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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 29-35, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salep is obtained by grinding dried orchid tubers and used as a valuable ingredient in the food industry. Because of the glucomannan content of salep, it is thought to have prebiotic potential. However, there is little information in studies concerning the fermentation characteristics and potential prebiotic properties of salep. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salep on bifidobacterial growth by measuring the highest optical density (OD), calculating the specific growth rates, and determining the production of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) as a result of bacterial fermentation. RESULT: The OD and pH values obtained in this study showed that salep was utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the Bifidobacterium species (BS). All Bifidobacterium strains produced lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, indicating that salep is readily fermented by these bacteria. Salep at 1% (w/v) showed a similar effect on bifidobacterial growth as that promoted by 1% (w/v) glucose used as a traditional carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium species can develop in media containing salep as well as in glucose and exhibit the potential to be used as new sources of prebiotics.


Subject(s)
Powders/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Propionates/analysis , Propionates/metabolism , Food Industry , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Lactic Acid/analysis , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Probiotics , Butyric Acid/analysis , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Prebiotics , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 38-49, jul. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE), a unitary R configuration aromatic oxyphenoxypropionic acid ester (AOPP) herbicide, was widely used and had led to detrimental environmental effects. For finding the QPEdegrading bacteria and promoting the biodegradation of QPE, a series of studies were carried out. RESULTS: A QPE-degrading bacterial strain YC-XJ1 was isolated from desert soil and identified as Methylobacterium populi, which could degrade QPE with methanol by cometabolism. Ninety-seven percent of QPE (50 mg/L) could be degraded within 72 h under optimum biodegradation condition of 35°C and pH 8.0. The maximum degradation rate of QPE was 1.4 mg/L/h, and the strain YC-XJ1 exhibited some certain salinity tolerance. Two novel metabolites, 2-hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline and quinoxaline, were found by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. The metabolic pathway of QPE was predicted. The catalytic efficiency of strain YC-XJ1 toward different AOPPs herbicides in descending order was as follows: haloxyfop-pmethyl ≈ diclofop-methyl ≈ fluazifop-p-butyl N clodinafop-propargyl N cyhalofop-butyl N quizalofop-p-ethyl N fenoxaprop-p-ethyl N propaquizafop N quizalofop-p-tefuryl. The genome of strain YC-XJ1 was sequenced using a combination of PacBio RS II and Illumina platforms. According to the annotation result, one α/ß hydrolase gene was selected and named qpeh1, for which QPE-degrading function has obtained validation. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment with other QPE-degrading esterases reported previously, the QPEH1 was clustered with esterase family V. CONCLUSION: M. populi YC-XJ1 could degrade QPE with a novel pathway, and the qpeh1 gene was identified as one of QPE-degrading esterase gene.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Quinoxalines/metabolism , Methylobacterium/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Methylobacterium/enzymology , Methylobacterium/genetics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/metabolism , Herbicides , Hydrolases/analysis , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrolysis
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 29: 78-85, sept. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017382

ABSTRACT

Background: Biohydrogen effluent contains a high concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) mainly as butyric, acetic, lactic and propionic acids. The presence of various VFAs (mixture VFAs) and their cooperative effects on two-stage biohythane production need to be further studied. The effect of VFA concentrations in biohydrogen effluent of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on methane yield in methane stage of biohythane production was investigated. Results: The methane yield obtained in low VFA loading (0.9 and 1.8 g/L) was 15­20% times greater than that of high VFA loading (3.6 and 4.7 g/L). Butyric acid at high concentrations (8 g/L) has the individual significantly negative effect the methane production process (P b 0.05). Lactic, acetic and butyric acid mixed with propionic acid at a concentration higher than 0.5 g/L has an interaction significantly negative effect on the methanogenesis process (P b 0.05). Inhibition condition had a negative effect on both bacteria and archaea with inhibited on Geobacillus sp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, Methanoculleus thermophilus and Methanothermobacter delfuvii resulting in low methane yield. Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Butyrates/metabolism , Waste Water/microbiology , Methane/biosynthesis , Propionates/analysis , Butyrates/analysis , Palm Oil , Methanobacteriaceae , Archaea , Methanomicrobiaceae , Geobacillus , Fermentation , Waste Water/analysis , Hydrogen , Anaerobiosis
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 67-75, July. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015999

ABSTRACT

The increasing demand for propionic acid (PA) production and its wide applications in several industries, especially the food industry (as a preservative and satiety inducer), have led to studies on the low-cost biosynthesis of this acid. This paper gives an overview of the biotechnological aspects of PA production and introduces Propionibacterium as the most popular organism for PA production. Moreover, all process variables influencing the production yield, different simple and complex carbon sources, the metabolic pathway of production, engineered mutants with increased productivity, and modified tolerance against high concentrations of acid have been described. Furthermore, possible methods of extraction and analysis of this organic acid, several applied bioreactors, and different culture systems and substrates are introduced. It can be concluded that maximum biomass and PA production may be achieved using metabolically engineered microorganisms and analyzing the most significant factors influencing yield. To date, the maximum reported yield for PA production is 0.973 g·g-1, obtained from Propionibacterium acidipropionici in a three-electrode amperometric culture system in medium containing 0.4 mM cobalt sepulchrate. In addition, the best promising substrate for PA bioproduction may be achieved using glycerol as a carbon source in an extractive continuous fermentation. Simultaneous production of PA and vitamin B12 is suggested, and finally, the limitations of and strategies for competitive microbial production with respect to chemical process from an economical point of view are proposed and presented. Finally, some future trends for bioproduction of PA are suggested.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Propionibacterium/metabolism , Propionates/chemistry , Vitamin B 12/biosynthesis , Carbon/metabolism , Bioreactors , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/metabolism
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(5): 1-6, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797330

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2014, apple production in EU countries amounted to 11.8 million tonnes. A constant increase in the production of these fruits will lead to the accumulation of thousands of tonnes of apple pomace (production waste). The amount of industrial apples is the highest - their proportiononthe market is estimated at 50-60%, of which over 95% is processed into juice. The proportion of pomace in the traditional pressing method accounts for 20% offruits used. Results: Analysis of the growth dynamics of wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 in micro-cultures using different carbon sources showed that the highest bacterial growth occurs in an environment with fructose and the most intense biosynthesis of metabolites was found in medium containing only saccharose. It has been found that P. freudenreichii T82 used apple pomaces as a source of carbon. Propionic acid biosynthesis reached its maximum value in the 120th hour of cultivation (1.771 g/L). At this time, the content of the acetic acid produced reached the level of 7.049 g/L. Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Carbon , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Malus/chemistry , Sucrose , Waste Products , Biological Products , Fermentation , Propionibacterium freudenreichii , Fruit/chemistry
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 425-432, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749712

ABSTRACT

The strain JPL-2, capable of degrading fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (FE), was isolated from the soil of a wheat field and identified as Rhodococcus ruber. This strain could utilize FE as its sole carbon source and degrade 94.6% of 100 mg L−1 FE in 54 h. Strain JPL-2 could also degrade other aryloxyphenoxy propanoate (AOPP) herbicides. The initial step of the degradation pathway is to hydrolyze the carboxylic acid ester bond. A novel esterase gene feh, encoding the FE-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase (FeH) responsible for this initial step, was cloned from strain JPL-2. Its molecular mass was approximately 39 kDa, and the catalytic efficiency of FeH followed the order of FE > quizalofop-P-ethyl > clodinafop-propargyl > cyhalofop-butyl > fluazifop-P-butyl > haloxyfop-P-methyl > diclofop-methy, which indicated that the chain length of the alcohol moiety strongly affected the hydrolysis activity of the FeH toward AOPP herbicides.


Subject(s)
Carboxylesterase/genetics , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Oxazoles/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Rhodococcus/isolation & purification , Rhodococcus/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Carboxylesterase/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , /genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Rhodococcus/enzymology , Rhodococcus/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Substrate Specificity , Triticum/growth & development
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 433-441, Apr-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749723

ABSTRACT

An indigenous bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a soil used for grown wheat with a long-term history of herbicide use in Beijing, China. The strain BJ71 was identified as Cupriavidus campinensis based on its 16S rRNA sequence analysis and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. The degradation characteristics of strain BJ71 were evaluated. The optimal conditions for 2,4-D degradation were as follows: pH 7.0, 30 °C, 3% (v/v) inoculum size, and an initial 2,4-D concentration of 350 mg L−1. Up to 99.57% of the 2,4-D was degraded under optimal conditions after 6 days of incubation. Strain BJ71 was also able to degrade quizalofop and fluroxypyr. This is the first report of a 2,4-D-degrader containing tfdA gene that can utilize these two herbicides. In a biodegradation experiment, 87.13% and 42.53% of 2,4-D (initial concentration, 350 mg kg−1) was degraded in non-sterile and sterilized soil inoculated with BJ71, respectively, after 14 days. The 2,4-D degradation was more rapid in a soil microcosm including BJ71 than in a soil microcosm without BJ71. These results indicate that strain BJ71 is a potential candidate for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with the herbicide 2,4-D.


Subject(s)
Cupriavidus/isolation & purification , Cupriavidus/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , /metabolism , Acetates/metabolism , Bacteriological Techniques , Biotransformation , China , Cluster Analysis , Cupriavidus/genetics , Cupriavidus/physiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Propionates/metabolism , Pyridines/metabolism , Quinoxalines/metabolism , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Temperature , Time Factors , Triticum
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 923-926, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699782

ABSTRACT

A sensitive and efficient colorimetric method was optimized for detection of esterase enzymes produced by endophytic fungi for development of High-Throughput Screening (HTS). The fungi were isolated and obtained previously from plant species of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest located in areas of environmental preservation in the State of Sao Paulo / Brazil, as part of the project "Chemical and biological prospecting endophytic fungi associated to plant species of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest". The compounds ethyl butyrate, ethyl acetate and methyl propionate were used as standards esters which were hydrolyzed by extracellular enzyme from endophytic fungi (EC. 3.1.1.1 -carboxylesterases) for production of carboxylic acids. Thus, the reduction of the pH increases the protonated indicator concentration (bromothymol blue), changing the color of the reaction medium (from blue to yellow), that can be observed and measured by spectrophotometry at 616 nm. The methodology with acid-base indicator was performed on 13 microorganisms, aiming Periconia atropurpurea asapotential source of esterase for biotransformation of short chain esters. The results also evidenced that this methodology showed to be efficient, fast, cheap, having low consumption of reagents and easy development, and can be applied to screen carboxylic-ester hydrolases in a large number of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry/methods , Endophytes/enzymology , Esterases/analysis , Fungi/enzymology , Acetates/metabolism , Brazil , Butyrates/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indicators and Reagents , Plants/microbiology , Propionates/metabolism
9.
J Biosci ; 2007 Sep; 32(6): 1195-206
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111293

ABSTRACT

In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, L-threonine is cleaved non-oxidatively to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate by biodegradative threonine deaminase, 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (or pyruvate formate-lyase), phosphotransacetylase and propionate kinase. In the anaerobic condition, L-threonine is converted to the energy-rich keto acid and this is subsequently catabolised to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, providing a source of energy to the cells. Most of the enzymes involved in the degradation of L-threonine to propionate are encoded by the anaerobically regulated tdc operon. In the recent past, extensive structural and biochemical studies have been carried out on these enzymes by various groups. Besides detailed structural and functional insights, these studies have also shown the similarities and differences between the other related enzymes present in the metabolic network. In this paper, we review the structural and biochemical studies carried out on these enzymes.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Biotransformation , Enzymes/chemistry , Propionates/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Threonine/metabolism
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 130(3): 259-266, mar. 2002. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-314851

ABSTRACT

Background: Propionic aciduria (PA) and Methymalonic aciduria (MMA) result from an inherited abnormality of the enzymes propionyl CoA carboxylase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase respectively. This produces marked increases in the amino acids methionine, threonine, valine and isoleucine (MTVI). Their clinical presentation can be neonatal or late onset forms. Aim: To report 23 children with organic acidurias. Material and methods: Twenty three cases of organic acidurias diagnosed since 1980 (17 PA and 6 MMA) and followed at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, are reported. Results: The average age of diagnosis was 3.9 days for the neonatal form and 8.3 months for the late onset form. The most frequent symptoms were hypotonia, lethargy and vomiting. Neonatal PA had mean ammonemias of 1089ñ678.3 µg/dl. The figure for MMA was 933ñ801.9 µg/dl. Seven children were dialyzed and 30 percent died. 16 children are followed and 81.2 percent have normal weight for age. Seven children required gastrostomy because of anorexia and failure to thrive. The nutritional treatment is based on natural and artificial proteins without MTVI, with periodical controls, amino acid and ammonia quantification. Some patients were submitted to enzyme assays and molecular studies. Conclusions: An early diagnosis and a very strict follow up allows a normal development of children with organic aciduras. There is a relationship between prognosis and the presentation form, the nutritional status and the emergency treatment during acute episodes. The importance of the enzymatic and molecular studies is emphasized because they facilitate treatment, accurate diagnosis and allow an adequate genetic counseling


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Methylmalonic Acid/urine , Propionates/urine , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Methylmalonic Acid/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Energy Intake , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diet therapy , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase , Nutritional Status
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 33(4): 399-413, dic. 1999. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-258504

ABSTRACT

La glucuronoconjugación es un proceso de gran importancia en el metabolismo de xenobióticos y sustancias endógenas, facilitando su excreción por parte del organismo. Durante mucho tiempo ha sido aceptado que los metabolitos derivados de esta vía no poseían carácter activo o reactivo. Sin embargo, en los últimos años han surgido evidencias que ponen en duda aquella creencia, con especial referencia a los acilglucurónidos de los ácidos aril 2-propiónicos, cuya inestabilidad in vivo bajo condiciones fisiológicas ha demostrado tener implicancias inmunotoxicológicas potenciales a través de su unión irreversible a las proteínas (aductos). Esta revisión considera los aspectos que han modificado la percepción de la glucuronoconjugación como una vía sin importancia toxicológica y clínica para el organismo. Por lo tanto, la pregunta que debería ser contestada podría ser: es la glucuronoconjugación una vía de producción de sustancias tóxicas tanto como un mecanismo de detoxificación?


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Cats , Mice , Carboxylic Acids/adverse effects , Propionates/metabolism , Age Factors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Biotransformation , Glucuronates/metabolism , Glucuronidase/physiology , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Glucuronosyltransferase/physiology , Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid/physiology , Biological Reactions , Inactivation, Metabolic/physiology , Flurbiprofen/metabolism , Isomerism , Ketoprofen/metabolism , Naproxen/metabolism , Rabbits , Sex , Tolmetin/metabolism , Triglycerides , Xenobiotics/metabolism
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1991 Feb; 28(1): 65-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28473

ABSTRACT

The products of CO2 fixation by heterotrophically grown Haloferax mediterranei were analysed. The main 14C-labelled alpha-ketoacid detected following incubation with NaH14CO3 and pyruvate or propionate was pyruvate. In presence of these organic acids and NH4+, 14CO2 was incorporated into glutamic and aspartic acids and alanine.


Subject(s)
Alanine/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Ammonia/metabolism , Archaea/metabolism , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Bicarbonates/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Glutamates/metabolism , Glutamic Acid , Keto Acids/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Pyruvates/metabolism , Pyruvic Acid , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium Bicarbonate
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