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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report is of three cases of sicca syndrome, initially suspected to be Sjögren's syndrome, which was ruled out by clinical and laboratory investigations. The patients were a 24-year-old woman, a 32-year-old man, and a 77-year-old woman with chronic symptoms of sicca syndrome, including dry eye syndrome. The first case was associated with the use of isotretinoin, a retinoic acid. The second was associated with the use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and the third was related to a prolactin- secreting pituitary adenoma. All cases manifested sicca, including dry eye syndrome, after those events, and the manifestations persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral atrophy of the lacrimal gland. The medical history, ocular examinations, laboratory exams, and magnetic resonance images confirmed dry eye syndrome; however, the exams were all negative for Sjögren's syndrome. The lacrimal gland was absent on magnetic resonance imaging in all three cases. The clinical history revealed that the signs and symptoms appeared after chronic exposure to retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, respectively. Chronic isotretinoin, anabolic androgenic steroids, and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma or, in this last case, its inhibitory treatment, can cause lacrimal gland atrophy, sicca syndrome, and dry eye syndrome, and a differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Further studies on doses, time, and other susceptibilities to the long-lasting adverse effects of retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and the repercussions of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma are necessary to confirm and expand upon these associations.


RESUMO O relato descreve três casos de síndrome de sicca, inicialmente suspeitos de serem a síndrome de Sjögren, que fo­ram negados pela investigação clínica e laboratorial. O primeiro associado ao uso de isotretinoína, um ácido retinóico, o segundo ao uso de esteroides androgênicos anabolizantes e o terceiro relacionado ao adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina, todos manifestaram sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco após esses eventos e as manifestações persistem. A ressonância magnética revelou atrofia bilateral da glândula lacrimal. Eles eram uma mulher de 24 anos, um homem de 32 anos e uma mulher de 77 anos com sintomas crônicos da síndrome de sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco. A história médica, o exame ocular, os exames laboratoriais e a ressonância magnética foram confirmados como síndrome do olho seco, no entanto, todos os exames foram negativos para a síndrome de Sjögren. A glândula lacrimal estava ausente na ressonância magnética nos três casos. A história clínica revelou que sinais e sintomas se manifestaram após exposição crônica ao ácido retinóico, esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos e adenoma secretivo da prolactina hipofisária, respectivamente. Isotretinoína crônica, esteroides anabólicos androgênicos e adenoma hipofisário secretor de prolactina ou, neste último caso, seu tratamento inibitório pode ser a causa da atrofia da glândula lacrimal, síndrome da sicca e síndrome do olho seco e diagnóstico diferencial da síndrome de Sjögren. Estudos adicionais sobre doses, duração e outras suscetibilidades aos efeitos adversos duradouros do ácido retinóico, esteroides androgênicos anabólicos e repercussões do adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina são necessários para confirmar e detalhar essas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Dry Eye Syndromes , Sjogren's Syndrome , Lacrimal Apparatus , Prolactin , Atrophy , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/pathology , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/chemically induced , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Androgens , Lacrimal Apparatus/pathology , Lacrimal Apparatus/diagnostic imaging
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10274, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153553

ABSTRACT

Prolactin (PRL) plays critical roles in regulation of biological functions with the binding of specific prolactin receptor (PRLR). Revealing the expression patterns of PRLR at different developmental stages is beneficial to better understand the role of PRL and its mechanism of action in striped hamsters. In this study, the cDNA sequence of PRLR (2866-base-pairs) was harvested from the pituitary of mature female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) that contains an 834-base-pair 5′-untranslated region (1-834 bp), a 1848-base-pair open reading frame (835-2682 bp), and a 184-base-pair 3′-untranslated region (2683-2866). The 1848-base-pair open reading frame encodes a mature prolactin-binding protein of 592 amino acids. In the mature PRLR, two prolactin-binding motifs, 12 cysteines, and five potential Asn-linked glycosylation sites were detected. Our results showed that the PRLR mRNA quantity in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, or testis was developmental-stage-dependent, with the highest level at sub-adult stage and the lowest level at old stage. We also found that PRLR mRNAs were highest in pituitary, medium level in hypothalamus, and lowest in ovaries or testis. PRLR mRNAs were significantly higher in males than in females, except in the hypothalamus and pituitary from 7-week-old striped hamsters. Moreover, the PRLR mRNAs in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries or testis were positively correlated with the expression levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus. These results indicated that the PRLR has conserved domain in striped hamster, but also possesses specific character. PRLR has multiple biological functions including positively regulating reproduction in the striped hamster.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Prolactin/genetics , Receptors, Prolactin/genetics , Receptors, Prolactin/metabolism , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Cricetinae , Sequence Analysis , DNA, Complementary/genetics
3.
Rev. colomb. menopaus ; 27(1): 8-23, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1283530

