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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 18-23, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090550

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cholesteatomas are benign tumors consisting of skin, and growing inside a retraction pocket in the tympanic membrane. Cholesteatomas can occupy the entirety of the middle ear, and are known for their osteolytic capabilities. Surgery is the only curative treatment for cholesteatomas. Objective To describe the risk of recurrence after first-time surgically-treated middle- ear cholesteatoma (STMEC1) on the island of Funen from 1983 to 2015. Methods Cases of STMEC1 were identified in the Danish National Hospital Register. The medical records were reviewed. Time-to-event analyses were applied. The ears were followed from STMEC1 to a secondary cholesteatoma, emigration, death, or end of follow-up. Results Records from 1,006 patients with STMEC1 were reviewed. A total of 54 patients were submitted to surgery on both ears. The total sample consisted of 1,060 ears with STMEC1; 300 were children's (< 16 years) ears, and 760 were adult's ears. The total observation time was of 12,049 years. The overall estimated proportion with recurrence 5 years after surgery was of 37% in children and of 15% in adults. The older the child was at the first surgery, the risk decreased by 7% per year. In children, canal wall up (CWU) mastoidectomy without obliteration was associated with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.2-3.0) compared with CWU with obliteration. Conclusion Compared with adults, children were had 2.6 times more risk of recurrence. Procedures performed without mastoidectomy had the lowest risk of recurrence. In children, obliteration was associated with a significantly lower risk of recurrence. However, patients were not randomized regarding the surgical approach; thus, the association between approach and risk of recurrence was likely influenced by confounding factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Ear Neoplasms/surgery , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Survival Analysis , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Second-Look Surgery , Denmark , Mastoidectomy/methods
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 167-179, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099154

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El análisis de riesgo en la gestión de la calidad y seguridad permite la mejora continua de los servicios médicos en Cuba. En Medicina Nuclear Terapéutica es requisito regulador que permite la continuidad de estos servicios a la población. Objetivo: Analizar los riesgos radiológicos con enfoque integrador dirigido a causas básicas de fallo en la práctica citada. Material y métodos: Se revisó y adaptó el modelo genérico de riesgo para cada caso de estudio. Los métodos prospectivos de matriz de riesgo y análisis de modos y efectos de fallo y reactivo de aprendizaje de las lecciones de sucesos registrados fueron utilizados con el código cubano SECURE MR-FMEA versión 3.0. Se determinó el riesgo inherente, su tratamiento y el riesgo residual por práctica. Se identificaron las etapas del proceso, las medidas y las causas básicas más contribuyentes. Resultados: No se obtuvo riesgo superior al del nivel alto. La radiosinoviortesis y el tratamiento radiactivo de la policitemia vera tuvieron la mayor cantidad de modificaciones al modelo genérico. Las etapas más significativas son prescripción clínica, preparación del radiofármaco y administración. Las medidas preventivas de mayor importancia son mantener una carga de trabajo moderada para el personal, las capacitaciones de los médicos nucleares y del técnico que realiza la administración. Conclusiones: Existe una no uniformidad en el nivel de calidad y seguridad entre los servicios analizados. Para el cambio, la adopción de decisiones se ve beneficiada en su eficacia y eficiencia, al integrarse los métodos prospectivos y reactivos de análisis de riesgo(AU)


Introduction: Risk assessment in quality and safety management allows the continuous improvement of the medical services in Cuba. In Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine, it is a regulatory requirement which allows the continuity of these services to the population. Objective: To assess radiological risks with an integrated approach focused on underlying causes of failure in the mentioned practice. Material and Methods: The generic risk model was reviewed and adapted for each case study. The prospective methods of risk assessment matrix of failure modes and effects and incident learning lessons from the events registered were used applying the Cuban code SECURE MR-FMEA version 3.0. The inherent risk, treatment, and residual risk in the practice were determined. The stages of the process, measurements, and the main contributing causes were identified. Results: There was no risk higher than the high level. Radiosynoviorthesis and the radioactive treatment of the Polycythemia Vera had the greatest amount of modifications to the generic model. The most significant stages are clinical prescription, preparation of the radiopharmaceutical formulation and administration. The most important preventive measures are to maintain a moderate workload for the personnel, and the training of the nuclear physicians and the technician who performs the administration. Conclusions: There is a non-uniformity in the level of quality and safety among the NTM services in Cuba. For change, decision-making is benefited in terms of effectiveness and efficiency by integrating prospective and reactive risk assessment methods(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Health Care/standards , Radiation Risks , Nuclear Medicine/methods , Proportional Hazards Models , Cuba
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 209-218, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088870

