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Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 34 (1), 2024;34(1): 4-15, 20240301.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554619


Introducción: La sedación es uno de los pilares fundamentales del manejo del paciente crítico internado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), sobre todo en aquellos que requieren Asistencia Ventilatoria Mecánica (AVM). Los fármacos que se utilizan con este propósito tienen el objetivo de lograr un adecuado nivel de conciencia en el paciente, de forma tal que se encuentre confortable y tolere la AVM. Los esquemas de sedación utilizados se encontraban basados en Benzodiacepinas, aunque, su uso no está exento de efectos adversos. El presente estudio pretende realizar una Revisión y Síntesis de la evidencia existente sobre la efectividad y seguridad del uso de dos nuevos fármacos, Propofol y Dexmedetomidina, para sedación continua en UTI y su comparación con los esque- mas tradicionales. Los Resultados respecto a la reducción de días en UTI resultó siempre significativa a favor del uso de propofol o dexmedetomidina en comparación a benzodiacepinas; lo mismo ocurrió con los días vinculados a la AVM. Estos resultados fueron encontrados en revisiones tanto de alta calidad como moderada o baja. Sin embargo, todos los estudios tuvieron en común que la calidad de la evidencia utilizada fue baja a moderada. Según la evidencia identificada, el uso de dexmedetomidina o propofol disminuiría de manera estadísticamente significativa los días de estadía en UTI y los requerimientos de AVM en pacientes adultos. Se debe tener en cuenta que la mayoría de las Revisiones encontradas fueron de calidad baja, siendo solamente 2 (dos) de calidad alta y una moderada. Es por esto último que la recomendación del uso de sedación basada en Dexmedetomidina o Propofol es condicional, ya que la calidad de la evidencia que la soporta es baja, en la mayoría de los casos.

Introductión: Sedation is one of the fundamental pillars of the management of critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), especially in those who require mechanical ventilatory assistance (MVA). The drugs used for this purpose have the objective of achieving an adequate level of consciousness in the patient, so that they are comfortable and tolerate AVM. The sedation schemes used were based on Benzodiazepines, however, their use is not free of adverse effects. The present work aims to carry out a review and synthesis of the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of the use of two new drugs Propofol and Dexmedetomidine for continuous sedation in ICU and its comparison with traditional regimens. The results regarding the reduction of days in ICU were always significant in favor of the use of Propofol or Dexmedetomidine compared to benzodiazepines; The same happened with the days linked to the AVM. These results were found in reviews of both high and moderate or low quality. However, what they all had in common was that the quality of the evidence used was low to moderate. According to the evidence identified, the use of Dexmedetomidine or Propofol would statistically significantly reduce the days of ICU stay and AVM requirements in adult patients. It should be taken into account that most of the reviews found were of low quality, with only 2 being of high quality, and 1 of moderate quality. It is for this last reason that the recommendation for the use of sedation based on Dexmedetomidine or Propofol is conditional, since the quality of the evidence supporting it is, for the most part, low.

Deep Sedation , Midazolam , Propofol , Mortality , Critical Care , Dexmedetomidine
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 751-757, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520380


Abstract Background: Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) versus intermittent bolus of propofol for colonoscopy sedation. Methods: We conducted a randomized (1:1), single-blind, parallel-group superiority trial with fifty ASA I or II patients, both sexes, aged 18 to 65 years, Body Mass Index ≤ 30, undergoing colonoscopy, allocated to receive propofol by TCI (effect-site, 2 μg.mL-1 plus 0.5 μg.mL-1 until unconsciousness and as necessary for agitation) or intermittent bolus (1 plus 0.5 every 5 minutes or as above). The primary safety outcome was the need for airway maneuvers and the primary efficacy outcome was the need for interventions to adjust the level of sedation. Secondary outcomes included incidence of agitation, propofol dose, and time to recovery. Results: The median (IQR) number of airway maneuvers and interventions needed to adjust sedation was 0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-0) (p = 0.239) and 1 (0-1) vs. 3 (1-4) (p < 0.001) in the TCI and control groups, respectively. Agitation was more common in the intermittent bolus group - 2 (0-2) vs. 1 (0-1), p < 0.001. The mean ± SD time to recovery was 4.9 ± 1.4 minutes in the TCI group vs. 2.3 ± 1.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001). The total propofol dose was higher in the TCI group (234 ± 46 μ vs. 195 ± 44 μ (p = 0.040)). Conclusions: During colonoscopy, TCI is as safe as intermittent bolus of propofol while reducing the incidence of agitation and the need for dose adjustments. However, intermittent bolus administration was associated with lower total propofol dose and earlier recovery.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol , Unconsciousness , Single-Blind Method , Colonoscopy , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 764-768, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520391


Abstract Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly. Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5'end or 3'end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery. Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5' end or 3' end of TERC was not found. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.

Humans , Aged , Propofol/pharmacology , Body Weight , DNA , Telomere , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Leukocytes
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 718-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986981


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the regulatory effects of GABAergic neurons in the zona incerta (ZI) on sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice divided into 8 groups (n=6) were used in this study. In the study of sevoflurane anesthesia, chemogenetic experiment was performed in 2 groups of mice with injection of either adeno-associated virus carrying hM3Dq (hM3Dq group) or a virus carrying only mCherry (mCherry group). The optogenetic experiment was performed in another two groups of mice injected with an adeno-associated virus carrying ChR2 (ChR2 group) or GFP only (GFP group). The same experiments were also performed in mice for studying propofol anesthesia. Chemogenetics or optogenetics were used to induce the activation of GABAergic neurons in the ZI, and their regulatory effects on anesthesia induction and arousal with sevoflurane and propofol were observed; EEG monitoring was used to observe the changes in sevoflurane anesthesia maintenance after activation of the GABAergic neurons.@*RESULTS@#In sevoflurane anesthesia, the induction time of anesthesia was significantly shorter in hM3Dq group than in mCherry group (P < 0.05), and also shorter in ChR2 group than in GFP group (P < 0.01), but no significant difference was found in the awakening time between the two groups in either chemogenetic or optogenetic tests. Similar results were observed in chemogenetic and optogenetic experiments with propofol (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Photogenetic activation of the GABAergic neurons in the ZI did not cause significant changes in EEG spectrum during sevoflurane anesthesia maintenance.@*CONCLUSION@#Activation of the GABAergic neurons in the ZI promotes anesthesia induction of sevoflurane and propofol but does not affect anesthesia maintenance or awakening.

Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Propofol/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Zona Incerta , Anesthesia, General , GABAergic Neurons
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 324-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986855


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of propofol used for painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy on psychomotility recovery.@*METHODS@#One hundred adult patients undergoing painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy were recruited, aged 18-72 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ. According to age, the patients were divided into youth group (20-39 years old, 27 cases), middle age group (40-54 years old, 37 cases), and elder group (55-64 years old, 36 cases). Propofol was continuously infused according to the patients' condition to mantain the bispectal index (BIS) score 55-64. All the patients received psychomotility assesment 30 min before the operations when the discharge criteria were met including number cancellation test, number connection test and board test. The heart rate, blood pressure, saturation of pulse oximetry, electrocardiograph and BIS were monitored during the operation. The operating time, recovery time, total volume of propofol and discharge time were recorded. If the results obtained were inferior to those before operation, a third assessment was taken 30 minutes later until the results recovered or being superior to the baseline levels.@*RESULTS@#All the patients completed the first and second assessments, and 25 patients had taken the third assessment. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of psychomotility assessment when the patients met the discharge standard. Furthermore, the results were analyzed by grouping with age, and there was no statistical difference in the test results of the youth and middle age groups compared with the preoperative group, among which, the efficiency of the number cancellation test was significantly better than that before operation in the youth group (P < 0.05). However, in the elderly patients the number cancellation efficiency, number connection test and board test were significantly inferior to that before operation (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the accuracy of number cancellation compared with that before operation. The patients who needed the third test in the elder group were significantly more than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the preoperative results, there was no statistical difference in the test results of those who completed the third test.@*CONCLUSION@#The psychomotility function of the patients who underwent painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy was recovered when they met discharge criteria. The elderly patients had a prolonged recovery period.

Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Propofol , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Gastroscopy/methods , Conscious Sedation/methods , Colonoscopy/methods
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 282-286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969985


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TEAS) at Neiguan (PC 6) on general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic lobectomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 patients of primary lung cancer undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were divided to an observation group (33 cases, 1 case discontinued) and a control group (33 cases). In the observation group, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) was used 30 min before anesthesia induction till the end of surgery. The surgery time, maximum value of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and minimum value of oxygen saturation (SpO2) of the two groups were recorded. The dosage of propofol, sufentanil, remifentanil and dexmedetomidine were analyzed. Separately, before induction (T0), at the start of surgery (T1), thoracic exploration (T2) and lobectomy (T3), as well as 30 min (T4) and 60 min (T5) after lobectomy, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), serum cortisol (Cor) and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The time of post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, ambulation, flatus, chest drainage and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The maximum value of PETCO2, the dosage of propofol and remifentanil in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the minimum value of SpO2 in the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). At T1-T5, the MAP, HR, serum Cor and NE levels in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The ambulation time, the time for the flatus, chest drainage time, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P<0.001, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#For the general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic surgery, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) relieves stress response, reduces opioids dosage and promotes postoperative recovery.

