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1.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(4): 325-331, 20210000. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The success of islet transplantation for patients with unstable type 1 diabetes mellitus depends, in part, on the number of isolated islets and their quality, which is assessed by functional and viability tests. The test currently employed to evaluate islet viability, used by the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry to release products for transplantation, is fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/PI) staining. However, the efficacy of this method relies on researcher experience; in this context, a quantitative method may be useful. The aim of this study was to compare islet viability as assessed by flow cytometry and the FDA/PI assay. Methods: Viability was analyzed in islets isolated from 10 male Wistar rats. Upon FDA/PI staining, 50 islets from each animal were analyzed under fluorescence microscopy by two well-trained researchers. For flow cytometry, islets were dispersed and 100 000 single cells were incubated with the 7-amino-actinomycin D (7AAD) fluorophore (dyes necrotic and late apoptotic cells) and the Annexin V-APC antibody (marks early apoptotic cells). Results: A moderate correlation was found between techniques (r = 0.6; p = 0.047). The mean islet viability measured by flow cytometry was higher than that estimated using FDA/PI staining (95.5 ± 1.4% vs 89.5 ± 5.0%; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Although flow cytometry is more expensive and time-consuming than FDA/PI staining, it is a quantitative technique with greater reproducibility that is less subject to inter-observer variability than FDA/PI. Therefore, flow cytometry appears to be the technique of choice when aiming for a more precise determination of islet viability. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Propidium , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Fluorescein , Flow Cytometry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells. METHODS: Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM. RESULTS: BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family. CONCLUSION: BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bisbenzimidazole , Bleomycin , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Mice , Propidium , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305

ABSTRACT

Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cricetinae , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
4.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e32-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of asthma exacerbations. Eosinophil activation results in the formation of eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs), which release web-like structures of DNA and proteins that bind, disarm and extracellularly kill pathogens. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vitro could induce EETs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils in a murine model of asthma. METHODS: BALB/cJ mice (6–8 weeks old) were sensitized with 2 subcutaneous injections of ovalbumin (20 μg) on days 0 and 7, followed by three intranasal challenges with ovalbumin (100 μg) on days 14, 15, and 16 of the protocol. The control group received Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils of ovalbumin group or control group were stimulated with RSV (103 PFU/mL) in vitro for 3 hours. After that, culture supernatant was collected to perform the analyses proposed in this study. RESULTS: We verified an increase in extracellular DNA concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils from ovalbumin group stimulated with RSV (10³ PFU/mL) in vitro, which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that most cells are negative for annexin V and propidium iodide in all groups evaluated. Also, RSV in vitro decreased interferon-ɣ in culture supernatant when compared to the ovalbumin group. CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that RSV in vitro induces EETs formation in eosinophils from asthmatic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Annexin A5 , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , DNA , Eosinophil Peroxidase , Eosinophils , Extracellular Traps , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mice , Microscopy, Confocal , Ovalbumin , Propidium , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
5.
Blood Research ; : 253-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fluoranthene (FR) is a common environmental pollutant that exists in a complex mixture with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified biomarkers for monitoring FR exposure and investigated the rescue effect of FR-induced cellular toxicity via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist activity in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).METHODS: Morphological changes, viability, and rescue effects of an AHR antagonist (CH223191) were examined in BM-MSCs after exposure to FR. Cytotoxic effects were assayed using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide dye-based flowcytometry assay, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, and nuclear DNA fragmentation assay. Molecular signaling pathways of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using immunoblotting. Proteomics were performed in order to reveal the spectra of cellular damage and identify biomarkers for FR exposure.RESULTS: Exposing BM-MSCs to FR (IC₅₀=50 µM) induced cell death and morphological changes, while the AHR antagonist showed rescue effects. Autophagy was activated and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Proteomic analysis identified 48 deregulated proteins (26 upregulated and 22 downregulated). Among them, annexin A6, pyruvate kinase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and phospholipase A2 could be potential biomarkers for FR exposure.CONCLUSION: The exposure of BM-MSCs to FR induced remarkable alterations in cellular biology and the proteome, allowing for identification of novel biomarkers for FR exposure. Furthermore, AHR antagonists might be able to prevent cellular damage due to FR exposure.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Annexin A6 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Biomarkers , Bone Marrow , Cell Death , DNA Fragmentation , Immunoblotting , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidoreductases , Phospholipases A2 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Propidium , Proteome , Proteomics , Pyruvate Kinase , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714096

ABSTRACT

Wet wipes are being increasingly used because of their convenience. Particularly, oral wet wipes are useful for regular cleaning of a baby's mouth after birth. Therefore, the consumption of oral wet wipes has increased over the past few years and a variety of products are commercially available. However, product information on safety is not sufficiently provided and still raises doubts regarding adverse effects. To confirm the safety of wet wipes as an oral hygiene item and provide information for their use, we investigated the cytotoxicity of oral wet wipes and verified the underlying mechanism. The anti-bacterial effect of oral wet wipes was analyzed using the disk diffusion method. The cytotoxic effects of oral wet wipes were observed based on morphological changes using microscopy and determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Evaluation of apoptosis by oral wet wipes was explored using propidium iodide flow cytometric analysis and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis-related molecules were also analyzed using western blotting. Five types of oral wet wipes were tested, and two products from Fisher-Price and Dr. Kennedy revealed strong cytotoxic effects on gingiva epithelial cells and gingiva fibroblasts, although they also showed intense anti-bacterial effects on oral bacteria. Cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis were observed based on treatment of extracts from Fisher-Price and Dr. KENNEDY. Relatively high TUNEL levels, reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 expression, and fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were also elucidated. These results suggest that commercial oral wet wipes could exert cytotoxic influences on oral tissue, although there are anti-bacterial effects, and careful attention is required, especially for infants and toddlers.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bacteria , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Survival , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Deoxyuridine , Diffusion , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Epithelial Cells , Fibroblasts , Gingiva , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Infant , Methods , Microscopy , Mouth , Oral Hygiene , Parturition , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Propidium
7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 39-45, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dieckol, a phlorotannin compound isolated from Ecklonia cava, has been reported to have antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate its anticancer effects on human breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: In this study, the viability of two human breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 was investigated after dieckol treatment using a WST-1 assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were assayed via Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoblotting analysis was also performed using Bax/Bcl-2 to determine whether the dieckol-induced apoptosis was mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. RESULTS: In a dose dependent manner, dieckol reduced the number of viable cells and increased the number of apoptotic cells. The effect of dieckol on the cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry. Dieckol treatment significantly increased the percentage of MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 in the G2/M phase. Immunoblot analysis revealed that 24 hours of dieckol exposure increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CONCLUSION: Dieckol induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, it is suggested that dieckol may be a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunoblotting , Propidium
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 740-746, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889173

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The spoilage of beer by bacteria is of great concern to the brewer as this can lead to turbidity and abnormal flavors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of beer-spoilage bacteria is highly specific and provides results much faster than traditional microbiology techniques. However, one of the drawbacks is the inability to differentiate between live and dead cells. In this paper, the combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment and conventional PCR had been described. The established PMA-PCR identified beer spoilage Lactobacillus brevis based not on their identity, but on the presence of horA gene which we show to be highly correlated with the ability of beer spoilage LAB to grow in beer. The results suggested that the use of 30 µg/mL or less of PMA did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from viable L. brevis cells. The minimum amount of PMA to completely inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from dead L. brevis cells was 2.0 µg/mL. The detection limit of PMA-PCR assay described here was found to be 10 colony forming units (CFU)/reaction for the horA gene. Moreover, the horA-specific PMA-PCR assays were subjected to 18 reference isolates, representing 100% specificity with no false positive amplification observed. Overall the use of horA-specific PMA-PCR allows for a substantial reduction in the time required for detection of potential beer spoilage L. brevis and efficiently differentiates between viable and nonviable cells.


Subject(s)
Staining and Labeling/methods , Beer/microbiology , Lactobacillus brevis/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus brevis/growth & development , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Propidium/analogs & derivatives , Propidium/chemistry , Azides/chemistry , Lactobacillus brevis/genetics , Lactobacillus brevis/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Food Microbiology
9.
Mycobiology ; : 25-30, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729892

ABSTRACT

Metal-based drugs, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, have demonstrated anticancer, antifungal and antiplasmodium activities. One of the 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives compounds (1)-N-2-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (FEN), which has been demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the growth of Candida spp. This study aimed to explore the in vitro antifungal activity of FEN and its effect on the membrane integrity of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of FEN against planktonic C. albicans cells were determined using the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Cell membrane integrity was determined with the propidium iodide assay using a flow cytometer and were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells growth of C. albicans were inhibited by FEN, with an MIC of 0.39–1.56 µg/mL and a MFC that ranged from 3.125 to 100 µg/mL. When C. albicans was exposed to FEN, the uptake of propidium iodide was increased, which indicated that membrane disruption is the probable mode of action of this compound. There was cells surface changes of C. albicans when observed under SEM.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Candida , Cell Membrane , In Vitro Techniques , Membranes , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plankton , Propidium
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148363

ABSTRACT

Among the genotoxic drug regimens, doxorubicin (DOX) is known for its high-dose side effects in several carcinomas, including cervical cancer. This study reports on testing the combined use of a DOX genotoxic drug and SCR-7 non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) inhibitor for HeLa cells. An in vitro DNA damaging assay of DOX was performed on plasmid and genomic DNA substrate. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated using trypan blue dye exclusion, DNA metabolizing, and propidium iodide-based flow cytometric assays. DOX (between 20–100 μM) displayed clear DNA binding and interaction, such as the shearing and smearing of plasmid and genomic DNA. DNA metabolizing assay data indicate that HeLa lysate with DOX and SCR-7 treatment exhibited better in vitro plasmid DNA stability compared with DOX treatment alone. SCR-7 augmented the effects of low-dose DOX by demonstrating enhanced cell death from 15% to 50%. The flow cytometric data also supported that the combination of SCR-7 with DOX lead to a 23% increase in propidium iodide-based HeLa staining, thus indicating enhanced death. In summary, the inhibition of NHEJ DNA repair pathway can potentiate low-dose DOX to produce appreciable cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , DNA , DNA Damage , DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA Repair , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Genomic Instability , HeLa Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Plasmids , Propidium , Trypan Blue , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148360

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tumor cells have increased turnover of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺), the main coenzyme in processes including adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation, deacetylation, and calcium mobilization. NAD⁺ is predominantly synthesized in human cells via the salvage pathway, with the first component being nicotinamide. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme in this pathway, and its chemical inhibition by FK866 has elicited antitumor effects in several preclinical models of solid and hematologic cancers. However, its efficacy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cells has not been previously investigated. In this study, we aimed to deplete the NAD⁺ content of MCF-7 cells, a model cell line for ER-positive breast cancer, by inhibiting NAMPT in order to evaluate downstream effects on p53 and its acetylation, p21 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) expression, and finally, apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with FK866. NAD⁺ levels in cells were determined colorimetrically. Levels of p53 and its acetylated form were determined by Western blotting. Expression of p21 and BAX was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, levels of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry using markers for annexin V and propidium iodide. RESULTS: FK866 treatment was able to increase p53 levels and acetylation, upregulate BAX and p21 expression, and induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Addition of exogenous NAD⁺ to cells reversed these effects, suggesting that FK866 exerted its effects by depleting NAD⁺ levels. CONCLUSION: Results showed that FK866 could effectively inhibit NAD⁺ biosynthesis and induce programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that NAMPT inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of ER-positive breast cancers.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Adenosine , Annexin A5 , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calcium , Cell Death , Cell Line , Estrogens , Flow Cytometry , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , NAD , Niacinamide , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Propidium , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ErbB Receptors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
12.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 295-305, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179812

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We previously found that the histone methyltransferase suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax and myeloid-nervy-deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a potential independent predictive factor or prognostic factor for overall survival in gastric cancer patients, but its roles seem to differ from those in other cancers. Therefore, in this study, the detailed functions of SMYD3 in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMYD3 was overexpressed or suppressed by transfection with an expression plasmid or siRNA, and a wound healing migration assay and Transwell assay were performed to detect the migration and invasion ability of gastric cancer cells. Additionally, an MTT assay and clonogenic assay were performed to evaluate cell proliferation, and a cell cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, the expression of genes implicated in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation were detected by polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. RESULTS: Compared with control cells, gastric cancer cells transfected with si-SMYD3 showed lower migration and invasion abilities (P<0.05), and the absence of SMYD3 halted cells in G2/M phase and activated the ATM pathway. Furthermore, the opposite patterns were observed when SMYD3 was elevated in normal gastric cells. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the absence of SMYD3 could inhibit the migration, invasion, and proliferation of gastric cancer cells and halt cells in G2/M phase via the ATM-CHK2/p53-Cdc25C pathway. These findings indicated that SMYD3 plays crucial roles in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells and may be a useful therapeutic target in human gastric carcinomas.


Subject(s)
Ataxia Telangiectasia , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Histones , Humans , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propidium , RNA, Small Interfering , Stomach Neoplasms , Transfection , Wound Healing
13.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 209-215, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192316

ABSTRACT

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) is a flowering plants in South, Central and West Africa and commonly known as the sausage tree (Eng.); worsboom (Afr.); umVunguta, umFongothi (Zulu); Modukguhlu (North Sotho); Muvevha (Venda). The dried, powdered fruits are used as dressing for wounds and ulcers, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, purgative, skin-firming, lactation in breast-feeding mothers. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic potentials of 70% ethanolic extracts of Kigelia africana fruits in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Treatment of Kigelia africana fruits with various concentrations resulted in a sequence of characteristic of apoptosis, including loss of cell viability and morphological changes. Flow cytometry analysis showed Kigelia africana fruits increased the sub-G1 phase (apoptosis) population. Apoptosis confirmed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide double staining in HCT116 human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, analysis of the mechanism indicated that Kigelia africana fruits showed an increased Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in activation of hallmarks of apoptotic events, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. This is the first report to demonstrate the cytotoxicity of Kigelia africana fruits on HCT116 human colon cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Africa, Western , Apoptosis , Bandages , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Ethanol , Female , Flow Cytometry , Flowers , Fruit , Humans , Lactation , Mothers , Propidium , Rheumatic Diseases , Trees , Ulcer , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 165-176, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158511

ABSTRACT

Enhanced oxidative stress is a hallmark of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, and inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) attenuates oxidative stress during cisplatin nephrotoxicity; however, the precise mechanisms behind its action remain elusive. Here, using an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced injury to human kidney proximal tubular cells, we demonstrated that the protective effect of PARP1 inhibition on oxidative stress is associated with sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) activation. Exposure to 400 µM cisplatin for 8 hours in cells decreased activity and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and SIRT3, while it increased their lysine acetylation. However, treatment with 1 µM PJ34 hydrochloride, a potent PARP1 inhibitor, restored activity and/or expression in those antioxidant enzymes, decreased lysine acetylation of those enzymes, and improved SIRT3 expression and activity in the cisplatin-injured cells. Using transfection with SIRT3 double nickase plasmids, SIRT3-deficient cells given cisplatin did not show the ameliorable effect of PARP1 inhibition on lysine acetylation and activity of antioxidant enzymes, including MnSOD, catalase and GPX. Furthermore, SIRT3 deficiency in cisplatin-injured cells prevented PARP1 inhibition-induced increase in forkhead box O3a transcriptional activity, and upregulation of MnSOD and catalase. Finally, loss of SIRT3 in cisplatin-exposed cells removed the protective effect of PARP1 inhibition against oxidative stress, represented by the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; and necrotic cell death represented by a percentage of propidium iodide–positively stained cells. Taken together, these results indicate that PARP1 inhibition protects kidney proximal tubular cells against oxidative stress through SIRT3 activation during cisplatin nephrotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Catalase , Cell Death , Cisplatin , Deoxyribonuclease I , Down-Regulation , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kidney , Lipid Peroxides , Lysine , Oxidative Stress , Plasmids , Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Propidium , Sirtuin 3 , Superoxide Dismutase , Transfection , Up-Regulation
15.
Korean Leprosy Bulletin ; : 13-22, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. OBJECT: The author evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the viablity of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) in specimens of cultivation in mouse foot pads. METHODS: A total of 55 diluted suspensions from mouse foot pads were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation, and were also tested to compare the ΔCT values (CT value in PMA-treated samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated samples). Real-time PCR was performed using QuantiTect SYBR® Green PCR Kits(Qiagen, USA), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation groups. RESULTS: The increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in heat inactivated group(4.26) and non-heat inactivated group(1.12)(both P = 0.000). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ΔCT value for maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.1%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 2.41 CONCLUSIONS: PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for evaluating viablity of M. leprae.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Foot , Hot Temperature , Mice , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propidium , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Suspensions
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1494-1499, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of troglitazone, PDT, and troglitazone in combination with PDT on cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in DLD-1 cells. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the tetrazolium-based MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated via cell staining with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC. The levels of pro-caspase-3 were measured via Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Treatment of troglitazone and PDT induced the growth retardation and cell death of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth and increased the apoptotic response of DLD-1 and resulted in apoptosis rather than necrosis, as shown by PI/annexin V staining and degradation of procaspase-3. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: These results document the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of PDT in combination with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone and provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of combination treatment in colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Necrosis , Photochemotherapy , Propidium
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1494-1499, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand troglitazone in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances the apoptotic response of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of troglitazone, PDT, and troglitazone in combination with PDT on cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in DLD-1 cells. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the tetrazolium-based MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated via cell staining with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-FITC. The levels of pro-caspase-3 were measured via Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Treatment of troglitazone and PDT induced the growth retardation and cell death of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. The combination treatment significantly suppressed cell growth and increased the apoptotic response of DLD-1 and resulted in apoptosis rather than necrosis, as shown by PI/annexin V staining and degradation of procaspase-3. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: These results document the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of PDT in combination with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone and provide a strong rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of combination treatment in colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Necrosis , Photochemotherapy , Propidium
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have applications in regenerative medicine based on their therapeutic potential to repair and regenerate diseased and damaged tissue. They are commonly subject to oxidative stress during harvest and transplantation, which has detrimental effects on their subsequent viability. By functioning as an antioxidant against free radicals, melatonin may exert cytoprotective effects on ASCs. METHODS: We cultured human ASCs in the presence of varying dosages of hydrogen peroxide and/or melatonin for a period of 3 hours. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining under fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide (1-2.5 mM) treatment resulted in an incremental increase in cell death. 2 mM hydrogen peroxide was thereafter selected as the dose for co-treatment with melatonin. Melatonin alone had no adverse effects on ASCs. Co-treatment of ASCs with melatonin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide protected ASCs from cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and afforded maximal protection at 100 µM (n=4, one-way analysis of variance P<0.001). Melatonin co-treated ASCs displayed significantly fewer apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by condensed and fragmented nuclei under fluorescence microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin possesses cytoprotective properties against oxidative stress in human ASCs and might be a useful adjunct in fat grafting and cell-assisted lipotransfer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cytoprotection , Free Radicals , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Melatonin , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Oxidative Stress , Propidium , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cells , Transplants
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111025

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of mild hypoxia in the mature and immature brain. METHODS: We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus and used hippocampal tissue cultures at 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV) to represent the immature and mature brain, respectively. Tissue cultures were exposed to 10% oxygen for 60 minutes. Twenty-four hours after this hypoxic insult, propidium iodide fluorescence images were obtained, and the damaged areas in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) were measured using image analysis. RESULTS: In the 7-DIV group compared to control tissue, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage in two regions (CA1: 5.59%+/-2.99% vs. 4.80%+/-1.37%, P=0.900; DG: 33.88%+/-12.53% vs. 15.98%+/-2.37%, P=0.166), but this decrease was not statistically significant. In the 14-DIV group, hypoxia-exposed tissue showed decreased damage compared to control tissues; this decrease was not significant in the CA3 (24.51%+/-6.05% vs. 18.31%+/-3.28%, P=0.373) or DG (15.72%+/-3.47% vs. 9.91%+/-2.11%, P=0.134), but was significant in the CA1 (50.91%+/-5.90% vs. 32.30%+/-3.34%, P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Although only CA1 tissues cultured for 14 DIV showed significantly less damage after exposure to hypoxia, the other tissues examined in this study showed a tendency towards less damage after hypoxic exposure. Therefore, mild hypoxia might play a protective role in the brain.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Fluorescence , Hippocampus , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxygen , Propidium
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 66-74, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29469

ABSTRACT

Treatment with cisplatin for cancer therapy has a major side effect such as nephrotoxicity; however, the role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in necrosis in response to cisplatin nephrotoxicity remains to be defined. Here we report that cisplatin induces primary necrosis through PARP1 activation in kidney proximal tubular cells derived from human, pig and mouse. Treatment with high dose of cisplatin for 4 and 8 hours induced primary necrosis, as represented by the percentage of propidium iodide-positive cells and lactate dehydrogenase release. The primary necrosis was correlated with PARP1 activation during cisplatin injury. Treatment with PJ34, a potent PARP1 inhibitor, at 2 hours after injury attenuated primary necrosis after 8 hours of cisplatin injury as well as PARP1 activation. PARP1 inhibition also reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase and high mobility group box protein 1 from kidney proximal tubular cells at 8 hours after cisplatin injury. Oxidative stress was increased by treatment with cisplatin for 8 hours as shown by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and lipid hydroperoxide assays, but PARP1 inhibition at 2 hours after injury reduced the oxidative damage. These data demonstrate that cisplatin-induced PARP1 activation contributes to primary necrosis through oxidative stress in kidney proximal tubular cells, resulting in the induction of cisplatin nephrotoxicity and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cisplatin , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lipid Peroxides , Mice , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Propidium
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