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Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e300, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251499


Abstract Introduction Although the use of matching techniques in observational studies has been increasing, it is not always adequate. Clinical trials are not always feasible in critically ill patients with renal outcomes, and observational studies are an important alternative. Objective Through a scoping review, determine the available evidence on the use of matching methods in studies involving critically ill patients and renal outcome assessments. Methods Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were used to identify articles published between 1992 and week 10 of 2020. Studies had to assess different exposures in critically ill patients with renal outcomes using propensity score matching. Results Most publications are cohort studies 94 (94.9%), with five (5.1%) reporting cross-sectional studies. The main pharmacological intervention was the use of antibiotics in seven studies (7.1%) and the main risk factor studied was renal injury prior to ICU admission in 10 studies (10.1%). The use of standardized means to assess balance of baseline characteristics was found in only 28 studies (28.2%). Most studies 95 (96%) used logistic regression to calculate the propensity score. Conclusion Major inconsistencies were observed regarding the use of methods and reporting of findings. Considerations related to the use of propensity score matching methods and reporting of findings are summarized.

Resumen Introducción El uso de técnicas de emparejamiento en estudios observacionales ha ido en aumento y no siempre se usa adecuadamente. Los experimentos clínicos no siempre son factibles en los pacientes críticos con desenlaces renales, por lo que los estudios observacionales son una alternativa importante. Objetivo Mediante una revisión de alcance, determinar la evidencia disponible sobre la utilización de los métodos de emparejamiento en los estudios que incluyen pacientes críticamente enfermos y que evalúan desenlaces renales. Métodos Se utilizaron las bases de datos de Medline, Embase, y Cochrane para identificar artículos publicados entre 1992 y 2020 hasta la semana 10, que estudiaran diferentes exposiciones en el paciente crítico con desenlaces renales y utilizaran métodos de emparejamiento por propensión. Resultados La mayoría de las publicaciones (94) son estudios de Cohorte (94,9 %), cinco estudios (5,1 %) correspondieron a cross-secctional. La principal intervención farmacológica fue el uso de antibióticos en siete estudios (7,1 %) y el principal factor de riesgo estudiado fue la lesión renal previa al ingreso a UCI en diez estudios (10,1 %). El balance entre las características de base evaluado mediante medias estandarizadas se encontró solo en 28 estudios (28,2 %). La mayoría de los estudios 95 (96 %) utilizaron regresión logística para calcular el índice de propensión. Conclusiones Se observaron grandes inconsistencias en la utilización de los métodos y en el informe de los hallazgos. Se hace un resumen de los aspectos por considerar en la utilización de los métodos y reporte de los hallazgos con el emparejamiento por índice de propensión.

Humans , Critical Illness , Renal Replacement Therapy , Critical Care , Libraries, Digital , Propensity Score , Acute Kidney Injury , Kidney Diseases
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 78-85, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155798


Abstract Introduction: The benefit of total arterial revascularization (TAR) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains a controversial issue. This study sought to evaluate whether there is any difference on the long-term results of TAR and non-TAR CABG patients. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL/CCTR), Clinical, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published by October 2020. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies with propensity score matching comparing TAR versus non-TAR CABG were included. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. The current barriers to implementation of TAR in clinical practice and measures that can be used to optimize outcomes were reviewed. Results: Fourteen publications (from 2012 to 2020) involving a total of 22,746 patients (TAR: 8,941 patients; non-TAR: 13,805 patients) were included. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for long-term mortality (over 10 years) was lower in the TAR group than in the non-TAR group (random effect model: HR 0.676, 95% confidence interval 0.586-0.779, P<0.001). There was evidence of low heterogeneity of treatment effect among the studies for mortality, and none of the studies had a particular impact on the summary result. The result was not influenced by age, sex, or comorbidities. We identified low risk of publication bias related to this outcome. Conclusion: This review found that TAR presents the best long-term results in patients who undergo CABG. Given that many patients are likely to benefit from TAR, its use should be encouraged.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e200813, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290094


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre raça/cor da pele e estadiamento clínico em mulheres com câncer de mama em um hospital de referência para tratamento oncológico do Sistema Único de Saúde. Trata-se de estudo seccional com 863 mulheres de 18 anos de idade ou mais, com câncer de mama incidente e estadiamento clínico até IIIC, matriculadas em um hospital de referência no Rio de Janeiro e entrevistadas entre novembro de 2016 e outubro de 2018. Foram coletadas variáveis sociodemográficas, de hábitos de vida e clínicas. Utilizou-se o escore de propensão com a técnica de ponderação para balancear os grupos de comparação quanto aos potenciais confundidores. A associação entre raça/cor da pele e estadiamento clínico foi analisada por meio das equações de estimação generalizada após balanceamento. O nível de significância de 5% foi adotado em todas as análises. Observou-se que 35,9% das mulheres se declararam brancas; 21,3%, pretas; e 42,8%, pardas. Mulheres de cor da pele preta apresentaram 63% mais chance de ter estadiamento II e III quando comparadas com as brancas (OR=1,63; IC95% 1,01-2,65). Conclui-se que mulheres pretas são diagnosticadas com tumores mais avançados quando comparadas com mulheres brancas.

Abstract This study sought to analyze the association between race/skin color and clinical staging in women with breast cancer at a referral hospital for cancer treatment of the Brazilian National Health System. This is a cross-sectional study of 863 women aged 18 or more, with incident breast cancer and clinical staging up to IIIC enrolled at a cancer referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and interviewed between November 2016 and October 2018. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical variables were evaluated. We used the propensity score with the weighting technique to balance comparison groups for potential confounders. The association between race/skin color and clinical staging was analyzed using generalized estimation equations after balancing. A significance level of 5% was adopted in all analyzes. We observed that 35.9% of women declared themselves white; 21.3%, black; and 42.8%, brown. Black women were 63% more likely to have stage II and III when compared to white women (OR=1.63; 95% CI 1.01-2.65). In conclusion, black women are diagnosed with more advanced tumors when compared to white women.

Humans , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Neoplasms , Ethnicity and Health , Propensity Score , Neoplasm Staging
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888496


To investigate whether chemotherapy could prolong the postoperative survival time in patients with early stages pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A total of 5280 stage ⅠA -ⅡB PDAC patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2015 were selected from surveillance,epidemiology,and end results (SEER) database. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was adopted to reduce the baseline differences between the groups. Univariate survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate survival analysis was performed with the Cox proportional hazards model. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses showed that age, differentiation, stage, chemotherapy were independent risk factors for the survival of PDAC patients. After PSM, it is found that adjuvant chemotherapy could prolong the median overall survival time (mOS) for stage ⅠB, ⅡA and ⅡB patients. However, for stage ⅠA patients, there were no significant differences in 3-year survival rate and mOS between patients with chemotherapy (=283) and without chemotherapy (=229) (57.4% vs 55.6%, vs all >0.05). Further analyses show that among 101 patients with well differentiated PDAC and 294 patients with moderately differentiated PDAC, there were no significant differences in survival rate and mOS between patients with and without chemotherapy (all >0.05). Among 117 patients with low-differentiated + undifferentiated PDAC, 3-year survival rate and mOS in patients with chemotherapy were significantly better than those without chemotherapy (48.5% vs 34.1%, vs all <0.05). Chemotherapy regimen used currently is not beneficial for patients with moderately and well differentiated stage ⅠA PDAC, but it is an independent prognostic factor for low-differentiated + undifferentiated PDAC patients.

Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Humans , Neoplasm Staging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Propensity Score
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 633-639, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922363


Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and depression are both increasing in Chinese aging males. However, the relationship still remains unknown. To explore their relationship, a retrospective cohort study based on propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted by analyzing the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study dataset. After data cleaning, a total of 5125 participants were enrolled and subjected to PSM; 1351 pairs were matched and followed for 2 years. Further logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were performed to evaluate, model and visualize the relationship between depression and LUTS/BPH. Moreover, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were adopted to verify the robustness of the conclusions. Before PSM, depressive patients showed higher odds of LUTS/BPH in all three models adjusting for different covariates (P < 0.001). After PSM, univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive patients had higher risks for LUTS/BPH than participants in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, P < 0.001). The RCS results indicated a nonlinear (P < 0.05) and inverted U-shaped relationship between depression and LUTS/BPH. In the subgroup analyses, no increased risks were found among participants who were not married or cohabitating, received an education, had an abnormal body mass index (<18.5 kg m

Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Prostatic Hyperplasia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1146-1151, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878117


BACKGROUND@#Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor in the long-term outcomes of surgical revascularization. However, few studies have focused on patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF) and DM, and the results are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of DM on the long-term outcomes of IHF patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).@*METHODS@#In this propensity-matched study, data of IHF patients who underwent CABG in our hospital from January 2007 to December 2017 were analyzed. With a mean 73-month follow-up time, the patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had DM. The primary endpoint was all-cause death, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the two groups (5.8% vs. 4.1%, P = 0.216). The incidence of main adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in the secondary endpoint was significantly higher in the DM group than that in the non-DM group (10.4% vs. 8.1%, P = 0.023).@*CONCLUSIONS@#DM can negatively affect the long-term outcomes of IHF patients undergoing CABG by significantly increasing the overall incidence of MACCE, though the long-term survival does not show a significant difference between the DM and non-DM patients.

Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Propensity Score , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2700-2709, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921204


BACKGROUND@#There is limited information about thymosin α1 (Tα1) as adjuvant immunomodulatory therapy, either used alone or combined with other treatments, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant Tα1 treatment on long-term survival in margin-free (R0)-resected stage IA-IIIA NSCLC patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 5746 patients with pathologic stage IA-IIIA NSCLC who underwent R0 resection were included. The patients were divided into the Tα1 group and the control group according to whether they received Tα1 or not. A propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed to reduce bias, resulting in 1027 pairs of patients.@*RESULTS@#After PSM, the baseline clinicopathological characteristics were similar between the two groups. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were significantly higher in the Tα1 group compared with the control group. The multivariable analysis showed that Tα1 treatment was independently associated with an improved prognosis. A longer duration of Tα1 treatment was associated with improved OS and DFS. The subgroup analyses showed that Tα1 therapy could improve the DFS and/or OS in all subgroups of age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), smoking status, and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, especially for patients with non-squamous cell NSCLC and without targeted therapy.@*CONCLUSION@#Tα1 as adjuvant immunomodulatory therapy can significantly improve DFS and OS in patients with NSCLC after R0 resection, except for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and those receiving targeted therapy. The duration of Tα1 treatment is recommended to be >24 months.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Humans , Immunomodulation , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Staging , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Thymalfasin
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2196-2204, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921123


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have demonstrated different predominant sites of distant metastasis between patients with and without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). This study aimed to explore whether NCRT could influence the metastasis pattern of rectal cancer through a propensity score-matched analysis.@*METHODS@#In total, 1296 patients with NCRT or post-operative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) were enrolled in this study between January 2008 and December 2015. Propensity score matching was used to correct for differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. After propensity score matching, the metastasis pattern, including metastasis sites and timing, was compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#After propensity score matching, there were 408 patients in the PCRT group and 245 patients in the NCRT group. NCRT significantly reduced local recurrence (4.1% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.004), but not distant metastases (28.2% vs. 27.9%, P = 0.924) compared with PCRT. In both the NCRT and PCRT groups, the most common metastasis site was the lung, followed by the liver. The NCRT group developed local recurrence and distant metastases later than the PCRT group (median time: 29.2 [18.8, 52.0] months vs. 18.7 [13.3, 30.0] months, Z = -2.342, P = 0.019; and 21.2 [12.2, 33.8] vs. 16.4 [9.3, 27.9] months, Z = -1.765, P = 0.035, respectively). The distant metastases occurred mainly in the 2nd year after surgery in both the PCRT group (39/114, 34.2%) and NCRT group (21/69, 30.4%). However, 20.3% (14/69) of the distant metastases appeared in the 3rd year in the NCRT group, while this number was only 13.2% (15/114) in the PCRT group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The predominant site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by the liver, for both the NCRT group and PCRT group. NCRT did not influence the predominant site of distant metastases, but the NCRT group developed local recurrence and distant metastases later than the PCRT group. The follow-up strategy for patients with NCRT should be adjusted and a longer intensive follow-up is needed.

Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Propensity Score , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879305


Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921878


Objective To investigate the impact of prior non-pancreatic cancer on the survival outcomes of patients with localized pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). Methods We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and selected patients with localized PanNETs diagnosed between 1973 and 2015. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence or absence of prior non-pancreatic malignancy. Before and after propensity score matching, we compared the clinicopathological characteristics and studied the overall survival and cancer-specific survival. Results A total of 357 (12.9%) of 2778 patients with localized PanNETs had prior cancer. A total of 1211 cases with only a localized PanNET and 133 cases with a localized PanNET and prior cancer had complete data and met the inclusion criteria of the current study. Patients with prior cancer were associated with advanced age (>65 years, 57.9% prior cancer

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Propensity Score
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(4): 52-82, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1144752


Resumen: Introducción: desde hace algunos años el número de embarazos no intencionales en Uruguay ronda el 40%; esta cifra es alta en comparación con otros países que también tienen baja fecundidad y da cuenta de las dificultades de acceso y uso eficaz de métodos anticonceptivos modernos. Además, varios estudios evidencian que los embarazos no intencionales están vinculados con cuidados prenatales insuficientes y peores desempeños de los recién nacidos respecto a los nacimientos resultantes de embarazos intencionales. Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre intencionalidad de los embarazos y los cuidados prenatales en Uruguay a partir del estudio de su incidencia sobre la captación temprana del embarazo y las prácticas no saludables durante la gestación (fumar y tomar alcohol). Método: se consideran los nacimientos no intencionales y a destiempo (no buscados en ese momento) como dos grupos de tratamiento y se comparan con el grupo de nacimientos intencionales. Se examina el efecto neto de la intencionalidad del embarazo sobre las prácticas de salud durante la gestación utilizando técnicas de Propensity Score Matching (PSM). Se utilizan datos provenientes de la Encuesta de Nutrición, Desarrollo Infantil y Salud (ENDIS), un estudio de panel que recoge información desde 2013 de madres con hijos de entre 0 y 3 años en hogares ubicados en localidades urbanas de Uruguay (mayores a 5.000 habitantes). Resultados: antes de realizar el emparejamiento por PSM, las diferencias entre grupos de intención de embarazos fueron significativas para captación temprana y haber fumado, mientras que haber bebido alcohol no se asoció a diferencias significativas entre grupos de intención de los embarazos.

Summary: Introduction: in Uruguay, the number of unintended pregnancies has been around 40% for several years. This is rather a high percentage if compared to other countries who also have low fertility rates and evidences difficulties in access to modern contraceptive methods or using them effectively. Likewise, several studies evidence unintended pregnancies are related to insufficient antenatal care services and worse outcome in the new-borns when compared to births resulting from intentional pregnancies. Objective: to study the relationship between pregnancy intentionality and antenatal care services in Uruguay, based on an analysis of its impact on the early engagement of pregnancies and non-healthy practices during pregnancy (smoking and alcohol consumption). Method: unintended and untimely births (not sought at that time) were included in the study as two treatment groups, and they are compared to the group of intentional births. The net effect of pregnancy intention on health practices during pregnancy was examined using the de Propensity Score Matching (PSM) techniques. We used data delivered by the Nutrition, Child Development and Health Survey, a panel study that has been collecting information from mothers of children between 0 and 3 years old who live in urban localities of Uruguay (with over 5,000 inhabitants) since 2013. Results: Prior to the PSM matching, the differences in early engagement and smoking were significant between pregnancy intention groups, whereas alcohol consumption was not associated to significant differences between pregnancy intention groups.

Resumo: Introdução: há anos, o número de gestações não intencionais no Uruguai gira em torno de 40%; este número é alto em comparação com outros países que também têm baixa fecundidade e explica as dificuldades de acesso e uso de métodos anticoncepcionais modernos. Além disso, diversos estudos mostram que a gravidez não intencional está associada ao pré-natal insuficiente e piores parâmetros do recém-nascido em comparação com o nascimento decorrente da gravidez intencional. Objetivos: analisar a associação entre intencionalidade da gravidez e assistência pré-natal no Uruguai, a partir do estudo de sua incidência na detecção precoce da gravidez e práticas não saudáveis durante a gravidez (tabagismo e etilismo). Método: os nascimentos não intencionais e prematuros (não desejados no momento) são considerados dois grupos de tratamento e comparados com o grupo de partos intencionais. O efeito líquido da intencionalidade da gravidez sobre as práticas de saúde durante a gravidez é examinado usando técnicas de correspondência de pontuação de propensão (PSM). São utilizados os dados da Pesquisa de Nutrição, Desenvolvimento Infantil e Saúde (ENDIS), um estudo de painel que coleta informações desde 2013 de mães com filhos de 0 a 3 anos em domicílios localizados em áreas urbanas do Uruguai (mais de 5.000 habitantes). Resultados: antes de realizar a comparação por PSM, as diferenças entre os grupos de intenção de gravidez foram significativas para recrutamento precoce e tabagismo, enquanto ter bebido álcool não foi associado a diferenças significativas entre os grupos de intenção de gravidez.

Pregnancy, Unwanted , Prenatal Care , Propensity Score
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 859-868, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144000


Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effect of preoperative aspirin administration on early and long-term clinical outcomes in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: In this observational study, a total of 315 patients were included and grouped according to the time interval between their last aspirin dose and the time of surgery; patients who had been continued aspirin intake with last administered dose ≤ 24-hours before CABG (n=144) and those who had been given the last dose of aspirin between 24 to 48 hours before CABG (n=171). Results: Multivariable analysis showed that the continuation of preoperative aspirin intake ≤ 24 hours before CABG in patients with DM is associated with reduced incidence of 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE) (P=0.004) as well as reduced incidence of composite 30-day mortality/MACCE (P=0.012). During mean follow-up of 37±17.5 months, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) showed that aspirin ≤ 24 hours prior CABG in patients with DM significantly reduced the incidence of MACCE and composite of mortality/MACCE during follow-up (HR: 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.87; P=0.014 and HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97; P=0.039, respectively). However, after propensity score (PS) matching, the PS-adjusted HR showed a non-significant trend towards the reduction of MACCE during follow-up (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.31-1.06; P=0.081). Conclusion: Continuation of preoperative aspirin intake ≤ 24 hours before CABG in patients with DM is associated with reduced incidence of early MACCE, but without significant influence on long-term outcomes.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 411-419, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137311


Abstract Introduction: People with aortic/prosthetic valve endocarditis are a high-risk cohort of patients who present a challenge for all medically involved disciplines and who can be treated by various surgical techniques. Methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of root endocarditis with Medtronic Freestyle® in full-root technique over 19 years (1999-2018) and compared them against treatment with other tissue valves. Comparison was made with propensity score matching, using the nearest neighbor method. Various tests were performed as suited for adequate analyses. Results: Fifty-four patients in the Medtronic Freestyle group (FS group) were matched against 54 complex root endocarditis patients treated with other tissue valves (Tissue group). Hospital mortality was 9/54 (16.7%) in the FS group vs. 14/54 (25.6%) in the Tissue group (P=0.24). Cox regression performed for early results demonstrated coronary heart disease (P=0.004, odds ratio 2.3), among others, influencing early mortality. Recurrent infection was low (1.8% for FS and Tissue patients) and freedom from reoperation was 97.2% at a total of 367 patient-years of follow-up (median of 2.7 years). Conclusion: The stentless xenograft is a viable alternative for treatment of valve/root/prosthetic endocarditis, demonstrating a low rate of reinfection. The design of the bioroot allows for complex reconstructive procedures at the outflow tract and the annular level with at an acceptable operative risk. Endocarditis patients can be treated excluding infective tissue from the bloodstream, possibly with benefits, concerning bacteremia and recurrent infection. Furthermore, the use of the stentless bioroot offers varying treatment options in case of future valve degeneration.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve/surgery , Prosthesis Design , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(1): 1-8, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092461


Abstract Introduction: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been increasingly performed to treat coronary artery disease. The performance of multiple PCI has also been increasing. Consequently, the percentage of patients presenting for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is reported to vary from 13 to 40%. The influence of previous PCI on CABG outcomes has been studied in single center, regional studies, registries and meta-analyses. Some reports showed a negative effect on mortality and morbidity in early or long-term follow-up, but others did not find this influence. Methods and Results: A cohort of 3007 patients consecutively operated for CABG, 261 of them with previous PCI, were included in this analysis. Comparison of the groups "previous PCI" and "primary CABG" was made in the original cohort and in a propensity score matched cohort of 261 patients. There were some differences in preoperative clinical characteristics in both types of cohort, even in the matched one. Outcomes were compared at 30 days, 1 year and 5 years of follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality in any period or cohort. There were some differences in other outcomes as readmission and composite events, including cardiovascular death at 1 and 5 years of follow-up. These differences, neverthless, were not confirmed in comparison with the matched cohort. Conclusion: Although there are some limitations in this study, it was not found consistent negative influence of previous PCI on CABG.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Drug-Eluting Stents , Propensity Score
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(1): e1494, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130514


ABSTRACT Background: There have been an increasing number of articles that demonstrate the potential benefits of minimally invasive liver surgery in recent years. Most of the available evidence, however, comes from retrospective observational studies susceptible to bias, especially selection bias. In addition, in many series, several modalities of minimally invasive surgery are included in the same comparison group. Aim: To compare the perioperative results (up to 90 days) of patients submitted to total laparoscopic liver resection with those submitted to open liver resection, matched by propensity score matching (PSM). Method: Consecutive adult patients submitted to liver resection were included. PSM model was constructed using the following variables: age, gender, diagnosis (benign vs. malignant), type of hepatectomy (minor vs. major), and presence of cirrhosis. After matching, the groups were redefined on a 1:1 ratio, by the nearest method. Results: After matching, 120 patients were included in each group. Those undergoing total laparoscopic surgery had shorter operative time (286.8±133.4 vs. 352.4±141.5 minutes, p<0.001), shorter ICU stay (1.9±1.2 vs. 2.5±2.2days, p=0.031), shorter hospital stay (5.8±3.9 vs. 9.9±9.3 days, p<0.001) and a 45% reduction in perioperative complications (19.2 vs. 35%, p=0.008). Conclusion: Total laparoscopic liver resections are safe, feasible and associated with shorter operative time, shorter ICU and hospital stay, and lower rate of perioperative complications.

RESUMO Racional: Com a disseminação da cirurgia hepática minimamente invasiva tem-se observado nos últimos anos número crescente de trabalhos que demonstram seus potencias benefícios. No entanto, a maior parte da evidência disponível provém de estudos observacionais retrospectivos sujeitos a vieses, em especial, os de seleção. Além disso, em muitas casuísticas são incluídas no mesmo grupo diversas modalidades de operações minimamente invasivas. Objetivo: Comparar os resultados perioperatórios (até 90 dias) de pacientes submetidos a ressecções hepáticas totalmente laparoscópicas com pacientes contemporâneos por cirurgias abertas, pareados por pontuação de propensão (propensity score matching PSM), submetidos a ressecções hepáticas convencionais. Método: Foram estudados pacientes adultos consecutivos submetidos à ressecção hepática. Para homogeneização dos grupos foi utilizado pareamento por pontuação de propensão, utilizando a variável idade, gênero, tipo de doença (benigna vs. maligna), tipo de hepatectomia (maior vs. menor) e presença de cirrose. A partir disto, os grupos foram redefinidos com proporção 1:1, pelo método nearest. Resultado: Após o pareamento foram incluídos 120 pacientes em cada grupo. Os submetidos à operação totalmente laparoscópica apresentaram menor tempo cirúrgico (286,8±133,4 vs. 352,4±141,5 min, p<0,001), menor tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (1,9±1,2 vs. 2,5±2,2dias, p=0,031), menor tempo de internação hospitalar (5,8±3,9 vs. 9,9±9,3dias, p<0,001) e redução de 45% nas complicações perioperatórias (19,2 vs. 35%, p=0,008). Conclusão: As ressecções hepáticas totalmente laparoscópicas são exequíveis, seguras e associadas à menor tempo operatório, menor tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e internação hospitalar, além de diminuição nas complicações perioperatórias.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Laparoscopy/methods , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Propensity Score , Perioperative Period , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092610


RESUMO: Introdução: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) tem elevada prevalência no Brasil e impactos no uso de serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Este estudo verificou a influência da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) no uso de serviços de saúde por adultos com idades igual ou superiores a 18 anos que referiram HAS na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) 2013. Métodos: Utilizou-se o método de escore de propensão (EP) para corrigir a falta de homogeneidade entre os grupos com HAS expostos ou não à ESF. Estimou-se o EP por meio de regressão logística binária, o qual refletiu a probabilidade condicional de receber o cadastro do domicílio na ESF segundo covariáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, sanitárias e de saúde dos adultos e de suas famílias. Após se estimar o EP, utilizou-se o pareamento por estrato (estratificação) para se agrupar os adultos hipertensos em cinco estratos mutuamente excludentes. Foram estimados as prevalências e os intervalos de confiança a 95% de consultas médicas e internações hospitalares. Incorporaram-se os efeitos da amostragem complexa da PNS em todas as fases da análise. Resultados: Verificou-se que adultos hipertensos cadastrados na ESF tinham piores condições socioeconômicas, sanitárias e de saúde, mas semelhante prevalência de consultas médicas e de internação hospitalar aos adultos sem cadastro na ESF e com melhores condições de vida e saúde. A ESF atenuou desigualdades individuais e contextuais que impactam a saúde dos brasileiros ao favorecer o uso de serviços de saúde. Conclusão: A ESF pode favorecer o atendimento e controle da HAS no Brasil. Assim, deve receber investimentos que garantam sua efetividade.

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) has a high prevalence in Brazil and impacts on the use of health services. Objective: This study verified the influence of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) on the use of health services by adults ≥ 18 years old who reported SAH in the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) 2013. Methods: The Propensity Score (PS) method was used to correct the lack of homogeneity between the groups with SAH under exposed or not to the FHS. PS was estimated using binary logistic regression, which reflected the conditional probability of receiving the household register in the FHS according to socioeconomic, demographic and health covariates of adults and their families. After estimating the PS, the stratification was used to group hypertensive adults into five mutually exclusive strata (pairing them). Prevalence and confidence intervals at 95% were estimated of medical consultations and hospitalizations. The effects of the complex NHS sampling were incorporated into all phases of the analysis. Results: It was verified that hypertensive adults enrolled in FHS had worse socioeconomic, health and health conditions, but similar prevalence of medical consultations and hospitalizations to adults without a FHS registry and with better living and health conditions. The FHS has attenuated individual and contextual inequalities that impact the health of Brazilians by favoring the use of health services. Conclusion: The FHS can favor the care and control of SAH in Brazil. Thus, it must receive investments that guarantee its effectiveness.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Family Health , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/epidemiology , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Family Characteristics , Health Surveys , Health Care Surveys , Propensity Score , Middle Aged
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30(supl.4): S53-S60, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177118


Introdução. O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) é uma doença que apresenta uma clínica inespecífica, o que induz a necessidade de solicitar exames complementares, como a angiotomografia computadorizada (angioTC) de tórax. Com o objetivo de evitar a sua solicitação desnecessária, foram criados sistemas de probabilidade pré-teste, como o escore de Wells, que direcionam a propedêutica. Objetivo. Avaliar a prevalência de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) em dois hospitais de uma cidade de médio porte e verificar o padrão de solicitação da angiotomografia computadorizada de tórax (angioTC). Métodos. Estudo transversal a partir de dados de prontuários de pacientes submetidos à angioTC de tórax no Hospital Regional de Barbacena e no Hospital Ibiapaba no período de janeiro de 2014 até junho de 2018. Resultados. A prevalência de TEP foi de 29,70% (N=259) no período de 54 meses e a mediana de idade, 66 anos (intervalo interquartil: 24). Nos pacientes com o diagnóstico de TEP, o sintoma mais frequente foi dor torácica (38,81%), seguido por hemoptise (33,33%) e tosse (32,99%). Nos prontuários analisados foi observado que a utilização do escore de Wells foi de 2,70%. A probabilidade de TEP, pelo escore de Wells, realizada pelos pesquisadores com base nos dados dos prontuários, em pacientes diagnosticados com TEP pela angioTC foi alta em 45%, moderada em 34,42% e baixa em 9,23%. Conclusão. A prevalência foi de 29,70% no período de 54 meses de diagnóstico de TEP em pacientes que realizaram a angioTC de tórax nos hospitais mencionados. O escore de Wells é um importante instrumento propedêutico. (AU)

Background. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a disease presented with nonspecific symptoms that requires additional tests such as pulmonary angiography by computadorized tomography. To avoid unnecessary tests, pre-test probability tools were created, such as Wells Score, which guides the propaedeutics. Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in two hospitals in a medium-sized city and to verify computed tomography pulmonary angiography imaging exam orders. Methods. Cross-sectional study based on data from the hospital records evolving patients underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography at Hospital Regional de Barbacena and Hospital Ibiapaba through January 2014 and June 2018. Results. The prevalence of PE was 29.70% (259 patients) in the 54-month period and the median age, 66 years (interquartile range, 24). In patients with the diagnosis of PE, the most frequent symptom was chest pain (38.81%) followed by hemoptysis (33.33%), and cough (32.99%). In the analyzed hospital records it was observed that the use of the Wells score was 2.70%. The probability of PE according to the Wells score, performed by the researchers based on data from the medical records, in patients diagnosed with PE by computed tomography pulmonary angiography was high in 45%, moderate in 34.42%, and low in 9.23%. Conclusion. The prevalence of PE was 29.70% (N = 259) in the 54-month period from PE diagnosis in patients who underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography in the mentioned hospitals. The Wells score is an important diagnostic tool(8)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Propensity Score , Clinical Decision-Making , Computed Tomography Angiography
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 77 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145982


Introdução: A vacinação é uma das intervenções mais custo-efetivas no controle de doenças infecciosas. O esquema vacinal infantil atualizado é uma das condicionalidades para recebimento do benefício no programa de transferência condicionada de renda (PTCR), logo se espera que entre beneficiários haja alta cobertura vacinal. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito de um PTCR na vacinação infantil em Araraquara, São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva com dados secundários abrangendo duas análises transversais sobre o esquema vacinal, atualizado e oportuno, e fatores associados, aos 12 e 24 meses de idade, de nascidos e residentes em Araraquara entre 2014 e . As bases de dados foram relacionadas por meio de técnica probabilística. Foi utilizado o Propensity Score Matching para definição de grupo beneficiário e não beneficiário do PTCR. Posteriormente, foram comparadas as coberturas vacinais atualizadas e oportunas no 12º e 24º meses de vida. Resultados: Da amostra de .386 indivíduos, 22% das famílias eram beneficiárias do PTCR. Após o pareamento pelo escore de propensão de 1.440 beneficiários com 1.440 não beneficiários, foi possível verificar que coberturas vacinais do esquema atualizado aos 12 e 24 meses eram mais elevadas entre os beneficiários (92,1% e 83,8%) em relação aos não beneficiários (85,1% e 73,6%). Já as coberturas vacinais do esquema oportuno não apresentaram diferenças entre os grupos, sendo cerca de 41% aos 12 meses e 17% aos 24 meses. Fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos e de uso e acesso a serviços de saúde foram associados à vacinação de menores de dois anos e ao recebimento do PTCR. Conclusões: O estudo apresenta efeito positivo do programa de transferência condicionada de renda na cobertura do esquema vacinal atualizado infantil. No entanto, não houve diferença na vacinação na idade recomendada. Como estratégia para a melhoria da cobertura vacinal oportuna sugere-se o fortalecimento do vínculo dos serviços de atenção primária com a comunidade e ampliação do uso de sistemas informatizados de imunização para a busca ativa de crianças em idade para vacinar e convocação de faltosos.

Introduction: Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective interventions in the control of infectious diseases. Since the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program requires children to be up-to-date on vaccination schedule, hence, high immunization coverage is expected among those enrolled. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the CCT on childhood vaccination in the municipality of Araraquara, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study with secondary data analysis covering two cross-sectional assessments of the vaccination schedule (i.e. up-to-date and timeliness) and associated factors, at 12 and 24 months of age, in residents born between 2014 and 2016. Probabilistic record linkage of databases was performed. Propensity score matching was used to define groups of the CCT beneficiary and non-beneficiary. Subsequently, up-to-date and timely vaccination coverage in the 12th and 24th months of age were compared. Results: From 7,386 individuals, 22% of families were beneficiaries of the CCT. After matching the propensity score of 1,440 beneficiaries with 1,440 non-beneficiaries, it was verified that the up-to-date vaccination schedule coverage at 12 and 24 months was higher among beneficiaries (92.1% and 83.8%) compared to non-beneficiaries (85.1% and 73.6%). Timely vaccination schedule coverage did not differ between groups, being around 4 % at 12 months and 17% at 24 months. Demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as access to and use of health services factors were associated with the vaccination of children under two years old and with the receipt of the CCT. Conclusions: The study shows positive effect of the CCT on up-to-date vaccination schedule coverage for children at 12 and 24 months old. However, there was no difference in timely vaccination schedule coverage. As a strategy to improve timely immunization, our results highlight the importance of strengthening the link between primary care services and the local communities, in addition to expanding the use of immunization information systems for the active search of children requiring vaccination and to support strategies to manage potential absenteeism.

Child Health , Vaccination , Health Equity , Electronic Health Records , Propensity Score , Communicable Diseases , Immunization , Social Programs , Income
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880585


OBJECTIVES@#Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the third cause of hospital-acquired AKI, and existing clinical prevention and treatment measures such as hydration therapy and/or administration of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine treatment and other treatments still show little effect on the prevention and treatment of CI-AKI. This study aims to explore the effect of Danhong injection on prevention of CI-AKI.@*METHODS@#A total of 12 867 patients, who received coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, enhanced CT or vascular intervention in a tertiary hospital, were enrolled for this study. Among them, 423 in the treatment group received intravenous drip of Danhong injection, and 12 444 in the control group received routine medicine. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance confounding factors between the 2 groups and then the prevention effect of Danhong injection on CI-AKI was compared between them.@*RESULTS@#A total of 423 pairs of patients were matched successfully. The incidence of CI-AKI in the non-Danhong control group was higher than that in the Danhong treatment group (5.7% vs 2.4%). The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of this study support the use of Danhong injection in the prevention of the Stage 1 of CI-AKI.

Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Propensity Score , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827409


OBJECTIVES@#Hypertension is a serious complication of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PR-AKI). This study aimed to determine the effect of hypertension on the prognosis of PR-AKI, maternal outcomes, and fetal outcome.@*METHODS@#Patients with PR-AKI in a hospital from January 2008 to June 2018 were enrolled for this study. Patients with or without hypertension were grouped by 1꞉1 propensity matching score. The effect of hypertension on the prognosis of PR-AKI was evaluated by multivariate Cox regression before and after matching.@*RESULTS@#Of the 30 680 women who attended the Department of Obstetrics, 126 patients were diagnosed as PR-AKI, the incidence was 0.41%. The age was (29.04±2.32) years. There were 50 cases in the hypertension group, accounting for 39.68%. Using the propensity score method, 48 pairs of patients were successfully matched, and the covariates between the two groups were balanced. After matching and adjusting for relevant clinical factors, Cox regression analysis showed that risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was increased in the hypertension group compared with the normal blood pressure group (HR=2.951, 95% CI 1.067 to 8.275, =0.034). The risk of risk of adverse maternal outcome was increased (HR=2.815, 95% CI 1.271 to 6.233, =0.009), and the risk of fetal adverse outcome was increased (HR=1.437, 95% CI 1.028 to 4.623, =0.021).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hypertension is an independent risk factor for ESRD, adverse maternal outcomes, and adverse fetal outcomes in the PR-AKI patients.

Acute Kidney Injury , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors