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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986990


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the biomarkers of tinnitus in vestibular schwannoma patients using electroencephalographic (EEG) microstate technology.@*METHODS@#The EEG and clinical data of 41 patients with vestibular schwannoma were collected. All the patients were evaluated by SAS, SDS, THI and VAS scales. The EEG acquisition time was 10-15 min, and the EEG data were preprocessed and analyzed using MATLAB and EEGLAB software package.@*RESULTS@#Of the 41 patients with vestibular schwannoma, 29 patients had tinnitus and 12 did not have tinnitus, and their clinical parameters were comparable. The average global explanation variances of the non-tinnitus and tinnitus groups were 78.8% and 80.1%, respectively. The results of EEG microstate analysis showed that compared with those without tinnitus, the patients with tinnitus had an increased frequency (P=0.033) and contribution (P=0.028) of microstate C. Correlation analysis showed that THI scale scores of the patients were negatively correlated with the duration of microstate A (R=-0.435, P=0.018) and positively with the frequencies of microstate B (R=0.456, P=0.013) and microstate C (R=0.412, P=0.026). Syntax analysis showed that the probability of transition from microstate C to microstate B increased significantly in vestibular schwannoma patients with tinnitus (P=0.031).@*CONCLUSION@#EEG microstate features differ significantly between vestibular schwannoma patients with and without tinnitus. This abnormality in patients with tinnitus may reflect the potential abnormality in the allocation of neural resources and the transition of brain functional activity.

Humans , Neuroma, Acoustic/complications , Electroencephalography , Patients , Probability
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 283-287, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981862


OBJECTIVES@#To calculate the likelihood ratios of incest cases using identity by descent (IBD) patterns.@*METHODS@#The unique IBD pattern was formed by denoting the alleles from the members in a pedigree with a same digital. The probability of each IBD pattern was obtained by multiplying the prior probability by the frequency of non-IBD alleles. The pedigree likelihoods of incest cases under different hypotheses were obtained by summing all IBD pattern probabilities, and the likelihood ratio(LR) was calculated by comparing the likelihoods of different pedigrees.@*RESULTS@#The IBD patterns and the formulae of calculating LR for father-daughter incest and brother-sister incest were obtained.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The calculations of LR for incest cases were illustrated based on IBD patterns.

Male , Humans , Incest , Siblings , Probability
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984764


Objective: To analyze the trends of the age of menarche among Chinese Han girls aged 9 to 18 years from 2010 to 2019. Methods: Data were extracted from the Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010, 2014 and 2019. A total of 253 037 Han girls aged 9 to 18 years with complete data on menarche were selected in this study. They were asked one-on-one about their menstrual status, age and residence information. The median age of menarche was estimated by probability regression. U tests were used to compare the difference in median age at menarche in different years. Results: The median age at menarche (95%CI) among Chinese Han girls was 12.47 (12.09-12.83) years in 2010, 12.17 (11.95-12.38) years in 2014 and 12.05 (10.82-13.08) years in 2019, respectively. Compared with that in 2010, the median age at menarche in 2019 decreased by 0.42 years (U=-77.27, P<0.001). The annual average changes were -0.076 years from 2010 to 2014 (U=-57.19, P<0.001) and -0.023 years from 2014 to 2019 (U=-21.41, P<0.001), respectively. The average annual changes in urban areas in the periods of 2010 to 2014 and 2014 to 2019 were -0.071 years and 0.006 years, respectively, while those in rural areas were -0.082 years and -0.053 years, respectively. The average annual changes in the regions of north, northeast, east, south central, southwest and northwest were -0.064, -0.099, -0.091, -0.080, -0.096 and -0.041 years in the period of 2010 to 2014 and 0.001, -0.040, -0.002, -0.005, -0.043 and -0.081 years in the period of 2014 to 2019. Conclusion: The age of menarche among Chinese Han girls aged 9 to 18 years shows an advanced trend from 2010 to 2019, and the trends in urban and rural areas and different regions have different characteristics.

Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Menarche , Probability , East Asian People
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971501


OBJECTIVE@#To compare different methods for calculating sample size based on confidence interval estimation for a single proportion with different event incidences and precisions.@*METHODS@#We compared 7 methods, namely Wald, AgrestiCoull add z2, Agresti-Coull add 4, Wilson Score, Clopper-Pearson, Mid-p, and Jefferys, for confidence interval estimation for a single proportion. The sample size was calculated using the search method with different parameter settings (proportion of specified events and half width of the confidence interval [ω=0.05, 0.1]). With Monte Carlo simulation, the estimated sample size was used to simulate and compare the width of the confidence interval, the coverage of the confidence interval and the ratio of the noncoverage probability.@*RESULTS@#For a high accuracy requirement (ω =0.05), the Mid-p method and Clopper Pearson method performed better when the incidence of events was low (P < 0.15). In other settings, the performance of the 7 methods did not differ significantly except for a poor symmetry of the Wald method. In the setting of ω=0.1 with a very low p (0.01-0.05), failure of iteration occurred with nearly all the methods except for the Clopper-Pearson method.@*CONCLUSION@#Different sample size determination methods based on confidence interval estimation should be selected for single proportions with different parameter settings.

