Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 124
Filter
1.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 71-80, jan./jun. 2021. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247939

ABSTRACT

O mel de abelha é um produto de consumo relevante pela população devido aos seus fatores nutricionais e terapêuticos. A adulteração é um exemplo de como as características do mel podem ser afetadas, prejudicando os consumidores que desejam comprar produtos puros e de alta qualidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química do mel de abelha comercializado em Brasília, Distrito Federal. Foram obtidas 13 amostras de mel de abelhas: uma de um apicultor da região com certificação de produção (usada como controle negativo), seis de lojas de produtos naturais e hipermercados no centro de Brasília e seis de feira livre e pequenos estabelecimentos de uma região administrativa do Distrito Federal, das quais cinco não tinham o selo do Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) na embalagem. Também foi usada uma amostra comercial de xarope de glicose como controle positivo. Para verificar a adulteração, foram adotados os testes de Lund, Fiehe e Lugol, bem como as análises de pH, acidez titulável e umidade, para serem comparados com os parâmetros de qualidade do mel estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. As análises verificaram a qualidade dos méis comercializados com o selo SIF, com algumas ressalvas para a possível alteração de temperatura. Já as que não possuíam selo, apenas uma foi aprovada nos testes de qualidade, porém sua venda não é regularizada. A maioria das amostras analisadas apresentaram resultados consistentes com os padrões exigidos pela legislação vigente, com maiores irregularidades na comercialização de méis em feira livre, mostrando a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade e inspeção de produtos não certificados.(AU)


Bee honey is a product of relevant consumption by the population due to its nutritional and therapeutic factors. Tampering is an example of how honey characteristics can be affected and harming consumers who want to buy a high quality and pure product. This work aimed to evaluate the physicochemical quality of bee honey commercialized in Brasília, Federal District. Thirteen samples of bee honey were obtained: one from a certified local beekeeper (used as a negative control), six from natural products and hypermarkets in central Brasília and six from street fair and small establishments in one of the administrative region of the Federal District, of which five did not have the seal of the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the packaging. Also, a sample of commercial glucose syrup was used as positive control. To verify tampering, the Lund, Fiehe and Lugol tests were adopted, as well as the pH, titratable acidity and humidity analysis, to be compared honey quality parameters established by the current legislation. The analyzes verified the quality of the honeys sold with SIF seal, with some restraints for the possible temperature changes. As for those that did not have a seal, only one passed the quality tests, but its sale is not regularized. Most of the samples analyzed showed results consistent with the standards requirements of the current legislation, with greater irregularities in the marketing of honey in street fair, showing the need for greater quality control and inspection of non-certified products.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Quality Management , Honey , Quality Control , Product Packaging
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 738-749, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138610

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una política pública creada para abordar el problema de la obesidad en Chile, es la Ley de Alimentos del año 2016 y su Reglamento que incluye etiquetado frontal de advertencia. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar el reconocimiento, juicio de valor y utilización del etiquetado frontal de advertencia descrito en la reglamentación, en personas responsables de escolares de las comunas de La Serena y Coquimbo. En estudio transversal, se aplicaron 543 encuestas personales en 22 establecimientos educacionales seleccionados por muestreo probabilístico estratificado. Se utilizó prueba de Chi-cuadrado para bondad de ajuste y tablas de contingencia, se consideró significativo un valor p<0,05. El 98,7% reconoció los sellos de advertencia, principalmente en los envases. El 86,2% valoró como no saludable su presencia y 68,1%, como saludable su ausencia. La comparación de sellos fue realizada por el 67,5% de los encuestados, de los cuales un 97,4% eligió los alimentos con menor cantidad de sellos. El 91,3% señaló que disminuyó la cantidad de alimentos comprados con presencia de sellos en relación al período anterior a la vigencia de la Ley. Los sellos de advertencia son conocidos, entendidos y considerados en la selección de los alimentos.


ABSTRACT The Chilean Food Law of 2016 was a public policy created to address the problem of obesity in Chile and includes front-of-package warning labeling. The objective of the study is to evaluate the recognition, value judgment and use of the front-of-package warning labels described in the regulation, among caretakers of schoolchildren, in the districts of La Serena and Coquimbo, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 543 personal surveys were applied in 22 educational establishments selected by stratified probability sampling. Chi-square goodness of fit test and contingency tables were used, a p value<0.05 was considered significant. Almost all caretakers surveyed (98.7%) recognized warning labels, mainly in packaging, 82% of the participants rated the presence of the labels as unhealthy and 68.1% reported the absence of the label indicated a healthy food. The label comparison was made by 67.5% of the respondents, of which 97.4% chose foods with fewer labels. 91.3% indicated that the quantity of food purchased with warning labels decreased in relation to the period before the law was launched. Warning labels are known, understood, and considered in food selection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Whole Foods , Food , Obesity , Product Packaging , Absenteeism , Food Preferences
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0812019, 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1130055

ABSTRACT

Food prepared with products derived from animals are involved in most cases of staphylococcal poisoning; therefore, the research of Staphylococcus spp. in Emmental cheese is more applicable. The objective of this study was to identify coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CNS) in cheese using biochemical and molecular techniques to detect the presence of nine genes responsible for the production of enterotoxins. From 180 samples analyzed, 204 CNS strains were obtained and identified as being 46 (22.6%) S. saprophyticus strains, 27 (13.2%) S. hominis spp. hominis strains, 22 (10.8%) S. sciuri strains, 21 (10.3%) S. xylosus strains, 19 (9.3%) S. epidermidis strains, 19 (9.3%) S. haemolyticus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. lentus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. warneri strains, 11 (5.4%) S. equorum strains and 5 (2.5%) S. cohnni . Using the PCRm protocol, 14 (6.9%) strains with the presence of the genes on the enterotoxin E (SEE)11 (78.6%), J (SEJ) 1 (7%), C (SEC) 1 (7%) and I (SEI) 1 (7%) were detected. Based on the results, the type of package is not interfered of growth and isolated that Staphylococcus spp. in cheese. It was observed that bacteria capacity to produce coagulase cannot be understood as an indicative of enterotoxigenicity; therefore, the CNS should be considered as a target of importance in the epidemiology of staphylococcal intoxications. It can be concluded that CNS need to be included in bacterial foodborne disease research, since the genes responsible for the production of toxins were detected and none of the studied samples presented Staphylococcus spp. counting above the limits allowed by legislation.(AU)


Os alimentos preparados com produtos de origem animal são os mais envolvidos em casos de intoxicação alimentar estafilocócica; portanto a pesquisa do Staphylococcus spp. em queijos tipo Emmental é relevante. O objetivo foi isolar e identificar espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase negativas (CNS)de queijo Emmental acondicionado em vários tipos de embalagem, por meio de técnicas bacteriológicas e bioquímicas e detectar, por PCR, a presença de nove genes responsáveis pela produção de enterotoxinas. Das 180 amostras, foram isoladas 204 cepas de CNS, que foram identificadas por provas bioquímicas como: 46 (22,6%) S. saprophyticus, 27 (13,2%) S. hominis spp. hominis, 22 (10,8%) S. sciuri, 21 (10,3%) S. xylosus, 19 (9,3%) S. epidermidis , 19 (9,3%) S. haemolyticus , 17 (8,3%) S. lentus , 17 (8,3%) S. warneri , 11(5,4%) S. equorum e 5 (2,5%) S. cohnii . Na PCR multiplex, em 14 (6,9%) isolados foi detectada a presença dos genes para enterotoxina E (SEE), em 11 (78,6%) J (SEJ), em 1 (7%) C (SEC) e em 1 (7%) I (SEI). Com base nos resultados, o tipo de embalagem não interferiu na multiplicação dos Staphylococcus spp. isolados dos queijos. Neste estudo, verificou-se que a capacidade para a produção de coagulase pela bactéria não pode ser concebida como indicativa de enterotoxigenicidade, portanto devem-se considerar os CNS como objeto de importância na epidemiologia das intoxicações estafilocócicas, fazendo-se necessária a atenção com relação à pesquisa dos CNS nos alimentos, uma vez que foram detectados genes responsáveis pela produção de toxinas, e nenhuma das amostras apresentou contagem para Staphylococcus spp. acima do limite permitido pela legislação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning , Staphylococcus/virology , Enterotoxins , Foodborne Diseases , Bacteria , Cheese , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacteriological Techniques , Product Packaging , Foods of Animal Origin , Food Safety , Food Supply
5.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e48223, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1119291

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the potential risk for related events, inherent to the decontamination process of storage area shelves. Method:Related events were recorded in a checklist, previously evaluated by specialists, through direct non-participant observation in 10 work shifts at a Central Sterile Services Department (CSSD) of a large public hospital in the Midwest Brazil. Results:Shelf decontamination was performed at 85 of 160 observed opportunities.The main risk actions for related events were: over handling of the package, up to 10 touches/product, with an average of 3.17 touches, most of them exceeding two touches/ product (58.8%); no hand hygiene before, during or after the procedure; improper handling/displacement of products and improper action in case of product fall on the floor (6.25%). Conclusion:The related events observed during the shelf decontamination process represent a risk for product sterility maintenance, suggesting the need for reflection/discussion about the decontamination frequency of this clean area.


Objetivo: Avaliar o risco potencial para ocorrência de eventos relacionados, inerente ao processo de descontaminação de prateleiras da área de armazenamento e distribuição. Método: A ocorrência de eventos relacionados foi registrada em checklist,previamente avaliado por especialistas, por meio de observação direta não participante em 10 turnos de trabalho em um Centro de Material e Esterilização de um hospital público de grande porte da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil.Resultados: A descontaminação das prateleiras foi realizada em 85 das 160 oportunidades observadas. As principais condutas de risco para eventos relacionados foram:excesso de toques na embalagem, até 10 toques/produto, com média de 3,17 toques, sendo a maioria superior a dois toques/produto (58,8%); não higienização das mãos antes, durante ou após o procedimento;manuseio/deslocamento inadequado dos produtos e conduta inapropriada em caso de queda do produto ao chão (6,25%). Conclusão:Os eventos relacionados observados, durante o processo de descontaminação de prateleiras, representam risco para a manutenção da esterilidade dos produtos,o que sugere a necessidade de uma reflexão/discussão sobre a frequência de descontaminação dessa área limpa.


Subject(s)
Decontamination , Health , Product Storage , Sterilization , Risk , Nursing , Product Packaging , Equipment and Supplies , Products Distribution , Good Distribution Practices , Materials , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, Public , Housekeeping
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1664-1673, nov./dec. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049088

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the packaging material (cotton cloth bag, multifolium paper and glass container) and storage environment (laboratory and cold chamber conditions) on fennel seedling growth. Seeds were placed in different packaging materials and exposed to the two environments for twelve months. Assessments were made before storage and at every two months and the following were determined: total emergence, emergence speed index, seedling fresh and dry matter. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with four replications in a 2 x 3 x 6+1 factorial design in split split plots, where the plot was the storage environment (laboratory and cold chamber conditions); the split plot was the storage (cotton cloth bag, multifolium paper and glass container) and the split plot was the storage periods (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months) and plus an additional treatment (before storage). The results showed that the fennel seedlings had superior growth when their seeds were placed in the glass packaging material, regardless of the storage environment.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da embalagem (saco de algodão, papel multifoliado e vidro) e do ambiente de armazenamento (condições de laboratório e câmara fria) no crescimento de plântulas de erva doce. Para isso, as sementes foram acondicionadas nas diferentes embalagens e expostas aos dois ambientes durante doze meses. As avaliações foram feitas antes do armazenamento e a cada dois meses, tendo sido determinado: emergência total, índice de velocidade de emergência, massa fresca e seca das plântulas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 6 + 1 em parcelas subsubdivididas, no qual a parcela foi o ambiente de armazenamento (condições de laboratório e câmara fria); a subparcela as embalagens (saco de algodão, papel multifoliado e vidro) e a subsubparcela os períodos de armazenamento (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses) e mais um tratamento adicional (antes do armazenamento). Pelos resultados, demonstrou-se que as plântulas de erva doce apresentaram crescimento superior quando suas sementes foram acondicionadas na embalagem de vidro, independente do ambiente de armazenamento.


Subject(s)
Product Packaging , Pimpinella , Foeniculum , Food Storage , Seeds
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 503-508, mar./apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048605

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of banana leaf extract on the quality and shelf life of rainbow trout compared to plastic bags at freezing temperature for 40 days. For evaluating this propose, the antioxidant activity of banana leaf extract was assessed. In addition, the shelf life of fish filets was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and pHof fish. The banana leaves extract showed the highest content of vitamin E (5.8 ± 0.61 mg /g) and carotenoids (12.8 ± 0.1 mg /g). The potential of Cu (II) reduction the extract was 1.76 ± 0.09. The magnitude of modification in TBA and pH of the packed fish with banana leaves were less than the control samples. The present study demonstrated that the use of banana leaf extract will retard lipid oxidation in fish. fillet during freezing storage that may due to its strong antioxidant properties.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do extrato de folhas de bananeira sobre a qualidade e vida de prateleira da truta arco-íris comparada a sacolas plásticas na temperatura de congelamento por 40 dias. Para avaliar essa proposta, foi determinada a atividade antioxidante do extrato de folhas de bananeira. Além disso, a vida de prateleira dos filés de peixe foi determinada medindo o ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e o pH do peixe. O extrato de folhas de bananeira apresentou o maior teor de vitamina E (5,8 ± 0,61 mg/g) e carotenóides (12,8 ± 0,1 mg/g). O potencial de redução de Cu (II) no extrato foi de 1,76 ± 0,09. A magnitude da modificação no TBA e pH do peixe embalado com folhas de bananeira foi menor que as amostras controle. O presente estudo demonstrou que o uso de extrato de folhas de bananeira é capaz de retardar a oxidação lipídica no filé de peixe durante o armazenamento de congelamento, devido às suas fortes propriedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Musa , Date of Validity of Products , Antioxidants , Product Packaging , Freezing
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In implant-based breast reconstruction, acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is essential for supporting the inferolateral pole. Recent studies have compared non-sterilized freeze-dried ADM and sterilized pre-hydrated ADM, but have not assessed whether differences were attributable to factors related to sterile processing or packaging. This study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of breast reconstruction using two types of sterile-processed ADMs. METHODS: Through a retrospective chart review, we analyzed 77 consecutive patients (85 breasts) who underwent tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction with either freeze-dried ADM (35 breasts) or pre-hydrated ADM (50 breasts) from March 2016 to February 2018. Demographic variables, postoperative outcomes, and operative parameters were compared between freeze-dried and pre-hydrated ADM. Biopsy specimens were obtained for histologic analysis. RESULTS: We obtained results after adjusting for variables found to be significant in univariate analyses. The total complication rate for freeze-dried and pre-hydrated ADMs was 25.7% and 22.0%, respectively. Skin necrosis was significantly more frequent in the freeze-dried group than in the pre-hydrated group (8.6% vs. 4.0%, P=0.038). All other complications and operative parameters showed no significant differences. In the histologic analysis, collagen density, inflammation, and vascularity were higher in the pre-hydrated ADM group (P=0.042, P=0.006, P=0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There are limited data comparing the outcomes of tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction using two types of sterile-processed ADMs. In this study, we found that using pre-hydrated ADM resulted in less skin necrosis and better integration into host tissue. Pre-hydrated ADM may therefore be preferable to freeze-dried ADM in terms of convenience and safety.


Subject(s)
Acellular Dermis , Biopsy , Breast Implants , Breast , Collagen , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Mammaplasty , Necrosis , Product Packaging , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Sterilization
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760333

ABSTRACT

Although intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most successful cancer immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, the serious side effects are frequently arisen by using live mycobacteria. To allow less toxic and more potent immunotherapeutic agents following intravesical BCG treatment for superficial bladder cancer, noninfectious immunotherapeutic drug instead of live BCG would be highly desirable. Recently, immune-enhancing adjuvants are considered an effective vaccine immunotherapy for cancer, providing enhanced antitumor effects and boosted immunity. The BCG-cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS), the main immune active center of BCG, is a potent candidate as a noninfectious immunotherapeutic drug instead of live BCG against bladder cancer. However, the most limited application for anticancer therapy, it is difficult to formulate a water-soluble BCG-CWS due to the aggregation of BCG-CWS in both aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. To overcome the insolubility and improve the internalization of BCG-CWS into bladder cancer cells, it should be developed the lipid nanoparticulation of BCG-CWS, resulting in improved dispensability, stability, and small size. In addition, powerful technology of delivery systems should be applied to enhance the internalization of BCG-CWS, such as encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles using novel packaging methods. Here, we describe the progress in research on effects of BCG-CWS for cancer immunotherapy, development of lipid-based solvent, and packaging method using nanoparticles with drug delivery system.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravesical , Bacillus , Cell Wall Skeleton , Drug Delivery Systems , Immunotherapy , Methods , Mycobacterium bovis , Nanoparticles , Product Packaging , Skeleton , Solvents , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766560

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use is the most important preventable cause of mortality in South Korea and worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the tobacco control policies of the Moon Jae-in government, which was established in May 10, 2017. Before the Moon Jae-in government, the tobacco tax was raised by the Park Geun-hye government from 2,500 won to 4,500 won (80% increase), but the price of cigarettes was still much lower in Korea than in other high-income countries. Cigarette smoking has been prohibited in all restaurants and bars since 2015; however, smoking rooms are allowed. Only large buildings are smoke-free. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packages were introduced in December 2016; however, they cover only 30% of the main packaging. Smoking cessation services provided by health care facilities have been subsidized by public health insurance since 2015. However, the advertisement, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco are not further regulated. Since the beginning of the Moon Jae-in government, there has been no further strengthening of major tobacco control policies except for limited expansion of smoke-free public places and introduction of a lung cancer screening program. The first government-level tobacco control policies by the Moon Jae-in government, announced in May 2019, included increasing the size of the pictorial warnings and introducing standardized packaging by 2025, along with incremental expansion of smoke-free public places with prohibition of smoking rooms. These moves are positive; however, they do not include increasing tobacco taxes and regulating advertisement, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco, which together are the backbone of tobacco control policies. The Moon Jae-in government should strengthen comprehensive tobacco control policies, ncluding tobacco taxes and banning tobacco advertisement, promotion, and sponsorship, to protect public health.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Insurance , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Moon , Mortality , Product Packaging , Public Health , Republic of Korea , Restaurants , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Taxes , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use , Tobacco
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786166

ABSTRACT

This study provides basic data on how stress impacts the processed convenience foods purchase attitudes and the selection attributes of housewives. The stress consists of 3 factors, which were housework stress, family relation stress and economic stress. The processed convenience food purchase attitude consisted of 2 factors, which were peripheral influence purchase and conviction purchase. The processed convenience food selection attribute consisted of 4 factors, which were quality, convenience, packaging and price. Factor loading confirmation and reliability test were conducted, and the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all the factors exceeding 0.5. The high stress levels showed significantly high stress factors of housework, family relations and economic stress (P<0.001). The high stress group was shown to make purchases by recognizing peripheral influences (P<0.01). When the selection properties of processed convenience foods depending on different stress levels were examined, it was revealed that among the three groups, the low stress group least considered the price aspect (P<0.01). After deducting the factors, AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure) was used to conduct the confirmatory factor analysis for verifying validity. The structural equation model was used to determine the path coefficient. From the processed convenience foods purchase attitude, the peripheral influence purchase had significantly positive (+) effects on convenience (P<0.05). Also, conviction purchase was shown to have significantly positive (+) effects on quality (P<0.05). Housework and family relation stress were shown to have negative (−) effects on processed convenience foods selection attribute, and economic stress was shown to have positive (+) effects, although no significant relationships were revealed.


Subject(s)
Family Relations , Fast Foods , Housekeeping , Product Packaging , Seoul
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4445, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the profile of professionals working in organ harvesting, and analyze the learning results of those trained before and after the course on recovery, perfusion and packaging of organs for transplants. Methods A retroprospective, quantitative, analytical-descriptive study about the Course on Recovery, Perfusion and Packaging of Liver and Kidney, in the period from 2012 to 2014. Pre- and post-tests, with ten questions were used to assess knowledge about organ harvesting. The association of knowledge with applied content was verified by the McNemar test. Results Of the total of 334 participants, 187 (56.0%) were physicians, 104 (31.1%) nurses, and 43 (12.9%) scrub nurses. The majority of participants was male (58.4%), mean age of 39.1 years, 50% had graduated 5 to 10 years before, and 50.4% had less than one-year experience in organ harvesting. In knowledge assessment, there was an increase in the weighted mean, from 6.1 in the pre-test to 7.9 in the post-test. A significant increase in learning was observed in the post-test in 50% of scrub nurses, 33.3% in nurses 20% in physicians. Conclusion The professionals were starting work in organ harvesting, and most were from Southeastern, Northeastern and Northern regions. In terms of learning, the course contributed to enhancing knowledge of the multiprofessional health team, and represented better learning standard.


RESUMO Objetivo Conhecer o perfil dos profissionais que atuam em captação de órgãos e analisar o resultado da aprendizagem daqueles treinados antes e após o curso de extração, perfusão e acondicionamento de órgãos para transplantes. Métodos Estudo retroprospectivo, quantitativo, analítico-descritivo do Curso de Extração, Perfusão e Acondicionamento de Fígado e Rim, no período de 2012 a 2014. Utilizaram-se o pré e o pós-teste estruturado em dez questões, que avaliaram o conhecimento sobre captação de órgãos. A associação do conhecimento com o conteúdo aplicado foi verificada pelo teste McNemar. Resultados Do total de 334 participantes, 187 (56,0%) eram médicos, 104 (31,1%) enfermeiros e 43 (12,9%) instrumentadores. Houve predominância do sexo masculino (58,4%), com média de idade de 39,1 anos. Tinham entre 5 a 10 anos de formados 50% da amostra, e 50,4% tinham menos de 1 ano de experiência na área de captação de órgãos. Na avaliação do conhecimento, houve elevação na média geral ponderada de 6,1, no pré-teste, para 7,9, no pós-teste. Observou-se aumento significativo da aprendizagem no pós-teste em 50% nos instrumentadores, 33,3% nos enfermeiros e 20% nos médicos. Conclusão Os profissionais eram iniciantes na área de captação de órgãos e, em sua maioria, oriundos das Regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Norte. No quesito de aprendizagem, o curso contribuiu para o aumento do conhecimento da equipe multiprofissional em saúde, representando ganho no padrão de aprendizagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Organ Preservation , Clinical Competence , Product Packaging , Inservice Training , Learning , Retrospective Studies
13.
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 117-122, out. 30, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964426

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver e caracterizar filme indicador de qualidade de alimentos utilizando amido de banana verde incorporado com extrato de repolho roxo. Os filmes foram desenvolvidos a partir de duas formulações: i) amido de banana sem extrato; ii) amido de banana com extrato. Os filmes foram caracterizados através de análise térmica (TG/DT), ensaio mecânico, espectroscopia por infravermelho (FT-IR), índice de intumescimento e ativação em diferentes pH. Os filmes apresentaram um perfil similar de perda de massa, indicando pouco efeito da incorporação do extrato à sua estabilidade térmica. A incorporação do extrato vegetal promoveu maior resistência mecânica e menor taxa de intumescimento. FT-IR mostrou que não houve interação do extrato com o biopolímero. O filme de amido apresentou sensibilidade à variação do pH. O uso do amido de banana verde combinado com gelatina e extrato de repolho roxo apresenta potencial aplicação como indicador visual de qualidade de alimentos duranteo armazenamento.


The aim of the study was to develop and characterize food quality indicator film using green banana starch incorporated with purple cabbage extract. The films were developed from two formulations: i) banana starch without extract; ii) banana starch with extract. The films were characterized by thermal analysis (TG/DTA), mechanical assay, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), swelling index and activation at different pH. The films presented a similar profile of mass loss, indicating that extract did not affect thermal stability. The incorporation of the vegetal extract promoted greater mechanical resistance and a lower rate of swelling. FT-IR showed that there was no interaction of the extract with the biopolymer. The starch film showed sensitivity to pH variation. The use of green banana starch combined with gelatin and purple cabbage extract has potential application as a visual indicator of food quality during storage.


Subject(s)
Polymers , Thermogravimetry , Food Packaging , Whole Foods , Brassica , Food Industry , Product Packaging , Musa
14.
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 104-110, out. 30, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964437

ABSTRACT

O acondicionamento de bebidas carbonatadas em embalagens de alumínio e o aumento do consumo, intensifica a preocupação com relação à contaminação da superfície a ter contato com a boca e à necessidade da higienização das embalagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação microbiológica, por meio da pesquisa de coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerante, Escherichia coli, contagem total de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e contagem total de bolores e leveduras, na superfície superior externa de latas de cervejas e de refrigerantes, refrigerados comercializadas em bares, restaurantes, ambulantes e quiosques; bem como avaliar a influência do selo de alumínio na proteção contra a contaminação em latas de cerveja. Foram avaliadas 90 latas de alumínio, sendo 30 seladas e 30 não seladas contendo cerveja e 30 latas não seladas contendo refrigerante. Os resultados mostraram que 34% das amostras estavam contaminadas por coliformes totais, sendo observado valor igual ou superior a 2400 NMP/cm² em uma amostra de cerveja selada e cerveja não selada, adquiridas de ambulante, e uma amostra não selada adquirida de bar. Quanto a coliformes termotolerante 2,2% das embalagens estavam contaminadas, sendo este detectado em duas amostras de cerveja não selada (4 e 7 NMP/cm²) proveniente de bar. Não foi detectada Escherichia coli nas amostras analisadas. Bactérias aeróbias mesófilas foram detectadas em 84 (93,3%) amostras, sendo a maior contagem observada em uma amostra de refrigerante adquirida de quiosque, com o valor de 2,8x10³ UFC/cm². A contaminação por bolores e leveduras foi observada em 59 (65,5%) amostras, sendo a maior contagem com o valor de 2,7x10³ UFC/cm², observada em uma embalagem de cerveja não selada. Concluiu-se que latas seladas ou sem selo apresentaram níveis de contaminação semelhante, indicando que o selo não promove proteção contra contaminação e as amostras que apresentaram maior contaminação foram aquelas refrigeradas em caixas de isopor com água e gelo.


The packaging of carbonated beverages in aluminum packaging and the increase in consumption increases the concern with regard to contamination of the surface to have contact with the mouth and the need for hygiene of the packages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination of the external surface of beers and refrigerated cans, commercialized in bars, restaurants, street vendors and kiosks; as well as to evaluate the influence of the aluminum seal in the protection against contamination in beer cans. the following analyzes were performed: total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and counts of molds and yeasts. Ninety aluminum cans were evaluated, of which 30 were sealed and 30 unsealed containing beer and 30 unsealed cans containing refrigerant. The results showed that 34% of samples were contaminated by total coliforms, with a value of 2400 NMP / cm² being observed in a sample of sealed beer and unsealed beer, purchased on the street, and an unsealed sample purchased from the bar. Regarding thermotolerant coliforms, 2.2% of the packages were contaminated, being detected in two samples of unsealed beer (4 and 7 NMP / cm²) from the bar. No Escherichia coli was detected in the analyzed samples. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were detected in 84 (93.3%) samples, the highest observed in a sample of kiosk purchased refrigerant, with a value of 2.8x10³ CFU / cm². Contamination by molds and yeasts was observed in 59 (65.5%) samples, the highest count being 2.7x10³ CFU / cm², observed in an unsealed beer package. It was concluded that sealed or unsealed cans had levels of similar contamination, indicating that the seal does not promote protection against contamination and the samples that presented the highest contamination were those refrigerated in styrofoam boxes with water and ice.


Subject(s)
Microbiological Techniques , Environmental Pollution , Food Packaging , Foodborne Diseases , Carbonated Beverages , Product Packaging , Food Storage , Food Supply
15.
Hig. aliment ; 32(280/281): 23-26, 30/06/2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910117

ABSTRACT

Diante do grande consumo de bebidas alcoólicas no Brasil e no mundo, muitas empresas têm investido na confecção de embalagens cada vez mais promissoras. Com o objetivo de conhecer o perfil de consumo de cervejas e vinhos relacionado às suas respectivas embalagens, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa na cidade de Salvador-BA, sendo entrevistadas 221 pessoas cujo consumo das bebidas estava intrinsecamente ligado ao ambiente social. A prevalência de consumo é das cervejas com cerca de 26,7%, sendo que os principais locais de dispêndio com a mesma são festas e bares. Vale salientar que a embalagem escolhida por 93,3% dos participantes é a de vidro. Observa-se então um crescimento favorável das indústrias cervejeiras no Brasil com a comercialização deste produto popular em detrimento do vinho, possuinte de um estilo mais elitizado e restrito de consumo.


Due to the large consumption of alcoholic beverages in Brazil and in the world, many companies have made investments to increase the design of its packaging. In order to discover the relation in between the consumption of beers, wine and its packages, a research has been developed in Salvador (BA). Therefore, 221 people were interviewed, concluding that the beverage choice was intrinsically related to the social environment. Furthermore, this study highlights the predominance of beers in front of wines consumption. This scientific enquire points the development of beers industries in Brazil, but also spotlight the decrease of wine consumption due to its elitist stigma.


Subject(s)
Wine , Alcohol Drinking , Brewery , Product Packaging , Alcoholic Beverages , Beer , Brazil , Food Packaging , Qualitative Research
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758800

ABSTRACT

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, febrile zoonotic disease that is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV). RVF is mainly prevalent on the Arabian Peninsula, the African continent, and several islands in the Indian Ocean near southeast Africa. RVFV has been classified by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as a category A pathogen. To avoid biological safety concerns associated with use of the pathogen in RVFV neutralization assays, the present study investigated and established an RVFV pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. This study used the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lentiviral packaging system and RVFV structural proteins to successfully construct RVFV pseudoviruses. Electron microscopy observation and western blotting indicated that the size, structure, and shape of the packaged pseudoviruses were notably similar to those of HIV lentiviral vectors. Infection inhibition assay results showed that an antibody against RVFV inhibited the infective ability of the RVFV pseudoviruses, and an antibody neutralization assay for RVFV detection was then established. This study has successfully established a neutralization assay based on RVFV pseudoviruses and demonstrated that this method can be used to effectively evaluate antibody neutralization.


Subject(s)
Africa , Animals , Blotting, Western , HIV , Indian Ocean , Islands , Methods , Microscopy, Electron , Product Packaging , Rift Valley fever virus , Rift Valley Fever , Zoonoses
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766493

ABSTRACT

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) entered into effect in 2005 and has been ratified by 181 parties. The major tobacco control policies included in the FCTC are increased tobacco taxes; smoke-free public places; bans on tobacco advertisements, promotion, and sponsorship; regulations of tobacco packaging and labeling; regulations and disclosure of tobacco component and emissions; public awareness campaigns about the adverse health effects of tobacco use; treatment of tobacco use and dependence; and bans on tobacco sales to minors. Since the FCTC was ratified, tobacco control policies have been strengthened worldwide, but with different effects for different policies. A high level of performance was achieved in 55% of the signatory countries for warnings about the hazards of tobacco and in 30% for monitoring tobacco control policies, but tobacco tax increases, smoke-free polices, and bans on tobacco advertisement, promotion, and sponsorship achieved high levels of success in only about 10% of the countries. Korea recently strengthened some tobacco control policies, including tobacco tax increases, mass media campaigns, pictorial warnings on tobacco packs, smoke-free bars and restaurants, and reimbursement for smoking cessation services provided by health care facilities. However, the price of cigarettes remains very low considering the nation's income level, and tobacco advertisements, promotion, and sponsorship are only partially restricted. Workplace smoke-free policies are limited to large companies. Only monitoring of tobacco control policies and smoking cessation services are at a high level in Korea. Comprehensive tobacco control polices need to be strengthened, and physicians should play a leading role.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Delivery of Health Care , Disclosure , International Cooperation , Korea , Mass Media , Product Packaging , Restaurants , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Cessation , Social Control, Formal , Taxes , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use , Tobacco
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766490

ABSTRACT

Although the Korean government introduced a tobacco tax increase in 2015 and pictorial health warnings on tobacco packages in 2016, the smoking prevalence among Korean adult men has remained steady. More efforts and effective tobacco control policies are needed to tackle the highest smoking prevalence among the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Plain or standardized packaging of tobacco products has been evaluated as an effective tobacco control policy after its introduction in Australia in 2012. The purpose of this study was to raise awareness of the need to introduce plain packaging of tobacco products in Korea. This study presents information on the following topics: what plain packaging of tobacco products is; the purposes of this policy; the reasons why we need to implement this policy in Korea; the scientific evidence regarding the effects of plain packaging of tobacco products; international developments in the plain packaging of tobacco products; and what we need to consider in order to prepare for the implementation of this policy in Korea. We propose that introducing plain packaging of tobacco products would be beneficial for reinforcing tobacco control policies in Korea and would simultaneously contribute to implementing articles 11 and 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Further studies must be carried out to develop a plain or standardized packaging design of tobacco products in Korea and to prevent the tobacco industry from interrupting the introduction of this policy in Korea, based on other countries' experience.


Subject(s)
Adult , Australia , Humans , Korea , Male , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Prevalence , Product Packaging , Smoke , Smoking , Taxes , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e5, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961732

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective In 2012, a new Brazilian regulation prohibited the use of flavor additives in tobacco products. To better understand the potential impact of this regulation, this study examines how flavor descriptors on cigarette packaging influence brand perceptions among young Brazilian women. Methods An online cross-sectional experiment was conducted with Brazilian women aged 16-26 (N = 640: 182 smokers and 458 nonsmokers) who rated 10 cigarette packages from one of three conditions: 1) branded packs; 2) packs with the same size, shape, and verbal descriptions as in condition 1, but without brand imagery (i.e., "plain pack"); and 3) packs from condition 2 but without brand descriptors (i.e., "plain pack, no descriptors"). Mixed-effects linear regression models were utilized to determine what associations that pack features (i.e., experimental condition; flavor descriptor vs. not; slim pack vs. not) had with participant ratings of nine characteristics, including appeal, taste, smoothness, and attributes of people who smoke the brand. Results Flavored branded packs were rated as more appealing, better tasting, and smoother than flavored plain packs with descriptors. Compared to flavored plain packs with descriptors, the same packs without descriptors were rated less positively on eight of the nine characteristics. Compared to nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers rated flavored packs more positively on eight of the nine characteristics. Slim packs were rated more positively than regular packs on eight of the nine characteristics. Conclusions Slim packs and brands highlighting tobacco flavors appear to increase positive perceptions of tobacco products. Banning tobacco flavorings and slim packs may reduce the appeal of smoking for young Brazilian women, as well as for other vulnerable populations.


RESUMEN Objetivo En 2012, una nueva regulación brasileña prohibió el uso de aditivos de sabor en los productos de tabaco. Para comprender mejor el impacto potencial de esta regulación, este estudio examina cómo los descriptores de sabor en los envases de cigarrillos influyen en las percepciones de marca entre las jóvenes brasileñas. Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal, en línea con mujeres brasileñas de entre 16 y 26 años (N = 640: 182 fumadores y 458 no fumadores) que calificaron 10 paquetes de cigarrillos de acuerdo a una de las siguientes condiciones: 1) paquetes de marca; 2) paquetes con el mismo tamaño, forma y descripciones verbales que en la condición 1, pero sin imágenes de marca (es decir, "paquete simple"); y 3) paquetes de la condición 2 pero sin descriptores de marca (es decir, "paquete simple, sin descriptores"). Se utilizaron modelos de regresión lineal de efectos mixtos para determinar qué asociación existía entre las diferentes condiciones (es decir, condición experimental, descriptor de sabor vs. no, paquete delgado vs. no) con las calificaciones de los participantes de nueve características, incluyendo atractivo, sabor, suavidad y atributos de personas que fuman la marca. Resultados Los paquetes de marca con sabor se calificaron como más atractivos, de mejor sabor y más suaves que los paquetes simples con sabores y descriptores. En comparación con los paquetes simples con sabores con descriptores, los mismos paquetes sin descriptores fueron calificados de manera menos positiva en ocho de las nueve características. En comparación con los no fumadores no susceptibles, los no fumadores susceptibles calificaron los paquetes con sabor de forma más positiva en ocho de las nueve características. Los paquetes delgados fueron clasificados más positivamente que los paquetes regulares en ocho de las nueve características. Conclusiones Los paquetes delgados y las marcas que destacan los sabores del tabaco parecen aumentar las percepciones positivas de los productos de tabaco. Prohibir los sabores del tabaco y los paquetes delgados puede reducir el atractivo del tabaco para las jóvenes brasileñas, así como para otras poblaciones vulnerables.


RESUMO Objetivo Em 2012, uma nova regulamentação brasileira proibiu o uso de aditivos aromáticos nos produtos tabagísticos. Para entender melhor o impacto potencial desta regulação, este estudo examinou como a propaganda de aroma em embalagens de cigarros influencia a percepção das brasileiras jovens sobre a marca do produto. Método Estudo transversal em que 640 brasileiras (168 fumantes e 458 não fumantes) avaliaram online, uma entre três das seguintes características de 10 pacotes de cigarros: 1) embalagem com a imagem da marca; 2) pacotes com o mesmo tamanho, formato e descrição das características do produto 1, mas sem marca (havia apenas a descrição do produto) e, 3) embalagens nas condições 2, mas sem a descrição do produto (embalagem em branco). O modelo de regressão linear misto foi utilizado para determinar associações das características da embalagem do cigarro (Ex: situação experimental, descrição de aroma versus não, pacotes finos versus não) com as avaliações das participantes para nove características do produto, incluindo a apelação, aroma, suavidade e atributos de quem fuma certa marca. Resultados Pacotes aromatizados de marca foram classificados como mais atraentes, com melhor sabor e suavidade em relação aos que tinham simples descrição do produto. Os pacotes descritos como aromatizados comparados ao mesmo produto sem descrição obtiveram menores escores para oito dentre nove características avaliadas. Em comparação as não fumantes sem suscetibilidade ao tabagismo, as que eram suscetíveis classificaram produtos aromatizados mais positivamente em oito de suas nove características. As embalagens finas receberam julgamento mais positivo do que as com espessura regular para oito dentre nove itens analisados. Conclusões Pacotes finos e marcas que destacam os aromas do tabaco parecem aumentar a percepção positiva deste produto. Proibir a aromatização do tabaco e a oferta de pacotes finos de cigarros reduzem o apelo de fumar entre brasileiras jovens, bem como para outros grupos vulneráveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco , Product Packaging , Flavoring Agents/toxicity , Health Policy , Brazil
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714497

ABSTRACT

Fixed drug eruption is a commonly reported mucocutaneous drug eruption. A 61-year-old male presented to our clinic with a complaint of an itchy round erythematous patch on the left hand dorsum with myalgia. On taking medical history, the patient correlated the episode with the intake of an oral sexual enhancer that he had obtained over the counter. We found the medicine contained tadalafil and sildenafil in combination with herbal ingredients. A short course of oral corticosteroid therapy resulted in the complete resolution of the lesion leaving residual hyperpigmentation of the skin involved. Various sexual enhancers with fancy names and attractive packaging are available without requiring a doctor's prescription. Most contain phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in various concentrations, often with herbal additions. These drugs are used erratically by the lay public, and often produce side effects. Herein, we report a case of fixed drug rash related to a sexual enhancer, which we believe to be the first report in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Drug Eruptions , Exanthema , Hand , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , Korea , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Prescriptions , Product Packaging , Sildenafil Citrate , Skin , Tadalafil
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL