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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18807, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364413


Abstract This study aimed to investigate possible changes in the spatial memory of rats and the expression or activity of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC after propofol anesthesia. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 months and 36 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were each randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the Morris Water Maze (MWM) group, and the propofol group. In the propofol groups of both young and aged rats, the rats were anesthetized by propofol for two or four hours and then performed the MWM test two days or two weeks after anesthesia to assess cognitive function. EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC expressions in the rat hippocampus were determined via immunohistochemistry. For the older rats, the escape latency in the P4h/2d group was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05), and the learning curve was right-shifted in the P4h/2w group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC in the MWM groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups (P < 0.05). In the P4h/2d group of aged rats, the expression levels of both PKA and PKC were decreased compared with those of the MWM groups. The decreased expression of both protein kinases may be responsible for the observed impairment after propofol anesthesia

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/classification , Morris Water Maze Test , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cognition/classification , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Spatial Memory , Hippocampus
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 878-884, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921291


The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of propofol on the experimental myocardial infarction in rats. The myocardial infarction model was established by ligating the anterior descending branch of left coronary artery in rats. Model rats were treated with propofol. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac hemodynamic changes were detected by multiconductor biorecorder. Pathological changes in the infarcted myocardia were detected by HE staining. The expression levels of cardiac hypertrophy marker genes and fibrosis marker proteins were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, the model group exhibited larger infarct size (> 40%), impaired heart function, and significantly increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Propofol reduced cardiac function impairment and decreased LVEDP in the model group. Propofol significantly reduced lung weight/body weight ratio, heart weight/body weight ratio, left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and left atrial weight/body weight ratio in the model group. Furthermore, after myocardial infarction, the administration of propofol significantly improved the diastolic strain rate, down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of myocardial hypertrophy markers, atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain, and reversed the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) induced by myocardial infarction. These results suggest propofol can reduce adverse ventricular remodeling, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis after myocardial infarction, and has protective effect against the experimental myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation in rats.

Animals , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardium , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/genetics , Ventricular Remodeling
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880617


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects of propofol on the proliferation and invasion of glioma U87 cells and to explore the possible anti-tumor mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The glioma U87 cells was divided into a blank group, a positive control group, and the propofol groups (1.00, 2.00 or 5.00 mmol/L). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect cell proliferation; Transwell method was used to detect the effect of propofol on invasion and migration of U87 cells; real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of microRNA-134 (miR-134); Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of reproduction-related protein Ki-67, invasion-related protein metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway-related protein.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the proliferation, invasion and migration capacity of U87 cells were reduced in the positive control group and the propofol groups after 48 hours (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Propofol can decrease the proliferation rate, and the invasion and migration abilities of U87 cells, which may be achieved by up-regulation of miR-134 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Glioma/genetics , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Propofol/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(3): 289-309, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135034


Abstract Objectives: To determine the main indications and assess the most common adverse events with the administration of hypnotic propofol in most pediatric clinical scenarios. Sources: A systematic review of PubMed, SciELO, Cochrane, and EMBASE was performed, using filters such as a maximum of five years post-publication, and/or references or articles of importance, with emphasis on clinical trials using propofol. All articles of major relevance were blind-reviewed by both authors according to the PRISMA statement, looking for possible bias and limitations or the quality of the articles. Summary of the findings: Through the search criterion applied, 417 articles were found, and their abstracts evaluated. A total of 69 papers were thoroughly studied. Articles about propofol use in children are increasing, including in neonates, with the majority being cohort studies and clinical trials in two main scenarios: upper digestive endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. A huge list of adverse events has been published, but most articles considered them of low risk. Conclusions: Propofol is a hypnotic drug with a safe profile of efficacy and adverse events. Indeed, when administered by non-anesthesiologists, quick access to emergency care must be provided, especially in airway events. The use of propofol in other scenarios must be better studied, aiming to reduce the limitations of its administration by general pediatricians.

Resumo Objetivos: Determinar as principais indicações e examinar os eventos adversos mais comuns com uso do hipnótico propofol na maioria dos cenários clínicos pediátricos. Fontes: Realizada revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Cochrane e EMBASE, aplicando-se filtros como máximo de cinco anos de publicação e/ou referências ou publicações relevantes em outras hipóteses com enfoque em ensaios clínicos envolvendo o propofol. Todos os artigos de maior relevância foram avaliados cegamente pelos dois autores, de acordo com o PRISMA Statement, observando os riscos de vieses e qualidades ou limitações dos estudos. Resumo dos achados: Através dos mecanismos de pesquisa, 417 artigos foram encontrados e separados logo após, de acordo com os critérios de inclusão. Um total de 69 artigos foram estudados. Destacam-se a produção científica crescente sobre o propofol em crianças, incluindo recém-nascidos, sendo a grande maioria dos trabalhos coortes retrospectivos ou prospectivos, bem como ensaios clínicos com o propofol nos principais cenários: endoscopia digestiva alta e ressonância magnética. Ampla gama de eventos adversos foi citada, mas a maioria dos trabalhos não as consideraram significativas. Conclusões: O propofol apresenta um seguro perfil de eficácia e segurança. Quando administrado por médicos não anestesistas, deve-se redobrar o cuidado para ação rápida em emergências, especialmente de vias aéreas. A aplicação do fármaco em outros contextos deve ser estudada em maior profundidade, a fim de dirimir a dificuldade do uso por pediatras.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Propofol/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000005, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983682


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of PI3k/Akt signal pathway in the protective effects of propofol on intestinal and lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion(I/R). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia by occluding the superior mesenteric artery and to 2h of reperfusion to establish the model of I/R. Twenty four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, intestinal I/R (II/R), propofol (P), wortmannin (W). In groups P, W, propofol was injected intravenously and continuously at the onset of reperfusion via infusion pump. PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) was administered intravenously in group W 25 min before ischemia. Intestinal tissues and lung tissues were obtained for determination of histologic injury, wet/dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Meanwhile, the expressions of caspase-3 and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) in intestines and lungs were detected by western blot. Results: Propofol treatment alleviated intestinal and lung morphological changes which were observed in II/R group,Moreover, wet/dry weight ratio, the MDA level, MPO activity and expression of caspase-3 were significantly decreased whereas the SOD activity and p-Akt expression were significantly increased. Notably, the protections were significantly reversed by pretreatment of wortmannin. Conclusion: PI3K/Akt pathway activation play a critical role in the protective effects of propofol on intestinal and lung injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/physiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Mesenteric Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Mesenteric Ischemia/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 591-596, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977407


Abstract Introduction: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathophysiological process in liver surgery. Whether Propofol can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, together with related mechanisms, still needs further studies. Objective: To investigate if propofol would protect the myocardial cells from apoptosis with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were randomly allocated into three groups: Sham Group (Group S, n = 6), Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Group (Group IR, n = 6) and Propofol Group (Group P, n = 6). Group S was only subjected to laparotomy. Group IR was attained by ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 4 h. Group P was subjected identical insult as in Group IR with the administration of propofol started 10 min before ischemia with 120−1, following by continuous infusion at 20−1.h−1. Cell apoptosis was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) and cysteine-containing aspartic acid cleaved-caspase3 (cleaved-caspase3) were assayed by western blot and Altimeter polymerase chain reaction. Results: Apoptosis rate was increased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 down-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 up-regulated in Group IR compared with Group S (p < 0.01). Apoptosis rate was decreased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 up-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 down-regulated in Group P compared with Group IR (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Propofol can reduce hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial cell apoptosis, meanwhile, can up-regulate mRNA and protein of SERCA2 in rats.

