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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 67-72, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360704


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the ability of the biomarkers to predict the surgery treatment and mortality in patients above 18 years of age who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of bowel obstruction from the emergency department. METHODS: This is a 2-year retrospective study. The patients' demographic data, laboratory parameters on admission to emergency department, treatment modalities, and the length of hospital stay were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups: conservative and surgical treatment. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the value of biomarkers in predicting mortality and the need for surgery. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were included in this study. Of these, 105 (58.7%) patients were treated conservative and 74 (41.3%) were treated operatively. The elevated procalcitonin (PCT) level, C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen-to-albumin ratio, and lactate-to-albumin ratio were significantly correlated with surgical treatment, length of hospital stay, and mortality. procalcitonin threshold value of 0.13 ng/mL was able to predict the need for surgical treatment, with a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 70.3%. Procalcitonin threshold value of 0.65 ng/mL was able to predict the mortality rate of the patients, with a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 78.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers, especially procalcitonin, may be useful in bowel obstruction treatment management and may predict mortality.

Humans , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Procalcitonin , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Prognosis , Biomarkers , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935314


Objective: To explore the application value of T lymphocyte subsets combined with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and white blood cell count (WBC) in the auxiliary diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of sepsis. Methods: In a retrospective study, seventy-two patients with sepsis diagnosed and treated in Tianjin First Central Hospital from June 2018 to April 2021 were selected as the research objects, and included in the sepsis group were 46 males and 26 females, aged 68 (57.3, 80.3) years. In addition, 111 patients with local infection admitted to hospital during the same period were included in the local infection group, including 62 males and 49 females, aged 68 (51, 77) years. Sepsis patients were divided into survival group (43 cases) and death group (29 cases) according to the 28-day outcome. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio were detected by flow cytometry within 24 h after admission, PCT was detected by ELISA, CRP was detected by immunoturbidimetry, blood routine examination, blood lactic acid (Lac) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) were detected by instrumental method. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between each indicator and sepsis, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to evaluate the diagnostic value of each indicator for sepsis. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis and Kaplan Meier survival analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of each index for patients with sepsis. Results: Peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and PLT in sepsis group were significantly lower than those in local infection group(Z=-8.184,P<0.001;Z=-7.210,P<0.001;Z=-5.936,P<0.001;Z=-2.700,P=0.007;Z=-6.381,P<0.001); PCT, CRP, NLR and Lac levels were significantly higher than those in local infection group(Z=-8.262,P<0.001;Z=-3.094,P=0.002;Z=-9.004,P<0.001;Z=-4.770,P<0.001). Multivariate Logistic regression model showed that PCT, NLR, CD3+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ were independent risk factors for sepsis. According to ROC curve analysis, AUC of sepsis patients diagnosed by each indicator were 0.862, 0.894, 0.858, 0.760 and 0.618, respectively. The cut-off values were 3.075 ng/ml, 10.715, 44.935×109/L, 27.463×109/L and 0.750, respectively. The NLR sensitivity was 80.6%, and the CD3+ specificity was 94.6%. The AUC of combined detection of PCT and NLR was 0.947, sensitivity was 87.5% and specificity was 91.9%. The combined detection AUC of PCT, NLR, CD3+, CD4+/CD8+ was 0.958, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 91.0% respectively(P<0.001). PCT and Lac in death group were significantly higher than those in survival group(Z=-2.302,P=0.021;Z=-3.095,P=0.002);Peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ levels were significantly lower than those in survival group(Z=-3.691,P<0.001),Multivariate Logistic regression model showed that CD4+/CD8+ ratio was an independent risk factor for 28 d mortality in patients with sepsis (P<0.001). The ROC curve showed that the AUC was 0.758, and the Youden index reached the maximum when the cut-off value was 1.27, the sensitivity and specificity were 79.3% and 60.5%, respectively. Compared with patients with CD4+/CD8+ ≥1.27, 28-day mortality was significantly increased in patients with CD4+/CD8+<1.27 (P=0.032). Conclusion: The combined detection of PCT, NLR, CD3+ and CD4+/CD8+ can improve the auxiliary diagnostic efficiency of sepsis, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in peripheral blood may have certain predictive value for the prognosis of sepsis.

Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/diagnosis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928720


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance of bloodstream infection in children with acute leukemia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 93 blood culture-positive children with acute leukemia from January 2015 to December 2019 in Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#In these 93 cases, 78 cases were in the period of neutrophil deficiency. There were 54 Gram-negative bacteria (G-) (58.1%) found through blood culture, and the top 4 strains were Escherichia coli (15.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (6.5%). There were 39 Gram-positive bacteria (G+) (41.9%) detected, and the top 4 strains were Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (5.4%), and Staphylococcus human (5.4%). Among 74 strains of pathogenic bacteria from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children, there were 29 strains of G+ bacteria (39.2%) and 45 strains of G- bacteria (60.8%). While in 19 strains from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, G- bacteria accounted for 47.4% and G+ bacteria accounted for 52.6%. In 15 ALL children without neutropenia, G+ bacteria made up the majority of the strains (66.7%). In the 93 strains of pathogenic bacteria, 13 (13.9%) strains were multidrug-resistant. Among them, extended-spectrum β-lactamases accounted for 42.9%, carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae 15.4%, and carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Enterobacter cloacae strains 33.3%, which were detected from G- bacteria. While, 13.3% of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 13.3% detected from G+ bacteria, but linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant were not found. The average procalcitonin (PCT) value of G- bacteria infection was (11.02±20.282) ng/ml, while in G+ infection it was (1.81±4.911) ng/ml, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in G- infection was (76.33±69.946) mg/L, and that in G+ infection was (38.34±57.951) mg/L. The prognosis of active treatment was good, and only one case died of septic shock complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by carbapenemase-resistant enzyme enterobacteriaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#G- is the major bacteria in acute leukemia children with bloodstream infection, but the distribution of ALL and AML strains is different. G- bacteria dominates in ALL, while G+ bacteria and G- bacteria are equally distributed in AML. Non-agranulocytosis accompanied by bloodstream infections is dominant by G+ bacteria. The mean value of PCT and CRP are significantly higher in G- bacteria infection than in G+ bacteria.

Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928571


OBJECTIVES@#To study the value of heparin-binding protein (HBP) in the diagnosis of severe infection in children.@*METHODS@#This study was a prospective observational study. The medical data of children who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to infection from January 2019 to January 2020 were collected. According to the diagnostic criteria for severe sepsis and sepsis, the children were divided into a severe sepsis group with 49 children, a sepsis group with 82 children, and a non-severe infection group with 33 children. The three groups were compared in terms of related biomarkers such as plasma HBP, serum C-reactive protein, serum procalcitonin, and platelet count. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to investigate the value of plasma HBP level in the diagnosis of severe infection (including severe sepsis and sepsis).@*RESULTS@#The severe sepsis and sepsis groups had a significantly higher plasma HBP level on admission than the non-severe infection group (P<0.05). Compared with the sepsis and non-severe groups, the severe sepsis group had significantly higher serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin and a significantly lower platelet count (P<0.05). Plasma HBP level had an area under the ROC curve of 0.590 in determining severe infection, with a sensitivity of 38.0% and a specificity of 82.4% (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is an increase in plasma HBP level in children with severe infection, and plasma HBP level has a lower sensitivity but a higher specificity in the diagnosis of severe infection and can thus be used as one of the markers for the judgment of severe infection in children.

Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Biomarkers , Blood Proteins , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Child , Humans , Procalcitonin , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sepsis/diagnosis
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 67-73, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368351


INTRODUCCIÓN. Las bacteriemias causadas por Enterobacteriaceae resistentes a carbapenémicos se asocian con altas tasas de mortalidad a diferencia de las bacteriemias causadas por Enterobacteriaceae sensibles a carbapenémicos. Los hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio son importantes para determinar los esquemas terapéuticos y su pronóstico; su diagnóstico precoz resulta esencial para un manejo adecuado. OBJETIVO. Relacionar valores de marcadores sanguíneos y bioquímicos en bacteriemias causadas por Enterobacteriaceae resistentes a carbapenémicos. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 427 y muestra de 224 datos de hemocultivos positivos para Enterobacteriaceae de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el periodo mayo 2016 a julio 2018. Criterios de inclusión: i) al menos un hemocultivo positivo; ii) recuperación del aislado de CRE o CSE y iii) recolección simultanea de muestras de sangre y pruebas de laboratorio. Criterios de exclusión: i) bacteriemias polimicrobianas; ii) valores fuera de rango y iii) reportes sin valores numéricos. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versión 24.0. RESULTADOS. Se demostró que el recuento de leucocitos [OR 1,21 (95% IC: 1,03-1,43)], el recuento de plaquetas [OR 1,65 (95% IC: 1,37-1,98)] y el tiempo parcial de tromboplastina [OR 1,29 (95% IC: 1,04-1,60)] fueron buenas variables predictoras independientes, mediante análisis de regresión logística multivariante. CONCLUSIÓN. La trombocitopenia y el tiempo parcial de tromboplastina prolongado se asociaron con bacteremia causada por Enterobacteriaceae resistentes a carbapenémicos.

INTRODUCTION. Bacteremias caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are associated with high mortality rates in contrast to bacteremias caused by carbapenem-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical and laboratory findings are important in determining therapeutic regimens and prognosis; early diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. OBJECTIVE. To relate blood and biochemical marker values in bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 427 and sample of 224 blood culture data positive for Enterobacteriaceae from patients attended at the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital in the period May 2016 to July 2018. Inclusion criteria: i) at least one positive blood culture; ii) recovery of CRE or CSE isolate and iii) simultaneous collection of blood samples and laboratory tests. Exclusion criteria: i) polymicrobial bacteremia; ii) out-of-range values and iii) reports without numerical values. Data analysis was performed using the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0. RESULTS. Leukocyte count [OR 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.43)], platelet count [OR 1.65 (95% CI: 1.37- 1.98)] and partial thromboplastin time [OR 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.60)] were shown to be good independent predictor variables, by multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION. Thrombocytopenia and prolonged partial thromboplastin time were associated with bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/blood , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/blood , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lactic Acid/blood , Creatinine/blood , Early Diagnosis , Albumins/analysis , Procalcitonin/blood
Clinics ; 76: e2610, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278930


OBJECTIVES: To compare the early and late predictive values of several critical illness scores (CISs) and biomarkers in sepsis-3 patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to identify the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) for different gram-stain bacteria infections. METHODS: Patients with at least one positive blood culture within 24h of emergency department admission and with a final diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock were enrolled. CISs were calculated based on the first parameters on the day of admission. The receiver operating characteristics curve was used to analyze the predictive value of CISs and biomarkers for early and late mortality. RESULTS: Of 834 enrolled patients with sepsis-3, death occurred in 214 patients within 28 days and in 273 patients within 60 days. Compared with biomarkers, CISs showed a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) in the prediction of early and late mortality (p<0.01), especially for patients with GNB infection. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score showed a higher AUC for predicting early mortality than the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score (p=0.036). Compared with GNB infections, the AUC values of the PCT for gram-positive bacteria (GPB) infections were higher for predicting early or late mortality; PCT showed higher AUC than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cells for predicting early mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CISs were more advantageous in the assessment of early and late prognosis, especially for patients with GNB infections; however, for sepsis with GPB infection, PCT can be used for the prediction of early mortality.

Humans , Sepsis/diagnosis , Procalcitonin , Prognosis , Bacteria , Biomarkers , ROC Curve , Critical Illness
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11295, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339451


This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of heparin-binding protein (HBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with purulent meningitis (PM). This study included 118 children with PM diagnosed at our hospital from January 2018 to January 2020, 110 children with viral meningitis (VM) and 80 children with suspected meningitis who were ruled out by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis during the same period. HBP and white blood cell (WBC) count in the CSF, and inflammatory factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and procalcitonin (PCT), were measured. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were used to analyze the predictive value of HBP, CRP, PCT, and TNF-α levels in the diagnosis of PM by CSF analysis. HBP levels in the CSF of children with PM were higher, while the CRP and serum PCT and TNF-α levels were elevated in all groups (P<0.05). In addition, HBP levels in the CSF were more accurate for the diagnosis of PM than traditional diagnostic indexes. HBP levels in the CSF can be used as an important reference for early diagnosis of PM.

Humans , Child , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Viral , C-Reactive Protein , Blood Proteins , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Procalcitonin
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887890


Objective To explore the factors related to tympanic membrane perforation in children with acute suppurative otitis media,and to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods We reviewed the clinical data of 1274 children with acute suppurative otitis media from February 2017 to May 2020,and analyzed the factors related to tympanic membrane perforation. Results Tympanic membrane perforation occurred in 67 out of the 1274 children with acute suppurative otitis media,with the incidence of 5.27%.The univariate analysis showed that 11 factors including the duration of onset(

Child , Chronic Disease , Humans , Otitis Media, Suppurative/complications , Procalcitonin , Risk Factors , Tympanic Membrane Perforation/etiology
San Salvador; s.n; 2021. 67 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358915


Introducción: Desde el inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19 en diciembre de 2019, el virus del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ha provocado la muerte de muchos pacientes a lo largo de todo el mundo. Debido a la heterogeneidad de la enfermedad, es necesario identificar de forma temprana pacientes potencialmente complicables para disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad, por lo cual los objetivos del presente trabajo son caracterizar los aspectos clínicos más importantes de los pacientes con COVID-19 y realizar una comparación entre los niveles iniciales de procalcitonina, con el estado de gravedad y la evolución clínica. También se pretende hacer comparaciones entre pacientes con COVID-19 grave sin procesos bacterianos concomitantes y las concentraciones de procalcitonina reportada, además describir cifras de mortalidad en este grupo de población. Materiales y Métodos: se obtuvo información a través de la revisión de expedientes clínicos. El estudio es Observacional, Descriptivo, de tipo Transversal, tomando como población a pacientes que presentaron neumonía viral grave por SARS-CoV-2, ingresados en el servicio de Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, que no presentaban de forma concomitante sobreinfección bacteriana o micótica. Se recabó información sobre datos personales, comorbilidades, estado físico y exámenes de laboratorio para realizar descripciones de las diferencias respecto a los niveles de procalcitonina y el desenlace de los pacientes. Resultados: se evidenció alta mortalidad en la población ingresada, además los pacientes con COVID-19 grave sin procesos infecciosos bacterianos pueden presentar elevaciones de procalcitonina, se evidenció además que los pacientes con COVID-19 grave pueden no presentar elevaciones de marcadores inflamatorios a pesar de que su condición clínica es grave. Conclusiones: se evidenció tendencia a la elevación de niveles de procalcitonina en pacientes con enfermedad grave, sin embargo, no se pudo validar estadísticamente esta observación. Debe sospecharse riesgo aumentado de mortalidad y de daño multiorgánico en pacientes con COVID-19 grave que presentan procalcitonina elevada, si no hay foco infeccioso bacteriano concomitante. Elevaciones de los demás reactantes de fase aguda pueden ser poco confiables por lo que la evaluación clínica es la más importante para determinar complicaciones.

COVID-19 , Procalcitonin
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): e527-e535, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146143


La sepsis continúa siendo una causa mayor de morbimortalidad. Es ocasionada por una respuesta inmune no regulada frente a un proceso infeccioso, que origina disfunción de órganos y sistemas.La respuesta inflamatoria frente a los microorganismos patógenos implica una sucesión dinámica y compleja de eventos, conducentes a la activación endotelial y del sistema inmunológico. La finalidad de este proceso es controlar la infección y reparar los tejidos. Sin embargo, tanto factores del huésped como del germen pueden llevar al desarrollo de formas graves de inflamación sistémica, con elevada mortalidad. La sepsis se encuadra dentro de este complejo escenario, donde la tormenta inflamatoria y el patógeno que la inició convergen en un cuadro multisistémico grave.Se divide el manuscrito en dos secciones. La primera describe los mecanismos que generan inflamación sistémica y progresión hacia la sepsis, junto con sus principales marcadores biológicos. La segunda analiza los mecanismos que producen disfunción orgánica

Sepsis is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It results from a dysregulated immune response to infection that leads to organ and system dysfunction.The inflammatory response to pathogenic microorganisms implies a dynamic, complex chain of events leading to endothelial and immune system activation. The purpose of this process is to control infection and repair tissues. However, both host and microorganism factors may result in severe forms of systemic inflammation with a high mortality rate. Sepsis falls within this complex scenario, where the inflammatory storm and the causative microorganism converge in a severe multisystem presentation.This manuscript is divided into two parts. Part I describes the mechanisms triggering systemic inflammation and progression to sepsis, together with its main biological markers. Part II analyzes the mechanisms leading to organ dysfunction

Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Cytokines , Procalcitonin
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 376-385, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143167


ABSTRACT Introduction: Anastomotic leakage is a complication of intestinal anastomosis, with an incidence of 2%-7% in centers of experience. To be able to achieve an early detection, serological markers such as Procalcitonin were included. Methods: Descriptive retrospective cohort study of patients taken to colorectal surgery with intestinal anastomosis, the objective is to estimate association between procalcitonin (≥2 ng/dl) as an early inflammatory marker and anastomotic leakage in a Coloproctological Service of a highest level of health care hospital, between September 2017 and January 2019. Results: Cohort of 237 patients, 51% women (18-89 years), with multiple comorbidities in 81% of patients, colon cancer was the most operated pathology (53.1%). Laparoscopic approach was the most applied 60.34%, colorectal anastomosis was the most frequently performed (47.26%). Ileocolic anastomosis presented a higher frequency (43.75%-n:7) of dehiscence. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a serum procalcitonin positive 3 days postoperatively (p-value <0.05). Patients with a positive result had 4.28 times higher risk of presenting an anastomotic leak, compared to this risk in those patients with negative results 3 days postoperatively, this association was statistically significant 95% CI (1.34-14.16); p value <0.05. Conclusion: Anastomotic leakage is a source of morbidity in patients taken to intestinal anastomosis. It's necessary to guarantee an early diagnosis of this complication, prevent abscesses and secondary peritonitis, providing adequate treatment and even reducing the associated mortality. We recommend including the procalcitonin in the assessment protocol on the third day of postoperative follow-up.

RESUMO Introdução: O vazamento anastomótico é uma complicação da anastomose intestinal, com uma incidência de 2% a 7% em centros com experiência. Para conseguir uma detecção precoce, foram incluídos marcadores sorológicos como a Procalcitonina. Métodos: Estudo de coorte descritivo e retrospectivo de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia colorretal com anastomose intestinal, cujo objetivo é estimar a associação entre os níveis de procalcitonina (≥ 2 ng/dL) como marcador inflamatório precoce e vazamento anastomótico em um Serviço de Coloproctologia de alto nível de atenção à saúde hospitalar, entre setembro de 2017 a janeiro de 2019. Resultados: Coorte de 237 pacientes, 51% mulheres (18−9 anos), com múltiplas comorbidades em 81% dos pacientes, sendo o câncer de cólon a patologia mais operada (53,1%). A abordagem laparoscópica foi a mais utilizada, em 60,34%, e a anastomose colorretal foi a mais frequentemente realizada (47,26%). A anastomose ileocólica apresentou a maior frequência (43,75%, n = 7) de deiscências. O vazamento anastomótico foi associado a procalcitonina sérica positiva 3 dias após a cirurgia (p < 0,05). Pacientes com resultado positivo tinham um risco 4,28 vezes maior de apresentar vazamento anastomótico, em comparação com esse mesmo risco nos pacientes com resultado negativo 3 dias após a cirurgia, sendo essa associação estatisticamente significativa, (IC95%:1,34−14,16); p < 0,05. Conclusão: O vazamento anastomótico é fonte de morbidade em pacientes encaminhados para anastomose intestinal. É necessário garantir o diagnóstico precoce desta complicação, prevenir abscessos e peritonites secundárias, proporcionando tratamento adequado e até mesmo reduzindo a mortalidade associada. Recomendamos incluir a procalcitonina no protocolo de avaliação no terceiro dia de seguimento pós-operatório.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Anastomotic Leak/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 599-605, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250281


Resumen La cinética de la procalcitonina es útil para reducir la duración de la antibioticoterapia en pacientes críticos, pero no se analizó su rol en infecciones por gérmenes multirresistentes. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo, analizando las curvas de procalcitonina de pacientes con neumonías asociadas a ventilación mecánica (NAVM) y bacteriemias asociadas a catéter (BAC) con rescate bacteriano durante el período 1/11/16 a 1/7/19. Se estudiaron 16 pacientes con infección por gérmenes sensibles (10 BAC y 6 NAVM) y 10 por gérmenes multirresistentes (10 BAC y 10 NAVM). Los pacientes con BAC generadas por gérmenes multirresistentes presentaron valores de procalcitonina mayores que los pacientes con BAC por gérmenes sensibles: (39 ± 30 μg/l vs. 10.7 ± 11 μg/l, p = 0.02). Los pacientes con NAVM generada por gérmenes sensibles y multirresistentes presentaron valores de procalcitonina similares. El descenso de procalcitonina a niveles 80% menores al valor máximo o menores a 0.5 μg/l (con tratamiento antibiótico efectivo) fue más veloz en pacientes con infección por gérmenes sensibles (5 ± 1.8 días vs. 7.2 ± 2.9 días, p = 0.03). En las infecciones por gérmenes multirresistentes, la respuesta inflamatoria medida por procalcitonina fue más intensa y prolongada, aun con un tratamiento antibiótico efectivo. Sin embargo, el descenso se produjo antes de que finalizaran los esquemas antibióticos convencionales. Por este motivo, se considera necesario estudiar la potencial utilidad de protocolos antibióticos guiados por procalcitonina en pacientes con infecciones por gérmenes multirresistentes para reducir la exposición a antibióticos.

Abstract Procalcitonin guidance stimulates a reduction in the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients with a presumed bacterial infection, but its role in infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been sufficiently explored. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed procalcitonin curves of 32 patients with culture-confirmed ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) occurred during the period 11/1/2016 to 7/1/2019. Sixteen infections were caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (10 CRBSI and 6 VAP) and other 16 by sensitive bacteria (10 CRBSI and 6 VAP). CRBSI generated by multidrug-resistant bacteria elicited significantly higher procalcitonin levels than CRBSI infections caused by sensitive bacteria (39 ± 30 μg/l vs. 10.7 ± 11 μg/l, p = 0.02). Patients with VAP caused by sensitive and multidrug-resistant bacteria elicited similar procalcitonin levels. The time to a decrease in procalcitonin level to less than 80% of the peak value or less than 0.5 μg/l upon effective antibiotic treatment was 7.2 ± 2.9 days in multidrug-resistant bacteria vs. 5 ± 1.8 days in sensitive bacteria (p = 0.03). In multidrug-resistant bacteria, the inflammatory response measured by procalcitonin is stronger and longer, even with an effective antibiotic treatment. However, the decline occurs before the conventional antibiotic scheme is completed. The potential application of antibiotic protocols guided by procalcitonin to these groups of patients grants further studies aimed to reduce exposure to antibiotics in critical multidrug-resistant infections.

Humans , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Kinetics , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Repert. med. cir ; 29(2): 75-83, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1122986


Durante años la evolución del cuidado intensivo ha intentado ofrecer una atención basada en protocolos y paquetes de manejo agrupados por patologías y cuadro sindromáticos. Aunque se logró disminuir la mortalidad en diferentes patologías (sepsis y síndromes coronario agudo y de distrés respiratorio agudo), no se han resuelto por completo los problemas clínicos, en especial el diagnóstico y el manejo. Una nueva opción ha surgido en el horizonte denominada "medicina de precisión", entendida como estrategia de prevención y tratamiento que tiene en cuenta la variabilidad individual. La sepsis es un síndrome con múltiples aristas en cuanto al fenotipo y genotipo, cuyo diagnóstico temprano es relevante para los desenlaces clínicos. Hasta el momento el enfoque principal ha sido la identificación de un germen etiológico para diferenciarla del síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SIRS). En los últimos años el paradigma en enfermedades infecciosas ha cambiado debido a estudios que demuestran como la respuesta inmunitaria del paciente séptico tiene un papel clave en el desarrollo de la enfermedad, con implicaciones en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento, que podrían ayudar a cambiar el abordaje en los próximos años gracias a una estrategia basada en medicina de precisión. Hoy los aislamientos microbiológicos y los cultivos siguen siendo el estándar de referencia con varias desventajas como el tiempo para obtener resultados, sobre todo en infecciones por gérmenes resistentes u hongos, que pueden retrasar el inicio de la terapia antimicrobiana. Como alternativa se ha planteado el uso de biomarcadores en sepsis que, siendo productos de la respuesta inflamatoria del individuo ante la infección, son útiles para el diagnóstico y pronóstico primordialmente en los críticamente enfermos. Decidimos realizar esta revisión narrativa acerca de la utilidad de los biomarcadores en pacientes con sepsis críticamente enfermos, para enfocarlos en un modelo de medicina personalizada.

For many years, critical care practice has been based on protocols and management guidelines categorized by pathologies or syndromes. Although mortality caused by various diseases such as sepsis, acute coronary syndrome and acute respiratory distress has decreased, clinical problems, particularly diagnosis and management, have not been completely resolved. A new option known as "precision medicine" is on the horizon, a prevention and treatment strategy based on individual variability. Sepsis is a syndrome encompassing multiple clinical phenotypes and genotypes coding and a prompt diagnosis is relevant to obtain better outcomes. To this moment the main approach has been the identification of microorganisms causing sepsis to distinguish sepsis from systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). Infectious diseases paradigm has changed during recent years due to studies demonstrating how septic patient immune response plays a key role in the development of the disease, with implications on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, which may help change the approach in the next years thanks to a strategy based on precision medicine. Today microbiological identification and cultures continue to be the reference standard with several disadvantages such as turnaround time for test results predominantly in infections caused by resistant bacteria or fungi that may delay commencement of antibiotic therapy. The use of sepsis biomarkers determined by the individual ́s inflammatory response to infection have been proposed as a useful alternative for establishing diagnosis and prognosis mainly in critically ill patients. We decided to conduct this narrative review on the usefulness of biomarkers in critically ill septic patients using a personalized medicine model.

Humans , Biomarkers , Patients , Protein C , Sepsis , Procalcitonin
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828650


OBJECTIVE@#To study the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) combined with soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (STREM-1) in the differential diagnosis of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 73 children with bacterial infectious diarrhea (bacteria group) and 68 children with viral infectious diarrhea (virus group) who were treated from February 2018 to May 2019. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of serum PCT and STREM-1 for bacterial infectious diarrhea and viral infectious diarrhea.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the virus group, the bacteria group had significantly higher detection rates of fecal red blood cells (79% vs 43%, P<0.05) and pus (51% vs 19%, P<0.05), as well as significantly higher serum levels of PCT and STREM-1 (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that in the differential diagnosis of bacterial infectious diarrhea and viral infectious diarrhea, serum PCT had a cut-off value of 0.97 ng/mL and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.792, and STREM-1 had a cut-off value of 15.66 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.889. Serum PCT combined with STREM-1 had an AUC of 0.955, which was significantly higher than that of each index alone (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with bacterial diarrhea have increased serum levels of PCT and STREM-1 than those with viral diarrhea. Both serum PCT and STREM-1 can be used as the indices for the differential diagnosis of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea in children, and the combined measurement of PCT and STREM-1 can improve the efficiency of differential diagnosis.

Bacteria , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea , Humans , Procalcitonin , Blood , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 , Blood
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 130-137, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093037


Resumen Introducción: hasta el 60 % de los pacientes con sepsis desarrollan daño renal agudo. La procalcitonina indica la presencia de sepsis y puede predecir un daño renal agudo. Objetivos: determinar los valores de procalcitonina como biomarcador predictor de daño renal agudo y sus complicaciones en el espectro de sepsis. Métodos: estudio transversal. Se midió procalcitonina durante las 24 horas de hospitalización. Se determinó el área bajo la curva, el error estándar, la sensibilidad y especificidad de los valores de procalcitonina relacionado con daño renal agudo. Resultados: un total de 72 pacientes con edad de 51 años (rango 18 -79); 35 (48,6 %) casos eran hombres, 44 (61,1 %) presentaron sepsis, 14 (19,4 %) choque séptico, 11 (15,3 %) sepsis severa y 3 (4,2 %) hipotensión inducida por sepsis. Encontramos una elevación de procalcitonina (≥0,5 ng/mL) en 54 (75 %) pacientes; presentaron daño renal agudo 42 (58,3 %) casos; estadio KDIGO 1 en 19 (45,2 %), KDIGO 2 en 12 (28,6 %) y KDIGO 3 en 11 (26,2 %) pacientes; de ellos 37 (88,1 %) presentaron procalcitonina ≥0,5 ng/mL (OR 5,65, IC 95 % 1,73 - 18,42; p<0,01). El área debajo de la curva 0,75 (IC 95 % 0,63 - 0,86 p <0,0001); el valor de procalcitonina de 2,565 ng/mL tuvo la mayor validez prediciendo daño renal agudo, con sensibilidad de 61,9 %, especificidad de 80 %, un valor predictivo positivo de 44,52 %, valor predictivo negativo de 56,18 %, LR+ de 0.80 y un LR- de 0.77. Conclusión: en el espectro de sepsis, el nivel de procalcitonina ≥2,565 ng/mL al ingreso hospitalario predice daño renal agudo.

Abstract Introduction: Up to 60% of patients with sepsis develop acute kidney injury. Procalcitonin indicates the presence of sepsis and could predict acute kidney injury. Objectives: To determine the values of procalcitonin as a predictive biomarker of acute renal injury and its complications in the sepsis spectrum. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Procalcitonin was measured during the 24 hours of hospitalization. We determined the area under the curve, standard error, sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin values related to acute renal injury. Results: A total of 72 patients aged 51 years (range 18-79); 35 (48.6%) were male, 44 (61.1%) presented sepsis, 14 (19.4%) had septic shock, 11 (15.3%) severe sepsis and 3 (4.2%) sepsis-induced hypotension. We found an elevation of procalcitonin (≥0.5 ng / mL) in 54 (75%) patients; presented acute renal injury 42 (58.3%) cases; KDIGO 1 in 19 (45.2%), KDIGO 2 in 12 (28.6%) and KDIGO 3 in 11 (26.2%) patients; of them 37 (88.1%) had procalcitonin ≥0.5 ng / mL (OR 5.65, 95% CI 1.73-18.42, p <0.01). The area under the curve 0.75 (95% CI 0.63 - 0.86 p <0.0001); the value of procalcitonin of 2,565 ng / mL had the highest validity predicting acute renal injury, with sensitivity of 61.9%, specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of44.52%, negative predictive value of 56.18%, LR + of 0.80 and an LR - 0.77. Conclusion: In the sepsis spectrum, the level of procalcitonin ≥2,565 ng / mL at hospital admission predicts acute kidney injury.

Humans , Male , Female , Sepsis , Acute Kidney Injury , Procalcitonin , Shock, Septic , Colombia
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 35-47, Sep.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114975


Resumen La sepsis neonatal es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en recién nacidos a nivel mundial. Su diagnóstico es difícil por sus manifestaciones clínicas inespecíficas y la poca disponibilidad de métodos diagnósticos eficientes. En la fisiopatología de la sepsis se ha descrito una respuesta inmune excesiva o suprimida que puede conducir a desenlaces potencialmente fatales. Se ha estudiado la utilidad pronóstica, diagnóstica y de seguimiento de factores solubles que se alteran en la sepsis neonatal y se han agrupado bajo el término biomarcadores de sepsis neonatal. Aquí se describen los principios fisiopatológicos de la sepsis neonatal y las características de los biomarcadores más usados para su diagnóstico, además, se mencionan detalles de otros marcadores que también han sido estudiados recientemente. Actualmente, se recomienda el uso de un biomarcador temprano en combinación con uno tardío para lograr un mejor rendimiento, sin embargo, aún no se ha identificado un biomarcador ideal para la sepsis neonatal. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):35-47

Abstract Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns worldwide. Its diagnosis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific clinical findings and the lack of efficient diagnostic tools. In the physiopathology of neonatal sepsis, an excessive or suppressed immune response has been described, which can lead to potentially fatal conditions. The prognostic, diagnostic, and follow-up value of several soluble factors altered in neonatal sepsis has been studied. These have been grouped under the term neonatal sepsis biomarkers. Here, aspects of the physiopathology in neonatal sepsis and the characteristics of the most studied biomarkers used for neonatal sepsis diagnosis are described, also, details about other recently studied markers are mentioned. Currently, the use of an early-warning biomarker together with a late-warning biomarker is recommended to get higher diagnostic accuracy. However, a single ideal biomarker for neonatal sepsis has not been found yet. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):35-47

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis , Pediatrics , Signs and Symptoms , C-Reactive Protein , Infant, Newborn , Biomarkers , Morbidity , Mortality , Interleukin-6 , Sepsis , Diagnosis , Procalcitonin , Neonatology
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 542-548, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054874


Abstract Background There is an obvious need for more prompt and specific biomarkers of bacterial infections in generalized pustular psoriasis patients. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic properties and define appropriate cut-off values of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in predicting bacterial infection in generalized pustular psoriasis patients. Methods Sixty-four generalized pustular psoriasis patients hospitalized from June 2014 to May 2017 were included in this retrospective study. The values of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, details of infection, and other clinical parameters were analyzed. Results Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis generated similar areas (p = 0.051) under the curve for procalcitonin 0.896 (95% CI 0.782-1.000) and C-reactive protein 0.748 (95% CI 0.613-0.883). A cut-off value of 1.50 ng/mL for procalcitonin and 46.75 mg/dL for C-reactive protein gave the best combination of sensitivity (75.0% for procalcitonin, 91.7% for C-reactive protein) and specificity (100% for procalcitonin, 53.8% for C-reactive protein). Procalcitonin was significantly positively correlated with C-reactive protein levels both in the infected (r = 0.843, p = 0.040) and non-infected group (r = 0.799, p = 0.000). Study limitations The sample size and the retrospective design are limitations. Conclusions The serum levels of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein performed equally well to differentiate bacterial infection from non-infection in generalized pustular psoriasis patients. The reference value of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein applied to predicting bacterial infection in most clinical cases may not be suitable for generalized pustular psoriasis patients. C-reactive protein had better diagnostic sensitivity than procalcitonin; however, the specificity of procalcitonin was superior to that of C-reactive protein.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psoriasis/microbiology , Psoriasis/blood , Bacterial Infections/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Procalcitonin/blood , Reference Values , Body Temperature , Biomarkers/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 20(1): 21-33, Agosto2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010311


Antecedente: el diagnóstico de la sepsis neonatal se basa en parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, siendo el hemocultivo el estándar de oro. El uso de biomarcadores ­como la procalcitonina, la proteína C reactiva y otros complementarios, como el conteo de leucocitos­ podría contribuir al diagnóstico temprano de la sepsis neonatal. Propósito: comparar el uso de la proteína C reactiva, la procalcitonina, el conteo de leucocitos y el hemocultivo entre los recién nacidos a término y pretérmino para la identificación de los biomarcadores de la sepsis neonatal. Materiales y métodos: este es un estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo de cohortes, desarrollado en el Hospital Pediátrico Baca Ortiz y en el Hospital Ginecológico Obstétrico Isidro Ayora. Se analizarán 204 casos de neonatos pretérmino y a término, con factores de riesgo y alta sospecha clínica de sepsis neonatal, que fueron admitidos en el periodo de septiembre a diciembre del 2018, en quienes se evaluaron los diagnósticos complementarios tanto al ingreso como a las 72 horas de admisión. Se tomaron las variables demográficas, de morbilidad, operativas y de laboratorio. Se aplicó la estadística descriptiva con medidas de tendencia central e inferencial (chi-cuadrado y test U de Mann Whitney). Se diseñaron curvas ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), estableciendo sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo para los complementarios diagnósticos en relación con el estándar de oro. Resultados: el conteo de leucocitos presenta una sensibilidad de 29 %-23 %, una especificidad de 92 %-92 %, un valor predictivo positivo de 56 %-50 %, un valor predictivo negativo de 79 %-78 %. El conteo de neutrófilos indica una sensibilidad de 24 %-21 %, una especificidad de 93 %-93 %, un valor predictivo positivo de 52 %-50 %, un valor predictivo negativo de 78 %-77 %; el conteo de plaquetas mostró una sensibilidad de 62-71 %, 78-77 %, 48-51 % y 86-89 %; una cuantificación de PCR indicó una sensibilidad de 87-79 %, una especificidad de 63-73 %, un valor predictivo positivo de 44-50 % y un valor predictivo negativo de 93-91 %; la cuantificación de procalcitonina presentó un sensibilidad de 73-54 %, una especificidad 61-84 %, un valor predictivo positivo de 39-53 % y un valor predictivo negativo de 87-84 %. En todos los casos la cuantificación se realizó entre las 24 y las 72 horas de vida.

Background: The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on clinical and laboratory parameters, blood culture being the gold standard. The use of biomarkers such as procalcitonin and C-reactive protein and complementary tests such as leukocyte count could contribute to the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Aim: To compare the use of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, leukocyte count and blood culture between term and preterm infants for the identification of biomarkers of neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional multicenter descriptive study of cohorts, donne at the Baca Ortiz Pediatric Hospital and Gynecological Obstetric Hospital Isidro Ayora. 204 cases of preterm and term neonates were analyzed, these neonates had risk factors and high clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis and were admitted to the above mentioned hospitals in the period from September to December 2018, and who were evaluated at admission and at 72 hours of admission. Demographic, morbidity, operative and laboratory variables were taken. Descriptive statistics were applied with measures of central tendency, and inferential (Chi Square and Test U of Mann Whitney). ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristic) were designed, establishing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for complementary diagnoses in relation to the gold standard. Results: The leukocyte count has a sensitivity of 29 %, specificity 92 %, positive predictive value 56 %, negative predictive value 79 %, neutrophil count has a sensitivity of 24 %, specificity 93 %, positive predictive value of 52 %, negative predictive value 78 %, platelet count has a sensitivity of 62-71%, specificity 78 %, positive predictive value 48 %, negative predictive value 86 %, CRP measurement had a sensitivity 87 %, specificity 63 %, positive predictive value 39 %, negative predictive value 87 % and measurement of procalcitonin had a sensitivity 73 %, specificity 61 %, positive predictive value 39 %, negative predictive value 87 %. In all cases the measurements were done between 24 to 72 hours of life.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , C-Reactive Protein , Neonatal Sepsis , Blood Culture , Procalcitonin , Leukocytes , Infant, Premature , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Term Birth
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 349-355, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043431


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Making the differential diagnosis between central fever and infectious fever is critically important among intracerebral hemorrhage patients followed up in intensive care units (ICUs). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) has been found to be a promising biomarker for the initial diagnosis of infection, even before culturing results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between PCT and both fever etiologies and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels among critically ill patients with suspected intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital in Elazig, Turkey. METHODS: ICU patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage and normal procalcitonin levels were included in this study. From clinical assessments and cultures, they were classified as presenting either infectious or central fever. The sensitivity and specificity of PCT and CRP for predicting infection were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: There were 98 ICU patients with diagnoses of intracerebral hemorrhage. The median (interquartile range) PCT levels of patients with infectious and central fever were 4 (0.9-11) and 0.1 (0.1-0.4) ng/ml, respectively, with a statistically significant intergroup difference (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for predicting infectious or central fever PCT and CRP were 0.958 (P < 0.001) and 0.816 (P < 0.001), respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was detected between PCT and CRP levels in patients with infectious fever (rho: 0.461; P = 0.003), but not in patients with central fever. CONCLUSIONS: PCT can possibly be used as a biomarker to differentiate between infectious and central fever among ICU patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Fever/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Fever/microbiology , Intensive Care Units
Infectio ; 23(2): 133-142, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989944


Resumen Introducción: La procalcitonina (PCT) es una prohormona de la calcitonina, producida por las células C de la glándula tiroides y convertida intracelularmente por enzimas proteolíticas en la hormona activa. La producción de PCT durante procesos inflamatorios, está ligada a endotoxinas bacterianas y a citoquinas inflamatorias. La mortalidad por sepsis, depende en gran medida de la detección precoz y del inicio de una terapia adecuada, incluyendo la administración de antibióticos apropiados, sin embargo, no está claro si el rendimiento diagnóstico de la PCT en el contexto de la nueva definición de sepsis en el tercer consenso es igual que con la definición previa. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que describieran el uso de PCT dentro de las primeras 24 horas de admisión, como prueba diagnóstica de sepsis. Se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos de Medline (Pubmed) y Embase. La calidad metodológica se evaluó según la Colaboración Cochrane en el desarrollo de Revisiones Sistemáticas sobre Test de Análisis para la herramienta QUADAS-II. El sesgo de publicación fue estudiado con el Test de Asimetría de Deeks. Se usó el módulo de MIDAS de STATA 14 para el análisis univariado y la construcción de la Curva de ROC. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 2076 registros (783 de Medline y 1293 de Embase). De los 12 estudios seleccionados, se incluyeron un total de 1353 pacientes, con una prevalencia en los estudios revisados entre el 9% y 88%, con un promedio del 47%. La Sensibilidad agrupada fue 0,83% (IC95% (0,74-0,89)) y la Especificidad fue 0,84% (IC95%(0,76-0,89)). El área bajo la Curva fue 0,90 (IC95%(0,87-0,92)). La heterogeneidad entre los estudios es importante I2 88% (IC95%(77-100)). Existe un sesgo de publicación según el test de Deek, con resultado P=0,04. En el análisis sobre la Probabilidad Post test según el nomograma de Fagan, es del 56%, teniendo en cuenta una probabilidad pretest del 20% según el LR positivo 5. Conclusión: La PCT es una prueba diagnóstica con buen rendimiento para sepsis o shock séptico, en pacientes adultos, no gestantes. Aunque hay sesgo de publicación y una gran heterogeneidad en los resultados, la prueba se considera adecuada para el escenario de sepsis según las nuevas definiciones.

Abstract Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a prohormone of calcitonin, produced by cells C of the thyroid gland and intracellurarly cleaved by proteolytic enzymes into the active hormone. The production of PCT during inflammatory process, is linked with a bacterial endotoxin and with inflammatory cytokines. Mortality due to sepsis, depends to a large extent on a early detection and early start of adecuade therapy, that includes giving appropriate antibiotics. It´s no clear if the PTC diagnostic performance is the same in the context of the definition of the third consensus as in the previous definition. Methods: Studies describing the use of PCT within the frst 24 hours of admission as a diagnostic test for sepsis were included. We searched the Medline (Pubmed) and Embase databases. The methodological quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration in the development of Systematic Reviews on Analysis Test for the QUADAS-II tool. The publication bias was studied with the Deeks Asymmetry Test. The MIDAS module of STATA 14 was used for the univariate analysis and the construction of the ROC Curve. Results: 2076 records were obtained (783 from Medline and 1293 from Embase). Of the 12 selected studies, a total of 1353 patients were included, with a prevalence in the studies reviewed between 9% and 88%, with an average of 47%. The pooled sensitivity was 0.83% (CI 95% (0.74-0.89)) and the Specificity was 0.84% (CI 95% (0.76-0.89)). The area under the Curve was 0.90 (CI 95% (0.87-0.92)). Heterogeneity between the studies is important I2 88% (CI 95%(77-100)). There is a publication bias according to the Deek test, with a result of P = 0.04. In the analysis on the post test Probability according to the Fagan nomogram, it is 56%, taking into account a pretest probability of 20% according to the positive LR 5. Conclusions: PCT is a diagnostic test with good performance for sepsis or septic shock, in adult patients, not pregnant. Although there is publication bias and great heterogeneity in the results, the test is considered adequate for the sepsis setting according to the new definitions.

Male , Female , Adult , Shock, Septic , Sepsis , Procalcitonin , Peptide Hydrolases , Thyroid Gland , Calcitonin , Cytokines , Nomograms , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endotoxins , Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents