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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 274-280, Agosto 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373104

ABSTRACT

El parto prematuro, la cesárea, el uso de antibióticos y la lactancia materna limitada son señalados como responsables en parte del aumento de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en niños, como las alergias, principalmente la alergia a la proteína de la leche de vaca (APLV). Quienes desarrollan enfermedades alérgicas muestran diferencias en la composición de su microbiota intestinal durante los primeros meses de vida, en comparación con los que no lo hacen. Las intervenciones tempranas para modular la microbiota intestinal y el sistema inmunológico pueden ser herramientas claves para el abordaje y tratamiento de la APLV. El criterio clínico y el trabajo interdisciplinario de alergólogos, gastroenterólogos, inmunólogos, microbiólogos y nutricionistas le permitirá al pediatra lograr un adecuado diagnóstico y un tratamiento oportuno. En este contexto, el empleo de bióticos (prebióticos, probióticos, sinbióticos y posbióticos) como herramientas nutricionales complementarias tiene un presente con sustento científico y un futuro promisorio para la prevención y tratamiento de estas patologías.


Preterm birth, C-section, antibiotic use, and limited breastfeeding are blamed in part for the increasing incidence of chronic noncommunicable diseases among children, such as allergies, mainly cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Those who develop allergic diseases, against those who do not, show differences in the composition of their gut microbiota during the first months of life. Early interventions to modulate the intestinal microbiota and the immune system may be the key tools for the management of CMPA. Clinical judgment and the interdisciplinary work of allergists, gastroenterologists, immunologists, microbiologists, and nutritionists will allow pediatricians to achieve an adequate diagnosis and a timely treatment. In this setting, the use of biotics (prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics) as supplementary dietary tools is scientifically supported at present and seems to be very promising for the prevention and treatment of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Milk Hypersensitivity , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Premature Birth , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Food Hypersensitivity/therapy , Cattle , Immunomodulation
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e1-e7, feb 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353517

ABSTRACT

El parto prematuro, las cesáreas, los antibióticos y la lactancia materna limitada contribuyen al aumento de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. El objetivo fue realizar una revisión descriptiva del uso de probióticos en pediatría, con foco en la cepa Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Ciertos probióticos han demostrado ser eficaces en la diarrea aguda y en la diarrea asociada a antibióticos. L. rhamnosus GG y Saccharomyces boulardii pueden acortar la duración y los síntomas. L. reuteri DSM 17938 y L. rhamnosus GG fueron efectivos para el abordaje del cólico del lactante. El uso de esta cepa en fórmulas infantiles para alergia a las proteínas de leche de vaca promovería la adquisición más temprana de tolerancia. En la prevención de dermatitis atópica, la administración de L. rhamnosus GG durante el embarazo redujo su manifestación en el bebé. El empleo de probióticos como coadyuvantes es una posibilidad para considerar en la práctica pediátrica actual.


Preterm birth, C-sections, antibiotics, and limited breastfeeding contribute to the increase in noncommunicable diseases. Our objective was to perform a descriptive review of probiotic use in pediatrics, focused on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Certain probiotics have demonstrated to be effective in acute diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. L. rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii may shorten their duration and symptoms. L. reuteri DSM 17938 and L. rhamnosus GG were effective to manage infant colic. The use of this strain in infant formulas for cow's milk protein allergy may promote an earlier tolerance acquisition. In relation to the prevention of atopic dermatitis, the administration of L. rhamnosus GG during pregnancy reduced its development in the infant. The use of probiotics as adjuvants is a possibility to consider in current pediatric practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pediatrics , Milk Hypersensitivity , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Premature Birth , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Cattle , Epidemiology, Descriptive
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#During pregnancy, pregnant women are prone to stress reactions due to external stimuli, affecting their own health and fetal development. At present, there is no good treatment for the stress reactions from pregnant women during pregnancy. This study aims to explore the effect of probiotics on abnormal behavior and hippocampal injury in pregnant stressed offspring.@*METHODS@#SD pregnant rats were divided into a control group, a stress group, and a probiotics group, with 6 rats in each group. The control group was untreated; the stress group was given restraint stress on the 15th-20th day of pregnancy; the probiotics group was given both bifidobacterium trisporus capsules and restraint stress on the 15th-20th day of pregnancy, and the offspring continued to be fed with probiotics until 60 days after birth (P60). The offspring rats completed behavioral tests such as the open field test, the elevated plus maze test, the new object recognition test, and the barnes maze test at 60-70 d postnatally. Nissl's staining was used to reflect the injury of hippocampal neurons; immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of microglia marker ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) which can reflect microglia activation; ELISA was used to detect the content of plasma TNF-α and IL-1β; Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3.@*RESULTS@#The retention time of offspring rats in the stress group in the central area of the open field was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.01), and the retention time of offspring rats in the probiotic group in the central area of the open field was significantly more than that in the stress group (P<0.05). The offspring rats in the stress group stayed in the open arm for a shorter time than the control group (P<0.05) and entered the open arm less often than the control group (P<0.01); the offspring rats in the probiotic group stayed in the open arm for a longer time than the stress group and entered the open arm more often than the stress group (both P<0.05). The discrimination ratio for new to old objects in the offspring rats of the stress group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.01), and the discrimination ratio for new to old objects in the offspring rats of the probiotic group was significantly higher than that of the stress group (P<0.05). The offspring rats in the stress group made significantly more mistakes than the control group (P<0.05), and the offspring rats in the probiotic group made significantly fewer mistakes than the stress group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the numbers of Nissl bodies in CA1, CA3, and DG area were significantly reduced in the offspring rats of the stress group (all P<0.001), the number of activated microglia in DG area of hippocampus was significantly increased (P<0.01), the contents of TNF-α and IL-1β in peripheral blood were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated, and the protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated (all P<0.001). Compared with the stress group, the numbers of Nissl bodies in CA1, CA3, and DG area were significantly increased in the probiotic group offspring rats (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05), the number of activated microglia in the DG area of hippocampus was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and the TNF-α and IL-1β levels in peripheral blood were significantly decreased (both P<0.05), the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated, and the protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were significantly down-regulated (all P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Probiotic intervention partially ameliorated anxiety and cognitive impairment in rats offspring of pregnancy stress, and the mechanism may be related to increasing the number of neurons, inhibiting the activation of hippocampal microglia, and reducing inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Female , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Humans , Pregnancy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928935

ABSTRACT

For decades, the gut has been thought to play an important role in sepsis pathogenesis. Sepsis is a serious life-threatening, chronic condition of an infection caused by dysregulated host immune response in most of the intensive care unit patients. Probiotics have dual roles in polymicrobial sepsis i.e. probiotics may induce sepsis in many cases and may prevent its prognosis in many cases. Experimental evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that probiotic therapy ameliorates various inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, etc., in septicemia. In addition, probiotic use was also found to reduce the severity of pathological conditions associated with irritable bowel disorder and prevent development of endocarditis in septicemia. On contrary, probiotic therapy in neonatal and athymic adult mice fail to provide any beneficial effects on mortality and sepsis-induced inflammation. Importantly, in few clinical trials probiotic use was found to aggravate sepsis by promoting inflammatory cascade rather than suppressing it. This review discusses various studies regarding the beneficial or harmful effects associated with probiotic therapy in sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Sepsis/therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(3): 125-9, jul-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291206

ABSTRACT

Contextualização: Os probióticos constituem microrganismos vivos que, em quantidades adequadas, podem ser benéficos à saúde. Foram incorporados a produtos industrializados e suplementos e, atualmente, são amplamente utilizados. Entretanto, os efeitos podem ser diferentes em crianças e adultos, o que demanda cautela quanto à generalização de seus efeitos e a utilização exagerada. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as revisões sistemáticas desenvolvidas pela Cochrane no que concerne às intervenções com probióticos para crianças. Metodologia: Trata-se de overview de revisões sistemáticas Cochrane. Procedeu-se à busca por revisões sistemáticas na Cochrane Library. Foi utilizado o termo MeSH "probióticos". Os critérios de inclusão envolveram intervenções quaisquer com probióticos para crianças. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou 56 revisões sistemáticas e, destas, 11 foram incluídas, diante dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão estabelecidos, totalizando 50.647 participantes avaliados a partir de 277 ensaios clínicos randomizados. Discussão: A maior evidência, em nível moderado, para o uso de probióticos em crianças encontra respaldo nas revisões sistemáticas Cochrane no que tange à prevenção da diarreia concomitante ao uso de antibióticos e na prevenção da diarreia causada por Clostridium. Para análise e qualificação de melhor nível de evidência de outros desfechos, é necessária a realização de novos ensaios clínicos de qualidade. Conclusão: A utilização de probióticos, amplamente recomendada atualmente, não tem efetividade tão promissora encontrada nas revisões sistemáticas Cochrane realizadas até esse momento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Practice , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 515-521, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important cause of multiple organ failure in cardiovascular surgery. Our aim is to investigate the effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and lung injury in an experimental model of aortic clamping. Methods: Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomized into three groups (n=7). Control group animals received saline gavage for a week before undergoing median laparotomy. In other groups, supraceliac aorta was clamped for 45 minutes to induce ischemia followed by reperfusion for 60 minutes. In the ischemia-reperfusion group, saline gavage was given preoperatively for one week. Ischemia-reperfusion+probiotic group rats received probiotic gavage for seven days before aortic clamping. The levels of oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined in both serum and lung tissue samples. Ileum and lung tissues were harvested for histological examination. Results: Ischemia-reperfusion caused severe oxidative damage and inflammation evident by significant increases in malondialdehyde and cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) and decreased glutathione levels in both serum and lung tissues. There was severe histological tissue damage to the lung and ileum in the ischemia-reperfusion group. Probiotic pretreatment before aortic clamping caused significant suppression of increases in serum and lung tissue malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Histological damage scores in tissue samples decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion+probiotic group (P<0,005). Conclusions: Oral supplementation of probiotic S. boulardii before supraceliac aortic ischemia-reperfusion in rats alleviates lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, intestinal cellular damage, and modulation of inflammatory processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Lung Injury , Saccharomyces boulardii , Aorta , Cytokines , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Lung
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 185-191, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222950

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Existe evidencia del beneficio de los probióticos en prevenir enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Desde 2015, se usa probiótico preventivo en el Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de este probiótico en la incidencia, gravedad, necesidad de terapia quirúrgica y letalidad por enterocolitis necrotizante en prematuros extremos. Pacientes y método. Estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. Datos analizados con Stata. Se aplicó la prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar porcentajes y, para los promedios, la prueba t para varianzas distintas. Los egresados entre 2015 y 2017 recibieron Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), dosis única (1 x 108 unidades formadora de colonias) desde los primeros días de vida hasta cumplir las 36 semanas de edad gestacional corregida. Los controles egresados entre 2012 y 2014 no recibieron LRP.Resultados. El 3,45 % de los casos tuvo algún grado de enterocolitis: grado i (el 64 %), ii (el 18 %), iii (el 18 %); requirió cirugía el 18 % y no hubo letalidad. El 3,75 % de los controles históricos presentaron enterocolitis: grado i (el 12 %), ii (el 35 %), iii (el 53 %); el 64,7 % requirió cirugía, y el 47 % falleció. El grupo intervenido presentó grado ii o iii en un 36 %; en el grupo control, la sumatoria de estos estadios fue del 88 %.Conclusión.LRP administrado en dosis única diaria al prematuro extremo no modificó la incidencia de enterocolitis, pero disminuyó su gravedad, la letalidad y necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico.


Introduction. There is evidence of the beneficial effects of probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants. Probiotic prevention has been used since 2015 in the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.Objective. To assess the impact of this probiotic on the incidence, severity, surgical treatment requirement, and fatality rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants.Patients and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Data were analyzed using Stata. Fisher's exact test was used to compare percentages, and the unequal variances t-test, for averages. Infants discharged between 2015 and 2017 received Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (LRP), in a single dose (1 x 108 colony forming units), since the first days of life until 36 weeks of corrected gestational age. Controls discharged between 2012 and 2014 did not receive LRP.Results. Some degree of enterocolitis was observed in 3.45 % of cases: stage I (64 %), stage II (18 %), stage III (18 %); 18 % required surgery, and there were no deaths. Among historical controls, 3.75 % had enterocolitis: stage I (12 %), stage II (35 %), stage III (53 %); 64.7 % required surgery, and 47 % died. In the intervention group, stage II or III accounted for 36 % of cases, whereas in the control group, for 88 %.Conclusion. Administering a single daily dose of LRP to extremely preterm infants did not affect the incidence of enterocolitis, but reduced its severity, fatality rate, and surgical treatment requiremen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Lactobacillus reuteri , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infusions, Parenteral/methods
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 438-444, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248947

ABSTRACT

In this case, a 12-year-old female domestic cat with chronic renal failure (CRF), which had lived longer than the mean survival time for cats with that condition, was monitored to evaluate the effects of treatment and mean gray value (MGV) changes. The cat has lived for nearly four years since the diagnosis. Probiotics have been used as an additional, classical supportive therapy since the beginning of treatment. The temporal changes in renal MGV were statistically evaluated in the last year of the four-year period. The cat had a comfortable existence and good body condition all her life and probiotic therapy may have had a positive influence post-CRF diagnosis. Ultrasonography (US) examination is a commonly used tool for monitoring the CRF situation, but it is not particularly sensitive. Therefore, MGV may be more useful for the quantitative evaluation of the extent of renal failure. Also, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for a long-term clinical evaluation of MGV in a cat with CRF. The aim of this case report was the evaluation of the relationship between MGV and clinical and biochemical changes in a cat with chronic renal failure.(AU)


No presente caso, uma gata doméstica de 12 anos com insuficiência renal crônica (IRC), que viveu mais do que o tempo médio de sobrevivência para gatos nessa condição, foi monitorada para avaliar os efeitos do tratamento e as alterações do valor cinza médio (MGV). A gata viveu quase quatro anos desde o diagnóstico. Os probióticos têm sido usados como uma terapia de suporte clássica adicional desde o início do tratamento. As alterações temporais do MGV renal foram avaliadas estatisticamente no último ano do período de quatro anos. A gata teve uma existência confortável e boas condições corporais durante toda a vida e a terapia com probióticos pode ter tido uma influência positiva após o diagnóstico de IRC. O exame de ultrassonografia (US) é uma ferramenta comumente usada para monitorar a situação da IRC, mas não é particularmente sensível. Portanto, o MGV pode ser mais útil para a avaliação quantitativa da extensão da insuficiência renal. Além disso, até onde se sabe, este é o primeiro relatório de uma avaliação clínica de longo prazo de MGV em um gato com IRC. O objetivo deste relato de caso foi avaliar a relação entre o MGV e as alterações clínicas e bioquímicas em um gato com insuficiência renal crônica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Prognosis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Survival Analysis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy of probiotics in preventing late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.@*METHODS@#Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics in preventing LOS in VLBW infants. LOS was classified as clinical LOS and confirmed LOS. RevMan 5.4 was used to perform the Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 31 RCTs were included, with 3 490 VLBW infants in the probiotics group and 3 376 VLBW infants in the control group. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the control group, the probiotics group had significantly lower risks of clinical LOS (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Current evidence indicates that probiotics may reduce the risk of clinical LOS and clinical/confirmed LOS in VLBW infants, and the risk of confirmed LOS in VLBW infants who are exclusively breastfed.


Subject(s)
China , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Sepsis/prevention & control
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 105-116, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129064

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar las contribuciones de la biotecnología, en relación con el tratamiento, diagnóstico y la monitorización de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y sus comorbilidades más frecuentes, especialmente la anemia. En relación con los tratamientos, enfocamos el desarrollo de productos biofarmacéuticos como los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis (ESA), que fueron los primeros biofármacos utilizados para el tratamiento de la anemia asociada a la ERC; analizamos sus características y utilización actual después de varios años de experiencia clínica, así como también otras alternativas en desarrollo. Revisamos distintos tipos de bioterapias, la utilización de las células estromales mesenquimales de médula ósea (MSC) y tratamientos alternativos con modificaciones dietarias, que se basan en la asociación entre la microbiota intestinal de los pacientes renales crónicos y sus condiciones fisiopatológicas. Finalmente, en relación con el diagnóstico y monitorización, nos referimos al estudio y validación de biomarcadores diagnósticos, predictivos y terapéuticos que han permitido optimizar los resultados clínicos en este tipo de pacientes. (AU)


The aim of this work is to review the contributions of biotechnology, in relation to the treatment, diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its most frequent comorbidities, especially anemia. Regarding the treatment, we focus on the development of biopharmaceutical products such as erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), which were the first biopharmaceuticals used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We analyzed their characteristics and their current use after several years of clinical experience, as well as other alternatives in development. We also review different types of biotherapies, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and alternative treatments with dietary modifications, which are based on the association between the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney patients and their pathophysiological conditions. Finally, in relation to diagnosis and monitoring, we refer to the study and validation of diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers that have made clinical results possible to be optimized in this type of patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Therapy/trends , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Biotechnology , Biomarkers , Erythropoietin/deficiency , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/rehabilitation , Prebiotics/classification , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/pharmacology , Hematinics/pharmacokinetics , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/drug therapy
13.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 33-45 p. tab.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista de Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 3).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120106

ABSTRACT

La pandemia COVID-19 iniciada en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China, ha captado la atención de la comunidad científica internacional debido a su alta propagación en el mundo, causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 que se transmite por vías respiratorias y gastrointestinal, y ante la situación de no tenerse identificada una terapia farmacológica efectiva de carácter preventivo o curativo.En vista de ello, cada país se ha visto en la necesidad de implementar terapias alternativas que muestren algún grado de efectividad contra la enfermedad COVID-19. Entre las alternativas que se han reportado, múltiples estudios demuestran el potencial de los probióticos para prevenir la infección con este virus y combatir la enfermedad, al reflejar que existen relaciones entre los microbiomas de las vías respiratorias y gastrointestinales, y con el consumo de probióticos se modula el sistema inmunológico al reestablecer el balance gastrointestinal, lo cual implica la respuesta del sistema inmune para combatir la enfermedad y próximas pandemias, ya que el tracto digestivo es un punto focal de las defensas del cuerpo,y por ende, en la prevención de la infección viral. Ante estos potenciales, más gobiernos deberían financiar los ensayos con probióticos como parte de la estrategia general para aplanar la curva de propagación de la pandemia de la COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Viruses , Complementary Therapies , Coronavirus Infections , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy , Pandemics , Immune System
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 862-870, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129541

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the probiotic potential and absorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the aflatoxin B1 in simulated fish intestinal tract conditions. Three yeast strains were used, two from brewery: S. cerevisiae RC1 and S. cerevisiae RC3 and one from a fish farming environment: S. cerevisiae A8L2. The selected yeasts were subjected to the following in vitro tests: homologous inhibition, self-aggregation, co-aggregation, antibacterial activity, gastrointestinal conditions tolerance and adsorption of AFB1. All S. cerevisiae strains showed good capability of self-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria. All yeast strains were able to survive the gastrointestinal conditions. In acidic conditions, the factors (strain vs. time) had interaction (P=0.0317), resulting in significant variation among the strains tested in the time periods analyzed. It was observed that there was also interaction (P=0.0062) in intestinal conditions, with an increased number of cells in the 12-hour period for all strains tested. In the adsorption test, the A8L2 strain was statistically more effective (P<0.005) for both AFB1 concentrations evaluated in this study (10 and 25ng/mL). Thus, it was observed that the strains of S. cerevisiae have potential probiotic and adsorbent of AFB1.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar in vitro o potencial probiótico e adsorvente de Saccharomyces cerevisiae para aflatoxina B1 em condições simuladas do trato intestinal de peixes. Foram utilizadas três cepas de leveduras, sendo duas provenientes de cervejaria: S. cerevisiae RC1 e S. cerevisiae RC3, e uma de ambiente de piscicultura: S. cerevisiae A8L2. As leveduras selecionadas foram submetidas aos seguintes testes in vitro: inibição homóloga, autoagregação, coagregação, atividade antibacteriana, viabilidade às condições gastrointestinais e adsorção de AFB1. Todas as estirpes de S. cerevisiae mostraram boa capacidade de autoagregação e coagregação com bactérias patogênicas. Todas as estirpes de levedura foram capazes de sobreviver às condições gastrointestinais. Em condições ácidas, os fatores (cepa x tempo) tiveram interação (P=0,0317), resultando em variações significativas entre as cepas testadas nos períodos de tempo analisados. Observou-se que também houve interação (P=0,0062) em condições intestinais, havendo um aumento do número de células no período de 12h para todas as cepas avaliadas. No ensaio de adsorção, a estirpe A8L2 foi a mais eficaz estatisticamente (P<0,005), para as duas concentrações de AFB1 avaliadas neste estudo (10 e 25ng. mL-1). Dessa forma, conclui-se que as cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae possuem potencial probiótico e adsorvente de AFB1.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aflatoxin B1/antagonists & inhibitors , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Fishes/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Adsorption
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e8-e15, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095409

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los probióticos y prebióticos presentan beneficios potenciales en la inflamacióncrónica de las mucosas, incluida la prevención de la enterocolitis necrosante. No obstante, los mecanismos y resultados de estos efectos inmunomoduladores son confusos. El objetivo fue investigar la respuesta de las citocinas a Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium asociados con fructo- y galactooligosacáridos (simbióticos) y lactoferrina en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer.Población y métodos. Se asignó aleatoriamente a lactantes con ≤32 semanas de gestación y ≤1500 g de peso para recibir simbióticos o 1 ml de agua destilada como placebo desde la primera alimentación hasta el alta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre los días posnatales 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2 y 28 ± 2, y se midieron interferón-γ, interleucina (IL)-5, IL-10 e IL-17A.Resultados. En el grupo del estudio (n = 25), la concentración de IL-10 disminuyó a lo largo del estudio (p = 0,011), pero no cambió en el grupo de referencia. La concentración de IL-5 se mantuvo constante los primeros 14 días y luego disminuyó significativamente (p= 0,042) en el grupo del estudio, mientras que aumentó en los primeros 14 días (p = 0,019) y luego disminuyó en 28 días (p = 0,011) en el grupo de referencia (n = 25).La concentración de otras citocinas no cambió a lo largo del estudio.Conclusión. El uso combinado de probióticos con oligosacáridos y lactoferrina estuvo asociado con una disminución en la concentración de IL-10, pero no se observó un cambio en las otras citocinas.


Introduction. Probiotics and prebiotics, which are multifunctional agents, have potential benefits in chronic mucosal inflammation, including the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the mechanisms and the results of these immunomodulatory effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the cytokine response to the combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides (symbiotic) and lactoferrin in very low birth weight neonates.Population and Methods. Infants ≤ 32 GWs and ≤ 1,500 g were randomly assigned to receive a symbiotic combination or 1 ml distilled water as placebo starting with the first feed until discharge. Blood samples were obtained at postnatal 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 2 days, and the serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured.Results. In the study group (n = 25), the IL-10 levels decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.011) but did not change in the control group. The IL-5 levels remained steady in the first 14 days and decreased significantly thereafter (p = 0.042) in the study group, whereas they increased in the first 14 days (p = 0.019), and then decreased in 28 days (p = 0.011) in the control group (n = 25). The levels of the other cytokines did not change throughout the study period.Conclusion.The combined use of probiotics with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin was associated with a decrease in IL-10 levels, but no change was observed in the other cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cytokines/analysis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Prebiotics , Synbiotics/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Turkey , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Milk, Human
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of intervention with oral probiotic @*METHODS@#This study were conducted among 155 women in the third trimester of pregnancy with positive results of GBS culture in the Outpatient Department of Zhujiang Hospital from March to November, 2019. After excluding 32 patients who received lactobacillus intervention for less than 2 weeks or underwent postpartum GBS retesting, the women were divided into oral probiotics intervention group (60 cases) and non-intervention group (63 cases). According to the results of GBS retesting, the 60 women in the intervention group were divided into GBS-negative group (18 cases) and persistent GBS-positive group (42 cases). At the end of the intervention, the rates of negative GBS culture result were calculated and the pregnancy outcomes were compared. From 5 women randomly selected from the intervention group, samples of vaginal secretions were collected before and after the intervention for amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.@*RESULTS@#At the end of the intervention, the GBS-negative rate in the intervention group was 30% (18/60), as compared with 23% (3/13) in the non-intervention group. Probiotic intervention significantly reduced the incidence of premature rupture of membranes (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intervention with oral probiotics can reduce vaginal GBS colonization in late pregnancy and improve the pregnancy outcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Microbiota , Pregnancy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Streptococcus agalactiae , Vagina
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089386

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Probiotic therapy is a viable alternative to chlorhexidine, a widely used antiseptic in dentistry that produces significant adverse effects. This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of probiotics on experimental gingivitis in humans. Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive literature search until March 2019. Randomized clinical trials and controlled clinical trials were selected. Outcome data were extracted and critically analyzed. A total of five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. No meta-analysis could be conducted due to the heterogeneity of the selected studies. The use of probiotics showed a slight improvement in clinical parameters. Changes in gingival crevicular fluid volume were lower in the presence of the probiotic than in the placebo group. All the studies showed that the immediate, positive effects of probiotics during the period of discontinued mechanical oral hygiene were due to the modulation of the host response, not the anti-plaque effect. Investigators should conduct randomized clinical trials to elucidate the mechanisms of probiotic action and develop improved delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Placebos , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Microbiota , Gingivitis/physiopathology
18.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(1): e002045, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103172

ABSTRACT

Una mujer de 36 años, diagnosticada con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de diarrea (SII-D) acude a la consulta médica. Ella pregunta si el uso de probióticos sería útil para controlar los episodios de diarrea, ya que los fármacos con los que está siendo tratada no le resultan eficaces. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo de en contrar evidencia en respuesta a su consulta, tras la cual se seleccionaron dos ensayos clínicos y una revisión sistemática. Se evidenciaron diversos resultados en cuanto al uso de probióticos en el SII-D y se discutieron los riesgos y beneficios del tratamiento, así como las implicancias en la vida de la paciente. (AU)


A 36-year-old woman diagnosed with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) goes to meet the doctor. She raises whether the use of probiotics would be useful for controlling diarrhea episodes, since the drugs which she is being treated with, are not effective. A bibliographic search was conducted with the objective of finding evidence in response toher query. Two clinical trials and a systematic review were found. Variable results were found regarding the use of probioticsin D-IBS. The risks and benefits of the treatment were discussed, as well as the implications in the patient's lifestyle. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Cholestyramine Resin/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/adverse effects , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Diarrhea/complications , Duration of Therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Loperamide/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018123, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To perform a systematic review of literature data on gut microbiota and the efficacy of probiotics for the treatment of constipation in children and adolescents. Data source: The research was performed in the PubMed, the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) databases in English, Portuguese and Spanish. All original articles that mentioned the evaluation of the gut microbiota or the use of probiotics in children with constipation in their title and abstract were selected. Data synthesis: 559 articles were found, 47 of which were selected for reading. From these, 12 articles were included; they studied children and adolescents divided into two categories: a gut microbiota evaluation (n=4) and an evaluation of the use of probiotics in constipation therapy (n=8). The four papers that analyzed fecal microbiota used different laboratory methodologies. No typical pattern of gut microbiota was found. Regarding treatment, eight clinical trials with heterogeneous methodologies were found. Fifteen strains of probiotics were evaluated and only one was analyzed in more than one article. Irregular beneficial effects of probiotics have been demonstrated in some manifestations of constipation (bowel frequency or consistency of stool or abdominal pain or pain during a bowel movement or flatulence). In one clinical trial, a complete control of constipation without the use of laxatives was obtained. Conclusions: There is no specific pattern of fecal microbiota abnormalities in constipation. Despite the probiotics' positive effects on certain characteristics of the intestinal habitat, there is still no evidence to recommend it in the treatment of constipation in pediatrics.


RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática dos dados da literatura sobre a microbiota intestinal e a eficácia dos probióticos para o tratamento da constipação intestinal em crianças e adolescentes. Fonte de dados: Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram selecionados, pelo título e pelo resumo, todos os artigos originais que avaliaram a microbiota intestinal ou o emprego de probióticos em crianças com constipação intestinal. Síntese dos dados: Foram encontrados 559 artigos, dos quais 47 foram selecionados para leitura. Destes, foram incluídos 12 artigos que estudaram crianças e adolescentes distribuídos em duas categorias: avaliação da microbiota intestinal (n=4) e avaliação do emprego dos probióticos na terapêutica da constipação intestinal (n=8). Os quatro artigos que analisaram a microbiota fecal utilizaram metodologias laboratoriais diferentes. Não foi observado um padrão típico de microbiota intestinal. Quanto ao tratamento, foram encontrados oito ensaios clínicos com metodologias heterogêneas. Foram avaliadas 15 cepas de probióticos e apenas uma foi avaliada em mais de um artigo. Foram evidenciados efeitos benéficos não uniformes dos probióticos em algumas manifestações da constipação intestinal (frequência evacuatória, consistência das fezes, dor abdominal, dor ao evacuar ou flatulência). Em apenas um ensaio clínico foi obtido completo controle da constipação intestinal sem o emprego concomitante de laxantes. Conclusões: Não existe um padrão específico de anormalidades da microbiota fecal na constipação intestinal. Apesar dos efeitos positivos dos probióticos em determinadas características do hábito intestinal, ainda não existem evidências que permitam sua recomendação no tratamento da constipação intestinal em pediatria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation/therapy , Probiotics/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Constipation/microbiology , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Feces/microbiology , Flatulence/chemically induced , Flatulence/epidemiology
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