ABSTRACT

La prolactina es una hormona hipofisiaria implicada en diversas funciones tales como reproductivas, lactancia y metabólicas. El hallazgo de hiperprolactinemia es frecuente en mujeres que consultan por infertilidad, oscilando entre el 15 y el 20%. Sus manifestaciones clínicas incluyen trastornos del ciclo, galactorrea, infertilidad y osteoporosis. Cuando hay tumores que superan 1 cm de diámetro pueden asociarse a alteraciones visuales. Aunque la hiperprolactinemia puede ser producida por el embarazo, el consumo de algunos fármacos, los trastornos tiroideos, las alteraciones hepáticas y renales, su causa más frecuente es la presencia de adenomas hipofisiarios productores de prolactina. Pueden ser microadenomas cuando su tamaño es menor de 10 mm y que representan el 90% o macroadenomas cuando son de mayor tamaño. La prolactina se encuentra bajo un estrecho control de su secreción a través de un sistema de retroalimentación de asa corta que hace que se libere dopamina que frena su producción. También se han descrito péptidos liberados de prolactina entre los que se encuentra la TRH. El exceso en su producción inhibe directamente la pulsatilidad de la GnRH y disminución en los pulsos de LH. Este cambio conduce a ciclos anovulatorios. Para su manejo se encuentran aprobados en Colombia fármacos agonistas de la dopamina como bromocriptina y cabergolina, siendo este último más efectivo. El manejo con cirugía transesfenoidal se reserva para aquellos casos en los que el tratamiento farmacológico ha fallado.


Prolactin is an hypophyseal hormone implicated in various functions such as reproductive, lactation and metabolic. Finding hyperprolactinemia is frequent in women consulting for infertility, ranging between 15 and 20%. Its clinical manifestations include menstrual cycle irregularities, galactorrhea, infertility and osteoporosis. When tumors greater than 1 cm in diameter are present visual disturbances may appear. Although hyperprolactinemia may be produced by pregnancy, certain medications, thyroid disfunction, hepatic or renal disfunction, the most frequent cause is the presence of prolactin secreting adenomas. They can be micro adenomas when their diameter is less than 10 mm, representing 90% or macro adenomas when their size is greater. Prolactin secretion is under a close control through a short loop feedback system, that makes dopamine to be secreted which lowers its production. Releasing peptides have been described, including TRH. Excess in its production directly inhibits GnRH pulsatility lowering LH pulses. This change conducts to anovulatory cicles, For its treatment in Colombia dopamine agonists have been approved, including bromocriptine and cabergoline, the last one being mor effective. Surgical management with transesphenoidal approach is reserved for those cases in which pharmacological treatment has failed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Prolactin , Hyperprolactinemia , Prolactinoma , Infertility
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 670-680, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250290

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hyperprolactinemia may be associated with psychiatric disorders in the context of two scenarios: antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and psychiatric disorders arising from the medical treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Both situations are particularly common in psychiatric and endocrine clinical practice, albeit generally underestimated or unrecognized. The aim of this article is to provide tools for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia associated with psychiatric disorders to raise awareness, especially among psychiatrists and endocrinologists, so that these professionals can jointly focus on the appropriate management of this clinical entity.


Resumen La hiperprolactinemia puede asociarse con trastornos psiquiátricos en el contexto de dos escenarios: la hiperprolactinemia inducida por antipsicóticos y trastornos psiquiátricos surgidos por el tratamiento médico de la hiperprolactinemia. Ambas situaciones son particularmente comunes en la práctica clínica psiquiátrica y endocrinológica, aunque generalmente subestimadas o inadvertidas. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar herramientas de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la hiperprolactinemia asociada a trastornos psiquiátricos, para concientizar particularmente a psiquiatras y endocrinólogos a enfocar en conjunto el manejo apropiado de esta entidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/chemically induced , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Prolactin/metabolism
5.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(2): 47-50, dic. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1179190

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sheehan o necrosis hipofisaria posparto, constituye la causa más importante de panhipopituitarismo, que de forma ocasional se asocia a hemorragia obstétrica profusa asociada a choque hipovolémico hemorrágico, ocasionando un colapso circulatorio intenso debido a isquemia de la adenohipófisis durante el parto o después del mismo, debido a que esta glándula endócrina sufre importantes cambios anatómicos e histológicos durante el embarazo, los cuales incrementan su volumen hasta en 40%. De esta forma, se produce una secreción reducida de las hormonas que ayudan a regular el crecimiento, la reproducción y el metabolismo, evidenciando en el examen hormonal detallado insuficiencia específicamente de la hormona de crecimiento, foliculoestimulante, luteinizante, estimulante de tiroides, adrenocorticotropica y prolactina predisponiendo a la paciente a inestabilidad hemodinámica a corto plazo así como desequilibrio hormonal permanente. Por esta importancia, es que se presenta el caso de una paciente que ingresó a la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva tras cesárea iterativa debido a acretismo placentario llegando a la histerectomía total intercurriendo con choque hemorrágico, quien cursó durante su estancia en la Unidad con ausencia de recuperación neurológica total y características propias de síndrome de Sheehan, confirmándose el mismo por los niveles hormonales bajos y la ausencia de imagen en la silla turca correspondiente a la necrosis hipofisaria evidenciado por resonancia magnética, realizándose además una sucinta revisión acerca de la literatura relacionada actual.


ABSTRACT Sheehan syndrome or postpartum pituitary necrosis is the most common cause of hypopituitarism and occurs secondary to profuse obstetric haemorrhage with subsequent hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock, with intense circulatory collapse, predisposing to pituitary ischemia during delivery or after the same, due to the hypertrophic changes that occur in this gland during pregnancy. In this syndrome exists a reduced secretion of the hormones that regulate growth, reproduction and metabolism. We present the case of a female patient admitted to the Critical Care Unit after iterative cesarean due to placenta accreta and total hysterectomy, in hypovolemic shock secondary to severe hemorrhage, being suspicious of Sheehan´s syndrome, with characteristic clinical features, low hormone levels and the absence of image in the Turkish chair corresponding to the pituitary necrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pituitary Gland, Anterior , Placenta Accreta , Postpartum Period , Patients , Prolactin , Sella Turcica , Hormones
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 355-361, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128195

ABSTRACT

Os agonistas dopaminérgicos são utilizados para induzir estro em cadelas, pois atuam na síntese e liberação de prolactina. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da piridoxina como indutor de estro em cadelas por agir na neurotransmissão dopaminérgica. Foram selecionadas 40 cadelas em anestro, divididas em quatro grupos experimentais, tratadas com 10mg/kg/dia (G1) e 50mg/kg/dia (G2) de cloridrato de piridoxina, 5µg/kg/dia (G3) de cabergolina e grupo controle/placebo (G4) por até 20 dias. Foram realizadas citologias vaginais a cada 24h para acompanhamento do ciclo estral e análises hormonais (FSH, LH e PRL) no dia zero e 120h do início do tratamento. As cadelas do G3 (100%) manifestaram proestro após 12 dias de tratamento aproximadamente, tempo inferior aos demais grupos (P<0,05). Apenas uma cadela do G1 e uma do G2 ficaram gestantes contra oito fêmeas do G3 e nenhuma do G4 (P<0,05). As concentrações plasmáticas de prolactina foram reduzidas nas fêmeas do G2 e G3 (P<0,05). As demais avaliações hormonais não sofreram influência do tratamento (P>0,05). O cloridrato de piridoxina foi ineficiente para induzir estro em cadelas, mas foi capaz de suprimir a prolactina, de forma semelhante à cabergolina, quando utilizado na dose de 50mg/kg/dia.(AU)


Dopaminergic agonists are used to induce estrus in female dogs as they act in the synthesis and release of prolactin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pyridoxine as an inducer of estrus by acting on dopaminergic neurotransmission. A total of 40 female dogs in anestrous were divided into four experimental groups treated with 10mg/kg/day (G1) and 50mg/kg/day (G2) of pyridoxine hydrochloride, 5µg/kg/day (G3) of cabergoline and control group/placebo (G4) for up to 20 days. Vaginal cytologies were performed every 24h for follow-up of the estrous cycle and hormonal analyzes (FSH, LH and PRL) on day zero and 120 hours after the start of treatment. The female dogs from G3 (100%) showed proestrus after 12 days of treatment, less time than the other groups (P< 0.05). Only one female from G1 and one from G2 were pregnant against eight from G3 and none from G4 (P< 0.05). Plasma concentrations of prolactin were reduced by treatment in females from G2 and G3 (P< 0.05). The other hormonal evaluations were not influenced by the treatment (P> 0.05). Pyridoxine chloridrate was inefficient to induce estrus in female dogs but was able to suppress prolactin when used at a dose of 50mg/kg/day.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Prolactin , Pyridoxine/administration & dosage , Anestrus/drug effects , Estrus/drug effects , Vitamin B 6/administration & dosage , Dopamine Agonists
7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 33-39, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055365

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image in women with prolactinoma. Methods: Body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image were evaluated in 80 women with prolactinoma. All patients were in menacme, 34% had normal body mass index (BMI), and 66% were overweight. Most patients (56.2%) had normal prolactin (PRL) levels and no hyperprolactinemia symptoms (52.5%). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to assess the patients' dissatisfaction with and concern about their physical form, and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) was used to assess body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. The patients were divided according to PRL level (normal vs. elevated) and the presence or absence of prolactinoma symptoms. Results: The normal and elevated PRL groups had similar incidences of body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. However, symptomatic patients reported a higher incidence of dissatisfaction than asymptomatic patients. Distorted body self-image was less common among symptomatic patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic patients showed higher body dissatisfaction, but lower body self-image distortion. The presence of symptoms may have been responsible for increased body awareness. The perception of body shape could have triggered feelings of dissatisfaction compared to an ideal lean body. Therefore, a distorted body self-image might not necessarily result in body dissatisfaction in women with prolactinomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/psychology , Hyperprolactinemia/psychology , Prolactinoma/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Pituitary Neoplasms/blood , Prolactin/blood , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Body Image/psychology , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Hyperprolactinemia/blood , Prolactinoma/blood , Body Mass Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 28-33, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. Methods: The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. Results: Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. Conclusion: Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.


Resumo Os adenomas secretores de prolactina (PRL) estão associados à alta incidência de cefaleia. O papel da hiperprolactinemia no contexto da dor de cabeça não está claro, nem o efeito da redução dos níveis da PRL na cefaleia. Métodos: O presente estudo longitudinal avaliou pacientes hiperprolactinêmicos (69), quanto à presença e às características da cefaleia antes e após o tratamento da hiperprolactinemia. Resultados: Cefaleia foi relatada por 45 (65,2%) pacientes, independente da etiologia da hiperprolactinemia. O fenótipo de enxaqueca foi mais prevalente (66,6%). Os medicamentos usados ​​no tratamento da cefaleia não foram alterados durante o estudo. A primeira linha de tratamento da hiperprolactinemia foram os agonistas dopaminérgicos. Na última reavaliação, o nível de PRL sob tratamento estava dentro da faixa de referência em 54,7% dos casos, observando-se resolução completa ou parcial da cefaleia em 75% dos casos. A mediana de PRL neste momento em pacientes com resolução completa da cefaleia foi de 17 ng/mL, nos que relataram recuperação parcial foi de 21 ng/mL, e naqueles em que a cefaleia não se alterou foi de 66 ng/mL, com uma diferença significativa entre o grupo com resolução completa da cefaleia versus o grupo com cefaleia inalterada (p=0,022). Nos casos com resolução completa da cefaleia, a queda mediana nos níveis de PRL foi de 89% e nos casos com resolução parcial de cefaleia de 86%, ambos significativamente diferentes (p<0,001) da queda nos casos com cefaleia inalterada. Conclusão: Os dados permitem concluir que, nesta série, na maioria dos casos, a redução do nível de PRL foi seguida pela cessação ou alívio da dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Prolactin/blood , Hyperprolactinemia/therapy , Headache/prevention & control , Headache/blood , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Reference Values , Hyperprolactinemia/complications , Adenoma/complications , Adenoma/therapy , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Headache/etiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on serum Intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones levels in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Basrah, Iraq.METHODS: From 124 women volunteers, 60 patients with primary and 64 patients with secondary, while 56 normal ovulatory women were taken as controls. Their fasting insulin hormone, intelectin-1, anti-Mullerian hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2) and testosterones (T) were determined by ELISA methods. BMI, glucose and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index as well as IR was determined by the homeostasis model assessment.RESULTS: A significant changes (P<0.05) were seen in the level of homeostasis model assessment-IR, E2 and T. Levels of anti-Mullerian hormone, LH, LH/FSH ratio and prolactin were significantly (P<0.01) increased and level of intelectin-1 and E2/T ratio were significantly (P<0.01) decreased, while quantitative insulin sensitivity check index level was not significantly different (P>0.05) between the patients (1°PCOS and 2°PCOS) and control groups. On the other hand, our data reported that FSH level was significantly (P<0.05) lower in obese and higher in non-obese patients with PCOS as compared to control group.CONCLUSION: Levels of intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones have significantly associated with body mass index, IR and physical activity in patients and normal groups and the strategies that can modulate levels of these parameters would improve metabolic disarrangements in women with PCOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Body Mass Index , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Estradiol , Fasting , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Glucose , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Iraq , Luteinizing Hormone , Motor Activity , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Prolactin , Volunteers
10.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 61-63, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095286

ABSTRACT

El quiste de la bolsa de Rathke es una lesión epitelial benigna de la región selar, formada a partir de remanentes embrionarios. La mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos, aunque pudiera presentarse con cefalea, disfunción hipofisaria y trastornos visuales, muy infrecuentemente como apoplejía hipofisaria. Se presenta el caso de una paciente que, habiendo presentado amenorrea primaria, se le realiza el diagnóstico de quiste de la bolsa de Rathke con hiperprolactinemia, logrando menarquia luego del tratamiento con cabergolina.


Rathke's cyst is a benign epithelial lesion of the sellar region, formed from embryonic remnants. Most cases are asymptomatic although it could present with headache, pituitary dysfunction and visual disorders, very infrequently as pituitary stroke. We present the case of a patient who, having presented primary amenorrhea, is diagnosed with Rathke's cyst with hyperprolactinemia, achieving menarche after treatment with cabergoline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Hyperprolactinemia/complications , Central Nervous System Cysts/complications , Amenorrhea/etiology , Prolactin/therapeutic use , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Central Nervous System Cysts/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Cysts/drug therapy , Cabergoline/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 150-153, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123620

ABSTRACT

Los adenomas hipofisarios ectópicos (EPA) constituyen un reto diagnóstico, dada su escasa prevalencia y variada presentación en la que puede incluirse un síndrome de hipersecreción de hormonas hipofisarias. La clínica suele ser larvada e inespecífica, no presentan ninguna característica radiológica diferencial y el diagnóstico habitualmente es anatomopatológico. Sin embargo, a pesar de ser tumores benignos, pueden presentar un comportamiento agresivo, con invasión ósea y difícil resección completa, por lo que un diagnóstico de sospecha precoz podría resultar en un tratamiento más eficaz y con un menor número de complicaciones. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con un adenoma hipofisario ectópico silente en el seno esfenoidal con inmunohistoquímica positiva para Hormona de crecimiento (GH) y prolactina que presentaba restos tumorales tras la intervención quirúrgica y ha sido manejada con tratamiento médico conservado, con buenos resultados.