Resumo Introdução: A lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão é um processo fisiopatológico comum em cirurgias hepáticas. Mais estudos ainda são necessários para avaliar se o propofol pode reduzir a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão miocárdica induzida pela lesão de isquemia-reperfusão hepática em ratos, juntamente com os mecanismos que estão relacionados. Objetivo: Investigar se propofol protege as células do miocárdio da apoptose com a lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Métodos: Ratos machos da raça Sprague-Dawley (n = 18) foram alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo Sham (Grupo S, n = 6), Grupo Lesão Hepática por Isquemia-reperfusão (Grupo IR, n = 6) e Grupo Propofol (Grupo P, n = 6). O Grupo S foi submetido apenas à laparotomia. O grupo IR foi submetido à isquemia por 30 min e reperfusão por 4 h. O grupo P foi submetido à mesma isquemia do grupo IR, com a administração de 120 de propofol iniciada 10min antes da isquemia, seguida de infusão contínua a 20 A apoptose celular foi examinada por meio do ensaio de marcação de terminações dUTP pela deoxinucleotidil transferase. Retículo endoplasmático Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) e caspase-3 do ácido aspártico contendo cisteína (caspase-3 clivada) foram avaliados com o ensaio western blot e reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: A taxa de apoptose foi maior com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 regulados para baixo e caspase-3 clivada suprarregulada no Grupo IR, em comparação com o Grupo S (p < 0,01). A taxa de apoptose foi menor com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 suprarregulada e caspase-3 clivada sub-regulada no Grupo P, em comparação com o Grupo IR (p < 0,01). Conclusões: O propofol pode reduzir a apoptose de células miocárdicas induzida por lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Entretanto, pode suprarregular o mRNA e a proteína de SERCA2 em ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Propofol/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/biosynthesis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Liver/blood supply , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 250-258, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886273


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of propofol pretreatment on lung morphology and heme oxygenase-1 expression in oleic acid -induced acute lung injury in rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300g) were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=8/group): group C, group OA, group OA+PR, and group OA+IX to compare related parameter changes. Results: PaO2, PCO2, and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly different among the four treatment groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Lung wet/dry weight ratio and HO-1 protein expression also significantly differed among the groups (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of HO-1 in group OA+PR was stronger than those in groups OA, OA+IX, and C. Light microscopy revealed that pathological changes in lung tissues in group OA+PR were milder than those in group OA and group OA+IX. Electron microscopy showed that alveolar type II epithelial cell ultrastructure in group OA was relatively irregular with cell degeneration and disintegration and cytoplasmic lamellar bodies were vacuolized. Changes in group OA+PR were milder than those in group OA; however, they were more severe in group OA+IX than in group OA. Conclusion: Propofol significantly increases the expression of HO-1 in the lung tissueand prevents changes in lung morphology due to ALI in rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Propofol/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oleic Acid , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/enzymology , Lung/ultrastructure
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 69-74, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897807


Abstract Introduction Propofol and Ephedrine are commonly used during anesthesia maintenance, the former as a hypnotic agent and the later as a vasopressor. The addition of propofol to ephedrine or administration of ephedrine before propofol injection is useful for decreasing or preventing propofol related hemodynamic changes and vascular pain. This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect on common hospital-acquired infection pathogens of ephedrine alone or combined with propofol. Material and method The study was performed in two stages. In the first, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of propofol and ephedrine alone and combined was calculated for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter spp. at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h, using the microdilution method. In the second stage, the same drugs and combination were used to determine their effect on bacterial growth. Bacterial solutions were prepared at 0.5 MacFarland in sterile 0.9% physiological saline and diluted at 1/100 concentration. Colony numbers were measured as colony forming units.mL-1 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th hours. Results Ephedrine either alone or combined with propofol did not have an antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and this was similar to propofol. However, ephedrine alone and combined with propofol was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species at 512 mcg.mL-1 concentration and significantly decreased bacterial growth rate. Conclusion Ephedrine has an antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species which were frequently encountered pathogens as a cause of nosocomial infections.

Resumo Introdução Propofol e efedrina são fármacos comumente usados durante a manutenção da anestesia, o primeiro como agente hipnótico e o segundo como vasopressor. A adição de propofol à efedrina ou a administração de efedrina antes da injeção de propofol é útil para diminuir ou prevenir alterações hemodinâmicas e dor vascular relacionadas ao propofol. Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito antibacteriano de efedrina, isolada ou em combinação com propofol, em patógenos comuns implicados em infecção hospitalar. Material e método O estudo foi feito em duas etapas. Na primeira, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de propofol e de efedrina isolada e em combinação foi calculada para Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e um isolado clínico de Acinetobacter spp às 0, 6, 12 e 24 horas, com o método de microdiluição. Na segunda etapa, o mesmo fármaco e sua combinação foram usados para determinar seus efeitos no crescimento bacteriano. As soluções bacterianas foram preparadas em soro fisiológico a 0,9% em 0,5 McFarland e diluídas a uma concentração de 1/100. Os números das colônias foram medidos como ufc.mL-1 às 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 horas. Resultados Efedrina isolada ou em combinação com propofol não apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre E. coli, E. faecium ou P. aeruginosa, um resultado semelhante ao de propofol. Porém, efedrina isolada e em combinação com propofol apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Acinetobacter spp, em concentração de 512 mcg.mL-1, e redução significativa da taxa de crescimento bacteriano. Conclusão Efedrina tem atividade antimicrobiana em S. aureus e Acinetobacter spp, patógenos frequentemente identificados como causa de infecções nosocomiais.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Ephedrine/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propofol/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6803, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889059