Confidence Intervals , Sample Size , Computer Simulation , Monte Carlo Method , Probability
J. health inform ; 14(1): 26-34, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370952


Objective: Identify the risk of patients with Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy (CCC) to prevent them from having Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Methods: We developed an SCD prediction system using a heterogeneous dataset of chagasic patients evaluated in 9 state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to select the most critical clinical variables and predict SCD in chagasic patients even when the interval between the most recent exams and the SCD event is months or years. Results: 310 patients were analyzed, being 81 (14,7%) suffering from SCD. In the study, Balanced Random Forest showed the best performance, with AUC:80.03 and F1:75.12. Due to their high weights in the machine learning classifiers, we suggest Holter - Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia, Total Ventricular Extrasystoles, Left Ventricular Systolic Diameter, Syncope, and Left Ventricular Diastolic Diameter as essential features to identify SCD. Conclusion: The high-risk pattern of SCD in patients with CCC can be identified and prevented based on clinical and laboratory variables.

Objetivo: Identificar o risco de pacientes com Cardiomiopatia Chagásica Crônica (CCC) para prevenir a Morte Súbita Cardíaca (MSC). Métodos: Desenvolvemos um sistema de MSC usando um conjunto de dados heterogêneo de pacientes chagásicos avaliados em 9 algoritmos de aprendizado de máquina de última geração para selecionar as variáveis clínicas mais críticas e prever MSC em pacientes chagásicos mesmo quando o intervalo mais recente entre os mais recentes exames e o evento MSC é meses ou anos. Resultados: Foram analisados 310 pacientes, sendo 81 (14,7%) portadores de CCC. No estudo, o algoritmo Balanced Random Forest apresentou o melhor desempenho, com AUC:80,03 e F1:75,12. Devido ao seu alto peso nos classificadores de aprendizado de máquina, sugerimos Holter - Taquicardia Ventricular Não Sustentada, Extrassístoles Ventriculares Totais, Diâmetro Sistólico do Ventrículo Esquerdo, Síncope e Diâmetro Diastólico do Ventrículo Esquerdo como características essenciais para identificar a CCC. Conclusão: O padrão de alto risco de MSC em pacientes com CCC pode ser identificado e prevenido com base em variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais.

Objetivo: Identificar el riesgo de los pacientes con Miocardiopatía Chagásica Crónica (MCC) para evitar que presenten Muerte Cardíaca Súbita (MCS). Métodos: Desarrollamos un sistema MCS utilizando un conjunto de datos heterogéneo de pacientes chagásicos evaluados en 9 algoritmos de aprendizaje automático de última generación para seleccionar las variables clínicas más críticas y predecir MCS en pacientes chagásicos incluso cuando el intervalo más reciente entre los más recientes exámenes y el evento MCS es meses o años. Resultados: Se analizaron 310 pacientes, siendo 81 (14,7%) con MSC. En el estudio, Balanced Random Forest mostró el mejor desempeño, con AUC:80.03 y F1:75.12. Debido a su alto peso en los clasificadores de aprendizaje automático, sugerimos Holter - Taquicardia ventricular no sostenida, Extrasístoles ventriculares totales, Diámetro sistólico del ventrículo izquierdo, Síncope y Diámetro diastólico del ventrículo izquierdo como características esenciales para identificar la MSC. Conclusión: El patrón de alto riesgo de MSC en pacientes con MCC se puede identificar y prevenir con base en variables clínicas y de laboratorio.

Humans , Male , Female , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Chronic Disease , Probability , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 55-64, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389928


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar si existe asociación entre la presencia de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y la duración, dificultad para dormir, y calidad de sueño, en sujetos de 30 a 69 años en Tumbes. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico. Las variables dependientes fueron dificultad para dormir (a veces/casi nunca y frecuentemente), duración del sueño (normal, corto y prolongado) y calidad del sueño (buena y mala). La variable independiente fue la presencia de DM2 evaluada usando la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa (no DM2, con DM2 y sin diagnóstico previo, y con DM2 y diagnóstico previo). Se usó modelos de regresión de Poisson para reportar razones de prevalencia (RP) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). Resultados. Se analizaron 1604 individuos, con una edad media de 48,2 años; 50,3% fueron mujeres; 71 (4,4%) tenían DM2 sin diagnóstico previo y 105 (6,5%) tenían DM2 con diagnóstico previo. Según las características del sueño, 12,0% presentó sueño corto y 8,2% presentó sueño prolongado; 3,7% reportó dificultad para dormir, y 19,5% tuvo mala calidad de sueño. En el modelo multivariable, tener DM2 con diagnóstico previo estuvo asociado con dificultad para dormir (RP = 2,20; IC 95%: 1,13-4,27) y mala calidad de sueño (RP = 1,40; IC 95%: 1,05-1,92) comparado con aquellos sin DM2. Conclusiones. Los individuos con DM2 que tenían diagnóstico previo tuvieron mayor probabilidad de presentar dificultad para dormir y mala calidad de sueño. Nuestros resultados sugieren la necesidad de evaluar en forma periódica las características del sueño en pacientes con DM2.

ABSTRACT Objective. To determine if there is an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and some sleep characteristics: duration, sleep difficulties and quality, in a population aged between 30 and 69 years in Tumbes. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study. The outcomes were sleep difficulty (sometimes/ almost never vs. frequently), sleep duration (normal, short, and long), and sleep quality (good and bad). The exposure of interest was the presence of T2DM assessed using the glucose tolerance test (without T2DM, with T2DM but without previous diagnosis, and with T2DM and with previous diagnosis). Poisson regression models were used to report prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results. A total of 1604 subjects were analyzed and the mean age was 48.2 years; 50.3% were women, 71 (4.4%) had T2DM without a previous diagnosis, and 105 (6.5%) had T2DM with a previous diagnosis. Regarding sleep characteristics, 12.0% had short sleep, 8.2% had long sleep, 3.7% had sleep difficulties, and 19.5% presented poor sleep quality. In a multivariable model, T2DM with previous diagnosis was associated with sleep difficulty (PR= 2.20; 95%CI: 1.13 - 4.27) and bad sleep quality (PR= 1.40; 95%CI: 1.05 - 1.92) compared to those without T2DM. Conclusions. Individuals with previous diagnosis of T2DM had greater probability of presenting sleep difficulties and poor sleep quality. These results suggest the need to evaluate periodically the sleep characteristics of patients with T2DM.

Humans , Male , Female , Sleep , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Probability , Sleep Hygiene , Sleep Quality , Glucose
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 41-46, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376904


Abstract Aim: To determine the adenoma detection rate (ADR) and identify the indications for a colonoscopy that predict adenomas. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study. We included patients older than 18 years who underwent colonoscopy between February and July 2020 at a specialized center in Medellín, Colombia. We estimated the ADR and identified the indications for a colonoscopy, considered predictors for finding adenomas. Results: The overall adenoma detection was 21 % (n = 992) and ADR in the screening population was 25 %. The range of 40-49 years contributed 12 % of the total number of adenomas detected, and the male population had a higher incidence (OR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.25-2.38; p < 0.001). Personal history of polyps (OR 1.86; 95 % CI 1.25-2.78; p = 0.002) and fecal occult blood (OR 2.67; 95 % CI 1.12-6.35; p 0.026) are deemed predictors for finding adenomas. LCI filters showed better results in detecting lesions (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.02-2.0). Conclusions: The indications for a colonoscopy can predict the probability of detecting adenomas. Male gender, a personal history of polyps, fecal occult blood, and the search for adenomas after the age of 40 are the variables that increase the probability of finding adenomas. The use of LCI filters increases lesion detection. The suggested age to start CRC screening is 40 years.

Resumen Objetivo: determinar la tasa de detección de los adenomas (TDA) e identificar las indicaciones de colonoscopia que predicen su hallazgo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años sometidos a colonoscopia entre febrero y julio de 2020 en un centro especializado de Medellín, Colombia. Se estimó la TDA y se identificaron las indicaciones de colonoscopia, que se consideran predictores para el hallazgo de adenomas. Resultados: la detección general de adenomas fue del 21 % (n = 992) y la TDA en la población de tamizaje fue del 25 %. El rango de 40 a 49 años aportó el 12 % del total de adenomas detectados y la población masculina tuvo mayor incidencia (OR 1,73; IC 95 % 1,25-2,38; p < 0,001). El antecedente personal de pólipos (OR 1,86; IC 95 % 1,25-2,78; p = 0,002) y la presencia de sangre oculta en heces (OR 2,67; IC 95 % 1,12-6,35; p 0,026) se consideran predictores para el hallazgo de adenomas. El uso de filtros LCI mostró mejores resultados en la detección de las lesiones (OR 1,43; IC 95 % 1,02-2,0). Conclusiones: las indicaciones de la colonoscopia pueden predecir la probabilidad de detección de adenomas. El género masculino, el antecedente personal de pólipos, la presencia de sangre oculta en heces y la búsqueda de adenomas a partir de los 40 años son las variables que aumentan la probabilidad de encontrar adenomas. El uso de filtros LCI aumenta la detección de lesiones. La edad sugerida para el inicio del tamizaje de CCR es a partir de los 40 años.

Humans , Male , Female , Adenoma , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy , Patients , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Probability , Diagnosis , Methods
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 739-746, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935453


Objective: To introduce and compare four analysis methods of multiple parallel mediation model, including pure regression method, method based on inverse probability weighting, extended natural effect model method and weight-based imputation strategies. Methods: For the multiple parallel mediation model, the simulation experiments of three scenarios were carried out to compare the performance of different methods in estimating direct and indirect effects in different situations. Dataset from UK Biobank was then analyzed by using the four methods. Results: The estimation biases of the regression method and the inverse probability weighting method were relatively small, followed by the extended natural effect model method, and the estimation results of the weight-based imputation strategies were quite different from the other three methods. Conclusions: Different multiple parallel mediation analysis methods have different application situations and their own advantages and disadvantages. The regression method is more suitable for continuous mediator, and the inverse probability weighting method is more suitable for binary mediator. The extended natural effect model method has better performances when the residuals of two parallel mediators are positively correlated and the correlation degree is small. The weight-based imputation strategies might not be appropriate for parallel mediation analysis. Therefore, appropriate methods should be selected according to the specific situation in practice.

Humans , Bias , Computer Simulation , Mediation Analysis , Models, Statistical , Probability , Regression Analysis , Research Design
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 112-117, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935358


Conventional prediction model, as a static prediction model, can be only used to predict the probability of the occurrence of an event during the observation period using the information available at baseline survey. However, based on current clinical demands, dynamic prediction, which obtains prediction probabilities for both baseline survey and later time points given the history of the events and covariates up to that time, is gaining a growing attention. As a dynamic prediction model, the landmarking approach is simple, easy to use, computationally efficient and has a comparable performance of joint modeling, which makes it to be widely used in recent researches. Because of its limited application in China, this paper makes a brief introduction of its ideas and basic application to further promote its applications in clinical dynamic prediction.

Humans , China , Probability
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 41: e896, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408606


Introducción: La enfermedad periodontal es un problema de salud pública que requiere de un seguimiento en el tiempo que permita la implementación de planes de salud apropiados. Objetivo: Establecer el comportamiento de la dinámica de la enfermedad periodontal a través de la caminata al azar probabilista mediante la simulación de los valores de la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal en Colombia. Métodos: Se tomaron los valores disponibles y reportados por el Estudio Nacional de Salud Bucal II al IV de la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal, y a partir de estos se realizaron tres simulaciones de este comportamiento, para hacer predicciones de los valores de la prevalencia para los años 1998 y 2014 mediante la caminata al azar probabilista. Adicionalmente, se realizaron tres simulaciones predictivas para la dinámica de la prevalencia hasta el año 2030, para establecer el comportamiento teórico que esta variable pueda seguir. Resultados: Las tres simulaciones teóricas permitieron hacer predicciones del índice de prevalencia para el año 1998 y 2014 con un porcentaje de acierto cercano al 100 por ciento. Adicionalmente se observó que el evento más probable es que se presente un aumento en índice de prevalencia para el año 2030 respecto al valor obtenido para el 2014. Conclusiones: Es posible realizar predicciones del comportamiento de la dinámica de la enfermedad periodontal que permitan evaluar los planes de acción en salud orientados a disminuir la prevalencia de las enfermedades periodontales(AU)

Introduction: Periodontal disease is a public health problem which requires follow-up over time that allows the implementation of appropriate health plans. Objective: Establish the behavior of the dynamics of periodontal disease through probabilistic random walking by simulating the values of periodontal disease prevalence in Colombia. Methods: The values available and reported by the National Oral Health Study II to IV on periodontal disease prevalence were taken, and from these, three simulations of this behavior were carried out to make predictions of the prevalence values for the years 1998 and 2014 through probabilistic random walking. Additionally, three predictive simulations were performed for the dynamics of prevalence until 2030 to establish the theoretical behavior that this variable can follow. Results: The three theoretical simulations allowed to make predictions of the prevalence rate for the years 1998 and 2014 with a percentage of success close to 100 percent. Additionally, it was observed that the most likely event is that there will be an increase in the prevalence rate by 2030 compared to the value obtained by 2014. Conclusions: It is possible to make predictions of the periodontal disease's dynamics behavior that allow evaluating health action plans aimed at reducing the prevalence of periodontal diseases(AU)

Humans , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Forecasting , Probability , Walking
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(3): 116-120, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412081


Introduction For low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), curative treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP) can be performed, reporting a biochemical relapse-free survival rate (bRFS) at 5 and 7 years of 90.1% and 88.3%, respectively. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA), pathological stage (pT), and positive margins (R1) are significant predictors of biochemical relapse (BR). Even though pelvic lymphadenectomy is not recommended during RP, in the literature, it is performed in 34% of these patients, finding 0.37% of positive lymph nodes (N1). In this study, we aim to evaluate the 10-year bRFS in patients with low-risk PCa who underwent RP and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). Methodology All low-risk patients who underwent RP plus bilateral ePLND at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia between 2006 and 2019 were reviewed. Biochemical relapse was defined as 2 consecutive increasing levels of PSA > 0.2 ng/mL. A descriptive analysis was performed using the STATA 15 software (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA), and the Kaplan-Meier curves and uni and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used for the survival outcome analysis. The related regression coefficients were used for the hazard ratio (HR), and, for all comparisons, a two-sided p-value ˂ 0.05 was used to define statistical significance. Results Two hundred and two patients met the study criteria. The 10-year bRFS for the general population was 82.5%, statistically related to stage pT3 (p = 0.047), higher Gleason grade group (GG) (p ≤ 0.001), and R1 (p ≤ 0.001), but not with N1. A total of 3.9% of the patients had N1; of these, 75% had R1, 25% GG2, and 37% GG3. Among the N0 (non-lymph node metástasis in prostate cáncer) patients, 31% of the patients had R1, 41% GG2, and 13% GG3. Conclusions Our bRFS was 82.5% in low-risk patients who underwent RP and ePLND. With higher pT, GG, and presence of R1, the probability of BR increased. Those with pN1 (pathologicaly confirmed positive lymph nodes) were not associated with bRFS, with a pN1 detection rate of 3.9%. Details: In low-risk PCa, curative treatment with RP can be performed, reporting a bRFS rate at 5 and 7 years of 90.1% and 88.3%, respectively. Despite the fact that pelvic lymphadenectomy is not recommended during RP in clinical guidelines, in the literature, it is performed in 34% of these patients, finding 0.37% of N1. In this study, we report the 10-year bRFS in patients with low-risk PCa who underwent surgery.

Introducción En el cáncer de próstata (CaP) de bajo riesgo se puede realizar un tratamiento curativo mediante prostatectomía radical (PR), con una tasa de supervivencia libre de recaída bioquímica (SLRb) a 5 y 7 años del 90,1% y el 88,3%, respectivamente. El antígeno prostático específico (PSA), el estadio patológico (pT) y los márgenes positivos (R1) son predictores significativos de recaída bioquímica (BR). Aunque la linfadenectomía pélvica no está recomendada durante la PR, en la literatura se realiza en el 34% de estos pacientes, encontrándose un 0,37% de ganglios linfáticos positivos (N1). En este estudio, nuestro objetivo es evaluar la SLB a 10 años en pacientes con CaP de bajo riesgo sometidos a PR y disección ganglionar pélvica extendida (DGLPe). Metodología Se revisaron todos los pacientes de bajo riesgo sometidos a PR más ePLND bilateral en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia entre 2006 y 2019. La recaída bioquímica se definió como 2 niveles crecientes consecutivos de PSA > 0,2 ng/mL. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el software STATA 15 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA), y se utilizaron las curvas de Kaplan-Meier y los modelos uni y multivariados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para el análisis de resultados de supervivencia. Los coeficientes de regresión relacionados se utilizaron para la hazard ratio (HR), y, para todas las comparaciones, se utilizó un valor p de dos caras ˂ 0,05 para definir la significación estadística. Resultados Doscientos dos pacientes cumplieron los criterios del estudio. La bRFS a 10 años para la población general fue del 82,5%, estadísticamente relacionada con el estadio pT3 (p = 0,047), mayor grupo de grado Gleason (GG) (p ≤ 0,001), y R1 (p ≤ 0,001), pero no con N1. Un total del 3,9% de los pacientes tenían N1; de ellos, el 75% tenían R1, el 25% GG2, y el 37% GG3. Entre los pacientes N0 (metástasis no ganglionar en el cáncer de próstata), el 31% de los pacientes tenían R1, el 41% GG2 y el 13% GG3. Conclusiones Nuestra SSEb fue del 82,5% en los pacientes de bajo riesgo que se sometieron a RP y ePLND. A mayor pT, GG y presencia de R1, mayor probabilidad de RB. Aquellos con pN1 (ganglios linfáticos patológicamente confirmados como positivos) no se asociaron con la SSEb, con una tasa de detección de pN1 del 3,9%. Detalles: En el CaP de bajo riesgo se puede realizar tratamiento curativo con PR, reportando una tasa de SSEb a 5 y 7 años de 90,1% y 88,3%, respectivamente. A pesar de que la linfadenectomía pélvica no está recomendada durante la PR en las guías clínicas, en la literatura se realiza en el 34% de estos pacientes, encontrando un 0,37% de N1. En este estudio, reportamos la SLB a 10 años en pacientes con CaP de bajo riesgo sometidos a cirugía.

Humans , Male , Prostatectomy , Biochemistry , Proportional Hazards Models , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostatic Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Probability , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Hazards , Lymphatic Metastasis
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 149-154, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382158


Objetivo: evaluar los factores que afectan la suficiencia e interpretación de la citología de cuello uterino. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal y retrospectivo en el Hospital Central "Dr. Urquinaona", Maracaibo, Venezuela con la revisión de las historias clínicas e informes de las citologías de cuello uterino de la consulta de ginecología y obstetricia de enero a diciembre 2019. Se analizan las características generales y la clasificación de los informes (satisfactorios para la evaluación, satisfactorios pero limitados por y no satisfactorios). Resultados: se seleccionaron 581 informes de los cuales 329 (56,6%) eran muestras satisfactorias, 233 (40,1%) satisfactorias pero limitadas y 19 (3,3%) insatisfactorios. El análisis univariante demostró que la muestra insatisfactoria, la presencia síntomas al momento de la toma y el tipo de método anticonceptivo fueron factores que se asociaron significativamente (p < 0,0001). Los que influyeron para un resultado anormal de la citología cervical fueron frotis satisfactorio (razón de probabilidad, 4,78; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 3,127-8,136) y presencia de síntomas (razón de probabilidad, 11,652; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 2,992-38,55). Esta asociación continuó siendo significativa luego de ajustarlos a los factores de edad, paridad, edad al momento de la toma de la primera citología y método de anticoncepción (p < 0,0001). Conclusión: la suficiencia de la muestra de citología es un factor importante para la detección de anomalías celulares de cuello uterino y evitar resultados falsos negativos, retrasando la detección del cáncer.

Objective: to evaluate factors that affect cervical cytological sample adequacy and interpretation. Materials and methods: a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Hospital Central "Dr. Urquinaona", Maracaibo, Venezuela by a review of the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic medical records and cervical smear reports from January to December 2019. The general characteristics and classification of the reports (as, satisfactory, satisfactory but limited by and not satisfactory for cytological evaluation), were analyzed. Results: out of 581 reports selected, 329 (56.6%) were satisfactory, 233 (40.1%) satisfactory but limited and 19 (3.3%) not satisfactory. A univariate analysis showed that not satisfactory samples, presence of symptoms at the time of collection and type of contraceptive method were significantly associated factors (p < 0.0001). Those influencing an abnormal result were satisfactory smears (odds ratio, 4.78; confidence interval 95%, 3.127-8.136) and the presence of symptoms (odds ratio, 11.652; confidence interval 95%, 2.992-38.55). This association remained significant after considering other variables such as age, parity, age at first Pap smear and contraceptive method (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: cytological sample adequacy is an important factor for identifying cell abnormalities and avoiding false negative results which delay cancer detection.

Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Probability , Age Factors , Research Report
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e242372, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422388


Although belief in spiritual beings can be considered the main characteristic of religiosity/spirituality, a scale focused on specifically assessing this construct while remaining pertinent to people of different religious/spiritual denominations-including atheists and agnostics-is not available. In two studies, we present the process of developing the Belief in Spiritual Beings Scale (BSBS) and identify its psychometric properties. Study 1 designed 24 items, which were subsequently evaluated by a panel of judges and 24 representatives of the target population. In study 2, 1788 Brazilians of different religious/spiritual denominations answered the BSBS and five other related scales. Exploratory factor analysis found a unidimensional solution for the data, with the final version of the scale consisting of 13 items. The BSBS score correlated positively-highly or moderately-with measurements of organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, intrinsic religiosity, and Western and Eastern religious beliefs. The level of belief/disbelief in spiritual beings was different among contrasting groups (i.e., religious spiritualists, non-religious spiritualists, gnostic non-spiritualists or atheists, and agnostic non-spiritualists or agnostics), and incrementally predicted almost all the participants' spiritual denominations. Given this preliminary evidence of validity, the BSBS is an interesting instrument for studies aiming to measure the general level of belief/disbelief in spiritual beings-the "soul" of religiosity/spirituality.(AU)

A crença em seres espirituais pode ser considerada a principal característica da religiosidade/espiritualidade. Contudo, parece não haver nenhuma escala que avalie especificamente esse construto e que seja pertinente para pessoas de diferentes denominações religiosas/espirituais - incluindo ateus e agnósticos. Em dois estudos, apresentamos os procedimentos de desenvolvimento da Escala de Crença em Seres Espirituais (ECSE) e a identificação de suas propriedades psicométricas. No estudo 1, 24 itens foram elaborados e posteriormente avaliados por um painel de juízes e 24 representantes da população-alvo. No estudo 2, 1.788 brasileiros de diferentes denominações religiosas/espirituais responderam à ECSE e a cinco outras escalas relacionadas. A análise fatorial exploratória encontrou uma solução unidimensional para os dados, e a versão final da escala apresenta 13 itens. O escore da ECSE correlacionou-se positivamente - de forma alta ou moderada - com as medidas de atividade religiosa organizacional, atividade religiosa não organizacional, religiosidade intrínseca e crenças religiosas ocidentais e orientais. Além disso, o nível de crença/descrença em seres espirituais foi distinto entre grupos contrastantes - i.e., espiritualistas religiosos, espiritualistas não religiosos, não espiritualistas gnósticos (ateus) e não espiritualistas agnósticos (agnósticos) - e predisse, incrementalmente, quase todas as denominações espirituais dos participantes. Em vista dessas evidências preliminares de validade, a ECSE é uma opção interessante para estudos que visam mensurar o nível geral de crença/descrença em seres espirituais - a "alma" da religiosidade/espiritualidade.(AU)

La creencia en seres espirituales puede considerarse la principal característica de la religiosidad/espiritualidad. Sin embargo, parece no haber una escala que evalúe específicamente este constructo y sea relevante para personas de diferentes denominaciones religiosas/espirituales -incluyendo los ateos y agnósticos. En dos estudios presentamos los procedimientos para desarrollar la Escala de Creencia en Seres Espirituales (ECSE) y la identificación de sus propiedades psicométricas. En el estudio 1, 24 ítems fueron elaborados y posteriormente evaluados por un panel de jueces y 24 representantes de la población objetivo. En el estudio 2, 1788 brasileños de diferentes denominaciones religiosas/espirituales respondieron a ECSE y otras cinco escalas relacionadas. El análisis factorial exploratorio se encontró una solución unidimensional para los datos, y la versión final de la escala presenta 13 ítems. La puntuación ECSE se correlacionó positivamente de forma alta o moderada con medidas de actividad religiosa organizacional, actividad religiosa no organizacional, religiosidad intrínseca y creencias religiosas occidentales y orientales. Además, el nivel de creencia/incredulidad en seres espirituales se distinguió entre grupos contrapuestos (i.e., espiritualistas religiosos, espiritualistas no religiosos, no espiritualistas gnósticos, o ateos, y no espiritualistas agnósticos, o agnósticos), y se predijo, de forma incremental, casi todas las denominaciones espirituales de los participantes. En vista de esta evidencia preliminar de validez, ECSE es una opción interesante para estudios que pretenden medir el nivel general de creencia/incredulidad en seres espirituales -el "alma" de la religiosidad/espiritualidad.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Religion , Spontaneous Combustion , Culture , Spirituality , Personal Satisfaction , Psychology , Religion and Medicine , Spiritualism , Thinking , Truth Disclosure , Behavior , Buddhism , Mental Health , Probability , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Christian Science , Christianity , Western World , Death , Protestantism , Emotions , Social Networking , Neuroticism , Mentalization
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722


Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.

Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sex , T-Lymphocytes , Probability , HIV , Colombia , Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Survivorship
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(4): 439-443, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1393747


Resumen El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada en el tercer trimestre de embarazo como predictores alternativos de la diabetes gestacional en pacientes del Noreste de México. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles a partir de 121 expedientes de pacientes embarazadas, divididos en dos grupos, pacientes con diabetes gestacional (casos) y gestantes con valores glucémicos normales (controles). Se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a la diabetes gestacional y se obtuvo un punto de corte para la hemoglobina glucosilada. Se encontró que la obesidad materna, la edad y el antecedente del padecimiento fueron asociados significativamente con la diabetes gestacional. Valores de hemoglobina glucosilada ≥5% incrementaron el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus gestacional 4 veces y, aunado a un factor de riesgo, la probabilidad se incrementó 7 veces. Se concluye que los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada en el tercer trimestre de embarazo podrían emplearse como prueba diagnóstica de la diabetes gestacional en pacientes del Noreste de México. Sin embargo, aunque las diferencias encontradas fueron estadísticamente significativas, los resultados se deben interpretar con cautela y requieren su confirmación con estudios que incluyan una muestra mayor.

Abstract The objective of this study was to analise glycosylated hemoglobin values in the third trimester of pregnancy as an alternative predictor of gestational diabetes in North East Mexican cohort patients. This is a retrospective case-control study based on 121 records of pregnant patients, divided into two groups, patients with gestational diabetes (cases) and pregnant women with normal glycemic values (control). The risk factors associated with gestational diabetes were analised and a cut-off point for glycosylated hemogestaglobin was obtained. It was found that maternal obesity, age and a history of the condition were significantly associated with gestational diabetes. Values of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥5% increased the risk of suffering from gestational diabetes 4 times, and coupled with a risk factor, the risk increased 7 times. It is concluded that glycosylated hemoglobin values in the third trimester of pregnancy could be used as a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes in patients from the North East of Mexico. Although the differences found were statistically significant, our results must be interpreted with caution and require confirmation by studies with a larger sample.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os valores da hemoglobina glicada no terceiro trimestre de gestação como preditores alternativos do diabetes gestacional em pacientes na região nordeste do México. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de casos e controles utilizando 121 prontuários de gestantes divididas em dois grupos; pacientes com diabetes gestacional (casos) e gestantes com valores de glicemia normais (controles). Foram analisados os fatores de risco associados a diabetes gestacional obtendo-se um ponto de corte para a hemoglobina glicada. Descobriu-se que a obesidade materna, idade e antecedentes da doença foram associados significativamente ao diabetes gestacional. Valores da hemoglobina glicada ≥ 5% aumentaram o risco de padecer diabetes mellitus gestacional 4 vezes, e juntamente a um fator de risco, a probabilidade aumentou 7 vezes. Conclui-se que os valores da hemoglobina glicada no terceiro trimestre de gestação poderiam ser usados como teste diagnóstico do diabetes gestacional em pacientes da região nordeste do México. Embora as diferenças encontradas tenham sido estatisticamente significativas, os resultados devem ser interpretados com cautela e requerem confirmação através de estudos que incluam uma amostra maior.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Women , Case-Control Studies , Probability , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Courtship , Pregnant Women , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Lipid Metabolism Disorders , Obesity, Maternal
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595


Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.

Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.

Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.

Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 37(3)sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408275


Introducción: La evidencia científica vincula el uso de la ventilación mecánica invasiva con una mayor probabilidad de desarrollar lesión renal aguda, pero la falta de consenso sobre esta asociación no es infrecuente. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre tiempos de ventilación mecánica y la aparición y gravedad de la lesión renal aguda. Métodos: Cohorte histórica realizada en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre 2016 y 2018. La población fue compuesta por 387 pacientes, pero la muestra consistió en 52 pacientes que necesitaron ventilación mecánica invasiva durante una semana y dos. El registro de los datos se realizó en un cuestionario estructurado compuesto por variables de identificación, datos clínicos, variables hemodinámicas y parámetros de laboratorio. Para los análisis de asociación se utilizaron las pruebas de Chi-cuadrado, Exacta de Fisher y Mann-Whitney. Los resultados con p < 0,05 se consideraron significativos. Resultados: La lesión renal aguda de diferentes severidades predominó en más de la mitad de los pacientes (55,80 por ciento), siendo el estadio 2 más prevalente (aproximadamente 30 por ciento ). Los pacientes que permanecieron en ventilación mecánica durante una semana o dos mostraron una disminución del riesgo de lesión renal aguda (OR 0,85; IC del 95 por ciento: 0,72 a 0,99, p = 0,038) y OR 0,77; IC 95 por ciento 0.63-0.94, p = 0,010, respectivamente). Conclusión: La lesión renal aguda de diferentes severidades estuvo presente en pacientes con ventilación mecánica invasiva. Sin embargo, el tiempo de ventilación mecánica solo no fue determinante de lesión renal aguda(AU)

Introduction: Scientific evidence associates the use of invasive mechanical ventilation with a higher probability of developing acute kidney injury, but the lack of consensus on this association is not uncommon. Objective: To identify the relationship between mechanical ventilation times and the onset and severity of acute kidney injury. Methods: Historical cohort carried out, between 2016 and 2018, in an intensive care unit of the Federal District, Brazil. The population consisted of 387 patients, but the sample consisted of 52 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation for one week and two. The data were recorded with a structured questionnaire composed of identification variables, clinical data, hemodynamic variables and laboratory parameters. Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used for the association analysis. Results with P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Acute kidney injury of different severity degrees predominated in more than half of the patients (55.80 percent), stage 2 being the most prevalent (approximately 30 percent). Patients who remained on mechanical ventilation for a week or two showed a decreased risk for acute kidney injury (OR: 0.85, 95 percent CI: 0.72-0.99, P = 0.038 and OR: 0.77, 95 percent CI: 0.63-0.94, P = 0.010, respectively). Conclusion: Acute kidney injury of different severity degrees was present in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. However, the time of mechanical ventilation alone was not a determinant of acute kidney injury(AU)

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Reference Standards , Probability
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 403-410, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253926


La utilidad de una prueba diagnóstica se cuantifica mediante el cálculo de las medidas de probabilidad y las medidas de razones de probabilidad. Las medidas de probabilidad son la sensibilidad, la especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y el valor predictivo negativo. La sensibilidad y la especificidad se usan para escoger la mejor prueba a utilizar, entre varias disponibles; sin embargo, no pueden ser utilizadas para estimar la probabilidad de determinada enfermedad en un paciente en particular. En la práctica clínica es esencial saber cuál es la probabilidad de que un paciente con un resultado positivo en una prueba diagnóstica presente la enfermedad y cuál es la probabilidad de que un paciente con un resultado negativo en una prueba diagnóstica no presente la enfermedad. Los valores predictivos positivos y negativos nos brindan la respuesta a esta cuestión, sin embargo, dependen tanto de la sensibilidad y especificidad, como de la prevalencia de la enfermedad en la muestra del estudio. Las medidas de razones de probabilidad también describen el rendimiento o utilidad de una prueba diagnóstica y poseen dos propiedades importantes: resumen el mismo tipo de información que la sensibilidad y la especificidad, y pueden utilizarse para calcular la probabilidad de la enfermedad después de una prueba positiva o negativa. El propósito de esta publicación fue definir el concepto de razones de probabilidad, exponer sus principales fortalezas y explicar cómo se calculan las razones de probabilidad cuando la prueba de interés expresa sus resultados en forma dicotómica, en más de dos categorías o de forma ordinal

The usefulness of a diagnostic test is quantified by calculating the probability measures and the probability ratio measures. Probability measures are sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Sensitivity and specificity are used to choose the best test to use, among several available; however, they cannot be used to estimate the probability of a certain disease in a particular patient. In clinical practice it is essential to know what is the probability that a patient with a positive result in a diagnostic test will present the disease and what is the probability that a patient with a negative result in a diagnostic test will not present the disease. The positive and negative predictive values provide us with the answer to this question, however, it depends both on the sensitivity and specificity, and on the prevalence of the disease in the study sample. Probability ratio measures also describe the performance or usefulness of a diagnostic test and possess two important properties: they summarize the type of information that sensitivity and specificity, and they can be used to calculate the probability of disease after a positive or positive test. negative. The purpose of this publication was to define the concept of probability ratio measures, expose its main strengths, and explain how probability ratio measures are calculated when the test of interest expresses its results dichotomously, in more than two categories or ordinally

Humans , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Probability , Diagnosis , Laboratory Test