Humans , Acupuncture Points , Carbon Dioxide , Flatulence , Propofol , Remifentanil , Anesthesia, General , Nausea , Norepinephrine , Electric Stimulation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21461, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429963


Abstract he innate immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, no drug has been proven to be beneficial in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using combined sedatives on systemic inflammatory responses in patients with ARDS. A total of 90 patients with ARDS and an intubation time of > 120 h were randomly divided into the propofol group (group P), midazolam group (group M), and combined sedation group (group U). Patients in groups P and M were sedated with propofol and midazolam, respectively, whereas patients in group U were sedated with a combination of propofol, midazolam, and dexmedetomidine. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of sedative adverse reactions were documented. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, as well as the incidence of sedative adverse reactions in group U, was significantly lower than those in groups P and M. Similarly, the duration of mechanical ventilation in group U was significantly shorter than that in groups P and M. Hence, inducing sedation through a combination of multiple drugs can significantly reduce their adverse effects, improve their sedative effect, inhibit systemic inflammatory responses, and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Conscious Sedation/adverse effects , Midazolam/agonists , Propofol/agonists , Cytokines/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/agonists
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 434-440, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447615


Abstract Background Melatonin has been studied to have anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic effects. However, there is limited data on the effect of melatonin in the attenuation of hemodynamic response to intubation. We aimed to study whether preanesthetic oral melatonin attenuates hemodynamic responses to intubation and anesthetic requirements. Methods Sixty-four patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into melatonin or placebo group (n = 32 each). Melatonin group received two tablets (3 mg each) of melatonin, and the placebo group received two tablets of vitamin D3 120 min before induction. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded during induction and postintubation for 15 minutes. Total induction dose of propofol, total intraoperative fentanyl consumption, and adverse effects of melatonin were also noted. Results Postintubation rise in heart rate (HR) was less in the melatonin group compared to the placebo group (10.59% vs. 37.08% at 1 min, respectively) (p< 0.0001). Maximum percentage increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) was lesser in melatonin group than placebo group (SBP 9.25% vs. 37.73%, DBP 10.58% vs. 35.51%, MBP 9.99% vs. 36.45% at 1 min postintubation. respectively) (p< 0.0001). Induction dose of propofol (1.42 vs. 2.01 and the number of patients requiring additional fentanyl intraoperatively (3 vs. 11) were also significantly reduced in the melatonin group. Conclusion Premedication with 6 mg of oral melatonin resulted in significant attenuation of postintubation rise in HR, SBP, DBP, and MBP. It also reduced the induction dose of propofol, total intraoperative fentanyl consumption without any adverse effects.

Humans , Propofol/pharmacology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Hemodynamics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
Biol. Res ; 56: 20-20, 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513733


BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induces increased release of extracellular vesicles in the heart and exacerbates myocardial IR injury. We have previously shown that propofol attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR)-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that microvesicles derived from propofol-treated HUVECs inhibit oxidative stress in endothelial cells. However, the role of microvesicles derived from propofol post-treated HUVECs ((HR + P)-EMVs) in IR-injured cardiomyocytes is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of (HR + P)-EMVs in cardiac IR injury compared to microvesicles derived from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) models of HUVECs and AC16 cells and a mouse cardiac IR model were established. Microvesicles from HR-injured HUVECs, DMSO post-treated HUVECs and propofol post-treated HUVECs were extracted by ultra-high speed centrifugation, respectively. The above EMVs were co-cultured with HR-injured AC16 cells or injected intracardially into IR mice. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to determine the levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis related proteins were detected by Western blot. Echocardiography for cardiac function and Evans blue-TTC staining for myocardial infarct size. Expression of lncCCT4-2 in EMVs and AC16 cells was analysed by whole transcriptome sequencing of EMVs and RT-qPCR. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of myocardial injury by (HR + P)-EMVs was elucidated by lentiviral knockdown of lncCCT4-2, plasmid overexpression or knockdown of CCT4, and actinomycin D assay. RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that HR-EMVs exacerbated oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes, leading to increased infarct size and worsened cardiac function. Notably, (HR + P)-EMVs induced significantly less oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes compared to HR-EMVs. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing of EMVs and RT-qPCR showed that lncCCT4-2 was significantly upregulated in (HR + P)-EMVs and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (HR + P)-EMVs. Reduction of lncCCT4-2 in (HR + P)-EMVs enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic activity of lncCCT4-2 from (HR + P)-EMVs was achieved by increasing the stability of CCT4 mRNA and promoting the expression of CCT4 protein in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that (HR + P)-EMVs uptake by IR-injured cardiomyocytes upregulated lncCCT4-2 in cardiomyocytes and promoted CCT4 expression, thereby inhibiting HR-EMVs induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Highlights Microvesicles from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs) exacerbated oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. Microvesicles from propofol post-treated HUVECs ((HR + P)-EMVs) induced diminished oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes compared with microvesicles from hypoxic/reoxygenated HUVECs (HR-EMVs). lncCCT4-2 was significantly highly expressed in (HR + P)-EMVs and cardiomyocytes co-cultured with (HR + P)-EMVs, and reduction of lncCCT4-2 in (HR + P)-EMVs enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis in IR-injured cardiomyocytes. lncCCT4-2 inhibited HR-EMVs induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HR-injured AC16 cells by increasing the stability of CCT4 mRNA and promoting the expression of CCT4 protein in AC16 cells.