Propofol is an intravenous sedative hypnotic agent of which the growth-inhibitory effect has been reported on various cancers. However, the roles of propofol in endometrial cancer (EC) remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of propofol on EC in vitro and in vivo. Different concentrations of propofol were used to treat Ishikawa cells. Colony number, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed by colony formation, MTT, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays. In addition, the pcDNA3.1-Sox4 and Sox4 siRNA plasmids were transfected into Ishikawa cells to explore the relationship between propofol and Sox4 in EC cell proliferation. Tumor weight in vivo was measured by xenograft tumor model assay. Protein levels of cell cycle-related factors, apoptosis-related factors, matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9), matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and Wnt/β-catenin pathway were examined by western blot. Results showed that propofol significantly decreased colony numbers, inhibited cell viability, migration, and invasion but promoted apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in Ishikawa cells. Moreover, propofol reduced the expression of Sox4 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, propofol significantly suppressed the proportions of Ki67+ cells, but Sox4 overexpression reversed the results. Furthermore, in vivo assay results showed that propofol inhibited tumor growth; however, the inhibitory effect was abolished by Sox4 overexpression. Moreover, propofol inhibited Sox4 expression via inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. Our study demonstrated that propofol inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion but promoted apoptosis by regulation of Sox4 in EC cells. These findings might indicate a novel treatment strategy for EC.

Animals , Female , Apoptosis/drug effects , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , SOXC Transcription Factors/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Propofol/administration & dosage , Tumor Stem Cell Assay , Wnt Proteins/metabolism , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7655, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974247


Previous studies have indicated that propofol has immunomodulatory and antioxidative properties. However, the renoprotection effect and the precise mechanisms of propofol in sepsis-induced renal injury remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-290-5p/CCL-2 signaling in septic mice treatment with propofol. Mice were treated with propofol (50 mg/kg) twice within 24 h. Survival outcome was monitored within 48 h. The mRNA and protein levels were assayed by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Mouse podocytes (MPC5) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish the cell model in vitro. The proliferation of MPC5 was monitored using the MTS assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Propofol improved survival outcome and alleviated acute kidney injury in cecal ligation and puncture-operated mice. Propofol increased miR-290-5p expression and decreased CCL-2 and inflammatory cytokines levels in the kidney for septic mice. We found that miR-290-5p was a direct regulator of CCL-2 in MPC5. Propofol could abrogate LPS-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MPC5. Meanwhile, propofol inhibited CCL-2 expression in LPS-treated MPC5, however, knockdown of miR-290-5p abrogated the inhibitory effect propofol on the mRNA and protein expressions of CCL-2. Propofol could serve as an effective therapeutic medication to suppress sepsis-induced renal injury in vivo and in vitro by regulating the miR-290-5p/CCL-2 signaling pathway.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Sepsis/complications , Chemokine CCL2/drug effects , MicroRNAs/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Blotting, Western , Sepsis/metabolism , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MicroRNAs/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Flow Cytometry
Acta cir. bras ; 32(7): 533-539, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886212