Ectopic pituitary adenomas constitute a diagnostic challenge, given their low prevalence and varied presentation in which a pituitary hormone hypersecretion syndrome may be included. Clinical symptoms are usually latent and nonspecific, they have no differential radiological characteristics and the diagnosis is usually anatomopathological. However, despite being benign tumors, they can exhibit aggressive behavior, with bone invasion and difficult complete resection, so a diagnosis of early suspicion could result in more effective treatment and fewer complications. We present the case of a patient with a silent ectopic pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid sinus with positive immunohistochemistry for Growth Hormone (GH) and prolactin who had tumor remnants after surgery and was managed with conservative medical treatment, with good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sphenoid Sinus , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Prolactin/metabolism , Growth Hormone/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Cabergoline/therapeutic use
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788814

ABSTRACT

We report two rare cases of spontaneously regressed Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). A 52-year-old woman presented with headache. A pituitary hormone study was normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 0.45-cm³ cystic sellar lesion. The cyst was hyperintense on T1-weighed imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted imaging without rim enhancement, comparable to a RCC. Six months later, brain MRI showed no change in the cyst size. Without any medical treatments, brain MRI 1 year later revealed a spontaneous decrease in cyst volume to 0.05 cm³. A 34-year-old woman presented with headache and galactorrhea lasting 1 week. At the time of the visit, the patient's headache had disappeared. Her initial serum prolactin level was 81.1 ng/mL, and after 1 week without the cold medicine, the serum prolactin level normalized to 11.28 ng/mL. Brain MRI showed a RCC measuring 0.71 cm³. Without further treatments, brain computed tomography 6 months later showed a spontaneous decrease in cyst volume to 0.07 cm³. Another 6 months later, brain MRI revealed that the cyst had remained the same size. Neither patient experienced neurological symptoms, such as headache or visual disturbance, during the period of cyst reduction. The RCCs in both patients underwent spontaneous regression without any medical treatment during a period of 6 months to 1 year. Although spontaneous regression of a RCC is rare, it is still possible and a sufficient follow-up period should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Central Nervous System Cysts , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Galactorrhea , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous , Pregnancy , Prolactin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765388

ABSTRACT

We report two rare cases of spontaneously regressed Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). A 52-year-old woman presented with headache. A pituitary hormone study was normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 0.45-cm³ cystic sellar lesion. The cyst was hyperintense on T1-weighed imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted imaging without rim enhancement, comparable to a RCC. Six months later, brain MRI showed no change in the cyst size. Without any medical treatments, brain MRI 1 year later revealed a spontaneous decrease in cyst volume to 0.05 cm³. A 34-year-old woman presented with headache and galactorrhea lasting 1 week. At the time of the visit, the patient's headache had disappeared. Her initial serum prolactin level was 81.1 ng/mL, and after 1 week without the cold medicine, the serum prolactin level normalized to 11.28 ng/mL. Brain MRI showed a RCC measuring 0.71 cm³. Without further treatments, brain computed tomography 6 months later showed a spontaneous decrease in cyst volume to 0.07 cm³. Another 6 months later, brain MRI revealed that the cyst had remained the same size. Neither patient experienced neurological symptoms, such as headache or visual disturbance, during the period of cyst reduction. The RCCs in both patients underwent spontaneous regression without any medical treatment during a period of 6 months to 1 year. Although spontaneous regression of a RCC is rare, it is still possible and a sufficient follow-up period should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Central Nervous System Cysts , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Galactorrhea , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous , Pregnancy , Prolactin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742212

ABSTRACT

Going back to basics prior to mentioning the use of antipsychotics in patients with pain, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition of pain can be summarized as an unpleasant experience, composed of sensory experience caused by actual tissue damage and/or emotional experience caused by potential tissue damage. Less used than antidepressants, antipsychotics have also been used for treating this unpleasant experience as adjuvant analgesics without sufficient evidence from research. Because recently developed atypical antipsychotics reduce the adverse reactions of extrapyramidal symptoms, such as acute dystonia, pseudo-parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia caused by typical antipsychotics, they are expected to be used more frequently in various painful conditions, while increasing the risk of metabolic syndromes (weight gain, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Various antipsychotics have different neurotransmitter receptor affinities for dopamine (D), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenergic (α), histamine (H), and muscarinic (M) receptors. Atypical antipsychotics antagonize transient, weak D₂ receptor bindings with strong binding to the 5-HT(2A) receptor, while typical antipsychotics block long-lasting, tight D₂ receptor binding. On the contrary, antidepressants in the field of pain management also block the reuptake of similar receptors, mainly on the 5-HT and, next, on the norepinephrine, but rarely on the D receptors. Antipsychotics have been used for treating positive symptoms, such as delusion, hallucination, disorganized thought and behavior, perception disturbance, and inappropriate emotion, rather than the negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms of psychosis. Therefore, an antipsychotic may be prescribed in pain patients with positive symptoms of psychosis during or after controlling all sensory components.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Delusions , Dopamine , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dystonia , Hallucinations , Histamine , Humans , Movement Disorders , Norepinephrine , Pain Management , Prolactin , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotic Disorders , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A , Receptors, Neurotransmitter , Serotonin , Weight Gain
15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763559

ABSTRACT

The relationship between serum prolactin and bone mineral density (BMD) in schizophrenia is unclear. We conducted a literature review of databases from inception until December 2018 for cross-sectional, case-control, prospective and retrospective studies analyzing correlations between serum prolactin and BMD measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or quantitative ultrasound at any skeletal site in people with schizophrenia. Data was summarized with a best evidence synthesis. This review identified 15 studies (1 longitudinal study, 10 cross-sectional and 4 case-control studies; 1,360 individuals with a psychotic disorder; mean age 45.1 ± 9.4 [standard deviation] years, female 742 [54.6%], mean illness duration 17.7 ± 11.3 years) assessing the relationship between serum prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD identified in eight of the studies (53% of all studies), suggesting mixed evidence for an association between serum prolactin and BMD. Of those studies which identified a significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD (n = 5), 152 (52.1%) of patients were treated with prolactin raising antipsychotics, compared to 197 (48.1%) of patients in those studies which did not identify a significant correlation between prolactin and BMD. Available studies cannot resolve the link between excess prolactin and reduced BMD in schizophrenia. Future studies should be longitudinal in design and combine measures of serum prolactin along with other risk factors for reduced BMD such as smoking and vitamin D and sex hormone levels in assessing the relationship between prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Antipsychotic Agents , Bone Density , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperprolactinemia , Longitudinal Studies , Prolactin , Prospective Studies , Psychotic Disorders , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia , Smoke , Smoking , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D
16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of blonanserin in schizophrenic patients who were previously treated with other antipsychotics but, due to insufficient response, were switched to blonanserin. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with schizophrenia who were unresponsive to treatment with antipsychotic monotherapy or combination therapy were recruited into this 12-week, open-label, prospective, multicenter study. Patients were switched to blonanserin from their existing antipsychotics over a maximum 2-week tapering-off period. Efficacy was primarily evaluated using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. RESULTS: Switching to blonanserin resulted in a significant decrease in the mean total score on the BPRS from baseline (56.8 ± 9.4) to week 12 (42.1 ± 13.8, p < 0.001). The most common adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms (n = 12, 23.1%), insomnia (n = 10, 19.2%), and emotional arousal (n = 6, 11.5%). Overweight or obese patients (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2, n = 33) who switched to blonanserin exhibited significant weight loss from 75.2 ± 9.3 kg at baseline to 73.5 ± 9.2 kg at week 12 (p = 0.006). The total cholesterol (baseline, 236.1 ± 47.6 mg/dl; endpoint [week 12], 209.9 ± 28.0 mg/dl; p = 0.005) and prolactin levels (baseline, 80.0 ± 85.2 ng/ml; endpoint [week 12], 63.2 ± 88.9 ng/ml; p = 0.003) were also significantly improved in patients with hypercholesterolemia or hyperprolactinemia. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that switching to blonanserin may be an effective strategy for schizophrenic patients unresponsive to other antipsychotic treatments.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Arousal , Body Weight , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Cholesterol , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperprolactinemia , Overweight , Prolactin , Prospective Studies , Schizophrenia , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763546

ABSTRACT

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most preferred drug for treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we aimed to discuss the possible effects and mechanisms of MPH on precocious puberty (PP) via a case series with seven children who had normal body mass index. In this case series we evaluated seven children with ADHD, who had received MPH for at least 6 months (0.5 mg/kg/dose three times a day, maximum 60 mg) and admitted to Department of Pediatric Endocrinology with PP symptoms. The mean age was 8.16 years. Basal hormonal levels (luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone, and estrogen/testosterone) were within normal range. Results of LH-releasing hormone stimulation tests demonstrated central pubertal responses. Glutamine, dopamine and noradrenaline are most important excitatory neurotransmitters that have a role at the beginning of puberty. The effect of MPH, cumulating dopamine and noradrenaline in the synaptic gap could be associated with the acceleration of puberty with the excitatory effect of dopamine’s gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, excitatory effect of noradrenaline’s GnRH release and the disappearance of GnRH receptor expression suppressor effect on prolactin disinhibitory effect.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Body Mass Index , Child , Dopamine , Endocrinology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Glutamine , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Methylphenidate , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Prolactin , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Receptors, LHRH , Reference Values
18.
Rev. colomb. menopaus ; 25(1): 7-21, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1290481

ABSTRACT

La hiperprolactinemia es la enfermedad endocrina más frecuente del sistema hipotálamohipófisis-ovario; es una entidad de mucho interés por sus manifestaciones clínicas y diversidad de ellas principalmente los trastornos del ciclo e infertilidad secundaria, como por sus efectos a largo plazo. Es necesario que estas pacientes tengan una evaluación sistemática basada en una historia clínica dirigida y complementada con exámenes de laboratorio, en donde la determinación de PRL sea un requisito indispensable. Es importante descartar causas secundarias como el uso de medicamentos, adicciones, estados de estrés y principalmente tumores funcionantes de hipófisis. Se debe evaluar la historia clínica y complementarla con exámenes de laboratorio para tomar una decisión adecuada de tratamiento.


Hyperprolactinemia is the most frequent endocrine disease of the hypothalamus pituitary ovary system, is an entity of great interest for its clinical diversity of manifestations, mainly menstrual cycle disorders and secondary infertility. It is necessary that these patients have a systematic evaluation based on a guided clinical history and supplemented with laboratory tests, where the determination of PRL is an indispensable requirement. It is important to rule out secondary causes such as the use of medications, stress and mainly functioning tumors of the pituitary gland. The clinical history should be evaluated, complemented with laboratory tests to make an adequate decision on their treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Hyperprolactinemia , Prolactin , Uterine Hemorrhage , Dopamine
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 655-658, oct. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973667

ABSTRACT

La ginecomastia es el crecimiento de la mama por un desequilibrio hormonal entre estrógenos y andrógenos. Un crecimiento importante y unilateral requiere descartar patologías subyacentes. Una causa poco frecuente es la traumática, que provoca aumento de tamaño por estimulación repetida. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 6 años con ginecomastia unilateral. Se destaca como único hallazgo en las pruebas complementarias hiperprolactinemia. Rehistoriando, se detecta una continua autoestimulación mamaria manual y oral a través de mordiscos de meses de evolución. Tras el cese del estímulo, se observa la involución de la mama y la normalización de los niveles de prolactina séricos.


Gynecomastia consists of breast enlargement due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Unilateral and important breast growth requires ruling underlying pathologic disorders out. Mechanical cause is uncommon, causing enlargement by repeated stimulation. We report a 6-year-old boy with unilateral gynecomastia. Hyperprolactinemia is the only abnormal finding at laboratory tests. After repeated inquiries, a continuous breast selfstimulation is detected. Its relation with gynecomastia is verified because prolactin normalizes and breast regressed in further revisions, after stopping stimulus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Hyperprolactinemia/etiology , Gynecomastia/etiology , Prolactin/blood , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Gynecomastia/diagnosis
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 236-263, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. In contrast, most patients with stalk dysfunction, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia or systemic diseases present with PRL levels < 100 ng/mL. However, exceptions to these rules are not rare. On the other hand, among patients with macroprolactinomas (MACs), artificially low PRL levels may result from the so-called "hook effect". Patients harboring cystic MACs may also present with a mild PRL elevation. The screening for macroprolactin is mostly indicated for asymptomatic patients and those with apparent idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas, particularly cabergoline, which is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine. After 2 years of successful treatment, DA withdrawal should be considered in all cases of microprolactinomas and in selected cases of MACs. In this publication, the goal of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SBEM) is to provide a review of the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas, emphasizing controversial issues regarding these topics. This review is based on data published in the literature and the authors' experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Hyperprolactinemia/diagnosis , Hyperprolactinemia/therapy , Prolactinoma/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prolactin/blood , Brazil , Prolactinoma/therapy , Bromocriptine/therapeutic use , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Ergolines/therapeutic use , Cabergoline , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
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