Humans , Animals , Mice , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Chaperonin Containing TCP-1 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Hypoxia
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 21(3): e835, sept.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408174


Introducción: En los últimos años se ha iniciado un interés especial por la combinación de ketamina/propofol para pacientes intervenidos por procedimientos mínimamente invasivos. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad de la anestesia intravenosa total con ketofol en concentración 1:4 contra la concentración 1:2 en pacientes intervenidos por cirugía mínimamente invasiva. Métodos: Estudio analítico, cuasiexperimental, prospectivo y longitudinal, en el Hospital Universitario General Calixto García entre diciembre de 2019 a diciembre de 2020, en 30 pacientes divididos en dos grupos de 15 pacientes: grupo estudio (GE): Ketofol 1:4 y grupo control (GC): Ketofol 1:2. Se analizaron: tensión arterial media y frecuencia cardiaca intra operatoria, grado de hipnosis, grado de nocicepción, necesidad de rescate para hipnosis y analgesia, tiempo de recuperación anestésica, analgesia posoperatoria y efectos adversos. Resultados: Entre los grupos fueron similares la edad, el sexo, el peso, estado físico y tipo de intervención quirúrgica. La frecuencia cardiaca no mostró diferencias entre los grupos. En relación a la tensión arterial mediapos-incisión, fue mayor en el grupo control con diferencias significativas (p=0,03). La necesidad de rescate intraoperatorio para la hipnosis y analgesia fue significativamente mayor en el grupo control. Con respecto a la recuperación anestésica, analgesia posoperatoria y efectos adversos no hubo diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: La combinación ketofol resultó segura y efectiva para proveer una adecuada anestesia en procedimientos quirúrgicos mínimamente invasivos con tiempos quirúrgicos menores a 30 min. La concentración de 1:4 brindó mejor estabilidad hemodinámica, adecuada hipnosis y analgesia intraoperatoria, con menor incidencia de efectos adversos(AU)

Introduction: In recent years, a special interest has appeared in the ketamine/propofol combination for patients intervened by minimally invasive procedures. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of total intravenous anesthesia with ketofol at 1:4 concentration versus 1:2 concentration in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. Methods: An analytical, quasiexperimental, prospective and longitudinal study was carried out at General Calixto García University Hospital, between December 2019 and December 2020, with thirty patients divided into two groups of fifteen patients each: study group (SG; ketofol 1:4) and control group (CG; ketofol 1:2). The following aspects were analyzed: mean blood pressure and intraoperative cardiac frequency, degree of hypnosis, degree of nociception, necessity of rescue for hypnosis and analgesia, anesthetic recovery time, postoperative analgesia and adverse effects. Results: Age, sex, weight, physical condition and type of surgery were similar between groups. Heart rate showed no differences between groups. Mean blood pressure after incision was higher in the control group, with significant differences (P=0.03). The necessity of intraoperative rescue for hypnosis and analgesia was significantly higher in the control group. Regarding anesthetic recovery, postoperative analgesia and adverse effects, there were no significant differences. Conclusion: The ketofol combination was safe and effective for providing adequate anesthesia in minimally invasive surgical procedures with surgical times of less than thirty minutes. The 1:4 concentration provided better hemodynamic stability, adequate hypnosis and intraoperative analgesia, with lower incidence of adverse effects(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Heart Rate , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Propofol/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Ketamine/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 21(3): e829, sept.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408171


Introducción: La comodidad durante la colonoscopia es una condición importante si se quiere que el paciente acepte procedimientos repetidos. Por lo tanto, se necesita de una buena sedación que pudiera combinar la analgesia con amnesia. Objetivo: Describir la utilidad de la analgosedación balanceada con propofol/fentanilo en colonoscopia ambulatoria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes a los que se les realizó colonoscopia de forma ambulatoria en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima en el período entre enero de 2017 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados: El 34,2 por ciento de los pacientes tenía entre 50 y 59 años, el 62,9 por ciento eran mujeres. El 73,3 por ciento de los pacientes se clasificó como ASA II según el estado físico. Los valores medios de frecuencia cardiaca y tensión arterial media tuvieron una disminución ligera después de aplicada la anestesia y se mantuvieron constantes en el resto de los momentos evaluados. Los valores medios de saturación de oxígeno de la hemoglobina se mantuvieron relativamente constantes en todos los momentos y resultaron algo superiores a la llegada del paciente a recuperación. La calidad de la sedación fue adecuada en 86,2 por ciento de los pacientes. La calidad de la analgesia y la recuperación fue buena en 88,4 por ciento y 96,2 por ciento , respectivamente. Se presentaron complicaciones en el 16,5 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: La analgosedación con propofol y fentanilo resultó una alternativa anestésica de utilidad en los pacientes a los que se les realizó colonoscopia ambulatoria con gran estabilidad hemodinámica en la serie estudiada(AU)

Introduction: Comfort during colonoscopy is an important condition if the patient is expected to accept repeated procedures. Therefore, good sedation that could combine analgesia with amnesia is needed. Objective: To describe the usefulness of balanced analgosedation with propofol/fentanyl in outpatient colonoscopy. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive and observational study was carried out with patients who received outpatient colonoscopy at Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General University Hospital in the period between January 2017 and December 2018. Results: 34.2 percent of the patients were between 50 and 59 years old, while 62.9 percent were women. 73.3 percent of patients were classified as ASA II, according to their physical status. The mean values for heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure had a slight decrease after anesthesia was applied and remained constant for the rest of the evaluated times. The mean values of hemoglobin-oxygen saturation remained relatively constant at all the evaluated times and were slightly higher on the patient's arrival to recovery. The quality of sedation was adequate in 86.2 percent of the patients. The quality of analgesia and recovery was good in 88.4 percent and 96.2 percent, respectively. Complications occurred in 16.5 percent of the patients. Conclusions: Analgosedation with propofol and fentanyl proved to be a useful anesthetic alternative in patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy, with high hemodynamic stability in the studied series(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl , Anesthetics , Deep Sedation/standards
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 167-176, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354480


Animais presentes em zoológicos frequentemente necessitam de captura e anestesia para a realização de procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos. A anestesia total intravenosa apresenta vantagens como redução do estresse cirúrgico e menor depressão cardiovascular e respiratória. Entretanto, ainda são escassas as pesquisas dedicadas dentro deste contexto. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste relato foi avaliar o protocolo anestésico empregado, visando um procedimento seguro e passível de reversão para a espécie silvestre selecionada. Acompanhou-se a anestesia de um leão (Panthera leo), macho, adulto, proveniente do Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, submetido a procedimento endodôntico. A medicação pré-anestésica constituiu-se de dexmedetomidina (6 µg/kg), metadona (0,2 mg/kg), midazolam (0,1 mg/kg) e tiletamina-zolazepam (1,2 mg/kg). A indução foi realizada com propofol (1,5 mg/kg) e o animal foi intubado. Visando promover analgesia local, foi realizado bloqueio infraorbitário esquerdo com 5 mL de lidocaína a 2%. A manutenção foi realizada por meio do fornecimento de propofol (0,02-0,1 mg/kg/h), dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg/kg/h) e remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). O paciente apresentou sedação profunda e foi mantido em plano anestésico cirúrgico; todos os parâmetros fisiológicos monitorados permaneceram estáveis durante todo o procedimento. Após 55 minutos de anestesia o paciente apresentava sustentação espontânea da cabeça, quando foi novamente transportado ao zoológico para soltura no recinto. A ambulação foi considerada normal pelos observadores no zoológico seis horas após a anestesia. Pôde-se concluir que o protocolo realizado se mostrou tanto eficaz quanto seguro para a referida espécie encaminhada ao procedimento em questão.

Zoo animals often require capture and anesthesia in order to undergo clinical and surgical procedures. Total intravenous anesthesia has advantages such as reduced surgical stress and less cardiovascular and respiratory depression. However, specific research on this matter is still scarce. Therefore, the present report aims to evaluate the anesthetic protocol employed, seeking a safe and reversible procedure for the selected wild species. A male adult lion (Panthera leo), from the Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, was subjected to an endodontic anesthesia, under close monitoring. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of dexmedetomidine (6 µg/kg), methadone (0.2 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (12 mg/kg). Induction was performed with propofol (1 mg/kg) and the animal was intubated. In order to promote local analgesia, a left infraorbital block was implemented with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. Maintenance was undertaken by supplying propofol (0.02-0.1 mg/kg/min), dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg/h) and remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). The patient exhibited deep sedation and followed the surgical anesthetic plan; all the monitored physiological parameters remained stable throughout the procedure. After 55 minutes of anesthesia the patient showed spontaneous head support, when it was transported back to the zoo. The ambulation was considered normal by the zoo observers 6 hours after the anesthesia. It was concluded that the protocol was both effective and safe for the referred species undergone the procedure reported.

Animals , Preanesthetic Medication , Tiletamine , Zolazepam , Propofol , Dexmedetomidine , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics , Animals, Zoo
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 591-597, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936352


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the impact of a history of vaginal delivery on anesthesia management of patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery under intravenous general anesthesia without tracheal intubation.@*METHODS@#Ninety-nine patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery under intravenous general anesthesia were enrolled in this study, including 43 patients with (VD group) and 56 patients without a history of vaginal delivery (NVD group). For all the patients, blood pressure, heart rate (HR), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and bispectral index (BIS) were recorded before anesthesia (T1), after anesthesia (T2), after cervical dilation (T3), and at 3 min after cervical dilation (T4). Propofol and etomidate doses during anesthesia induction, the total dose of propofol administered, additional intraoperative bolus dose and times of propofol, intraoperative body movement, total operation time and surgeons' satisfaction feedback scores were compared between the two groups. The postoperative awake time, recovery time, VAS score at 30 min after operation, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were also compared.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant differences in SBP, DBP, HR, SpO2, or BIS between the two groups at T1 and T2, but at T3 and T4, SBP and DBP were significantly higher in NVD group than in VD group (P < 0.01); HR was significantly higher in NVD group only at T3 (P < 0.01). The application of vasoactive drugs did not differ significantly between the two groups. The total dose of propofol, additional intraoperative dose and times of propofol were all greater in NVD group than in VD group (P < 0.01). More body movements of the patients were observed in NVD group (P < 0.01), which also had lower surgeons' satisfaction score for anesthesia (P < 0.01), higher postoperative VAS score (P < 0.05), and shorter postoperative awake time (P < 0.05) and recovery time (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#A history of vaginal delivery has a significant impact on anesthesia management of patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery under intravenous general anesthesia without tracheal intubation in terms of hemodynamic changes, anesthetic medication, and postoperative recovery quality, suggesting the necessity of individualized anesthesia management for these patients.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Hysteroscopy , Propofol
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936149


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical statuses Ⅰ to Ⅱ, aged 18 to 72 years, scheduled for elective nasal endoscope surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel group (G group, n=30) and control group (C group, n=30). The patients in the G group received dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg before induction and the oxybuprocaine gel was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. The patients in the C group received the same dose of saline and the saline was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. Then, all the patients in the two groups received the same induction and anesthesia maintainance. The operation time, anesthesia time, emergence time, extubation time and departure time were recorded. The intraoperative infusion volume, blood loss volume, propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium dosage were also recorded. The adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia and postoperative agitation were recorded. The postoperative sore throat score was recorded at the end of operation and 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the emergence time [(8.4±3.9) min vs. (10.8±4.7) min], extubation time [(8.8±3.7) min vs. (11.9±4.8) min], and departure time [(20.0±5.3) min vs. (23.0±5.8) min] were significantly shorter, and the propofol dosage [(11.8±1.8) mg/kg vs. (15.9±4.6) mg/kg], remifentanil dosage [(10.9±4.7) μg/kg vs. (14.1±3.6) μg/kg] were significantly less in the G group, and there was no difference of rocuronium dosage in the two groups. Compared with the C group the incidence of intraoperative hypotension [10%(3/30) vs. 30%(9/30)], bradycardia [16.7%(5/30) vs. 20%(6/30)] and postoperative agitation [6.7%(2/30) vs. 23.3%(7/30)] were significantly lower in the C group. The postoperative sore throat score at the end of operation, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after operation in the G group were significantly lower than in the C group respectively [0 (0, 1) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0.75, 1), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0, 1)].@*CONCLUSION@#Dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel was effective and feasible on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Hypotension/drug therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pain/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Procaine/analogs & derivatives , Propofol , Remifentanil , Rocuronium
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 283-295, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927665


Objective@#Neonatal exposure to propofol has been reported to cause neurotoxicity and neurocognitive decline in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanism has not been established.@*Methods@#SD rats were exposed to propofol on postnatal day 7 (PND-7). Double-immunofluorescence staining was used to assess neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The expression of p-Akt and p27 were measured by western blotting. The Morris water maze, novel object recognition test, and object location test were used to evaluate neurocognitive function 2-month-old rats.@*Results@#Phosphorylation of Akt was inhibited, while p27 expression was enhanced after neonatal exposure to propofol. Propofol also inhibited proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and decreased differentiation to neurons and astroglia. Moreover, the neurocognitive function in 2-month-old rats was weakened. Of significance, intra-hippocampal injection of the Akt activator, SC79, attenuated the inhibition of p-AKT and increase of p27 expression. SC79 also rescued the propofol-induced inhibition of NSC proliferation and differentiation. The propofol-induced neurocognition deficit was also partially reversed by SC79.@*Conclusion@#Taken together, these results suggest that neurogenesis is hindered by neonatal propofol exposure. Specifically, neonatal propofol exposure was shown to suppress the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by inhibiting Akt/p27 signaling pathway.

Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Propofol/toxicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18807, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364413


Abstract This study aimed to investigate possible changes in the spatial memory of rats and the expression or activity of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC after propofol anesthesia. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 months and 36 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were each randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the Morris Water Maze (MWM) group, and the propofol group. In the propofol groups of both young and aged rats, the rats were anesthetized by propofol for two or four hours and then performed the MWM test two days or two weeks after anesthesia to assess cognitive function. EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC expressions in the rat hippocampus were determined via immunohistochemistry. For the older rats, the escape latency in the P4h/2d group was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05), and the learning curve was right-shifted in the P4h/2w group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC in the MWM groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups (P < 0.05). In the P4h/2d group of aged rats, the expression levels of both PKA and PKC were decreased compared with those of the MWM groups. The decreased expression of both protein kinases may be responsible for the observed impairment after propofol anesthesia

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/classification , Morris Water Maze Test , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cognition/classification , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Spatial Memory , Hippocampus
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356478


Se describe el caso clínico de un adolescente de 18 años de edad, con antecedente de salud aparente, atendido en el cuerpo de guardia del Hospital General Docente Roberto Rodríguez Fernández de Morón, provincia de Ciego de Ávila, con síntomas sugestivos de apendicitis aguda, por lo que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente. Una vez terminado el proceder tuvo parada cardíaca, lo cual se interpretó como un síndrome por propofol. Se decidió transferirlo a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde fue evolucionando favorablemente, con mejoría de todos los parámetros. A los 6 días lo trasladaron a la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios y posteriormente egresó de la institución hospitalaria sin complicaciones.

The case report of an 18 years adolescent with history of apparent health is described. He was assisted in the emergency service of Roberto Rodríguez Fernández Teaching General Hospital from Morón, Ciego de Ávila, with suggestive symptoms of acute appendicitis, reason why he was surgically intervened. Once finished the procedure he had a cardiac arrest, which was interpreted as a syndrome due to propofol. It was decided to referred him to the Intensive Cares Unit, where he had a favorable clinical course, with improvement of all parameters. Six days later he was transferred to the Intermediate Cares Unit and later on he was discharged from the hospital institution without complications.

Propofol , Propofol Infusion Syndrome , Anesthesia, General , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Adolescent
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; oct. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1354502


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo del presente informe es: Describir el proceso para la elaboración de recomendaciones por el grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud, en adelante denominado grupo de trabajo. Trasladar las Recomendaciones efectuadas por dicho grupo de trabajo en atención al uso de sedación endovenosa en pacientes con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, según la pregunta PICO (P: Población, I: Intervención, C: Comparador, O: Outcome o desenlaces) priorizada por el grupo de trabajo. La metodología considerada para arribar a la recomendación fue el Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD) desarrollado por el Grupo de Trabajo GRADE (1,2). ANALISIS: Formulación de la pregunta: En personas con COVID-19 crítico en ventilación mecánica invasiva, ¿cuál es el medicamento que debe administrarse para la sedación endovenosa? Y ¿Cuál pauta de dosificación? Identificación de la evidencia para la pregunta PICO: Se siguieron las orientaciones establecidas en el documento interno de UNAGESP: Orientaciones para el soporte metodológico otorgado al grupo de trabajo designado por el MINSA. Se describe a continuación los resultados del proceso: Se efectuó la búsqueda de guías de práctica clínica (GPC) que incluyeran recomendaciones respecto al uso de sedación endovenosa en la población de interés, con fecha de búsqueda 22 de octubre de 2021 en las siguientes plataformas: eCOVID-19 living map of recommendations (eCovid-19 RecMap), Base internacional de Guías GRADE (BIGG) , Guidelines International Network (GIN), COVID-19 Guidelines Dashboard, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - UK (NICE) y Trip database, identificándose 7 guías de práctica clínica (Ver Anexo 1). En base a criterios como fecha de búsqueda de la evidencia, uso de metodología GRADE para evaluar la certeza de la evidencia, disponibilidad de la tabla Perfil de evidencia o Resumen de hallazgos, disponibilidad de los criterios o Tabla EtD y tipo de recomendación. Se identificaron tres guías de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y una de la Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)(3­6), sin embargo, las guías de OPS no brindan recomendaciones especificas para responder directamente a todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas por SOPEMI. Por otro lado, las guías de SCCM contienen recomendaciones respecto al uso de todas las alternativas de intervenciones planteadas en pacientes no COVID. La búsqueda se realizó en MEDLINE/ vía PubMed, plataforma L·OVE de Epistemonikos (7) y en MedRxiv, con fecha 22 de octubre de 2021. Los criterios de selección de los estudios fueron: ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, cohortes o casos y control que evalúen la PICO planteada y reportaran al menos uno de los desenlaces de interés. La certeza de la evidencia fue realizada según el enfoque GRADE que toma en cuenta los siguientes criterios: diseño del estudio, riesgo de sesgo, inconsistencia en los resultados, ausencia de evidencia directa, imprecisión, sesgo de publicación, tamaño de efecto, gradiente dosis-respuesta, y efecto de los potenciales factores de confusión residual (los tres últimos aplicables en estudios observacionales) (8,9). Los resultados fueron presentados utilizando la Tablas de Resumen de Hallazgos (SOF, por sus siglas en inglés) construidas a partir del software en línea GRADEpro ( a partir de la adaptación de tablas SoF de la guía de SCCM (6) para pacientes no críticos. Metodología considerada para la elaboración de las recomendaciones: Marco de Evidencia a la Decisión/Recomendación (EtD: Evidence to decisión framework): Los marcos EtD (1,2) son una herramienta del Enfoque GRADE, que tiene como finalidad fomentar el uso de la evidencia de una manera estructurada y transparente para informar decisiones relacionadas al manejo clínico de una enfermedad, salud pública, políticas del sistema de salud o en situaciones como el contexto actual de pandemia acerca de acciones con repercusión socio-económica entre otras. Se aplicaron los principios del enfoque "GRADE-ADOLOPMENT" para identificar guías de práctica clínica orientadas a las preguntas PICO propuestas por el grupo de trabajo de MINSA, además que tener disponibles los perfiles de evidencia GRADE o Tablas de resumen de hallazgos y los marcos EtD. Dependiendo de la evaluación, estas pueden ser consideradas para la adaptación con contextualización o para la adopción (11). Los siguientes criterios del marco EtD fueron seleccionados para la discusión y juicio por el grupo de trabajo: Efectos deseables, Efectos indeseables, Certeza de la evidencia, Valores y preferencias de los pacientes, Balance de efectos, Recursos necesarios, Equidad, Aceptabilidad y Factibilidad. En caso de no haber consenso en la valoración del juicio, se efectuó una votación, determinándose la valoración por mayoría simple. La perspectiva fue del sistema de salud. Elaboración de las Recomendaciones: La metodología EtD considera determinar la fuerza y dirección de una recomendación (12). Ambas, como resultado del juicio acerca del balance beneficio-riesgo, calidad global de la evidencia, confianza en los valores y preferencias de los pacientes, uso de recursos, equidad en salud, aceptabilidad, y factibilidad. En este sentido, existirán recomendaciones "a favor de la intervención" o "en contra de la intervención" (a favor de la alternativa u opción). Asimismo, las recomendaciones fueron determinadas como fuertes o condicionales. Una recomendación será fuerte si existe una clara diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la certeza global de la evidencia alta o moderada, todos o casi todos los pacientes informados toman la misma decisión, el costo de la intervención está plenamente justificado, existe un impacto favorable en la equidad en salud, la intervención es aceptable para los usuarios interesados (pacientes y personal de salud) y la implementación de dicha intervención es viable. Una recomendación será condicional si alguna de las consideraciones siguientes está presente: Exista poca diferencia entre los efectos deseables e indeseables de la intervención, la calidad de la evidencia es baja o muy baja, existe variabilidad o incertidumbre respecto de lo que decidirán los pacientes informados o el costo de la intervención pudiera no estar justificado en algunas circunstancias. Diálogo Deliberativo para la valoración de los criterios del Marco EtD y elaboración de las recomendaciones: El Diálogo deliberativo se llevó a cabo el día 27 de octubre de 2021, reunión virtual a través de la herramienta Zoom, con la participación de: 1. Profesionales del Grupo de trabajo designado por el Ministerio de Salud: integrantes de la Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva y Representantes del Ministerio de Salud, en su calidad de panel de expertos, habilitados para emitir los juicios para cada criterio, votar en caso de ser necesario y elaborar la recomendación. 2. Representantes de la Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP) del INS, quienes efectuaron la identificación de la evidencia presentada ante los expertos, en calidad de facilitadores y conductores de los aspectos metodológicos de la reunión. RECOMENDACIÓN: Se sugiere el uso de Propofol sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes con COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva. Recomendación condicional, basada en evidencia de muy baja calidad: Consideraciones adicionales: La sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva debe ser precedida por una adecuada analgesia. En los pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica invasiva que no se alcance el objetivo de sedación con las dosis adecuadas de Propofol, o se tenga efectos colaterales, se podría considerar el uso de otro sedante. No se ha establecido la seguridad de Propofol en el embarazo, porque atraviesa la barrera placentaria y puede causar depresión neonatal. Se sugiere usar dexmedetomidina sobre benzodiazepinas para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete. Recomendación condicional, calidad de la evidencia muy baja: Consideraciones adicionales: Tener precaución sobre los efectos adversos como bradicardia e hipotensión. Evitar su uso en pacientes inestables hemodinámicamente. No se recomienda dar dosis de carga de dexmedetomidina. Se sugiere el uso de dexmedetomidina sobre Propofol para la sedación en pacientes COVID 19 críticos en ventilación mecánica durante la fase de destete.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lorazepam/administration & dosage , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 428-433, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347287


RESUMO Objetivo: Construir um modelo de custo-efetividade para comparar o uso de propofol com o de midazolam em pacientes críticos adultos sob uso de ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de árvore decisória para pacientes críticos submetidos à ventilação mecânica, o qual foi analisado sob a perspectiva do sistema privado de saúde no Brasil. O horizonte temporal foi o da internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os desfechos foram custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e custo-efetividade por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada. Foram obtidos os dados do modelo a partir de metanálise prévia. Assumiu-se que o custo da medicação estava incluído nos custos da unidade de terapia intensiva. Conduziram-se análises univariada e de sensibilidade probabilística. Resultados: Pacientes mecanicamente ventilados em uso de propofol tiveram diminuição de sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e na duração da ventilação mecânica, respectivamente, em 47,97 horas e 21,65 horas. Com o uso de propofol, ocorreu redução média do custo de U$2.998,971 em comparação ao uso do midazolam. A custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada foi dominante, respectivamente, em 94,40% e 80,8% do tempo. Conclusão: Ocorreu diminuição significante do custo associado ao uso de propofol, no que se refere à permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e à duração da ventilação mecânica para pacientes críticos adultos.

ABSTRACT Objective: To build a cost-effectiveness model to compare the use of propofol versus midazolam in critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: We built a decision tree model for critically ill patients submitted to mechanical ventilation and analyzed it from the Brazilian private health care system perspective. The time horizon was that of intensive care unit hospitalization. The outcomes were cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay avoided and cost-effectiveness per hour of mechanical ventilation avoided. We retrieved data for the model from a previous meta-analysis. We assumed that the cost of medication was embedded in the intensive care unit cost. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Mechanically ventilated patients using propofol had their intensive care unit stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation decreased by 47.97 hours and 21.65 hours, respectively. There was an average cost reduction of US$ 2,998.971 for propofol when compared to midazolam. The cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay and mechanical ventilation avoided were dominant 94.40% and 80.8% of the time, respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in costs associated with propofol use related to intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adult patients.

Humans , Adult , Midazolam , Propofol , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units