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1.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 625-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986830

ABSTRACT

Because the classification system of radical surgery for rectal cancer has not been established, it is impossible to select the appropriate surgical method according to the clinical stage of the tumor. In this paper, we explained the theory of " four fasciae and three spaces " of pelvic membrane anatomy and then combined this theory with the membrane anatomical basis of Querleu-Morrow classification for radical cervical cancer resection. Based on this theory and the membrane anatomy of Querleu-Morrow classification of radical cervical cancer resection, we proposed a new classification system of radical rectal cancer surgery based on membrane anatomy according to the lateral lymph node dissection range of the rectum. This system classifies the surgery into four types (ABCD) and defines corresponding subtypes based on whether the autonomic nerve was preserved. Among them, type A surgery is total mesorectal excision (TME) with urogenital fascia preservation, type B surgery is classical TME, type C surgery is extended TME, and type D surgery is lateral extended resection. This classification system unifies the anatomical terminology of the pelvic membrane, validates the feasibility of using the " four fasciae and three fascial spaces " theory to classify rectal cancer surgery, and lays the theoretical foundation for the future development of a unified and standardized classification of radical pelvic tumor surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Pelvis/innervation , Proctectomy
2.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 603-606, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986826

ABSTRACT

Transanal total mesorectal resection (taTME) has come a long way since it was first used in the clinic in 2010.The learning curve of this procedure is long due to different surgical approaches, different perspectives and different anatomical positions. Many surgeons experience complications during this procedure. Although the advantages and problems of this procedure have been reported in much literature, the anatomy and operation methods of taTME introduced in literatures and training centers are too complicated, which makes many surgeons encounter difficulties in carrying out taTME surgery. According to the author's experience in learning and carrying out this operation, spatial expansion process of ultralow rectal cancer was divided into three stages. At each stage, according to different pulling forces, three different schemes of triangular stability mechanics model were adopted for separation. From point to line, from line to plane, the model can protect the safety of peripheral blood vessels and nerves while ensuring total mesorectal excision . This model simplifies the complex surgical process and is convenient for beginners to master taTME surgical separation skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 595-602, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986825

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the long-term outcomes of intersphincteric (trans-internal and external) sphincter resection (ISR) and abdominoperineal proctocolectomy (APR) for low-grade rectal cancer. Methods: We used a meta-analytic approach to compare these procedures . Published reports comparing ISR and APR for low rectal cancer in Pubmed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane, China Knowledge Network (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database, and Vipers databases between January 2005 and January 2023 were searched and those meeting the eligibility criteria were selected for extraction of data for analysis. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) all reports comparing ISR and APR for low rectal cancer before January 2023; and (2) prospective randomized controlled studies or well-designed cohort studies. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) full text not available; (2) duplicate publications, missing primary outcome indicators, and unknown data; and (3) invalid statistical analysis. Results: Sixteen studies with 2498 patients were included in this study. Compared with the APR group, patients in the ISR group were relatively younger (weighted mean difference [WMD]=-1.82, 95%CI=-2.94 to -0.70, P=0.01), had tumors farther from the anal verge (WMD=0.43, 95%CI=0.18 to 0.67, P<0.01), and lower pathological T-stage (T3-4 stage: OR=0.54, 95%CI=0.36 to 0.81, P<0.01). In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in gender (P=0.78), body mass index (P=0.77), or pathological N stage (P=0.09). Compared with the APR group, patients in the ISR group had a lower rate of postoperative complications (OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.60 to 0.99, P=0.04), shorter hospital stay (WMD=-4.30, 95%CI=-7.07 to -1.53, P<0.01), higher 5-year overall survival (HR=0.54, 95%CI=0.33 to 0.88, P=0.01), and higher 5-year disease-free survival (HR=0.65, 95%CI=0.47 to 0.90, P<0.01). Five-year locoregional failure (HR=0.66, 95%CI=0.40 to 1.10, P=0.11) and time to surgery (WMD=-9.71, 95%CI=-41.89 to 22.47, P=0.55) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: ISR is a safe and effective alternative to APR for early-stage low-grade rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/surgery , Proctectomy , Anal Canal/pathology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 578-587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To document the anatomical structure of the area anterior to the anorectum passing through the levator hiatus between the levator ani slings bilaterally. Methods: Three male hemipelvises were examined at the Laboratory of Clinical Applied Anatomy, Fujian Medical University. (1) The anatomical assessment was performed in three ways; namely, by abdominal followed by perineal dissection, by examining serial cross-sections, and by examining median sagittal sections. (2) The series was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to enable identification of nerves, vessels, and smooth and striated muscles. Results: (1) It was found that the rectourethralis muscle is closest to the deep transverse perineal muscle where the longitudinal muscle of the rectum extends into the posteroinferior area of the membranous urethra. The communicating branches of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) were identified at the posterior edge of the rectourethralis muscle on both sides. The rectum was found to be fixed to the membranous urethra through the rectourethral muscle, contributing to the anorectal angle of the anterior rectal wall. (2) Serial cross-sections from the anal to the oral side were examined. At the level of the external anal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle of the rectum was found to extend caudally and divide into two muscle bundles on the oral side of the external anal sphincter. One of these muscle bundles angled dorsally and caudally, forming the conjoined longitudinal muscle, which was found to insert into the intersphincteric space (between the internal and external anal sphincters). The other muscle bundle angled ventrally and caudally, filling the gap between the external anal sphincter and the bulbocavernosus muscle, forming the perineal body. At the level of the superficial transverse perineal muscle, this small muscle bundle headed laterally and intertwined with the longitudinal muscle in the region of the perineal body. At the level of the rectourethralis and deep transverse perineal muscle, the external urethral sphincter was found to occupy an almost completely circular space along the membranous part of the urethra. The dorsal part of the external urethral sphincter was found to be thin at the point of attachment of the rectourethralis muscle, the ventral part of the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. We identified a venous plexus from the NVB located close to the oral and ventral side of the deep transverse perineal muscle. Many vascular branches from the NVB were found to be penetrating the longitudinal muscle and the ventral part of rectourethralis muscle at the level of the apex of the prostate. The rectourethral muscle was wrapped ventrally around the membranous urethra and apex of the prostate. The boundary between the longitudinal muscle and prostate gradually became more distinct, being located at the anterior end of the transabdominal dissection plane. (3) Histological examination showed that the dorsal part of the external urethral sphincter (striated muscle) is thin adjacent to the striated muscle fibers from the deep transverse perineal muscle and the NVB dorsally and close by. The rectourethral muscle was found to fill the space created by the internal anal sphincter, deep transverse perineal muscle, and both levator ani muscles. Many tortuous vessels and tiny nerve fibers from the NVB were identified penetrating the muscle fibers of the deep transverse perineal and rectourethral muscles. The structure of the superficial transverse perineal muscle was typical of striated muscle. These findings were reconstructed three-dimensionally. Conclusions: In intersphincteric resection or abdominoperineal resection for very low rectal cancer, the anterior dissection plane behind Denonvilliers' fascia disappears at the level of the apex of the prostate. The prostate and both NVBs should be used as landmarks during transanal dissection of the non-surgical plane. The rectourethralis muscle should be divided near the rectum side unless tumor involvement is suspected. The superficial and deep transverse perineal muscles, as well as their supplied vessels and nerve fibers from the NVB. In addition, the cutting direction should be adjusted according to the anorectal angle to minimize urethral injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rectum/surgery , Anal Canal/anatomy & histology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy , Urethra/surgery
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 486-492, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985788

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the patterning cropped and shaped mesh repair for perineal hernia after abdominoperineal excision (APE) in rectal cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 8 patients with perineal hernia after APE who accepted surgical treatment in the Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary and Hernia Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from March 2017 to December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 3 males and 5 females, aged (67.6±7.2) years (range: 56 to 76 years). Eight patients developed a perineal mass at (11.3±2.9) months (range: 5 to 13 months) after APE. After surgical separation of adhesion and exposing the pelvic floor defect, a 15 cm×20 cm anti-adhesion mesh was fashioned as a three-dimensional pocket shape to fit the pelvic defect, then fixed to the promontory or sacrum and sutured to the pelvic sidewalls and the anterior peritoneum, while two side slender slings were tailored in front of the mesh and fixed on the pectineal ligament. Results: The repair of their perineal hernias went well, with an operating time of (240.6±48.8) minutes (range: 155 to 300 minutes). Five patients underwent laparotomy, 3 patients tried laparoscopic surgery first and then transferred to laparotomy combined with the perineal approach. Intraoperative bowel injury was observed in 3 patients. All patients did not have an intestinal fistula, bleeding occurred. No reoperation was performed and their preoperative symptoms improved significantly. The postoperative hospital stay was (13.5±2.9) days (range: 7 to 17 days) and two patients had postoperative ileus, which improved after conservative treatment. Two patients had a postoperative perineal hernia sac effusion, one of them underwent placement of a tube to puncture the hernia sac effusion due to infection, and continued irrigation and drainage. The postoperative follow-up was (34.8±14.0) months (range: 13 to 48 months), and 1 patient developed recurrence in the seventh postoperative month, no further surgery was performed. Conclusions: Surgical repair of the perineal hernia after APE can be preferred transabdominal approach, routine application of laparoscopy is not recommended, combined abdominoperineal approach can be considered if necessary. The perineal hernia after APE can be repaired safely and effectively using the described technique of patterning cropped and shaped mesh repair.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Animals , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Surgical Mesh , Retrospective Studies , Hernia, Abdominal/surgery , Hernia , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy , Laparoscopy , Perineum/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Incisional Hernia/surgery , Hominidae
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 56-60, Jan.-Mar. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430690

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In current clinical practice, immediate coloanal anastomosis (ICA) remains the standard technique for restoring the gastrointestinal tract following coloproctectomy for low rectal cancer. This anastomosis still requires a temporary diverting stoma to decrease the postoperative morbidity, which remains significantly high. As an alternative, some authors have proposed a two-stage delayed coloanal anastomosis (TS-DCA). This article reports on the surgical technique of TS-DCA. Methods: The case described is of a 53-year-old woman, without any particular history, in whom colonoscopy motivated by rectal bleeding revealed an adenocarcinoma of the low rectum. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor ~ 1 cm above the puborectalis muscle, graded cT3N +. The extension workup was negative. Seven weeks after chemoradiotherapy, a coloproctectomy with total mesorectal excision (TME) was performed. A TS-DCA was chosen to restore the digestive tract. Conclusion: Two-stage delayed coloanal anastomosis is a safe and effective alternative for restoring the digestive tract after proctectomy for low rectal cancer. Recent data seem to show a clear advantage of this technique in terms of morbidity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Colon/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Proctectomy
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 97-104, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380451

ABSTRACT

El adenocarcinoma pancreático ductal (APD) es la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer y se proyecta que para el 2030 ocupe el segundo lugar. El pronóstico es sombrío, siendo la sobrevida menor a 9% en 5 años. Se consideró durante mucho tiempo a la resección quirúrgica como el único tratamiento curativo, sin embargo, sólo el 15 a 20% de los pacientes pueden ser beneficiados con la misma. La clasificación pre terapéutica más utilizada es la del National Comprehensive Cáncer Network (NCCN), basada en la relación del tumor con estructuras vasculares, clasificándolos en tumores "resecables", de resección límite "Borderlines" y "localmente avanzados". Se presenta el primer caso registrado en Paraguay de APD con infiltración de la Vena Mesentérica Superior (VMS) tratado con duodenopancreatectomía cefálica (DPC) asociada a resección vascular mayor.


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death and is projected to rank second by 2030. The prognosis is bleak, with survival being less than 9% in 5 years. For a long time, surgical resection was considered the only curative treatment, however, only 15 to 20% of patients can benefit from it. The most widely used pre-therapeutic classification is that of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), based on the relationship of the tumor with vascular structures, classifying them into "resectable", "borderline" and "locally advanced" tumors. We present the first registered case in Paraguay of PDA with infiltration of the Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) treated with cephalic duodenopancreatectomy (CPD) associated with major vascular resection.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Proctectomy/methods
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 235-241, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936070

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize short-term postoperative complications of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) in the treatment of middle-low rectal cancer. Methods: A descriptive case series of cases was constructed. Clinical data of consecutive 83 patients with mid-low rectal cancer who received taTME treatment from November 2016 to April 2021 at Department of General Surgery of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were collected. Among 83 patients, 58 (69.9%) were males, with a mean age of (61.4±11.8) years; 42 (50.6%) were low rectal cancer, 41 (49.4%) were middle rectal cancer. Short-term postoperative complication was defined as complication occurring within 30 days after operation. The complication was graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. At the same time, the morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the first 40 patients and that in the last 43 patients were compared to understand the differences before and after passing the taTME learning curve. Results: Two patients (2.5%) were converted to laparotomy ; 78 (94.0%) completed anastomosis.While 5 (6.0%) underwent permanent stoma. The total operation time of transabdominal+ transanal procedure was (246.9±85.0) minutes, and the median intraoperative blood loss was 100 (IQR: 100) ml. Seventy-five cases (75 /78, 96.2%) underwent defunctioning stoma, including 74 cases of diverting ileostomy, 1 case of diverting transverse colostomy and 3 cases without stoma. The morbidity of complication within 30 days after operation was 38.6% (32/83), and the morbidity of complication after discharge was 8.4% (7/83). Minor complications accounted for 31.3% (26/83) and major complications accounted for 7.2% (6/83). No patient died within 30 days after operation. The incidence of anastomotic leakage was 15.4% (12/78). Eight patients (9.6%) were hospitalized again due to complications after discharge. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 (IQR: 3) days. All the patients with minor (I-II) complications received conservative treatment. One patient with grade C anastomotic leakage was transferred to intensive care unit and received a second operation due to sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. Two patients with paralytic ileus (Clavien-Dindo IIIa) underwent endoscopic ileus catheter placement. There were 3 patients with Clavien-Dindo III or above respiratory complications, including 1 patient with pleural effusion and ultrasound-guided puncture, 2 patients with respiratory failure who were improved and discharged after anti-infection and symptomatic treatment. One patient underwent emergency ureteral stent implantation due to urinary infection (Clavien-Dindo IIIb). The morbidity of postoperative complication in the first 40 cases was 50.0% (20/40), and that in the latter 43 cases decreased significantly (27.9%, 12/43), whose difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.270, P=0.039). Conclusions: The procedure of taTME has an acceptable morbidity of short-term postoperative complication in the treatment of mid-low rectal cancer. The accumulation of surgical experience plays an important role in reducing the morbidity of postoperative complication.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Operative Time , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 411-418, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356428

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has revolutionized the surgical techniques for lower-third rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcomes of quality indicators of TaTME for rectal cancer compared with laparoscopic TME (LaTME). Methods: A cohort prospective study with 50 (14 female and 36male) patients, with a mean age of 67 (range: 55.75 to 75.25) years, who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. In total, 20 patients underwent TaTME, and 30, LaTME. Every TaTME procedure was performed by experienced colorectal surgeons. The sample was divided into two groups (TaTME and LaTME), and the quality indicators of the surgery for rectal cancer were analyzed. Results: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the patients and the main characteristics of the tumor (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, body mass index [BMI], tumoral stage, neoadjuvant therapy, and distance from the tumor to the external anal margin) between the two groups. The rates of: postoperativemorbidity (TaTME: 35%; LaTME: 30%; p=0.763);mortality (0%); anastomotic leak (TaTME: 10%; LaTME: 13%; p=0.722); wound infection (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.409); reoperation (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 6.6%; p=0.808); and readmission (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 0%; p=0.400), as well as the length of the hospital stay (TaTME: 13.5 days; LaTME: 11 days; p=0.538), were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of positive circumferential resection margin (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.989) and positive distal resection margin (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.400), the completeness of the TME (TaTME: 100%; LaTME: 100%), and the number of lymph nodes harvested (TaTME: 15; LaTME: 15.5; p=0.882) between two groups. Conclusion: Transanal total mesorectal excision is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for middle/lower-third rectal cancer. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Proctectomy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Laparoscopy
10.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 272-279, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388835

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las cirugías con preservación de esfínter tienen como consecuencia el desarrollo de una disfunción defecatoria con diferentes grados, la cual es conocida como síndrome de resección anterior baja (LARS) y es medida con el cuestionario LARS Score. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación del cuestionario EuroQol-5 (calidad de vida) con los diferentes grados de LARS Score. Materiales y Método: Estudio de tipo transversal, aplicando el cuestionario LARS Score y EuroQol-5 a pacientes operados por cáncer de recto medio y bajo, durante el periodo 2004-2017. Se realiza análisis demográfico y del tipo de cirugía. Para determinar asociaciones entre variables se utilizan diferentes pruebas estadísticas, considerando significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se encuestó a 54 pacientes, 62,16% hombres, promedio de edad 58,44 años, el 37,03% presentó LARS Mayor. Los índices promedio de calidad de vida para pacientes No LARS es 0,75, para LARS Menor es 0,69 y para LARS Mayor es 0,61, la diferencia entre índices presenta un valor p = 0,246. 46,3% presenta problemas en actividades habituales. LARS Mayor presenta un Odd-Ratio de 3,8 y 4,7 para dolor/malestar y angustia/depresión respectivamente. 70% de los pacientes con LARS Mayor presentaron resección total del mesorrecto (TME) y el 45% corresponde a menores de 65 años. Discusión: No existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los índices de calidad de vida según LARS Score. LARS Mayor tiene mayor posibilidad de desarrollar algún grado de dolor/malestar y angustia/depresión. El porcentaje de LARS Mayor es acorde a lo publicado y la TME es uno de los factores de mayor impacto en el desarrollo de LARS. Conclusiones: El LARS Score se relaciona de manera no significativa con el índice de calidad de vida entregado por el cuestionario EuroQol-5D, existiendo una tendencia a disminuir la calidad de vida a medida que empeora el LARS.


Introduction: Sphincter-sparing surgeries result in the development of a defecatory dysfunction with different degrees, which is known as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) and is measured with the LARS Score questionnaire. Objective: To determine the association of the EuroQol-5 questionnaire with the different degrees of LARS Score. Materials and Method: Crosssectional study, applying the LARS Score and EuroQol-5 questionnaire to patients operated with low and middle rectal cancer, during the period 2004-2017. Demographic analysis and type of surgery are performed. Different statistical tests are used to determine associations between variables, considering a significant p value < 0.05. Results: 54 patients were surveyed, 62.16% men, mean age 58.44 years, 37.03% presented Mayor-LARS. The average quality of life indices for Non-LARS patients is 0.75, for Minor-LARS is 0.69 and for Mayor-LARS is 0.61, the difference between indices presents a p value = 0.246. 46.3% present problems in habitual activities. LARS Mayor presents an Odd-Ratio of 3.8 and 4.7 for pain/discomfort and anguish/depression respectively. 70% of patients with LARS Mayor presented SMT and 45% corresponded to those under 65 years of age. Discussion: There is no statistically significant difference between the quality of life indices according to the LARS Score. Mayor-LARS is more likely to develop some degree of Pain/Discomfort and anguish/depression. The percentage of Mayor-LARS is according to what has been published and the TME is one of the factors with the greatest impact on the development of LARS. Conclusion: The LARS Score is non-significantly related to the quality of life index provided by the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, and there is a tendency to decrease quality of life as the LARS worsens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Low Anterior Resection Syndrome/psychology , Postoperative Period , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy/psychology
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 131-137, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286993

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Colorectal resection anastomosis is the commonest cause of rectal strictures. Anastomotic site ischemia, incomplete doughnuts from stapled anastomosis and pelvic infection, are some of the risk factors that play a role in the development of postoperative rectal strictures. However, the role of diverting stoma in the development of rectal strictures has not been studied extensively. Objectives To study the difference in the occurrence of anastomotic strictures (AS) in patients submitted to low anterior resection (LAR) with covering ileostomy (CI), and to LAR without CI for carcinoma rectum. Methods This was a prospective, comparative case control study carried out at a tertiary care referral center. Low anterior resection with covering ileostomy was performed in patients with rectum carcinoma in the study group, while LAR without covering ileostomy was performed in the control group. The study group had 29 patients, while the control group had 33 patients with rectum carcinoma. Results During themean follow-up period of 9.1months, 8 (28%) patients in the study group and 2 (6%) patients in the control group developed AS (p =0.019). Out of these 8 patients with AS in the study group, 50% had Grade-I AS, 25% had Grade-II AS, while 25% of the patients had Grade-III (severe) AS. However, both patients who developed AS in the control group had a mild type (Grade I) of AS. Conclusion Covering ileostomy increases the chances of AS formation after LAR for rectum carcinoma. Also, the SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures is a simple and


Resumo Introdução A anastomose de ressecção colorretal é a causa mais comum de estenoses retais. A isquemia do local da anastomose, donuts (anéis) incompletos de anastomose grampeada e infecção pélvica são alguns dos fatores de risco que desempenham um papel no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais pós-operatórias. No entanto, o papel do estoma de desvio no desenvolvimento de estenoses retais não foi estudado extensivamente. Objetivos Estudar a diferença na ocorrência de estenoses anastomóticas (EA) em pacientes submetidos à ressecção anterior baixa (LAR) com ileostomia de proteção e a LAR sem ileostomia de proteção para carcinoma de reto. Métodos Este foi um estudo prospectivo e comparativo de caso-controle realizado em um centro de referência de atenção terciária. A ressecção anterior baixa com ileostomia de proteção foi realizada em pacientes com carcinoma de reto no grupo de estudo, enquanto LAR sem ileostomia de proteção foi realizada no grupo controle. O grupo de estudo tinha 29 pacientes, enquanto o grupo controle tinha 33 pacientes com carcinoma de reto. Resultados Durante o período de acompanhamento médio de 9, 1 meses, 8 (28%) pacientes no grupo de estudo e 2 (6%) pacientes no grupo controle desenvolveram EA (p=0,019). Destes 8 pacientes com EA no grupo de estudo, 50% tinham EA de Grau I, 25% tinhamEA de Grau II, enquanto 25% dos pacientes tinham EA de Grau III (grave). No entanto, ambos os pacientes que desenvolveram EA no grupo de controle tinham um tipo leve (Grau I) de EA. Conclusão A ileostomia de proteção aumenta as chances de formação de AS após LAR para carcinoma de reto. Além disso, o SKIMS Clinical Grading of Rectal Strictures é uma ferramenta simples e útil disponível para cada cirurgião para graduar, classificar e monitorar as estenoses retais pós-operatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anastomosis, Surgical , Ileostomy , Proctectomy , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum/surgery , Carcinoma , Anastomotic Leak
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 37-41, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The incidence of stomal prolapse ranges from 2% to 22%. The risk factors include colostomy, the short length of the stoma, obesity, emergency surgery, and the improper (or even absence of) marking of the preoperative site for the stoma. Complicated stomal prolapse associated with severe mucosal irritation, ischemic changes, or bleeding requires surgical intervention. Objective To describe the use of the Altemeier technique in the management of cases of complicated prolapsed stoma after failure of the local medical measures and manual reduction. Methods Case series of three patients with past history of abdominoperineal resection of rectal cancer and permanent end colostomy presented with irreducible prolapse of the stoma. After the failure of the local measures and manual reduction, urgent surgical intervention using the modified Altemeier technique was necessary. Results The modified Altemeier technique is simple, presents low risk of operative and postoperative complications, besides enabling an early recovery, with a lower risk of recurrence during the first 6 months after the repair. Conclusion Themodified Altemeier technique may be a valid therapeutic modality in the setting of complicated prolapsed stoma.


Resumo Introdução A incidência de prolapso de estoma varia de 2 a 22%. Os fatores de risco incluem colostomia, comprimento curto do estoma, obesidade, cirurgias de emergência, e marcação não adequada (ou atémesmo ausente) do sítio pré-operatório para o estoma. Prolapso de estoma complicado e associado a irritação grave de mucosa, alterações isquêmicas, ou sangramento requer intervenção cirúrgica. Objetivo Descrever o uso da técnica de Altemeier para o manejo de prolapso de estoma complicado após fracasso das medidas médicas locais e da redução manual. Métodos Série de casos de três pacientes com histórico de ressecção abdominoperineal de câncer retal e colostomia terminal permanente apresentaram prolapso irredutível do estoma. Com o fracasso das medidas locais e da redução manual, fezse necessária intervenção cirúrgica de emergência usando a técnica de Altemeier modificada. Resultados A técnica de Altemeier modificada é simples e apresenta risco baixo de complicações operatórias e pós-operatórias, além de possibilitar uma recuperação precoce, com menor risco de recorrência durante os 6 primeiros meses após o reparo. Conclusão A técnica de Altemeier modificada pode ser uma modalidade terapêutica válida em casos de prolapso de estoma complicado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 42-46, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286973

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the third leading cause ofmortality due to cancers. Anastomosis leak after proctectomy is a dangerous complication that must be managed carefully. The aim of the present study was to assess the procedure of resection and pull-through of the new rectum after anastomosis leak in patients after proctectomy. Methods and Materials This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who visited the Firoozgar Hospital between 2015 and 2018 for rectal cancer surgery and had anastomosis leak entered the study. All patients underwent resection of the residue of rectum and pull-through of colon. Results In the present study, out of the 110 cases who underwent proctectomy, 12 patients with postoperative anastomosis leak were reported. Five (41.7%) were male and 7 (58.3%) were female. Themean age of the patients was 41.5 ± 4.3 years (33-51). Resection of the new rectum and pull-through anastomosis were performed for these 12 patients. No major intraoperative complication occurred. Postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Discussion Resection of residue of rectum and pull-through in patients with anastomosis leak can be done after rectal cancer surgery. This method is superior to abdominopelvic resection in many aspects, especially regarding accessibility to the new rectum by rectal exam or endosonography to assess recurrence or a relative continence after closure of ostomy.


Resumo Introdução O câncer colorretal é o segundo tipo de câncer mais comum, e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade por câncer. O vazamento da anastomose após a proctectomia é uma complicação perigosa, que deve ser tratada com cuidado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o procedimento de ressecção e abaixamento do novo reto após vazamento de anastomose em pacientes submetidos à proctectomia. Métodos e Materiais Este foi um estudo transversal que incluiu pacientes que compareceram ao Firoozgar Hospital entre 2015 e 2018 submetidos a cirurgia de câncer retal e com vazamento de anastomose. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a ressecção do resíduo do reto e abaixamento do cólon. Resultados No presente estudo, dos 110 casos submetidos a proctectomia, 12 pacientes tiveram vazamento de anastomose pós-operatório: 5 (41,7%) do sexo masculino e 7 (58,3%) do sexo feminino. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 41,5 ± 4,3 anos (gama: 33 a 51 anos). A ressecção do reto novo e a anastomose por abaixamento foram realizadas nesses 12 pacientes. Nenhuma complicação intraoperatória mais grave ocorreu. No pós-operatório, não houve intercorrências em nenhum dos pacientes. Discussão A ressecção de resíduo retal e o abaixamento em pacientes com vazamento de anastomose pode ser feita após cirurgia de câncer retal. Este método é superior à ressecção abdominopélvica em muitos aspectos, especialmente quanto à acessibilidade ao novo reto por exame retal ou endossonografia para avaliar a recorrência ou uma continência relativa após o fechamento da ostomia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Rectum/surgery , Treatment Failure , Colon/surgery , Proctectomy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/complications , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 910-918, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942990

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the morbidity of perineum-related complication between biological mesh and primary closure in closing pelvic floor defects following extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE). Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP database, and China Biological Medicine database for published clinical researches on perineum-related complications following ELAPE between January 2007 and August 2020. Literature inclusion criteria: (1) study subjects: patients undergoing ELAPE with rectal cancers confirmed by colonoscopy pathological biopsy or surgical pathology; (2) study types: randomized controlled studies or observational studies comparing the postoperative perineum-related complications between the two groups (primary perineal closure and reconstruction with a biological mesh) following ELAPE; (3) intervention measures: biological mesh reconstruction used as the treatment group, and primary closure used as the control group; (4) outcome measures: the included literatures should at least include one of the following postoperative perineal complications: overall perineal wound complications, perineal wound infection, perineal wound dehiscence, perineal hernia, chronic sinus, chronic perineal pain (postoperative 12-month), urinary dysfunction and sexual dysfunction. Literature exclusion criteria: (1) data published repeatedly; (2) study with incomplete or wrong original data and unable to obtain original data. Two reviewers independently performed screening, data extraction and assessment on the quality of included studies. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. The mobidities of perineum-related complications, including overall perineal wound (infection, dehiscence, hernia, chronic sinus) and perineal chronic pain (postoperative 12-month), were compared between the two pelvic floor reconstruction methods. Finally, publication bias was assessed, and sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the stability of the results. Results: A total of five studies, including two randomized controlled studies and three observational controlled studies, with 650 patients (399 cases in the biological mesh group and 251 cases in primary closure group) were finally included. Compared with primary closure, biological mesh reconstruction had significantly lower ratio of perineal hernia (RR=0.37, 95%CI: 0.21-0.64, P<0.001). No significant differences in ratios of overall perineal wound complication, perineal wound infection, perineal wound dehiscence, perineal chronic sinus and perineal chronic pain (postoperative 12-month) were found between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Compared with primary closure, pelvic floor reconstruction following ELAPE with biological mesh has the advantage of a lower incidence of perineal hernia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Floor/surgery , Perineum/surgery , Proctectomy , Rectum/surgery , Surgical Mesh
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 727-734, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942950

ABSTRACT

As a novel surgical technique, taTME has developed rapidly in recent years. TaTME inevitably attracts some skepticism on safety, efficacy, and indication. First, the controversies over taTME are mainly reflected on the safety and effectiveness of taTME. On one hand, the increase of surgical complications, such as urethral injury, CO2 embolism, anastomotic leakage and pelvic infection, has raised concerns about the safety of taTME. Second, the poor quality of taTME specimens, the increased local recurrence rate and the impaired anal function after taTME, also make people question the effectiveness of taTME. Third, there are more or less controversies in the selection of taTME cases, surgical procedures and cost-effectiveness. However, it can not be denied that taTME has a promising future in view of both surgical theory and clinical practice. Furthermore, taTME is a relatively safe and effective supplementary surgical procedure, especially for patients with low rectal cancer. We should attach more importance to structured training for beginners and conduct high-quality clinical studies in the future development of taTME in China, so as to ensure the safe implementation of taTME and obtain high-level evidence-based medicine evidence, and then standardize the clinical practice of taTME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 672-677, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942942

ABSTRACT

Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is one of the hotspots in colorectal surgery in recent years. Although most studies confirm that taTME is safe and feasible, some studies still showed that the morbidity of complication and local recurrence rate of taTME were higher than traditional laparoscopic surgery. This article reviews and analyzes the short-term and long-term outcomes of taTME and the related progress of postoperative function. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the main short-term and long-term efficacy between taTME and traditional laparoscopic TME, but taTME had potential advantages in postoperative functional recovery. The results of case study after passing the learning curve suggested that taTME had better short-term and long-term efficacy. Moreover, with the maturity of taTME technology, transanal endoscopic surgery has gradually shown its advantages in the treatment of complex pelvic diseases. In the future, the application of single-port robot will further promote the development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic colorectal surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
17.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 593-598, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942930

ABSTRACT

The difficulty of transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) is to find the correct dissection plane of perirectal space. As a complex new surgical procedure, the fascial anatomic landmarks of transanal approach operation are more likely to be ignored. It is often found that dissection plane is false after the secondary injury occurs during the operation, which results in the damage of pelvic autonomic nerves. Meanwhile, the mesorectum is easily damaged if the dissection plane is too close to the rectum. Thus, the safety of oncologic outcomes could be limited by difficulty achieving adequate TME quality. The promotion and development of the theory of perirectal fascial anatomy provides a new thought for researchers to design a precise approach for transanal endoscopic surgery. Transanal total mesorectal excision based on fascial anatomy offers a solution to identify the transanal anatomic landmarks precisely and achieves pelvic autonomic nerve preservation. In this paper, the authors focus on the surgical experience of transanal total mesorectal excision based on the theory of perirectal fascial anatomy, and discuss the feature of perirectal fascial anatomy dissection and technique of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation during transanal approach operation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autonomic Pathways/surgery , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 493-497, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942915

ABSTRACT

Anastomotic leak is one of inevitable postoperative complications of rectal cancer. With the improvement of surgical techniques, the enhancement of the cognization of rectal cancer, and the development of surgical instruments, surgical procedures of rectal cancer are getting more sophisticated. The anastomosis is performed lower and lower, however the incidence of anastomotic leak is not significantly decreased. In addition, different from intraperitoneal anastomotic leak, the low rectal anastomotic leak after low anterior resection has many special issues in the diagnosis and treatment in clinic. The incidence of peritonitis caused by low anastomotic leak is low, the onset time is late, and symptoms of peritonitis are mild. So most low anastomotic leak is treated conservatively, second surgical repair or resection of anastomotic site is rarely performed, and proximal intestinal diversion is commonly performed. In the prevention of low anastomotic leak, some techniques and precautions during the perioperative period and identification of high risk factors might play important roles. Combined our clinical experiences, we introduced the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and research progression of low anastomotic leak after anterior resection of low rectal cancer, we hope it would be helpful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anastomosis, Surgical , Anastomotic Leak/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 372-376, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942897

ABSTRACT

Straight coloanal anastomosis (SCA), colonic J-pouch anastomosis (CJP), transverse coloplasty pouch anastomosis (TCP), and side-to-end anastomosis (SEA) are the most commonly used procedures of bowel reconstructions in the low anterior resections (LAR) of rectal cancer. Different bowel reconstruction procedures greatly affect postoperative bowel function, urinary function and sexual function. SCA is the most traditional procedure. CJP has been studied extensively and well-developed reconstruction method; however, recent studies have shown that CJP has the highest morbidity of complications, so the clinical application of CJP is limited. SEA is not inferior to CJP and SCA in the short-term and long-term defecation function, urination function, and sexual function, with reliable operational safety, so it is expected to become an alternative to SCA and CJP. The research on TCP is lacking, but there are some related clinical trials currently underway, and the results are worth expecting. The improvement and innovation of bowel reconstructions provide a bright prospect for better functional prognosis in patients with rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal , Anastomosis, Surgical , Colon/surgery , Colonic Pouches , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Proctectomy , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 27-34, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942860

ABSTRACT

Located in the pelvic cavity and contiguous to the anal sphincter complex and urogenital organs, the rectum has more intricate anatomical features compared with the colon. Consequently, the treatment of rectal cancer involves more consideration, including pelvic radiation, lateral lymph node dissection, transanal access, postoperative function, sphincter preservation, and nonoperative management. Based on the last set of American society of colon and rectal surgeons (ASCRS) practice parameters for the management of rectal cancer published in 2013, the 2020 guidelines present evidence-based updates for both long-existing and emerging controversies on surgical management of rectal cancer. These updates include the indication for local resection, lymph node dissection for radical proctectomy, minimally invasive surgery, the "watch and wait" strategy for patients with clinical complete response, and prevention of anastomotic leak. Meanwhile, the guidelines recommend a risk-stratified approach for perioperative therapies for non-metastatic disease, and an individualized multimodality treatment based on treatment intent for synchronous metastatic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Proctectomy , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/surgery , United States
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