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective mechanisms of propofol (Pro) on renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by studying its impact on renal I/R endoplasmic reticulum stress. Methods: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly divided into three groups: the I/R group, the Pro pretreatment group, and the control group, and corresponding treatments were performed. The levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of each group were detected. The expression levels of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homology protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 protein within renal tissue samples were detected by western blot. Results: The periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was performed to observe the morphological changes within the renal tissues, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to detect the presence of renal apoptosis. The Pro pretreatment significantly reduced the serum Cr and BUN levels, as well as the expressions levels of CHOP and caspase-12 protein inside the kidney of I/R rats, improving renal pathological injury and reducing the I/R-induced renal apoptosis. Conclusion: Propofol could downregulate the expression of stress-apoptotic proteins CHOP and caspase-12 in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus reducing renal I/R injury.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Propofol/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 396-406, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837708


Abstract Purpose: To determine the effects of propofol and ketamine anesthesia on liver regeneration in rats after partial hepatectomy (PHT). Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were assigned randomly to four groups of 10. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol in groups 1 and 2, and with ketamine in groups 3 and 4. PHT was undertaken in groups 1 and 3. Rats in groups 2 and 4 (control groups) underwent an identical surgical procedure, but without PHT. At postoperative day-5, rats were killed. Regenerated liver was removed, weighed, and evaluated (by immunohistochemical means) for expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), apoptosis protease-activating factor (APAF)-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Also, blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Results: Between groups 2 and 4, there were no differences in tissue levels of iNOS, eNOS, and APAF-1 or plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6. eNOS expression was similar in group 1 and group 3. Expression of iNOS and APAF-1 was mild-to-moderate in group 1, but significantly higher in group 3. Groups 1 and 3 showed an increase in PCNA expression, but expression in both groups was comparable. Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6 increased to a lesser degree in group 1 than in group 3. Conclusion: Propofol, as an anesthetic agent, may attenuate cytokine-mediated upregulation of iNOS expression and apoptosis in an animal model of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

Animals , Male , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Random Allocation , Propofol/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Rats, Wistar , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Anesthetics, Intravenous/metabolism , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1/metabolism , Hepatectomy , Ketamine/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 203-210, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837689


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of cyclosporine A on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia in rats. Methods: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury and transiently induced hyperglycemia by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, 2.5, Wistar rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane or propofol and received intravenous cyclosporine A, 5, five minutes before reperfusion. Comparison groups were isoflurane and propofol sham groups and isoflurane and propofol ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury. Renal tubular cell viability was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry after cell culture and classified as early apoptosis, necrotic cells, and intact cells. Results: Early apoptosis was significantly higher in isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared to both cyclosporine A treated and sham groups. Necrosis percentage was significantly higher in propofol-anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The percentage of intact cells was lower in both, isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury, cyclosporine A, 5, administered five minutes before renal reperfusion in rats with acute-induced hyperglycemia under either isoflurano or propofol anesthesia, attenuated early apoptosis and preserved viability in renal tubular cells, regardless of the anesthetic used.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Premedication , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Ischemia/prevention & control , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 35-41, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843351


Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on oxidative DNA damage that occurs in low-extremity ischemia and is caused by tourniquet application. Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Group S (n = 7) received sevoflurane (2.5-4 percent) inhalation and Group P (n = 7) received a propofol infusion (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), after which a pneumatic tourniquet was placed on the right lower extremity. Blood samples were collected prior to tourniquet placement (baseline), 120 min after ischemia, 15 min after ischemia and 120 minutes (min) after ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed to determine lipid peroxidation, and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to determine DNA damage. Results: At 15 min after ischemia, the MDA levels in Group P (8.15 ± 2.61 µM) were higher than baseline (6.26 ± 3.19 µM, p = 0.026) and Group S (4.98 ± 0.77 µM, p = 0.01). DNA damage was similar in both groups, although DNA damage was higher than baseline (tail moment 0.63 ± 0.27, tail intensity 3.76 ± 1.26) in Group P at the 15th minute of reperfusion (tail moment 1.05 ± 0.45, p = 0.06; tail intensity 5.33 ± 1.56, p = 0.01). The increase in tail moment and tail intensity returned to normal levels in both groups 2 hours after the termination of ischemia. Conclusion: Given that oxidative stress and genotoxic effect disappear in the late stages of reperfusion, we conclude that neither sevoflurane nor propofol can be considered superior to the other in anesthesia practices for extremity surgeries involving the use of a tourniquet.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Comparar os efeitos da anestesia com sevoflurano e propofol sobre o dano oxidativo ao DNA que ocorre na isquemia de extremidade inferior e é causada pela aplicação de torniquete. Métodos: Foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais 14 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Grupo S (n = 7) recebeu inalação de sevoflurano (2,5-4%) e Grupo P (n = 7) recebeu perfusão de propofol (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), logo após um torniquete pneumático foi colocado na extremidade inferior direita. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da colocação do torniquete (fase basal), após 120 minutos de isquemia, 15 minutos após a isquemia e 120 minutos após a isquemia. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) foram analisados para determinar a peroxidação de lipídios e eletroforese em gel de célula única (EGCU) foi usada para determinar o dano ao DNA. Resultados: Aos 15 minutos após a isquemia, os níveis de MDA no Grupo P (8,15 ± 2,61 µM) foram superiores aos da fase basal (6,26 ± 3,19 µM, p = 0,026) e dp Grupo S (4,98 ± 0,77 µM, p = 0,01). O dano causado ao DNA foi semelhante nos dois grupos, embora tenha sido maior do que na fase basal (momento da cauda 0,63 ± 0,27, intensidade da cauda 3,76 ± 1,26) no Grupo P no 15 minutos de reperfusão (momento da cauda 1,05 ± 0,45, p = 0,06; intensidade da cauda 5,33 ± 1,56, p = 0,01). O aumento no momento da cauda e a intensidade da cauda voltaram aos níveis normais nos dois grupos duas horas após o término da isquemia. Conclusão: Como o estresse oxidativo e o efeito genotóxico desaparecem nos estágios finais da reperfusão, concluímos que não há superioridade tanto de sevoflurano quanto de propofol em práticas de anestesia para procedimentos cirúrgicos de extremidades que envolvem o uso de torniquete.

Animals , DNA Damage/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Rabbits , Tourniquets/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Comet Assay , Sevoflurane , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5794, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839241


Propofol is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic agent. Recent studies show that propofol exerts a number of non-anesthetic effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of propofol on lung cancer cell lines H1299 and H1792 and functional role of microRNA (miR)-486 in these effects. H1299 and/or H1792 cells were treated with or without propofol and transfected or not with miR-486 inhibitor, and then cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry. The expression of miR-486 was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with or without propofol treatment. Western blot was performed to analyze the protein expression of Forkhead box, class O (FOXO) 1 and 3, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), and pro- and activated caspases-3. Results showed that propofol significantly increased the miR-486 levels in both H1299 and H1792 cells compared to untreated cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Propofol statistically decreased cell viability but increased the percentages of apoptotic cells and protein expressions of FOXO1, FOXO3, Bim, and pro- and activated caspases-3; however, miR-486 inhibitor reversed the effects of propofol on cell viability, apoptosis, and protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In conclusion, propofol might be an ideal anesthetic for lung cancer surgery by effectively inhibiting lung cancer cell viability and inducing cell apoptosis. Modulation of miR-486 might contribute to the anti-tumor activity of propofol.

Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Propofol/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (3 [Special]): 1107-1110
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189319


This study is to analyze the effects and variations on cognitive function for elderly patients undergoing general thoracic surgery, who accepted the anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane. A total of 500 elderly general thoracic surgical patients were selected randomly, all receiving the propofol anesthesia [Propofol group]. Meanwhile, another totality of 500 patients in the same condition and period were selected and accepted the sevoflurane anesthesia [Sevoflurane group]. Mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and recovery quality after anesthesia were compared among the patients in both groups respectively at the time of pre-operation and 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after surgery. There was no statistic difference in preoperative MMES of patients in both two groups [P<0.05]; while the results of postoperative MMSE showed that both Propofol group and Sevoflurane group had a certain statistical difference, and that in Propofol group was larger compared that in Sevoflurane group. Moreover, P<0.05 was obtained on comparing the MMSE at the time of 1h, 6h and 12h after surgery and that at pre-operation, revealing statistical significance. Either propofol or sevoflurane, to certain extent, can affect patients' cognitive function when they are applied in the general thoracic surgery for elderly patients. However, the influence of propofol on cognitive function is relatively smaller, which presents a better application value

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Propofol/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Anesthesia , Postoperative Care , Aged , Thoracic Surgery , General Surgery
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 225-230, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782893


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The vehicle for propofol in 1 and 2% solutions is soybean oil emulsion 10%, which may cause pain on injection, instability of the solution and bacterial contamination. Formulations have been proposed aiming to change the vehicle and reduce these adverse reactions. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of pain caused by the injection of propofol, with a hypothesis of reduction associated with nanoemulsion and the occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects with both formulations. METHOD: After approval by the CEP, patients undergoing gynecological procedures were included in this prospective study: control (n = 25) and nanoemulsion (n = 25) groups. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored. Demographics and physical condition were analyzed; surgical time and total volume used of propofol; local or systemic adverse effects; changes in variables monitored. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data, surgical times, total volume of propofol used, arm withdrawal, pain during injection and variables monitored. There was a statistically significant difference in pain intensity at the time of induction of anesthesia, with less pain intensity in the nanoemulsion group. CONCLUSIONS: Both lipid and nanoemulsion formulations of propofol elicited pain on intravenous injection; however, the nanoemulsion solution elicited a less intense pain. Lipid and nanoemulsion propofol formulations showed neither hemodynamic changes nor adverse effects of clinical relevance.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O veículo do propofol em soluções a 1 e 2% é a emulsão de óleo de soja a 10%, que pode provocar dor à injeção, instabilidade da solução e contaminação bacteriana. Formulações foram propostas com o objetivo de alterar o veículo e reduzir essas reações adversas. OBJETIVOS: Comparar a incidência de dor à injeção do propofol com a hipótese de redução associada à nanoemulsão e a ocorrência de efeitos adversos locais e sistêmicos com as duas formulações. MÉTODO: Após aprovação pelo Conselho de Ética em Pesquisa, foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo pacientes submetidas a procedimentos cirúrgicos ginecológicos: grupos controle (n = 25) e nanoemulsão (n = 25). Foram monitorados frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial não invasiva e saturação periférica de oxigênio. Foram analisados dados demográficos e estado físico; tempo cirúrgico e volume total usado de propofol; efeitos adversos locais ou sistêmicos; alterações nas variáveis de monitoramento. Considerou-se significativo valor de p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a: dados demográficos, tempos cirúrgicos, volume total usado de propofol, retirada do braço, presença de dor durante a injeção e variáveis de monitoramento. Verificou-se diferença estatística significativa na intensidade da dor no momento da indução da anestesia, com menor intensidade no grupo nanoemulsão. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as formulações de propofol, lipídica e em nanoemulsão, elicitaram dor à injeção venosa, porém a solução de nanoemulsão promoveu dor em menor intensidade. O propofol lipídico e o propofol em nanoemulsão não apresentaram alterações hemodinâmicas e efeitos adversos de relevância clínica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pain/prevention & control , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Stearic Acids/pharmacology , Soybean Oil/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Lecithins/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General , Prospective Studies , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Emulsions , Injections, Intravenous/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 237-241, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782887


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Induction of anesthesia is a critical part of anesthesia practice. Sudden hypotension, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular collapse are threatening complications following injection of induction agent in hemodynamically unstable patients. It is desirable to use a safe agent with fewer adverse effects for this purpose. Present prospective randomized study is designed to compare propofol and etomidate for their effect on hemodynamics and various adverse effects on patients in general anesthesia. METHODS: Hundred ASA I and II patients of age group 18-60 years scheduled for elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 50 each receiving propofol (2 mg/kg) and etomidate (0.3 mg/kg) as an induction agent. Vital parameters at induction, laryngoscopy and thereafter recorded for comparison. Adverse effect viz. pain on injection, apnea and myoclonus were carefully watched. RESULTS: Demographic variables were comparable in both the groups. Patients in etomidate group showed little change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) compared to propofol (p > 0.05) from baseline value. Pain on injection was more in propofol group while myoclonus activity was higher in etomidate group. CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that etomidate is a better agent for induction than propofol in view of hemodynamic stability and less pain on injection.

RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A indução é uma parte crítica da prática de anestesia. Hipotensão súbita, arritmias e colapso cardiovascular são complicações ameaçadoras após a injeção de agente de indução em pacientes hemodinamicamente instáveis. É aconselhável o uso de um agente seguro com menos efeitos adversos para esse propósito. O presente estudo prospectivo, randômico, teve como objetivo comparar propofol e etomidato quanto a seus efeitos sobre a hemodinâmica e aos vários efeitos adversos em pacientes sob anestesia geral. MÉTODOS: Cem pacientes ASA I e II, entre 18-60 anos, programados para procedimento cirúrgico eletivo sob anestesia geral, foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 50 cada para receber propofol (2 mg/kg) e etomidato (0,3 mg/kg) como um agente de indução. Os parâmetros vitais na indução, laringoscopia e posteriormente foram registrados para comparação. Efeitos adversos como dor à injeção, apneia e mioclonia foram cuidadosamente monitorados. RESULTADOS: As variáveis demográficas foram comparáveis em ambos os grupos. Os pacientes do grupo etomidato apresentaram pouca alteração da pressão arterial média (PAM) e da frequência cardíaca (FC) em comparação com o grupo propofol (p < 0,05) a partir do valor basal. Houve mais dor à injeção no grupo propofol, enquanto houve mais atividade mioclônica no grupo etomidato. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo conclui que etomidato é um agente melhor para a indução do que o propofol em relação à estabilidade hemodinâmica e menos dor à injeção.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Etomidate/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 231-236, May.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782881


ABSTRACT Colonoscopy is one of the most common procedures. Sedation and analgesia decrease anxiety and discomfort and minimize risks. Therefore, patients prefer to be sedated when undergoing examination, although the best combination of drugs has not been determined. The combination of opioids and benzodiazepines is used to relieve the patient's pain and discomfort. More recently, propofol has assumed a prominent position. This randomized prospective study is unique in medical literature that specifically compared the use of propofol and fentanyl with or without midazolam for colonoscopy sedation performed by anesthesiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the side effects of sedation, discharge conditions, quality of sedation, and propofol consumption during colonoscopy, with or without midazolam as preanesthetic. The study involved 140 patients who underwent colonoscopy at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I received intravenous midazolam as preanesthetic 5 min before sedation, followed by fentanyl and propofol; Group II received intravenous anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol. Patients in Group II had a higher incidence of reaction (motor or verbal) to the colonoscope introduction, bradycardia, hypotension, and increased propofol consumption. Patient satisfaction was higher in Group I. According to the methodology used, the combination of midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol for colonoscopy sedation reduces propofol consumption and provides greater patient satisfaction.

RESUMO A colonoscopia é um dos procedimentos mais feitos. Sedação e analgesia diminuem a ansiedade e o desconforto e minimizam riscos. Em razão disso, os pacientes preferem que o exame seja feito sob anestesia, embora não tenha sido determinada a melhor combinação de fármacos. A associação de benzodiazepínicos com opioides é usada para aliviar a dor e o desconforto do paciente. Mais recentemente, o propofol assumiu posição de destaque. Este estudo, prospectivo e randomizado, é único na literatura médica e especificamente comparou o uso do propofol e fentanil associado ou não ao midazolam na sedação para colonoscopia feita por anestesiologistas. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar os efeitos colaterais da sedação, as condições de alta, a qualidade da sedação e o consumo de propofol durante a colonoscopia, com ou sem o midazolam como pré-anestésico. Envolveu 140 pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O Grupo I recebeu, por via endovenosa, midazolam como pré-anestésico, cinco minutos antes da sedação, seguido do fentanil e propofol. O Grupo II recebeu, por via endovenosa, anestesia com fentanil e propofol. Os pacientes do Grupo II apresentaram maior incidência de reação (motora ou verbal) à introdução do colonoscópio, bradicardia, hipotensão arterial e maior consumo de propofol. A satisfação dos pacientes foi maior no Grupo I. De acordo com a metodologia empregada, a associação de midazolam ao propofol e fentanil para sedação em colonoscopia reduz o consumo de propofol e cursa com maior satisfação do paciente.

Humans , Male , Female , Midazolam/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Colonoscopy , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Pain/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Middle Aged
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 286-291, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744366


This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

Animals , Mice , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Propofol/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism