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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19177, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350229

ABSTRACT

Probiotic consumption promotes numerous health benefits. The aim of this study is 1) to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of kefir in a hypertension rat model caused by the administration of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME, and 2) to evaluate the acute angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the soluble nonbacterial fraction (SNBF) of kefir. To develop the first aim, male rats were separated into three groups: control group (C) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of milk; L-NAME group (LN) received 10 mg/kg of said inhibitor; and Kefir group (K) treated with 0.3 mL/100 g of kefir plus L-NAME (10 mg/kg of said inhibitor). The treatments were given by oral gavage twice a day for four weeks. For the second aim"instead additionally, male rats received angiotensin I (in bolus) in three doses (Ang I: 0.03, 3 and 300 µg/kg) and were separated into two groups: a) received captopril (30 mg/kg i.v.) and b)received SNBF of kefir (5 mL/kg i.v.). Blood pressure were evaluated before and after Ang I. After treatment, hemodynamic parameters were evaluated, heart weight was recorded, and body weight gain was calculated. SNBF of kefir did not decrease the blood pressure for L-NAMEtreated animals, and no changes were observed in the cardiac parameters. However, the SNBF of kefir demonstrated acute inhibition of ACE in vivo similar to that of captopril. Thus, our results suggest that kefir may improve human cardiovascular systems by using mechanisms independent of nitric oxide syntheses. Additionally, the renin angiotensin system is probably the most important system involved in kefir effect regarding hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Kefir/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/genetics , Probiotics/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis , Nitric Oxide/adverse effects
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(8): e202000804, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130666

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of probiotics on spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle isolated from jejunum and ileum of rat model. Methods Four rat groups were created (n=8, in each) including control (Group 1), control+probiotic (Group 2), short bowel (Group 3), and short bowel+probiotic (Group 4). Groups 1 and 2 underwent sham operation, Groups 3 and 4 underwent massive bowel resection. Bifidobacterium Lactis was administered in Groups 2 and 4 daily (P.O.) for three weeks. On postoperative week 3, rats were sacrificed, and jejunum and ileum smooth muscle were isolated for organ bath. Muscle contraction changes were analyzed before and after addition of antagonists. Results Short bowel group exhibited increased amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The addition of probiotics significantly decreased enhanced amplitude and frequency of bowel contraction in short bowel group and returned to control values. L-NNA increased amplitude and frequency of contractions in all groups. While indomethacin and nimesulide increased the amplitude in all groups, the frequency was only increased in jejunum. Hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin did not change the contraction characteristics in all groups. Conclusion We suggest that early use of probiotics may significantly regulate bowel motility, and accordingly improve absorption of nutrients in short bowel syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Short Bowel Syndrome , Probiotics/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Jejunum , Muscle, Smooth
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1249-1259, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Urinary stones with oxalate composition can cause kidney failure. Recent findings evidenced that probiotics are effective in reducing oxalate absorption in these subjects based on their high colonic absorption levels at baseline. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the simultaneous use of oxalate-degrading bacteria, Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract in reducing urinary oxalate. Materials and Methods: Anti-urolithiatic activity of Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract and probiotic by using ethylene glycol induced rat model. In this study, 4 strains of Lactobacillus and 2 strains of Bifidobacterium and also 2 strains of L. paracasei (that showed high power in oxalate degrading in culture media) were used. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6). The rats of group-I received normal diet (positive control group) and groups-II (negative control group), III, IV rats received diet containing ethylene glycol (3%) for 30 days. Groups III rats received Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract. Groups IV rats received extracts + probiotic for 30 days. Findings: The results show that the use of herbal extracts (Urtica dioica and T. terrestris) reduced the level of urinary oxalate and other parameters of urine and serum. Also, the accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue was significantly reduced. Conclusion: Considering that the formation of calcium oxalate crystals can cause inflammation and tissue damage in the kidney, the use of herbal extracts with oxalate degrading bacteria can be a new therapeutic approach to preventing the formation of kidney stones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Oxalates/urine , Hyperoxaluria/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Urtica dioica/chemistry , Tribulus/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Kidney Calculi/urine , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/analysis , Kidney Tubules/chemistry
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170075, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel- arm randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1-containing probiotic sachet and azithromycin tablets as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in clinical parameters and in presence and levels of Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Forty-seven systemically healthy volunteers with chronic periodontitis were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline for 3, 6 and 9 months after therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four periodontal sites with clinical attachment level ≥1 mm, probing pocket depth ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing, one site in each quadrant. Samples were cultivated and processed using the PCR technique. Patients received nonsurgical therapy including scaling and root planing (SRP) and were randomly assigned to a probiotic (n=16), antibiotic (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15) group. L. rhamnosus SP1 was taken once a day for 3 months. Azithromycin 500mg was taken once a day for 5 days. Results: All groups showed improvements in clinical and microbiological parameters at all time points evaluated. Probiotic and antibiotic groups showed greater reductions in cultivable microbiota compared with baseline. The placebo group showed greater reduction in number of subjects with P. gingivalis compared with baseline. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: The adjunctive use of L. rhamnosus SP1 sachets and azithromycin during initial therapy resulted in similar clinical and microbiological improvements compared with the placebo group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/chemistry , Chronic Periodontitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Placebo Effect , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Dental Scaling/methods , Treatment Outcome , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolation & purification , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/drug effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Probiotics/pharmacology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Tannerella forsythia/isolation & purification , Tannerella forsythia/drug effects , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
GED gastroenterol. endosc. dig ; 36(3): 89-98, Jul.-Set. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876987

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a constipação é uma doença crônica que afeta a população mundial, podendo ser consequência do desequilíbrio da microbiota intestinal, conhecida como disbiose. Nesse contexto, os probióticos vêm sendo utilizados com o objetivo de promover o seu equilíbrio, a fim de mantê-la saudável (eubiose). Objetivo: avaliar, em um estudo duplo-cego, randomizado, placebo-controlado, se o uso de uma associação de cepas probióticas contendo lactobacillus e bifidobacterium por 28 dias pode modular a microbiota intestinal em pacientes constipados. Método: a atividade da associação de cepas probióticas foi comparada com placebo (maltodextrina) após a suplementação por 28 dias. Os pacientes foram avaliados por meio da análise de metagenômica e da melhora dos sintomas relacionados à constipação. Os dados do perfil da população de microrganismos presentes no intestino dos pacientes foram correlacionados com os resultados da avaliação dos sintomas abdominais e da percepção de bem-estar geral. O aumento do número de evacuações e a melhora do trânsito intestinal foram avaliados durante o estudo. Resultados: as proporções do gênero Bifidobacterium no grupo teste e controle foram 0.45% vs 0.24% no final do estudo, respectivamente (p<0,05). Adicionalmente, a diferença entre os grupos que receberam associação de cepas probióticas contendo lactobacillus e bifidobacterium e placebo permaneceu também significativamente alta com relação às espécies de Lactobacillus (1,21% vs 0,12%) após 28 dias de tratamento (p<0,05). Além disso, os participantes que receberam o probiótico apresentaram uma tendência de melhora sintomática baseada na comparação da sua microbiota e as respostas oriundas da avaliação dos sintomas abdominais e bem-estar geral. Nenhum evento adverso grave foi relatado. Conclusão: a formulação probiótica modulou a microbiota intestinal de forma diferente do placebo nos participantes do estudo. O consumo dos probióticos aumentou significativamente as bactérias benéficas e reduziu as potencialmente maléficas, contribuindo para o equilíbrio da microbiota intestinal.


Introduction: constipation is a chronic disease that affects the world population, being a consequence of the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota, known as dysbiosis. In light of this context, the probiotics have been used to trigger microbiota intestinal balance, in order to keep it healthy (eubiose) Aim: to evaluate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study whether the use of association of probiotic strains containing lactobacillus and bifidobacterium for 28 days can modulate the intestinal microbiota of the constipated participants. Methods: the activity of association of probiotic strains was compared to placebo (maltodextrin) after 28 days of consumption. The patients were evaluated by using metagenomics analyses and improved constipation symptoms. The dates of microorganisms population profile into patients gut were correlated with results of abdominal symptoms evaluation and well-being perception. The increase in the number of evacuations and the intestinal transit were evaluated during the study. Results: the proportions of the genus Bifidobacterium in the test groups and the control group were 0.45% vs 0.24% at the end of the study, respectively (p<0.05). Additionally, the difference between the groups that received association of probiotic strains containing lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and the placebo remained higher for species of the genus Lactobacillus (1.21% vs 0.12%) after 28 days of use (p<0.05). Furthermore, the participants who received the probiotic had a tendency to improve symptomatic based on comparisons of their microbiota and the responses provided patients' abdominal symptoms and well-being. There were no reports of serious adverse events during the study. Conclusion: the probiotic formulation modulated the intestinal microbiota differently from the placebo in constipated participants included in this study. The use of this probiotic significantly increased beneficial bacteria and decreased potentially harmful microbes, which contributed to the maintenance of a healthy intestinal microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Bifidobacterium , Constipation , Probiotics , Probiotics/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lactobacillus , Double-Blind Method , Metagenomics
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 35-40, July. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015831

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been a very common practice to use probiotics or their metabolites as alternative antimicrobial strategies for the treatment and prevention of infections as rampant and indiscriminate use of antibiotics causes the development of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The objective of this study was to select a potential antimicrobial probiotic strain of Escherichia coli from the human gastrointestinal tract and investigate the production of diketopiperazines that contribute to the antimicrobial activity. Results: E. coli GutM4 was isolated from the feces of a healthy adult. E. coli GutM4 showed significant antagonistic activity against 10 indicator pathogens, and this activity was no less than that of the reference strain E. coli Nissle 1917 against eight of the indicator pathogens. Moreover, E. coli GutM4 produced antagonistic substances containing trypsin-targeted peptide bonds because the inhibitory effects of E. coli GutM4 supernatant significantly decreased upon treatment with trypsin. Consistent with the antagonistic activity and peptide compounds of E. coli GutM4, 14 2,5-diketopiperazines were isolated from the fermented broth of E. coli GutM4, including 12 cyclo(Pro-Phe), 3 cyclo(Pro-Tyr), and 5 cyclo(4-hydroxyl-Pro-Leu), which are reported to have antipathogenic activity. Conclusion: E. coli GutM4 produces 2,5-diketopiperazines that are partly involved in antagonistic action against human pathogens in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Probiotics/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Diketopiperazines/pharmacology , Peptides , Bacteria/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans/drug effects , Probiotics/metabolism , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Diketopiperazines/metabolism , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
7.
Hig. aliment ; 31(268/269): 111-115, 30/06/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846497

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar a incidência de Salmonella sp. em fezes e órgãos de suínos alimentados com dietas adicionadas de antibióticos e probióticos. Suínos sadios foram alimentados com ração basal acrescida de avilamicina (T0), ração basal em que 50% foi adicionada de probiótico (T50) e ração basal em que 100% foi adicionada de probiótico (T100). Ao final de 21, 35 e 63 dias, sete animais de cada tratamento foram abatidos e os órgãos coletados para a realização das análises. As amostras de fezes foram coletadas aos 21, 28, 35, 49 e 63 dias de idade. A contagem de Salmonella sp., nas fezes dos animais de 49 e 63 dias foi menor (p< 0,05) nos animais que se alimentaram da dieta T100. No baço, a contagem de Salmonella sp foi a mesma para os diferentes tratamentos. Com 63 dias de idade, todos os órgãos avaliados apresentaram menor contagem de Salmonella sp nos animais alimentados com T100, quando comparado com T0. Conclui-se que no presente estudo ocorreu redução da carga de Salmonella sp excretada nas fezes e encontrada nos órgãos, o que provavelmente resultará em menor contaminação da carcaça e obtenção de um produto de melhor qualidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed/analysis , Probiotics/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Incidence , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Swine/microbiology
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 75-83, ene. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008594

ABSTRACT

Background: Helicobacter pylori is considered as the main risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. In the present study, we performed a detailed characterization of the probiotic properties and the anti-H. pylori activity of a previously isolated lactobacillus strain ­ Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C ­ obtained from human gut. Results: The strain tolerated pH 3.0; grew in the presence of 2% bile salts; produced lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide; aggregated in saline solution; showed high hydrophobicity; showed high adherence to glass; Caco-2 and gastric adenocarcinoma human cells (AGS) cells; showed an efficient colonization in Mongolian Gerbils; and potently inhibited the growth and urease activity of H. pylori strains. L. fermentum UCO-979C significantly inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 production in AGS cells and reduced the viability of H. pylori. With regard to innocuousness, the strain UCO-979C was susceptible to several antibiotics and did not produce histamine or beta-haemolysis in blood agar containing red blood cells from various origins. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that L. fermentum UCO-979C is a very good candidate as a probiotic for the protection of humans against H. pylori infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Probiotics/pharmacology , Lactobacillus fermentum/physiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control , Urease/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-8/antagonists & inhibitors , Gerbillinae , Disease Models, Animal , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(1): 67-75, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-777353

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT An increasing body of evidence suggests that the use of probiotic bacteria is a promising intervention approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology. P. gingivalis has been noted to have a different way of interacting with the innate immune response of the host compared to other pathogenic bacteria, which is a recognized feature that inhibits CXCL8 expression. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if P. gingivalis infection modulates the inflammatory response of gingival stromal stem cells (G-MSSCs), including the release of CXCL8, and the expression of TLRs and if immunomodulatory L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 could prevent CXCL8 inhibition in experimental inflammation. Material and Methods G-MSSCs were pretreated with L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 and then stimulated with P. gingivalis ATCC33277. CXCL8 and IL-10 levels were investigated with ELISA and the TLR-4 and 2 were determined through flow cytometer analysis. Results CXCL8 was suppressed by P. gingivalis and L. rhamnosus ATCC9595, whereas incubation with both strains did not abolish CXCL8. L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 scaled down the expression of TLR4 and induced TLR2 expression when exposed to P. gingivalis stimulation (p<0.01). Conclusions These findings provide evidence that L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 can modulate the inflammatory signals and could introduce P. gingivalis to immune systems by inducing CXCL8 secretion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Interleukin-8/analysis , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Interleukin-8/immunology , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10 , Statistics, Nonparametric , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-1, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777198

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Cultured Milk Products , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Over Studies , Cultured Milk Products/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus/growth & development , Microbiota , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Sucrose/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 51(4): 324-332, 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750885

ABSTRACT

It was to validated a protocol for induction of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) (Experiment 1) and test the efficiency of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae or monensin to avoid pH ruminal drops in sheep (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, six ewes were fasted for two days and then fed most with concentrate during four days. Ewes in this protocol had ruminal fluid pH below 6.0 and kept it for 75 consecutive hours. In Experiment 2, 18 sheep were distributed into three groups: Control (CG, n = 6), monensin (MG, n = 6) and probiotic group (PG, n = 6). SARA was induced according Experiment 1. PG had lower pH (5.7 ± 0.1) than CG (6.0 ± 0.1) (P = 0.05), while MG (5.7 ± 0.1) was similar to both during SARA induction. SARA induction reduced ruminal protozoa population (P < 0.05) and increased chloride concentrations in ruminal fluid (P < 0.01). In serum, SARA increased concentrations of phosphorus (P < 0.01), AST (P < 0.01) and GGT (P < 0.01), but reduced LDH (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the protocol used for SARA induction was able to maintain ruminal pH between 5.5-6.0 for more than 48 hours. However, monensin and probiotics supplementation was not effective in preventing changes in ruminal and serum parameters during SARA.


Foi validado um protocolo para a indução de acidose ruminal subaguda (SARA) (Experimento 1) e testar a eficácia do probiótico Saccharomyces cerevisiae ou monensina na prevenção da queda do pH do fluido ruminal em ovinos (Experimento 2). No Experimento 1, seis ovelhas foram mantidas em jejum por dois dias e, em seguida, alimentadas basicamente com concentrado durante quatro dias. Nesse protocolo as ovelhas mantiveram o pH do fluido ruminal abaixo de 6,0 por 75 horas consecutivas. No Experimento 2, 18 ovelhas foram distribuídas em três grupos: controle (GC, n = 6), monensina (GM, n = 6) e o grupo probiótico (GP, n = 6). A SARA foi induzida de acordo com o Experimento 1. GP apresentaram valores de pH mais baixos (5,7 ± 0,1) do que o GC (6,0 ± 0,1) (P = 0,05), enquanto GM (5,7 ± 0,1) foi semelhante durante a indução de SARA. A indução SARA reduziu a população de protozoários no rúmen (P < 0,05) e aumentou a concentração de cloreto no líquido ruminal (P < 0,01). Durante a SARA observou-se aumento das concentrações séricas de fósforo (P < 0,01), AST (P < 0,01) e GGT (P < 0,01), mas reduziu a de LDH (P < 0,01). Em conclusão, o protocolo utilizado para a indução de SARA foi capaz de manter o pH do rúmen entre 5,5-6,0 por períodos superiores a 48 horas. No entanto, a suplementação com monensina e probióticos não foi eficaz na prevenção das alterações nos parâmetros ruminais e séricos durante SARA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acidosis/veterinary , Ionophores , Probiotics/pharmacology , Sheep/classification
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; dez. 2013. 138 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836962

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de inulina (I) e a substituição parcial da gordura do leite (G) pelo concentrado de proteína de soro de leite (WPC) sobre a sobrevivência dos probióticos Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM e Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 em sorvete de graviola com teor reduzido de gordura, ao longo do período de armazenamento e frente às condições encontradas no trato gastrointestinal (TGI) simuladas in vitro. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a influência desses ingredientes (6% I; 1,5% WPC; 3% e 1,5% G) sobre as características tecnológicas e a aceitabilidade do sorvete funcional. Empregou-se um planejamento fatorial 22, para 4 formulações produzidas, em triplicata, totalizando 12 ensaios: F1- controle (- I, - WPC); F2 (+ I, - WPC); F3 (- I, + WPC) e F4 (+ I, + WPC). Todas as formulações foram armazenadas a -18±3ºC e avaliadas após 2, 28, 56, 84 e 112 dias de armazenamento. A determinação das características tecnológicas foi realizada com as análises de dureza instrumental (em analisador de textura TA-XT2), fração de derretimento, overrun (durante a elaboração do produto) e perfil lipídico. Para o teste de aceitabilidade do produto, utilizou-se uma escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos. Elevada viabilidade probiótica foi observada para todas as formulações, com médias de populações acima de 8,0 log UFC/g, não diferindo significativamente durante o armazenamento de 112 dias (p>0,05). B. animalis subsp. lactis HN019 apresentou uma maior resistência em relação a L. acidophilus NCFM quando submetido aos sucos gastrointestinais artificiais, uma vez que a população de NCFM e de HN019 diminuíram, respectivamente, cerca de 5,2 log UFC/g e de 1,2 log UFC/g, durante o armazenamento. O efeito protetor do WPC e/ou I sobre a resistência de L. acidophilus aos sucos gastrointestinais artificiais foi observada no 56º dia e, para B. animalis subsp. lactis no 2º dia de armazenamento (p<0,05). Os sorvetes com WPC apresentaram menores valores de dureza, aos 7º e 112º dias de estocagem (p<0,05). A adição de inulina influenciou no aumento da dureza para F2 após 56 dias e para F4 durante todo período de armazenamento (p<0,05). Os resultados mostraram, também, que a presença do WPC e/ou inulina reduziu a velocidade de derretimento dos sorvetes durante todo o armazenamento (p<0,05). Elevados escores médios (entre 6,8 e 8,0) foram obtidos no teste de aceitabilidade sensorial dos sorvetes probióticos, indicando excelente aceitação pelos consumidores e não diferiram significativamente durante o armazenamento de até 84 dias. Já para F4, a adição do WPC + I aumentou a aceitação do produto após 56 dias (p<0,05). Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a utilização do WPC como substituto parcial da gordura láctea separadamente ou combinada com a inulina pode ser vantajosa no desenvolvimento de sorvete probiótico com baixo teor de gordura, uma vez que a presença desses ingredientes desempenhou um papel importante na proteção dos probióticos contra o efeito dos fluidos gastrointestinais nos testes in vitro. Além deste efeito protetor, a utilização da inulina e WPC também melhorou as características tecnológicas e sensoriais do sorvete funcional reduzido de gordura


This study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of inulin (I) and the partial substitution of the milk fat (MF) by whey protein concentrate (WPC) on Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 viability incorporated in low fat graviola (Annona muricata L.) ice-cream and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions throughout 112 days of storage. Moreover, the influence of these ingredients (6% I; 1,5% WPC; 3% and 1,5% MF) on the functional ice-cream technological and sensorial features was also evaluated. Employing a 22 factorial design, four formulations were produced, in triplicates: F1- control (- I, - WPC); F2 (+ I, - WPC); F3 (- I, + WPC) and F4 (+ I, + WPC). The product were stored at -18±3ºC and analyzed after 2, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days of storage. Ice-creams from each trial were used for determination of L. acidophilus and B. animalis subsp. lactis viability in the products and survival in ice-creams submitted to gastrointestinal simulated conditions during storage at -18±3ºC for up to 112 days. For the determination of technological features, instrumental hardness (in TA-XT2 Texture Analyser), melting rate, overrun (during production), and lipid profile were determined. For sensory acceptability evaluation, a 9 point hedonic scale was used. High probiotic viability was observed for all formulations, with mean populations above 8.0 cfu/g and which did not differ significantly throughout 112 days of storage (p>0.05). B. animalis subsp. lactis HN019 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for L. acidophilus NCFM, since the NCFM and the HN019 populations decreased approximately 5.2 log cfu/g and 1.2 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage. The protective effect of WPC and/or WPC + I on the L. acidophilus resistance to artificial gastrointestinal juices was observed on the 56th day and for B. animalis subsp. lactis on the 2nd day of storage (p<0.05). The ice-creams with WPC presented lower hardness in the 7th and 112nd days of frozen storage (p<0.05). The addition of inulin led to an incresed hardnes for F2 after 56 days and for F4 during the whole storage (p<0.05). The results also showed that the presence of the WPC and/or inulin reduced the ice-creams melting rates during the whole storage (p<0.05). The high mean scores obtained (between 6.8 and 8.0) in the acceptability test indicated that the functional ice-creams evaluated were very well accepted, and did not differ significantly throughout storage of up to 84 days. Except for F4, the addition of the WPC + I improved the acceptability after 56th days of frozen storage (p<0.05). The results suggest that the use of WPC for the partial substitution of the milk fat separately or combined with inulin may be advantageous in the development of low-fat synbiotic ice-cream, since the presence of these ingredients played an important role in the probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices in the in vitro simulated assays. Besides these protective effects, inulin and WPC also improved the technological and sensory features of the low-fat functional ice-cream


Subject(s)
Annona/adverse effects , Ice Cream/analysis , Probiotics/pharmacology , Synbiotics/statistics & numerical data , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Food Technology/methods , Functional Food , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Inulin/administration & dosage , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699810

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium/physiology , Biotechnology/methods , Drug Compounding/methods , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Probiotics/pharmacology , Aerosols , Drug Stability , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Temperature , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(5): 367-372, May 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of probiotics on the development of chemically induced (1, 2-dimethylhydrazine) colonic preneoplastic lesions, in mice. METHODS: The animals were divided into five groups. The control group was injected with carcinogen alone and the other groups also received probiotics (1- Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20; 2- Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis Bb12; 3- L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 plus B. animalis var. lactis Bb12; and 4- Saccharomyces boulardii) administered orally in drinking water throughout fourteen weeks. RESULTS: Consumption of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria alone resulted in a significant reduction of the total number of aberrant crypt foci (55.7% and 45.1%, respectively). Significant reduction in the number of these small foci (<3 aberrant crypts) was only observed in the group treated with lactobacilli (52.2%) in comparison to control group. The number of larger foci (>3 aberrant crypts) crypts had no significant reduction. CONCLUSION: L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and B. animalis var. lactis Bb12 administered alone protect colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice, while the combined treatment of these bacteria and the administration of S.boulardii were not effective in reducing such colonic lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Aberrant Crypt Foci/prevention & control , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Precancerous Conditions/prevention & control , Probiotics/pharmacology , Aberrant Crypt Foci/chemically induced , Aberrant Crypt Foci/pathology , Bifidobacterium/physiology , Carcinogens , Combined Modality Therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/chemically induced , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Dimethylhydrazines , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/physiology , Precancerous Conditions/chemically induced , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Saccharomyces/physiology , Time Factors
15.
Arch. oral res. (Impr.) ; 9(1): 61-73, Jan.-Apr. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754517

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and to summarize the observed effects of probiotics with regard to oral health. Additionally, safety concerns and future aspects are briefly considered. Data sources: Studies suggest that probiotics may function not only by direct inhibition of—or enhanced competition with—pathogenic micro-organisms, but also by more subtle mechanisms including modulation of the mucosal immune system. Clinical studies reporting the anticariogenic effects of probiotics and their use in the treatment of periodontal disease and in the treatment of halitosis and Candida albicans have been identified. Study selection: The studies focus on probiotic Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria genera that are most used in various probiotic products. Conclusions: Although direct recommendations for the use of oral probiotics cannot yet be given, scientific evidence so far indicates that probiotic therapy may be a reality in dentistry in the future...


O objetivo desta revisão é analisar os mecanismos potenciais de bactérias probióticas na cavidade oral e resumir os efeitos observados de probióticos em relação à saúde oral. Além disso, preocupações com a segurança e os aspectos futuros são brevemente considerados. Fontes de dados: Estudos sugerem que os probióticos podem funcionar não só pela inibição direta – ou aumento da concorrência com – os micro-organismos patogênicos, mas também por mecanismos mais sutis, incluindo a modulação do sistema imunológico da mucosa. Foram identificados estudos clínicos relatando os efeitos anticariogênicos dos probióticos e sua utilização no tratamento de doenças periodontais e no tratamento de halitose e Candida albicans. Seleção dos estudos: Os estudos focam os probióticos lactobacilos e bifidobactérias, que são os mais utilizados em vários produtos probióticos. Conclusões: Apesar de não haver ainda possibilidade de se recomendar diretamente o uso de pro¬bióticos orais, as evidências científicas até o momento indicam que a terapia probiótica pode ser uma realidade na Odontologia no futuro...


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth/microbiology , Dentistry/trends , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Halitosis/therapy , Probiotics/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(2): 129-135, May-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the emergence of drug resistance in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), researchers are trying to find other methods for treating herpes simplex virus type 1 infections. Probiotic bacteria are effective in macrophage activation and may have antiviral activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at verifying the direct effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic bacterium, in comparison with Escherichia coli, a non-probiotic one, on HSV-1 infection, and determining its effect on macrophage activation for in vitro elimination of HSV-1 infection. METHODS: The above bacteria were introduced into HSV-1 infected Vero cells, and their effects were examined using both MTT and plaque assay. To determine macrophage activation against in vitro HSV-1 infection, J774 cells were exposed to these bacteria; then, macrophage viability was examined with the MTT method, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and nitric oxide (NO) assessments were performed using the ELISA method. RESULTS: A significant increased viability of macrophages was observed (p < 0.05) in the presence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus before and after HSV-1 infection when compared with Escherichia coli as a non-probiotic bacterium. However, tumor necrosis factor α concentration produced by Escherichia coli-treated J774 cells was significantly higher than Lactobacillus rhamnosus-treated J774 cells (p < 0.05). interferon-gamma and NO production were not different in the groups treated with Escherichia coli or with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that Lactobacillus rhamnosus enhances macrophage viability for HSV-1 elimination and activation against HSV-1 more effectively, when compared with non-probiotic Escherichia coli. it also seems that receptor occupation of macrophage sites decreases HSV-1 infectivity by both of the studied bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli/physiology , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/chemistry , Probiotics/pharmacology , Cell Line , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(1): 57-66, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687573

ABSTRACT

Foram utilizados 72 animais aos 21 dias de idade para averiguar o efeito do probiótico no desempenho de leitões desafiados com E. coli. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com arranjo fatorial 2x2. Os quatro tratamentos foram: probiótico com desafio; probiótico sem desafio; sem probiótico com desafio; sem probiótico e sem desafio. O probiótico Protexin™ foi administrado via ração, dos 21 aos 63 dias de idade e aos 35 dias, os animais dos tratamentos 1 e 3 foram desafiados. As variáveis analisadas foram: peso médio aos 35, 49 e 63 dias de idade; ganho diário de peso dos 35 aos 49 dias; dos 49 aos 63 dias; dos 35 aos 63 dias e escore fecal. As variáveis ganho diário de peso, peso médio e escore fecal foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo PROC GLM. Em relação ao peso e ganho de peso verificou-se ação benéfica do probiótico quando se associaram estas características com a ocorrência de diarréia pós-desafio e a redução da E. coli. Concluiu-se que o probiótico no modelo experimental aplicado apresentou efeito notório nas reduções de E. coli e da diarréia, podendo exercer influência no desempenho dos leitões.


We used 72 piglets at 21 days old and the aim was to determine the effect of probiotics on performance of piglets challenged with E. coli. The design was a randomized block design with 2x2 factorial arrangement. The four treatments were: with probiotic and challenge, with probiotic without challenge, without probiotic with challenge, without probiotic and challenge. The probiotic was administered via Protexin ™ diet, from 21 to 63 days old and 35 days, the animals in treatments 1 and 3 were challenged. The variables were: average weight at 35, 49 and 63 days old, daily weight gain from 35 to 49 days, 49 to 63 days, from 35 to 63 days and fecal score. The variables average weight, daily weight gain and diarrhea score were subjected to analysis of variance by PROC GLM. In terms of weight and weight gain was found beneficial effect of probiotic when these characteristics were associated with the occurrence of diarrhea post-challenge and the reduction of E. coli. It was concluded that the probiotic used in the experimental model showed clear effect on the reductions of E. coli and diarrhea, are relatively influenced in the performance of piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Probiotics/pharmacology , Swine/classification , Diarrhea/pathology , Weight Gain/physiology
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotics are live non-pathogenic organisms that belong to the resident microflora, and confer health benefits by multiple mechanisms. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is one of the probiotic bacteria that ameliorates intestinal injury and inflammation caused by various stimuli. We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of LGG in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. METHODS: HT-29 cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1beta (2 ng/mL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (20 ng/mL), and LPS (20 microg/mL) in the presence or absence of LGG (107-109 colony forming units/mL). Production of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 was measured by ELISA and semi-quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB-responsive gene was evaluated by luciferase assay with reporter gene. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression was assessed by semi-quantitative PCR. The IkappaBalpha degradation was evaluated by western blot and intranuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was determined by western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: LGG did not affect the viability of HT-29 cells. Pretreatment of HT-29 cells with LGG significantly blocked TNF-alpha, and LPS induced IL-8 activation at both mRNA and protein level (p<0.05). Pretreatment of HT-29 cells with LGG attenuated LPS-induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and also blocked LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. LGG also down-regulated TLR4 mRNA activated by LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LGG attenuates LPS induced inflammation, and this may be associated with TLR4/NF-kappaB down-regulation.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , HT29 Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Proteins/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Probiotics/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
19.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 68(1): 128-131, jan.-jun. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-642790

ABSTRACT

Probióticos são definidos como micro-organismos vivos que, quando administrados em quantidade adequada, podem trazer benefícios ao hospedeiro melhorando seu equilíbrio intestinal. Estudos recentes têm sugerido que alguns probióticos funcionam como um método auxiliar no controle da doença cárie, pois podem diminuir os níveis salivares de Streptococcusmutans. Muitas bactérias, incluindo os gêneros Lactobacillus e Bifidobacterium possuem propriedades probióticas. Diversos veículos podem ser utilizados para administrá-los, entretanto o mais comum é o iogurte. Porém mais estudos sobre probióticos são necessários para comprovar seus reais benefícios na cavidade oral, permitindo aos dentistas indicarem seu consumo com segurança.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Lactobacillus , Probiotics/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans
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