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An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 97-104, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380451


El adenocarcinoma pancreático ductal (APD) es la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer y se proyecta que para el 2030 ocupe el segundo lugar. El pronóstico es sombrío, siendo la sobrevida menor a 9% en 5 años. Se consideró durante mucho tiempo a la resección quirúrgica como el único tratamiento curativo, sin embargo, sólo el 15 a 20% de los pacientes pueden ser beneficiados con la misma. La clasificación pre terapéutica más utilizada es la del National Comprehensive Cáncer Network (NCCN), basada en la relación del tumor con estructuras vasculares, clasificándolos en tumores "resecables", de resección límite "Borderlines" y "localmente avanzados". Se presenta el primer caso registrado en Paraguay de APD con infiltración de la Vena Mesentérica Superior (VMS) tratado con duodenopancreatectomía cefálica (DPC) asociada a resección vascular mayor.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and is projected to rank second by 2030. The prognosis is bleak, with survival being less than 9% in 5 years. For a long time, surgical resection was considered the only curative treatment, however, only 15 to 20% of patients can benefit from it. The most widely used pre-therapeutic classification is that of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), based on the relationship of the tumor with vascular structures, classifying them into "resectable", "borderline" and "locally advanced" tumors. We present the first registered case in Paraguay of PDA with infiltration of the Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) treated with cephalic duodenopancreatectomy (CPD) associated with major vascular resection.

Adenocarcinoma , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Proctectomy/methods
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936070


Objective: To summarize short-term postoperative complications of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) in the treatment of middle-low rectal cancer. Methods: A descriptive case series of cases was constructed. Clinical data of consecutive 83 patients with mid-low rectal cancer who received taTME treatment from November 2016 to April 2021 at Department of General Surgery of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were collected. Among 83 patients, 58 (69.9%) were males, with a mean age of (61.4±11.8) years; 42 (50.6%) were low rectal cancer, 41 (49.4%) were middle rectal cancer. Short-term postoperative complication was defined as complication occurring within 30 days after operation. The complication was graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. At the same time, the morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the first 40 patients and that in the last 43 patients were compared to understand the differences before and after passing the taTME learning curve. Results: Two patients (2.5%) were converted to laparotomy ; 78 (94.0%) completed anastomosis.While 5 (6.0%) underwent permanent stoma. The total operation time of transabdominal+ transanal procedure was (246.9±85.0) minutes, and the median intraoperative blood loss was 100 (IQR: 100) ml. Seventy-five cases (75 /78, 96.2%) underwent defunctioning stoma, including 74 cases of diverting ileostomy, 1 case of diverting transverse colostomy and 3 cases without stoma. The morbidity of complication within 30 days after operation was 38.6% (32/83), and the morbidity of complication after discharge was 8.4% (7/83). Minor complications accounted for 31.3% (26/83) and major complications accounted for 7.2% (6/83). No patient died within 30 days after operation. The incidence of anastomotic leakage was 15.4% (12/78). Eight patients (9.6%) were hospitalized again due to complications after discharge. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 (IQR: 3) days. All the patients with minor (I-II) complications received conservative treatment. One patient with grade C anastomotic leakage was transferred to intensive care unit and received a second operation due to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. Two patients with paralytic ileus (Clavien-Dindo IIIa) underwent endoscopic ileus catheter placement. There were 3 patients with Clavien-Dindo III or above respiratory complications, including 1 patient with pleural effusion and ultrasound-guided puncture, 2 patients with respiratory failure who were improved and discharged after anti-infection and symptomatic treatment. One patient underwent emergency ureteral stent implantation due to urinary infection (Clavien-Dindo IIIb). The morbidity of postoperative complication in the first 40 cases was 50.0% (20/40), and that in the latter 43 cases decreased significantly (27.9%, 12/43), whose difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.270, P=0.039). Conclusions: The procedure of taTME has an acceptable morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the treatment of mid-low rectal cancer. The accumulation of surgical experience plays an important role in reducing the morbidity of postoperative complication.

Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 411-418, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356428


Introduction: Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has revolutionized the surgical techniques for lower-third rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcomes of quality indicators of TaTME for rectal cancer compared with laparoscopic TME (LaTME). Methods: A cohort prospective study with 50 (14 female and 36male) patients, with a mean age of 67 (range: 55.75 to 75.25) years, who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. In total, 20 patients underwent TaTME, and 30, LaTME. Every TaTME procedure was performed by experienced colorectal surgeons. The sample was divided into two groups (TaTME and LaTME), and the quality indicators of the surgery for rectal cancer were analyzed. Results: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the patients and the main characteristics of the tumor (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, body mass index [BMI], tumoral stage, neoadjuvant therapy, and distance from the tumor to the external anal margin) between the two groups. The rates of: postoperativemorbidity (TaTME: 35%; LaTME: 30%; p=0.763);mortality (0%); anastomotic leak (TaTME: 10%; LaTME: 13%; p=0.722); wound infection (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.409); reoperation (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 6.6%; p=0.808); and readmission (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 0%; p=0.400), as well as the length of the hospital stay (TaTME: 13.5 days; LaTME: 11 days; p=0.538), were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of positive circumferential resection margin (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.989) and positive distal resection margin (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.400), the completeness of the TME (TaTME: 100%; LaTME: 100%), and the number of lymph nodes harvested (TaTME: 15; LaTME: 15.5; p=0.882) between two groups. Conclusion: Transanal total mesorectal excision is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for middle/lower-third rectal cancer. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Laparoscopy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 131-137, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286993


Abstract Background Colorectal resection anastomosis is the commonest cause of rectal strictures. Anastomotic site ischemia, incomplete doughnuts from stapled anastomosis and pelvic infection, are some of the risk factors that play a role in the development of postoperative rectal strictures. However, the role of diverting stoma in the development of rectal strictures has not been studied extensively. Objectives To study the difference in the occurrence of anastomotic strictures (AS) in patients submitted to low anterior resection (LAR) with covering ileostomy (CI), and to LAR without CI for carcinoma rectum. Methods This was a prospective, comparative case control study carried out at a tertiary care referral center. Low anterior resection with covering ileostomy was performed in patients with rectum carcinoma in the study group, while LAR without covering ileostomy was performed in the control group. The study group had 29 patients, while the control group had 33 patients with rectum carcinoma. Results During themean follow-up period of 9.1months, 8 (28%) patients in the study group and 2 (6%) patients in the control group developed AS (p =0.019). Out of these 8 patients with AS in the study group, 50% had Grade-I AS, 25% had Grade-II AS, while 25% of the patients had Grade-III (severe) AS. However, both patients who developed AS in the control group had a mild type (Grade I) of AS. Conclusion Covering ileostomy increases the chances of AS formation after LAR for rectum carcinoma. Also, the SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures is a simple and

Resumo Introdução A anastomose de ressecção colorretal é a causa mais comum de estenoses retais. A isquemia do local da anastomose, donuts (anéis) incompletos de anastomose grampeada e infecção pélvica são alguns dos fatores de risco que desempenham um papel no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais pós-operatórias. No entanto, o papel do estoma de desvio no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais não foi estudado extensivamente. Objetivos Estudar a diferença na ocorrência de estenoses anastomóticas (EA) em pacientes submetidos à ressecção anterior baixa (LAR) com ileostomia de proteção e a LAR sem ileostomia de proteção para carcinoma de reto. Métodos Este foi um estudo prospectivo e comparativo de caso-controle realizado em um centro de referência de atenção terciária. A ressecção anterior baixa com ileostomia de proteção foi realizada em pacientes com carcinoma de reto no grupo de estudo, enquanto LAR sem ileostomia de proteção foi realizada no grupo controle. O grupo de estudo tinha 29 pacientes, enquanto o grupo controle tinha 33 pacientes com carcinoma de reto. Resultados Durante o período de acompanhamento médio de 9, 1 meses, 8 (28%) pacientes no grupo de estudo e 2 (6%) pacientes no grupo controle desenvolveram EA (p=0,019). Destes 8 pacientes com EA no grupo de estudo, 50% tinham EA de Grau I, 25% tinhamEA de Grau II, enquanto 25% dos pacientes tinham EA de Grau III (grave). No entanto, ambos os pacientes que desenvolveram EA no grupo de controle tinham um tipo leve (Grau I) de EA. Conclusão A ileostomia de proteção aumenta as chances de formação de AS após LAR para carcinoma de reto. Além disso, o SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures é uma ferramenta simples e útil disponível para cada cirurgião para graduar, classificar e monitorar as estenoses retais pós-operatórias.

Humans , Anastomosis, Surgical , Ileostomy , Proctectomy , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum/surgery , Carcinoma , Anastomotic Leak
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 42-46, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286973


Abstract Introduction Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the third leading cause ofmortality due to cancers. Anastomosis leak after proctectomy is a dangerous complication that must be managed carefully. The aim of the present study was to assess the procedure of resection and pull-through of the new rectum after anastomosis leak in patients after proctectomy. Methods and Materials This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who visited the Firoozgar Hospital between 2015 and 2018 for rectal cancer surgery and had anastomosis leak entered the study. All patients underwent resection of the residue of rectum and pull-through of colon. Results In the present study, out of the 110 cases who underwent proctectomy, 12 patients with postoperative anastomosis leak were reported. Five (41.7%) were male and 7 (58.3%) were female. Themean age of the patients was 41.5 ± 4.3 years (33-51). Resection of the new rectum and pull-through anastomosis were performed for these 12 patients. No major intraoperative complication occurred. Postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Discussion Resection of residue of rectum and pull-through in patients with anastomosis leak can be done after rectal cancer surgery. This method is superior to abdominopelvic resection in many aspects, especially regarding accessibility to the new rectum by rectal exam or endosonography to assess recurrence or a relative continence after closure of ostomy.

Resumo Introdução O câncer colorretal é o segundo tipo de câncer mais comum, e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade por câncer. O vazamento da anastomose após a proctectomia é uma complicação perigosa, que deve ser tratada com cuidado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o procedimento de ressecção e abaixamento do novo reto após vazamento de anastomose em pacientes submetidos à proctectomia. Métodos e Materiais Este foi um estudo transversal que incluiu pacientes que compareceram ao Firoozgar Hospital entre 2015 e 2018 submetidos a cirurgia de câncer retal e com vazamento de anastomose. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a ressecção do resíduo do reto e abaixamento do cólon. Resultados No presente estudo, dos 110 casos submetidos a proctectomia, 12 pacientes tiveram vazamento de anastomose pós-operatório: 5 (41,7%) do sexo masculino e 7 (58,3%) do sexo feminino. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 41,5 ± 4,3 anos (gama: 33 a 51 anos). A ressecção do reto novo e a anastomose por abaixamento foram realizadas nesses 12 pacientes. Nenhuma complicação intraoperatória mais grave ocorreu. No pós-operatório, não houve intercorrências em nenhum dos pacientes. Discussão A ressecção de resíduo retal e o abaixamento em pacientes com vazamento de anastomose pode ser feita após cirurgia de câncer retal. Este método é superior à ressecção abdominopélvica em muitos aspectos, especialmente quanto à acessibilidade ao novo reto por exame retal ou endossonografia para avaliar a recorrência ou uma continência relativa após o fechamento da ostomia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Rectum/surgery , Treatment Failure , Colon/surgery , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/complications , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 37-41, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286962


Abstract Introduction The incidence of stomal prolapse ranges from 2% to 22%. The risk factors include colostomy, the short length of the stoma, obesity, emergency surgery, and the improper (or even absence of) marking of the preoperative site for the stoma. Complicated stomal prolapse associated with severe mucosal irritation, ischemic changes, or bleeding requires surgical intervention. Objective To describe the use of the Altemeier technique in the management of cases of complicated prolapsed stoma after failure of the local medical measures and manual reduction. Methods Case series of three patients with past history of abdominoperineal resection of rectal cancer and permanent end colostomy presented with irreducible prolapse of the stoma. After the failure of the local measures and manual reduction, urgent surgical intervention using the modified Altemeier technique was necessary. Results The modified Altemeier technique is simple, presents low risk of operative and postoperative complications, besides enabling an early recovery, with a lower risk of recurrence during the first 6 months after the repair. Conclusion Themodified Altemeier technique may be a valid therapeutic modality in the setting of complicated prolapsed stoma.

Resumo Introdução A incidência de prolapso de estoma varia de 2 a 22%. Os fatores de risco incluem colostomia, comprimento curto do estoma, obesidade, cirurgias de emergência, e marcação não adequada (ou atémesmo ausente) do sítio pré-operatório para o estoma. Prolapso de estoma complicado e associado a irritação grave de mucosa, alterações isquêmicas, ou sangramento requer intervenção cirúrgica. Objetivo Descrever o uso da técnica de Altemeier para o manejo de prolapso de estoma complicado após fracasso das medidas médicas locais e da redução manual. Métodos Série de casos de três pacientes com histórico de ressecção abdominoperineal de câncer retal e colostomia terminal permanente apresentaram prolapso irredutível do estoma. Com o fracasso das medidas locais e da redução manual, fezse necessária intervenção cirúrgica de emergência usando a técnica de Altemeier modificada. Resultados A técnica de Altemeier modificada é simples e apresenta risco baixo de complicações operatórias e pós-operatórias, além de possibilitar uma recuperação precoce, com menor risco de recorrência durante os 6 primeiros meses após o reparo. Conclusão A técnica de Altemeier modificada pode ser uma modalidade terapêutica válida em casos de prolapso de estoma complicado.

Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942990


Objective: To compare the morbidity of perineum-related complication between biological mesh and primary closure in closing pelvic floor defects following extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE). Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP database, and China Biological Medicine database for published clinical researches on perineum-related complications following ELAPE between January 2007 and August 2020. Literature inclusion criteria: (1) study subjects: patients undergoing ELAPE with rectal cancers confirmed by colonoscopy pathological biopsy or surgical pathology; (2) study types: randomized controlled studies or observational studies comparing the postoperative perineum-related complications between the two groups (primary perineal closure and reconstruction with a biological mesh) following ELAPE; (3) intervention measures: biological mesh reconstruction used as the treatment group, and primary closure used as the control group; (4) outcome measures: the included literatures should at least include one of the following postoperative perineal complications: overall perineal wound complications, perineal wound infection, perineal wound dehiscence, perineal hernia, chronic sinus, chronic perineal pain (postoperative 12-month), urinary dysfunction and sexual dysfunction. Literature exclusion criteria: (1) data published repeatedly; (2) study with incomplete or wrong original data and unable to obtain original data. Two reviewers independently performed screening, data extraction and assessment on the quality of included studies. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. The mobidities of perineum-related complications, including overall perineal wound (infection, dehiscence, hernia, chronic sinus) and perineal chronic pain (postoperative 12-month), were compared between the two pelvic floor reconstruction methods. Finally, publication bias was assessed, and sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the stability of the results. Results: A total of five studies, including two randomized controlled studies and three observational controlled studies, with 650 patients (399 cases in the biological mesh group and 251 cases in primary closure group) were finally included. Compared with primary closure, biological mesh reconstruction had significantly lower ratio of perineal hernia (RR=0.37, 95%CI: 0.21-0.64, P<0.001). No significant differences in ratios of overall perineal wound complication, perineal wound infection, perineal wound dehiscence, perineal chronic sinus and perineal chronic pain (postoperative 12-month) were found between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Compared with primary closure, pelvic floor reconstruction following ELAPE with biological mesh has the advantage of a lower incidence of perineal hernia.

Humans , Pelvic Floor/surgery , Perineum/surgery , Proctectomy , Rectum/surgery , Surgical Mesh
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942950


As a novel surgical technique, taTME has developed rapidly in recent years. TaTME inevitably attracts some skepticism on safety, efficacy, and indication. First, the controversies over taTME are mainly reflected on the safety and effectiveness of taTME. On one hand, the increase of surgical complications, such as urethral injury, CO2 embolism, anastomotic leakage and pelvic infection, has raised concerns about the safety of taTME. Second, the poor quality of taTME specimens, the increased local recurrence rate and the impaired anal function after taTME, also make people question the effectiveness of taTME. Third, there are more or less controversies in the selection of taTME cases, surgical procedures and cost-effectiveness. However, it can not be denied that taTME has a promising future in view of both surgical theory and clinical practice. Furthermore, taTME is a relatively safe and effective supplementary surgical procedure, especially for patients with low rectal cancer. We should attach more importance to structured training for beginners and conduct high-quality clinical studies in the future development of taTME in China, so as to ensure the safe implementation of taTME and obtain high-level evidence-based medicine evidence, and then standardize the clinical practice of taTME.

Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942942


Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is one of the hotspots in colorectal surgery in recent years. Although most studies confirm that taTME is safe and feasible, some studies still showed that the morbidity of complication and local recurrence rate of taTME were higher than traditional laparoscopic surgery. This article reviews and analyzes the short-term and long-term outcomes of taTME and the related progress of postoperative function. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the main short-term and long-term efficacy between taTME and traditional laparoscopic TME, but taTME had potential advantages in postoperative functional recovery. The results of case study after passing the learning curve suggested that taTME had better short-term and long-term efficacy. Moreover, with the maturity of taTME technology, transanal endoscopic surgery has gradually shown its advantages in the treatment of complex pelvic diseases. In the future, the application of single-port robot will further promote the development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic colorectal surgery.

Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942930


The difficulty of transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) is to find the correct dissection plane of perirectal space. As a complex new surgical procedure, the fascial anatomic landmarks of transanal approach operation are more likely to be ignored. It is often found that dissection plane is false after the secondary injury occurs during the operation, which results in the damage of pelvic autonomic nerves. Meanwhile, the mesorectum is easily damaged if the dissection plane is too close to the rectum. Thus, the safety of oncologic outcomes could be limited by difficulty achieving adequate TME quality. The promotion and development of the theory of perirectal fascial anatomy provides a new thought for researchers to design a precise approach for transanal endoscopic surgery. Transanal total mesorectal excision based on fascial anatomy offers a solution to identify the transanal anatomic landmarks precisely and achieves pelvic autonomic nerve preservation. In this paper, the authors focus on the surgical experience of transanal total mesorectal excision based on the theory of perirectal fascial anatomy, and discuss the feature of perirectal fascial anatomy dissection and technique of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation during transanal approach operation.

Autonomic Pathways/surgery , Humans , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942915


Anastomotic leak is one of inevitable postoperative complications of rectal cancer. With the improvement of surgical techniques, the enhancement of the cognization of rectal cancer, and the development of surgical instruments, surgical procedures of rectal cancer are getting more sophisticated. The anastomosis is performed lower and lower, however the incidence of anastomotic leak is not significantly decreased. In addition, different from intraperitoneal anastomotic leak, the low rectal anastomotic leak after low anterior resection has many special issues in the diagnosis and treatment in clinic. The incidence of peritonitis caused by low anastomotic leak is low, the onset time is late, and symptoms of peritonitis are mild. So most low anastomotic leak is treated conservatively, second surgical repair or resection of anastomotic site is rarely performed, and proximal intestinal diversion is commonly performed. In the prevention of low anastomotic leak, some techniques and precautions during the perioperative period and identification of high risk factors might play important roles. Combined our clinical experiences, we introduced the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and research progression of low anastomotic leak after anterior resection of low rectal cancer, we hope it would be helpful.

Anastomosis, Surgical , Anastomotic Leak/diagnosis , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942897


Straight coloanal anastomosis (SCA), colonic J-pouch anastomosis (CJP), transverse coloplasty pouch anastomosis (TCP), and side-to-end anastomosis (SEA) are the most commonly used procedures of bowel reconstructions in the low anterior resections (LAR) of rectal cancer. Different bowel reconstruction procedures greatly affect postoperative bowel function, urinary function and sexual function. SCA is the most traditional procedure. CJP has been studied extensively and well-developed reconstruction method; however, recent studies have shown that CJP has the highest morbidity of complications, so the clinical application of CJP is limited. SEA is not inferior to CJP and SCA in the short-term and long-term defecation function, urination function, and sexual function, with reliable operational safety, so it is expected to become an alternative to SCA and CJP. The research on TCP is lacking, but there are some related clinical trials currently underway, and the results are worth expecting. The improvement and innovation of bowel reconstructions provide a bright prospect for better functional prognosis in patients with rectal cancer.

Anal Canal , Anastomosis, Surgical , Colon/surgery , Colonic Pouches , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Humans , Proctectomy , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942860


Located in the pelvic cavity and contiguous to the anal sphincter complex and urogenital organs, the rectum has more intricate anatomical features compared with the colon. Consequently, the treatment of rectal cancer involves more consideration, including pelvic radiation, lateral lymph node dissection, transanal access, postoperative function, sphincter preservation, and nonoperative management. Based on the last set of American society of colon and rectal surgeons (ASCRS) practice parameters for the management of rectal cancer published in 2013, the 2020 guidelines present evidence-based updates for both long-existing and emerging controversies on surgical management of rectal cancer. These updates include the indication for local resection, lymph node dissection for radical proctectomy, minimally invasive surgery, the "watch and wait" strategy for patients with clinical complete response, and prevention of anastomotic leak. Meanwhile, the guidelines recommend a risk-stratified approach for perioperative therapies for non-metastatic disease, and an individualized multimodality treatment based on treatment intent for synchronous metastatic disease.

Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/surgery , United States
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20213007, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340674


ABSTRACT Background: laparoscopy surgery has many proven clinical advantages over conventional surgery and more recently, robotic surgery has been the emerging platform in the minimally invasive era. In the colorectal field, although overcoming limitations of standard laparoscopy, robotic surgery still faces challenging situations even by the most experienced colorectal surgeons. This study reports essentials technical aspects and comparison between Da Vincis Si and Xi platforms aiming to master and maximize efficiency whenever performing robotic colorectal surgery. Methods: this study overviews the most structured concepts and practical applications in robotic colorectal surgery in both Si and Xi Da Vinci platforms. Possible pitfalls are emphasized and step-wise approach is described from port placement and docking process to surgical technique. We also present data collected from a prospectively maintained database. Results: our early experience includes forty-four patients following a standardized total robotic left-colon and rectal resection. Guided information and practical applications for a safe and efficient robotic colorectal surgery are described. We also present illustrations and describe technical aspects of a standardized procedure. Conclusion: performing robotic colorectal surgery is feasible and safe in experienced surgeons hands. Although the Da Vinci Xi platform demonstrates greater versatility in a more user-friendly design with technological advances, the correct mastery of technology by the surgical team is an essential condition for its fully robotic execution in a single docking approach.

RESUMO Introdução: a cirurgia laparoscópica demonstrou vantagens sobre a cirurgia convencional e, mais recentemente, a cirurgia robótica tem sido a plataforma emergente na era cirúrgica minimamente invasiva. Na prática colorretal, embora supere as limitações da laparoscopia, a cirurgia robótica ainda enfrenta situações desafiadoras, mesmo diante de cirurgiões colorretais experientes. Este estudo relata aspectos técnicos essenciais e comparação entre as plataformas Si e Xi Da Vinci com o objetivo de auxiliar e maximizar a eficiência na realização de cirurgia robótica colorretal regrada. Métodos: este estudo apresenta uma visão geral dos conceitos essenciais e aplicações práticas em cirurgia robótica colorretal nas plataformas Da Vinci Si e Xi. As potenciais dificuldades são enfatizadas e uma abordagem em etapas é descrita desde a colocação dos portais e seu processo de docking até a técnica cirúrgica. Também apresentamos brevemente dados coletados de um banco de dados mantido de forma prospectiva. Resultados: nossa experiência inicial inclui quarenta e quatro pacientes submetidos à cirurgia totalmente robótica padronizada na ressecção colônica e retal. Informações e aplicações práticas para uma cirurgia robótica colorretal segura e eficiente são descritas. Também são apresentadas ilustrações e dados breves da experiência. Conclusão: a cirurgia robótica colorretal é viável e segura nas mãos de cirurgiões experientes, no entanto ainda enfrenta desafios. Apesar da plataforma Da Vinci Xi demonstrar maior versatilidade em um design mais amigável com avanços tecnológicos, o correto domínio da tecnologia pela equipe cirúrgica é condição essencial para sua execução totalmente robótica em etapa única.

Humans , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Laparoscopy , Colorectal Surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Proctectomy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 311-314, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143185


ABSTRACT Parastomal Hernia (PSH) is a common complication of patient who undergone ostomy especially end colostomy. Presence of hernia defect is associated with the risk of strangulation and obstruction so understanding the potential risk factor such as patient's factor and technical issues is important. This study is evaluating the incidence of PSH hernia in patients who undergone end colostomy due to Abdominoperineal Resection (APR) in a tertiary colorectal surgery referral center and explore the possible risk factors of this complication. The study was designed as a retrospective cross sectional study on 41 patients who undergone end colostomy due to APR. Three patient lost the follow up and 13 patients died and 25 patients were enrolled in study. Demographic data, history of smoking, steroid administration, Diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, transfusion, Neoadjuvant therapy, wound infection and Body mass Index (BMI) were gathered. The mean age of participants was 58.8 and the mean BMI was 25.04 kg/m2. The incidence of PSH was 40% and 68% of operations were done with Laparoscopy. This study could not find statistically significant risk factor for PSH. The 40% incidence of PSH is noticeable and specific strategies should be applied to reduce such complications. Larger studies is essential to investigate the possible etiologies of this complication.

RESUMO A hérnia paraestomal é uma complicação comum em pacientes submetidos a estomia, especialmente a colostomia terminal. A presença de defeito de hérnia está associada ao risco de estrangulamento e obstrução, portanto, é importante compreender o potencial fator de risco, como o fator do paciente e questões técnicas. Este estudo avalia a incidência de hérnia paraestomal em pacientes submetidos à colostomia terminal devido à ressecção abdominoperineal em um centro terciário de referência em cirurgia colorretal e explorar os possíveis fatores de risco dessa complicação. O desenho do estudo foi transversal retrospectivo de 41 pacientes submetidos à colostomia terminal devido à ressecção abdominoperineal. Três pacientes foram perdidos no seguimento, 13 pacientes morreram, e 25 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Dados demográficos, história de tabagismo, administração de esteroides, diabetes, doença pulmonar obstrutiva, transfusão, terapia neoadjuvante, infecção de ferida operatória e Índice de Massa Corporal foram coletados. A média de idade dos participantes foi 58,8 e o índice de massa corporal médio foi 25,04 kg/m2. A incidência de hérnia paraestomal foi de 40% e 68% das cirurgias foram realizadas por laparoscopia. Este estudo não encontrou fator de risco estatisticamente significativo para hérnia paraestomal. A incidência de 40% de hérnia paraestomal é perceptível e estratégias específicas devem ser aplicadas para reduzir tais complicações. Estudos maiores são essenciais para investigar as possíveis etiologias dessa complicação.

Humans , Male , Female , Colostomy/adverse effects , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Hernia/physiopathology
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 386-389, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143174


ABSTRACT We report on the management of three cases of rectal stump leak and sepsis following urgent Hartmann's procedure for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis or large bowel obstruction. Two patients had significant risk factors for poor tissue healing. All patients developed features of sepsis and computer tomography scans demonstrated rectal stump leak with adjacent collections. All patients required reoperation for drainage and washout of abscess. An intraperitoneal catheter system was introduced together with drains in order to continue on the ward until tract was formed. There was no mortality and minimal morbidity. The key to management of rectal stump leak is the early and aggressive drainage of the associated collection and continued irrigation of the stump.

RESUMO Relatamos o tratamento de três casos de vazamento de coto retal e sepse após o procedimento de urgente de Hartmann para diverticulite sigmoide perfurada ou obstrução do intestino grosso. Dois pacientes apresentaram fatores de risco significativos para uma má cicatrização tecidual. Todos os pacientes desenvolveram características de sepse e tomografia computadorizada demonstraram vazamento de coto retal com coleções adjacentes. Todos os pacientes necessitaram de reoperação para drenagem e lavagem do abscesso. Um sistema de cateter intraperitoneal foi introduzido junto com os drenos para continuar na enfermaria até a formação do trato. Não houve mortalidade e morbidade mínima. A chave para o gerenciamento do vazamento de coto retal é a drenagem precoce e agressiva da coleta associada e a irrigação contínua do coto.

Humans , Male , Aged , Sigmoid Diseases/pathology , Diverticulitis, Colonic/pathology , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Drainage/methods
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(2): 144-149, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092906


Resumen En este artículo se discute el origen del concepto ELAPE ( extralevator abdominoperineal excision) en el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer del recto bajo, las variantes técnicas asociadas con la resección "cilíndrica", las indicaciones actuales, las limitaciones técnicas asociadas y los resultados publicados en la literatura mundial. Considerando la evidencia actual se propone la utilización en casos seleccionados de acuerdo al estudio clínico y por imágenes, donde la resonancia magnética de la pelvis tiene un rol predominante. La técnica tradicional de la amputación abdominoperineal (comúnmente asociada a Miles) se mantiene como una alternativa válida en el manejo quirúrgico de algunos pacientes con un tumor localmente avanzado del recto bajo.

This article discusses the origin of the ELAPE concept (abdominoperineal excision extralevator) in the surgical treatment of low rectal cancer, the technical variants associated with "cylindrical" resection, current indications, associated technical limitations and the results published in the world literature Considering the current evidence, the use is proposed in selected cases according to the clinical study and imaging, where the magnetic resonance of the pelvis has a predominant role. The traditional abdominal-perineal amputation technique (commonly associated with Miles) remains a valid alternative in the surgical management of some patients with a locally advanced tumor of the lower rectum.

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Proctectomy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 50-55, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090839


Abstract Background: Transanal total mesorectal excision is a surgical technique for minimally invasive resection of the rectum and perirectal tissues. It is indicated for patients with medial and distal rectum cancer confined to the mesorectal envelope. This study describes a series of patients undergoing transanal total mesorectal excision. Methods: Ten patients were selected to undergo transanal total mesorectal excision using the SILS-Port® platform. All patients included here had middle or low rectal cancer. Abdominal access for proximal colon mobilization was performed by laparoscopy in all cases. As a rule, in 9 of the 10 cases, the surgical specimen was removed transanally. Result:s During a 41-month period, 10 patients underwent transanal total mesorectal excision based on curative intent. The first indication for transanal total mesorectum excision was medial and distal rectal cancer, locally invasive and confined to the mesortal envelope. The median age of patients with rectal cancer at the time of surgery was 61 years (mean 59.4 years, range 22-78 years), with 80% (8) female and 20% (2) male. The median surgical time was 305' (mean 314', range 260-420'). The median postoperative length of stay was five days (average of 7.3 days, interval of 3-23 days). There was no postoperative mortality. Surgical complications included postoperative ileus (n = 1), bladder paresis (n = 1), and ileostomy stenosis (n = 1). All patients had negative surgical margins for neoplasia and more than 12 resected lymph nodes. The tumors were between 1 and 9 cm from the anal margin. Conclusion: Total transanal mesorectal excision has been shown to be a viable method for oncologic resection of locally advanced rectal cancer with curative intent.

Resumo Contexto: A excisão total do mesorreto por via transanal é uma aborgadem crânio-caudal para a realização de ressecção minimamente invasiva do reto e tecidos perirretais em monobloco. É adequada para pacientes com câncer de reto médio e distal confinados ao envelope mesorretal. Aqui relatamos uma série de pacientes submetidos à excisão total do mesorreto por via transanal. Métodos: Dez pacientes foram selecionados para serem submetidos à excisão total do mesorreto por via transanal utilizando a plataforma SILS-Port®. Todos os pacientes eram portadores de câncer retal de localização extraperitoneal. O acesso abdominal para mobilização do cólon proximal, em todos os casos, foi realizado por laparoscopia. Como regra, a retirada do espécime cirúrgico, em nove casos, ocorreu por via transanal. Resultados: Durante um período de 41 meses, 10 pacientes foram submetidos à excisão total do mesorreto por via transanal com intenção curativa. A indicação primária para excisão total do mesorreto transanal foi o câncer de reto médio e distal, localmente invasor, mas confinado ao envelope mesorretal. A mediana de idade dos pacientes com câncer de reto no momento da cirurgia foi de 61 anos (média de 59,4 anos, faixa de 22-78 anos), sendo 80% (8) do sexo feminino e 20% (2) do sexo masculino. A mediana do tempo cirúrgico foi de 305' (média de 314', intervalo de 260-420'). A mediana do tempo de permanência pós-operatória foi de cinco dias (média de 7,3 dias, intervalo de 3-23 dias). Não houve mortalidade pós-operatória. As complicações cirúrgicas incluíram íleo paralítico (n = 1), paresia vesical (n = 1) e estenose de ileostomia (n = 1). Todos os pacientes tiveram margens cirúrgicas negativas para neoplasia e mais de 12 linfonodos ressecados. Os tumores distavam de 1 a 9 cm da margem anal. Conclusão: A excisão total do mesorreto transanal demonstrou-se um método viável para a ressecção oncológica de câncer de reto localmente avançado com intenção curativa.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery , Proctectomy
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 31(1): 21-27, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102171


Introducción: El tratamiento del carcinoma anal escamoso (CAE) en los pacientes HIV positivos resulta controvertido. Si bien las guías actuales recomiendan realizar en los pacientes con buen estado inmunológico la quimiorradioterapia (QRT) concurrente estándar, algunos autores consideran que estos pacientes presentan mayor toxicidad y peores resultados a largo plazo, por lo que requerirían un abordaje diferente. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los resultados del tratamiento del CAE en los pacientes VIH positivos y negativos. Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo comparativo. Pacientes y métodos: Se revisaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de los pacientes tratados en el Sector Coloproctología, Hospital Fernández, entre 01/2007 y 10/2018. Los del conducto anal se dividieron en: Grupo I: VIH negativos y Grupo II: VIH positivos. Se compararon variables demográficas, factores de riesgo específicos, estadificación, QRT (drogas, toxicidad y respuesta), tratamiento quirúrgico curativo/paliativo, persistencia/recurrencia y supervivencia específica y global. Resultados: Se incluyeron 28 pacientes (18 mujeres); margen: 2, conducto: 26 (Grupo I: 15. Grupo II: 11). Los VIH positivos eran en su mayoría hombres que tienen sexo con hombres vs. 100% de mujeres VIH negativas (p<0,01), más jóvenes (45,2±0,9 vs. 63,6±8; p<0,01) y tabaquistas (82% vs. 27%; p=0,005). No hubo diferencia significativa en la estadificación, aunque el Grupo II tuvo tumores con complicaciones más severas. Pudieron completar el tratamiento: Grupo I: 93%, Grupo II: 64% (p<0,05). Tuvieron respuesta completa a la QRT 13/14 (93%) pacientes del Grupo I y 3/7 (43%) del Grupo II (p<0,01). Hubo 3 recurrencias, 2 locorregionales y 1 a distancia (p=NS). Los VIH positivos requirieron más cirugías (82% vs. 27%; p<0,01). A 5 pacientes (4 del Grupo II) se les realizó una resección abdominoperineal (RAP). Tuvieron colostomía definitiva, con o sin RAP, el 46% de los pacientes, la mayoría VIH positivos (82% vs. 27%; p=0,002). En los VIH positivos el RR de mortalidad por cáncer fue 4 (IC95%: 1,01-16,5; p=0,02) y el RR de mortalidad global fue 5,45 (IC95%: 1,42-20,8; p=0,002). Tuvieron menor supervivencia, tanto global (p=0,001) como libre de enfermedad (p=0,01). Mediana de seguimiento: 27 meses (4-216).Conclusiones: Los pacientes VIH positivos con CAE se diferenciaron de los VIH negativos en una menor tasa de respuesta completa a la QRT y una mayor necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico. Además, tuvieron una supervivencia global y libre de enfermedad significativamente menor que los VIH negativos. (AU)

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in HIV-positive patients is controversial. Although current guidelines recommend performing standard concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with good immune status, some authors believe that these patients have greater toxicity and worse long-term results, so they would require a different approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of SCC treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.DESIGN: Comparative retrospective study.PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of patients treated in the Coloproctology Section, Hospital Fernández, between 01/2007 and 10/2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Those of the anal canal were divided into: Group I: HIV-negative and Group II: HIV-positive. Demographic variables, specific risk factors, staging, CRT (drugs, toxicity, and response), curative/palliative surgical treatment, persistence/recurrence, and cancer-specific and global survival were compared.RESULTS: 28 patients (18 women), margin: 2, conduit: 26 (Group I: 15. Group II: 11). The HIV-positive were mostly men who have sex with men (vs. 100% HIV-negative women; p<0.01), younger (45.2 ± 0.9 vs. 63.6 ± 8; p<0.01) and smokers (82% vs. 27%; p=0.005). There was no significant difference in staging, although Group II had tumors with more severe complications. Completed the treatment: Group I: 93%, Group II: 64% of patients (p<0,05). Thirteen out of 14 (93%) patients in Group I, and 3/7 (43%) patients in Group II had a complete response to CRT (p<0.01). There were 3 recurrences, 2 loco-regional and 1 distance (p=NS). HIV-positive required more surgery (82% vs. 27%; p<0.01). 5 patients (4 of Group II) underwent an abdominal-perineal resection (APR). Forty six percent of patients had permanent colostomy, with or without APR, most of them were HIV-positive (82% vs. 27%; p=0.002). In HIV-positive patients, the RR of cancer mortality was 4 (95% CI: 1.01-16.5; p=0.02) and the RR of overall mortality was 5.45 (95% CI: 1.42-20, 8; p=0.002). They also had lower overall (p=0.001) and disease-free survival (p=0.01). Median follow-up: 27 months (4 - 216).CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients with anal SCC were different from HIV-negative patients in that they had a lower complete response rate to CRT, and a greater need for surgical treatment. They had a significantly lower overall and disease-free survival than HIV-negative patients. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anus Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Chemoradiotherapy , Anus Neoplasms/surgery , Anus Neoplasms/complications , Anus Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Proctectomy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1507, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130531


ABSTRACT Background: Abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APR) remains the only potential curative treatment for very low rectal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Yet, it implies a significant perineal exenteration and has set the attention on the perineal reconstruction. Aim: To present technique used in one case of APR for anal cancer, with resection of the vaginal posterior wall with large perineal defect which has called for the necessity of a flap for reconstruction Method: To cover the large perineal defect and reconstruct the posterior vaginal wall was perform a standardized and reproducible surgical technique using oblique rectus abdominis myocutaneous (ORAM) flap. The overlying skin of this flap is thick and well vascularized by both superficial branches and perforators of the superior epigastric artery and the deep inferior epigastric artery which serves as the vascular pedicle for the ORAM flap. Results: This procedure was applied in a 65-year-old woman with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the anus infiltrating the posterior wall of the vagina. Was performed an APR with en-bloc resection of the vaginal posterior wall in order to achieve tumor-free margins. Postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged home at postoperative day 9. Final pathological report confirmed the oncological adequacy of the procedure (R0) and showed a rypT4N0 lesion. Conclusion: Flap reconstruction is an effective way to cover the perineal wound reducing both perineal complication rate and wound healing delay. The ORAM is particularly interesting for female whose tumors require resection and subsequent reconstruction of the posterior wall of the vagina.

RESUMO Racional: A amputação abdominoperineal do reto (APR) continua sendo o único tratamento curativo nos casos de adenocarcinoma retal muito baixo e carcinoma espinocelular do ânus. No entanto, implica em exenteração perineal significativa e exige atenção na reconstrução perineal. Objetivo: Propor, ilustrando com um caso clinico, proposta de APR para câncer anal com ressecção da parede posterior da vagina com cobertura do grande defeito perineal através de reconstrução com retalho miocutâneo oblíquo do reto abdominal (ORAM). Método: Para cobrir o defeito e reconstruir a parede vaginal posterior, realizou-se técnica de retalho miocutâneo oblíquo do reto abdominal (ORAM). A pele subjacente desse retalho por ser espessa e bem vascularizada por ramos perforantes superficiais da artéria epigástrica superior e pela artéria epigástrica inferior profunda serviu como pedículo vascular. Resultado: Este procedimento foi aplicado em uma mulher de 65 anos com recidiva de carcinoma espinocelular do ânus infiltrado na parede posterior da vagina. Foi realizada APR com ressecção em bloco da parede posterior vaginal com o objetivo de obter margens livres de tumor. O pós-operatório transcorreu sem intercorrências e a paciente recebeu alta hospitalar no 9° dia pós-operatório. O relatório patológico final confirmou a adequação oncológica do procedimento (R0) e mostrou uma lesão rypT4N0 de 6,5 cm. Conclusão: A reconstrução perineal com utilização de retalho é maneira eficaz de fechar a ferida operatória, reduzindo a taxa de complicações perineais e o atraso na cicatrização. O retalho de tipo ORAM é particularmente interessante para mulheres cujos tumores requerem ressecção e subsequente reconstrução da parede posterior da vagina.

Humans , Female , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Myocutaneous Flap , Proctectomy , Perineum/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Rectus Abdominis/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local