make decisions, so as to improve the efficiency and accuracy for fault diagnosis and prediction, with innovation in its application.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Probability
16.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e859, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280387

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular es un problema frecuente en pacientes con trastornos reumáticos sistémicos. Los pacientes pueden padecer una enfermedad asociada a afección cardiaca en el momento del diagnóstico o en una fase posterior del curso de la enfermedad reumática. Objetivo: Determinar las variables que se involucran en la enfermedad coronaria en pacientes reumáticos. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación estadístico-inferencial a partir de una variable dicotómica con variables medidas en escalas de razón y cualitativas, y el modelo de regresión logística binaria. Durante un periodo de 2 años se atendieron en consulta a 105 pacientes reumáticos del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social, interconsultados en cardiología. Al tratarse de una población no muy numerosa (105 pacientes), pues esta consulta se hizo solamente una vez cada seis meses, por un especio de 5 horas. Se estudiaron los factores más representativos como edad, género, peso en libras, estatura en centímetros, ingresos en dólares y el estado civil. Resultados: La tabla permitió evaluar el ajuste del modelo de regresión (hasta este momento, con un solo parámetro en la ecuación), comparando los valores predichos con los valores observados. El modelo tuvo una especificidad alta (96,2 por ciento) y una sensibilidad baja (10,3 por ciento). La ecuación logística permitió determinar si un paciente que cumplía con las características de ingresos, edad, peso y estatura determinadas, se podría considerar en el grupo que, a priori, podría padecer de enfermedad coronaria o no. El paciente evaluado con las características descritas, tuvo un 99,99 por ciento de probabilidad de padecer la enfermedad coronaria. Conclusiones: A través de una ecuación logística se logró determinar si un paciente que cumple con las características de edad e ingresos determinados, se podría considerar en el grupo que, a priori, podría padecer de enfermedad coronaria o no(AU)


Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is a frequent problem in patients with systemic rheumatic disorders. Patients may present with disease associated with heart disease at the time of diagnosis or at a later stage in the course of rheumatic disease. Objective: In the present investigation, the main objective is to determine the variables that are involved in the coronary heart disease process in rheumatic patients and the most representative factors such as: age, gender, weight in pounds, height in centimeters, income in dollars and the marital status in a group of rheumatic patients over a period of two years, treated in consultation with the Ecuadorian Social Security Institute. Methods: During a two-year period, a group of rheumatic patients from the IESS were consulted, consulted in a specialized cardiology consultation. Being a not very large population (105 patients), since this consultation was made only once every six months, for a period of 5 hours. Results: The table allows evaluating the fit of the regression model (until now, with a single parameter in the equation), comparing the predicted values with the observed values. Conclusions: Through a logistic equation, it was possible to determine if a patient who meets the characteristics of age and income determined, could be considered in the group that, a priori, could have coronary heart disease or not(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Coronary Disease/complications , Weights and Measures , Logistic Models , Probability
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34(supl.2): e078, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132734

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physicians and dentists usually make clinical decisions and recommendations without a clear understanding of the meaning of the numbers regarding the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the efficacy of treatments. This critical review aimed to identify problems in the communication of diagnostic test accuracy and treatment benefits and to suggest strategies to improve risk communication in these contexts. Most clinical decisions are taken under uncertainty. Health professionals cannot predict the outcome in one individual patient. This uncertainty invites these professionals to make decisions based on heuristics, which gives rise to several cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are automatic and unconscious, so how is it possible to mitigate their undesirable effects on risk interpretation in the context of clinical practice? Some forms of risk communication reinforce cognitive bias, while others weaken them. Maybe one of the most difficult obstacles to overcome is the difficulty to think with numbers. This difficulty probably arises from a mismatch of ancestral adaptations of the brain having to deal with modern environments, which are quite different from the ancestral ones. There are two quite common, but bad, forms of risk communication: the conditional probability and the relative risk reduction or efficacy. People, including physicians and dentists, are confused with this kind of information. The main methods discovered so far to facilitate a clearer understanding are to emphasize the base rates of the events and to use absolute numbers, that is to use natural frequencies, instead of percentages and conditional probabilities.


Subject(s)
Communication , Bias , Probability
18.
Caracas; s.n; dic. 2019. 125 p. ^e1 CD-ROM^c30 cmtab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1179534

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa, producida por hongos dimorfos del género Histoplasma. Se observa en casi todos los países del mundo. En América Latina, en Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay y Uruguay, entre otros. Datos epidemiológicos recienteshanmostrado un aumento de histoplasmosis en Venezuela y otros países.Los clínicos no están conscientes de su importancia en nuestro medio. Objetivo: Dar a conocer la situación actual de esta enfermedad en el Area Metropolitana de Caracas y en otras áreas endémicas, con la intención de crear la inquietud de investigar su incidencia y otras características relevantes en el resto del país. Métodos: Se analizaron las características de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de certeza de histoplasmosis registrados y realizados por la Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖ del Instituto de Medicina Tropical de la UCV, referidos de los diferentes hospitales del Distrito Capital y otros estados del país, con énfasis en los datos epidemiológicos, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución entre 1994 y 2012. Resultados: se encontraron 553 pacientes. La mayoría estaban entre los 20 y 49 años, relacionado con un alto número de pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Hubo más casos en hombres que en mujeres en todos los grupos etarios, menos en los pacientes mayores de 60 años, posiblemente debido a la disminución de los estrógenos, que son protectores en la mujer. Casi todos los pacientes con VIH/SIDA mostraron la forma diseminada, solo uno presentó una forma pulmonar. De los pacientes VIH negativos, 54,62% presentaron infección diseminada y 44,47%, formas pulmonares. 93 de los de enfermedad diseminada tenían estados de inmunocompromiso. El examen directo fue el método más fácil y eficaz para diagnosticar la histoplasmosis. La anfotericina B (AMB) fue el tratamiento para la histoplasmosis en pacientes con o sin SIDA, que requirieron hospitalización, seguido por itraconazol (ITC). Esta droga se utilizó en pacientes que no se encontraban severamente enfermos o con afectación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: histoplasmosis se encuentra en aumento en nuestro país. Se observa con más frecuencia en pacientes con SIDA, inmunosuprimidos y pacientes que han recibido un inóculo abundante. El examen directo con coloraciones especiales es el método de mayor rendimiento para el diagnóstico. Este debe ser realizado por personal con experiencia.Es conveniente utilizar diferentes técnicas para aumentar la probabilidad de obtener un diagnóstico correcto. AMB e ITC son los tratamientos de elección. Los médicos deben estar alertas de los signos y síntomas, correlacionándolos con los antecedentes epidemiológicos, para evitar el retraso del diagnóstico y mejorar la evolución de los pacientes.


Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, caused by dimorphic fungi from the genus Histoplasma. It is described worldwide.In Latin America, Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay and Uruguay among others are affected. Recent epidemiological data have shown an increase of histoplasmosis in Venezuela and other countries. Clinicians are nor aware of the importance of this mycosis. Objective: analyze the current situation of this disease in the Caracas Metropolitan Area and other endemic areas, with intention to create awareness of its incidence and other relevant characteristics in our country. Methods: characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of histoplasmosis, performed and registered at the Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, UCV, referred from different hospitals at Distrito Capital and other states of the country, with emphasis on epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, between 1994 and 2012 are analized. Results: 553 patients were found. Most of them were between 20 and 49 years old, possibly due to a high number of HIV/AIDS patients. There were more male than female patients in all age groups, except in 60 years and older, possibly due to the lack of estrogenic hormones, which protect women from infection. All HIV/AIDS patients but one, presented with a disseminated form of the disease, and one, a pulmonary form. Of the HIV negative patients, 54,62% showed disseminated infection and 44,47%, pulmonary presentation. 93 of the disseminated infection patients had immunocompromising conditions. Direct examination was the easiest and most efficacious diagnostic method. Amphotericin B (AMB) was the drug of choice for the treatment of hospitalized patients, followed by Itraconazole (ITC). This was the preferred treatment for mild to moderate disease or non CNS infection. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis is rising in our country. It is more frequent in HIV/AIDS patients and immune suppression. It is also seen in patients who have inhaled a large inoculum. Direct examination with special stains is the diagnostic method with better results. It must be performed by experienced personnel in fungal diagnosis. The use of different techniques is recommended to improve early and correct diagnosis. AMB and ITC are drugs of choice for the treatment of histoplasmosis. Clinicians should be aware of suggestive symptoms and signs, correlating them with epidemiological data, to avoid diagnostic delay and improve the outcome of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Probability , Risk Factors , Fungi/pathogenicity , Histoplasma/drug effects , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Infections , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Age Groups
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 411-418, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039100

ABSTRACT

Objective: To test the reliability and the discriminant and convergent validity of the abbreviated Brazilian Portuguese World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument - Spirituality, Religion, and Personal Beliefs module (WHOQOL-SRPB BREF). Methods: In a sample of 404 individuals, we applied a general questionnaire, the WHOQOL-BREF, the long-form SRPB, the Brief Religious-Spiritual Coping Scale (RCOPE), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Priority was given to the 9-item SRPB assessment: its unidimensionality was tested through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the 9-item SRPB assessment indicated an adjusted model with acceptable fit to data. In the Rasch analysis, general fit measures showed adequate performance. The 9-item SRPB assessment showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.85), and could differentiate (discriminant validity) between religious and atheist/agnostic respondents (mean = 74.7±14.1 and 56.8±15.5, respectively; t = 6.37; degrees of freedom [df] = 402; p < 0.01) and between non-depressed and depressed respondents (mean = 76.5±12.9 and 67.1±16.5; t = 5.57; df = 190.5; p < 0.01). Correlations (convergent validity) were significant with the positive-RCOPE subscale (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and the WHOQOL-BREF domains (Pearson coefficient ranging between 0.24 and 0.49; p < 0.01), but were in the negative direction with the negative-RCOPE subscale (r = -0.10, p < 0.05). Correlation with the long-form SRPB domain (r = 0.934) was almost perfect. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese 9-item SRPB has good psychometric properties and confirmed the findings of the long-form Brazilian Portuguese version and the abbreviated English version.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Religion and Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Spirituality , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , World Health Organization , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Culture , Latent Class Analysis , Language , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 727-732, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020721

ABSTRACT

Background: With the aim to inform end of life public policies, the place of death in Chile, its trends and associated factors were analysed. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional using publically available death database from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. The proportion of hospital deaths was selected as the main outcome. A logistic regression was used to assess the association between place of death, age, and main diagnosis at death. Also, a Prais-Winsten regression and a Chi2 test were used to assess a time series and regional analysis, respectively. Results: 2,063,615 deaths were analysed. Overall, deaths 898,871 (43.6%) occurred at hospital. Those who died over 85 years (OR 2,52 IC95% 2.49-2.55) and those who died from cancer (OR 2.43 IC95% 2.42-2.45) had higher risk for dying outside de hospital. For the general population and those who die form cancer, there is no evidence for an increase or decrease trend in the proportion of hospital deaths over time (p = 0,75 and p = 0.68, respectively). However, there is an increase of the proportion of hospital deaths in those who died over 85 years (p < 0.001,27% in 1990 to 32% in 2014). Also, there are geographic differences between country regions (p < 0.001) (Eg. Magallanes 52.9%). Conclusions: The proportion of hospital deaths has been stable over time in the general population and has increased in those over 85 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mortality/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Public Policy , Terminal Care , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Death Certificates , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability , Cause of Death/trends , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality
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