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. Objective: To evaluate whether the risk of AF patients can be precisely stratified by relation with cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) cut-offs for heart transplantation (HT) selection. Methods: Prospective evaluation of 274 consecutive HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death or urgent HT in 1-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was analysed by several CPET parameters for the highest area under the curve and for positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) in AF and sinus rhythm (SR) patients to detect if the current cut-offs for HT selection can precisely stratify the AF group. Statistical differences with a p-value <0.05 were considered significant. Results: There were 51 patients in the AF group and 223 in the SR group. The primary outcome was higher in the AF group (17.6% vs 8.1%, p = 0.038). The cut-off value of pVO2 for HT selection showed a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 95.5% for the primary outcome in the AF group, with a PPV of 38.5% and an NPV of 94.3% in the SR group. The cut-off value of VE/VCO2 slope showed lower values of PPV (33.3%) and similar NPV (92.3%) to pVO2 results in the AF group. Conclusion: Despite the fact that AF carries a worse prognosis for HF patients, the current cut-off of pVO2 for HT selection can precisely stratify this high-risk group.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) está associada ao aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Objetivo: Avaliar se o risco de pacientes com FA pode ser estratificado com precisão em relação aos pontos de corte do teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) para seleção do transplante cardíaco (TC). Métodos: Avaliação prospectiva de 274 pacientes consecutivos com IC com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≤ 40%. O endpoint primário foi um composto de morte cardíaca ou TC urgente no seguimento de 1 ano. O endpoint primário foi analisado através de vários parâmetros do TECP para a maior área sob a curva e para o valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e negativo (VPN) em pacientes com FA e ritmo sinusal (RS) para detectar se os atuais pontos de corte para a seleção de TC podem estratificar com precisão o grupo com FA. Diferenças estatísticas com valor de p < 0,05 foram consideradas significativas. Resultados: Havia 51 pacientes no grupo de FA e 223 no grupo RS. O endpoint primário foi maior no grupo FA (17,6% vs. 8,1%, p = 0,038). O valor de corte de pVO2 para a seleção do TC mostrou um VPP de 100% e um VPN de 95,5% para o endpoint primário no grupo FA, com um VPP de 38,5% e um VPN de 94,3% no grupo RS. O valor de corte da inclinação VE/VCO2 apresentou valores mais baixos de VPP (33,3%) e valor semelhante de VPN (92,3%) aos resultados de pVO2 no grupo FA. Conclusões: Apesar do fato de a FA apresentar um pior prognóstico para os pacientes com IC, o atual ponto de corte de pVO2 para a seleção de TC pode estratificar com precisão esse grupo de alto risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Risk Assessment/standards , Exercise Test/standards , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Standards , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/mortality
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 245-253, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088859

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardioinhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CICSH) is defined as ventricular asystole ≥ 3 seconds in response to 5-10 seconds of carotid sinus massage (CSM). There is a common concern that a prolonged asystole episode could lead to death directly from bradycardia or as a consequence of serious trauma, brain injury or pause-dependent ventricular arrhythmias. Objective: To describe total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and trauma-related mortality of a cohort of CICSH patients, and to compare those mortalities with those found in a non-CICSH patient cohort. Methods: In 2006, 502 patients ≥ 50 years of age were submitted to CSM. Fifty-two patients (10,4%) were identified with CICSH. Survival of this cohort was compared with that of another cohort of 408 non-CICSH patients using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to examine the relation between CICSH and mortality. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: After a maximum follow-up of 11.6 years, 29 of the 52 CICSH patients (55.8%) were dead. Cardiovascular mortality, trauma-related mortality and the total mortality rate of this population were not statistically different from that found in 408 patients without CICSH. (Total mortality of CICSH patients 55.8% vs. 49,3% of non-CICSH patients; p: 0.38). Conclusion: At the end of follow-up, the 52 CICSH patient cohort had total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and trauma-related mortality similar to that found in 408 patients without CICSH.


Resumo Fundamento: A resposta cardioinibitória (RCI) à massagem do seio carotídeo (MSC) caracteriza-se por assistolia ≥ 3 segundos provocada por 5 a 10 segundos de MSC. Existe uma preocupação de que pacientes com RCI e episódios prolongados de assistolia possam falecer em consequência direta de bradiarritmia, ou em decorrência de lesão cerebral, trauma grave ou arritmia ventricular pausa dependente. Objetivos: Determinar a mortalidade total, a mortalidade cardiovascular e a mortalidade relacionada ao trauma de uma coorte de pacientes com RCI à MSC e comparar essas mortalidades com as de uma coorte de pacientes sem RCI à MSC. Métodos: Em 2006, 502 pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 50 anos foram submetidos à MSC. Destes, 52 pacientes (10,4%) foram identificados com RCI. A sobrevida desta coorte foi comparada àquela observada em uma coorte de 408 pacientes sem RCI por meio de curvas de Kaplan-Meier. A regressão de Cox foi utilizada para avaliação da relação entre a RCI à MSC e a mortalidade. Variáveis com p < 0,05 foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas. Resultados: Após seguimento máximo de 11,6 anos, 29 dos 52 portadores de RCI (55,8%) faleceram. A mortalidade total, a mortalidade cardiovascular e a mortalidade relacionada ao trauma desta coorte de pacientes não foram significativamente diferentes daquelas encontradas nos 408 pacientes sem RCI (mortalidade total com RCI: 55,8% versus 49,3% sem RCI; p: 0,38). Conclusões: No fim do seguimento, a mortalidade dos 52 portadores de RCI foi semelhante à observada em uma coorte de pacientes sem RCI. A mortalidade cardiovascular e a relacionada ao trauma também foi semelhante nas duas coortes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/mortality , Carotid Sinus/physiopathology , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Heart Arrest/mortality , Syncope/physiopathology , Syncope/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrocardiography , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Heart Injuries/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/mortality
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782489

ABSTRACT

60 years of age. A total of 588,147 participants were randomly selected for senior cohort using 10% simple random sampling. We identified senile (> 65 years old) patients who underwent hip fracture surgery from January 2005 to December 2014 and those who developed pneumonia during hospitalization from the NHIS-Senior cohort. The index date of hip fracture occurrence was defined as the date of admission to the acute care hospital. The last date of follow-up was defined as the date of death or 31 December 2015, whichever came first. A multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the effects of pneumonia on all-cause mortality.RESULTS: During the enrollment period, a total of 14,736 patients, who were older than 65 years, underwent hip fracture surgeries. Among them, 1,629 patients (11.05%) developed pneumonia during the hospitalization. The pneumonia incidence was 16.39% (601/3,666) in men patients and 9.29% (1,028/10,042) in women patients. Compared to 13,107 non-pneumonia patients, adjusted relative risk (aRR) of death in pneumonia patients was 2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14–3.38; P < 0.001) within postoperative 30-day, 3.40 (95% CI, 3.01–3.83; P < 0.001) within postoperative 90-day, 2.86 (95% CI, 2.61–3.15; P < 0.001) within postoperative 180-day and 2.31 (95% CI, 2.14–2.50; P < 0.001) within postoperative 1-year. According to patient's age, the aRR of death in pneumonia patients was 5.75 (95% CI, 2.89–11.43) in adults aged < 70 years, 5.14 (95% CI, 4.08–6.46) in those aged 70–79 years, 3.29 (95% CI, 2.81–3.86) in those aged 80–89 years and 2.02 (95% CI, 1.52–2.69) in those aged ≥ 90 years. The aRR was 3.63 (95% CI, 3.01–4.38) in men pneumonia patients, and 3.27 (95% CI, 2.80–3.83) in women pneumonia patients.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pneumonia in elderly hip fracture patients was 11.05%. Men had higher incidence (16.39%) than women (9.29%). Compared to non-pneumonia patients, the pneumonia patients had higher 30-day to 1-year mortalities with aRR of 2.31 to 3.40. They had increased mortality in all age groups older than 65 years with aRR of 1.52 to 4.08. Both genders of pneumonia patients had higher risk of mortality (aRR, 3.63 in men and 3.27 in women) compared to non-pneumonia patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hip , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , National Health Programs , Pneumonia , Prevalence , Proportional Hazards Models
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Preventing the need for long-term care (LTC) by identifying physical function risk factors are important to decrease the LTC burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether grip strength and/or walking speed, which are components of the frailty definition, are associated with LTC in community-dwelling older and oldest people.@*METHODS@#The participants were 1098 community-dwelling older and oldest people who had not received LTC at the baseline. The endpoint was receiving LTC after the baseline survey. The independent variables were grip strength and walking speed, and participants were divided into two groups based on these variables. The confounding factors were age, sex, the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, joint diseases, living alone, body mass index, and serum albumin. We calculated the hazard ratio of receiving LTC using the Cox proportional hazard model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1098 participants, 107 (9.7%) newly received LTC during the follow-up. Regarding the physical function, only slow walking speed was significantly correlated with LTC after adjusting for all confounding factors except the MoCA-J score (HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10-2.75, P = .018). However, slow walking speed was still a risk factor for LTC after adjusting for the MoCA-J score and other confounding factors (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.03-2.60, P = .037).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings from this study may contribute to a better understanding of slow walking speed as a factor related to LTC, which might be a criterion for disability prevention and could serve as an outcome measure for physical function in older people.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Japan , Long-Term Care , Male , Proportional Hazards Models
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application and advantages of conditional inference forest in survival analysis.@*METHODS@#We used simulated experiment and actual data to compare the predictive performance of 4 models, including Coxproportional hazards model, accelerated failure time model, random survival forest model and conditional inference forest model based on their Brier scores.@*RESULTS@#Simulation experiment suggested that both of the two forest models had more accurate and robust predictive performance than the other two regression models. Conditional inference forest model was superior to the other models in analyzing time-to-event data with polytomous covariates, collinearity or interaction, especially for a large sample size and a high censoring rate. The results of actual data analysis demonstrated that conditional inference forest model had the best predictive performance among the 4 models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the commonly used survival analysis methods, conditional inference forest model performs better especially when the data contain polytomous covariates with collinearity and interaction.


Subject(s)
Data Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Sample Size , Survival Analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin (ddPC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the standard 3-weekly regimen.METHODS: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with stage IIIc and IV ovarian cancer who received at least one cycle of NAC followed by interval debulking surgery between August 2015 and January 2018 was conducted. Patient characteristics, clinical and pathological response to NAC, surgical and survival outcome, and adverse event were compared.RESULTS: A total of 23 patients in the ddPC group and 50 patients in the standard group received a median of 3 cycles of NAC. Rate of grade ≥3 neutropenia was significantly higher in the ddPC group than the standard (82.6% vs. 22.0%, p<0.001). Patients in the ddPC group underwent dose-reduction more frequently (34.8% vs. 4.00%, p=0.001). Normalization of cancer antigen-125 post-NAC occurred more frequently in the ddPC group (73.9% vs. 46.0%, p=0.030). No residual disease rate (43.5% vs. 60.0%, p=0.188) and chemotherapy response score of 3 (34.8% vs. 26.0%, p=0.441) were not statistically different between two groups. There was no statistical difference in progression free survival (PFS) at 2 years (36.3% vs. 28.4%, p=0.454). Cox proportional hazard model showed that ddPC was not a significant determinant of PFS (p=0.816).CONCLUSION: There was no difference between both regimens in terms of NAC response and survival outcomes. However, ddPC group showed higher hematologic toxicity requiring dose reduction.


Subject(s)
Carboplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia , Ovarian Neoplasms , Paclitaxel , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 230-237, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989327

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) has played an important role in the risk stratification of patients during the in-hospital phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but few studies have determined its role as a long-term prognostic marker in the outpatient setting. Objective: To investigate the association between levels of hs-cTnI measured in the subacute phase after an ACS event and long-term prognosis in a highly admixed population. Methods: We measured levels of hs-cTnI in 525 patients 25 to 90 days after admission for an ACS event; these patients were then divided into tertiles according to hs-cTnI levels and followed for up to 7 years. We compared all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models and adopting a significance level of 5%. Results: After a median follow-up of 51 months, patients in the highest tertile had a greater hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sex, known cardiovascular risk factors, medication use, and demographic factors (HR: 3.84, 95% CI: 1.92-8.12). These findings persisted after further adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.40 (HR: 6.53, 95% CI: 2.12-20.14). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the highest tertile after adjustment for age and sex (HR: 5.65, 95% CI: 1.94-16.47) and both in the first (HR: 4.90, 95% CI: 1.35-17.82) and second models of multivariate adjustment (HR: 5.89, 95% CI: 1.08-32.27). Conclusions: Elevated hs-cTnI levels measured in the stabilized phase after an ACS event are independent predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a highly admixed population.


Resumo Fundamento: A troponina cardíaca de alta sensibilidade I (TnI-as) tem desempenhado um papel importante na estratificação de risco dos pacientes durante a fase intra-hospitalar da síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA), mas poucos estudos determinaram seu papel como marcador prognóstico de longo prazo no ambiente ambulatorial. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre os níveis de TnI-as medidos na fase subaguda após um evento de SCA e o prognóstico a longo prazo, em uma população altamente miscigenada. Métodos: Medimos os níveis de TnI-as em 525 pacientes em um período de 25 a 90 dias após a entrada em hospital por um evento de SCA; esses pacientes foram então divididos em tercis conforme os níveis de TnI-as, e acompanhados por até 7 anos. Comparamos as mortalidades por todas as causas e cardiovascular através de modelos de riscos proporcionais de Cox e adotando um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Após um acompanhamento médio de 51 meses, os pacientes no tercil mais alto apresentaram uma taxa de risco (HR) maior para mortalidade por todas as causas, após ajustes para idade, sexo, fatores de risco cardiovascular conhecidos, uso de medicação e fatores demográficos (HR: 3,84 IC 95%: 1,92-8,12). Esses achados persistiram após um ajuste adicional para uma taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) estimada < 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 e uma fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo < 0,40 (HR: 6,53; IC95%: 2,12-20,14). A mortalidade cardiovascular foi significativamente maior no tercil mais alto, após ajustes para idade e sexo (RR: 5,65; IC95%: 1,94-16,47) e tanto no primeiro modelo de ajuste multivariado (HR: 4,90; IC 95%: 1,35-17,82) quanto no segundo (HR: 5,89; IC95%: 1,08-32,27). Conclusões: Níveis elevados de TnI-as, medidos na fase estabilizada após um evento de SCA, são preditores independentes de mortalidade por todas as causas e de mortalidade cardiovascular em uma população altamente miscigenada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Troponin I/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Cause of Death , Troponin T/blood , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 195-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who survive an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) have an increased risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (IS/SE). We investigated whether starting oral anticoagulants (OACs) among older NVAF patients after an ICH was associated with a lower risk of IS/SE and mortality but offset by an increase in major bleeding. METHODS: We assembled a patient cohort from the Quebec Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) and Med-Echo administrative databases. We identified older adults with NVAF from 1995 to 2015. All patients with incident ICH and discharged in community were included. Patients were categorized according to OAC exposure. Outcomes included IS/SE, all-cause mortality, recurrent ICH and major bleeding after a quarantine period of 6 weeks. Crude event rates were calculated at 1-year of follow-up, and Cox proportional hazard models with a time-dependent binary exposure were used to assess adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs). RESULTS: The cohort of 683 NVAF patients with ICH aged 83 years on average. The rates (per 100 person-years) for IS/SE, death, ICH and major bleeding were 3.3, 40.6, 11.4, and 2.7 for the no OAC group; and 2.6, 16.3, 5.2, and 5.2 for OAC group, respectively. The AHR for IS/SE and death was 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.21), 0.43 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.97) for recurrent ICH and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.71 to 4.20) for major extracranial bleeding comparing OAC exposure to non-exposed. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating OAC after ICH in older individuals with NVAF is associated with a reduction of IS/SE and mortality and a trend in recurrent ICH supporting its use after ICH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Quarantine , Quebec , Stroke
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism is associated with neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of the gene differ by ethnic group, few studies have examined Asians. Therefore, the association between APOE polymorphism and mortality in Koreans was evaluated in this study. METHODS: This study population included participants from the Dong-gu and Namwon Studies. APOE genotypes were categorized as E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), E3 (E3/E3), and E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were constructed using the E3 allele as a reference. RESULTS: In the model adjusting for study site, age, gender, and lifestyle, the hazard ratio (HR) of mortality for those with the E4 allele was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–1.20), while that for those with the E2 allele was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.74–0.96). After adjusting for blood lipids to evaluate their mediating effects, the HRs of mortality for those with E4 and E2 alleles were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.97–1.20) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70–0.92), respectively. These associations were more evident in younger groups, with HRs of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52–0.92) for the E2 allele and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03–1.53) for the E4 allele. CONCLUSION: In two large population-based cohort studies, the E2 allele was associated with a lower risk of mortality compared with the E3 allele, whereas the E4 genotype was not associated with mortality in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Apolipoproteins E , Apolipoproteins , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Ethnic Groups , Genotype , Humans , Life Style , Mortality , Negotiating , Proportional Hazards Models
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the factors in first-time adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy and their influence on spasm control time in infants with infantile spasms.@*METHODS@#A total of 72 infants with infantile spasms who were admitted from January 2008 to October 2013 were enrolled. Their clinical data were collected, and the exposure factors for infantile spasms were selected. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model analysis was performed for these factors to analyze their influence on spasm control time.@*RESULTS@#Clarification of the etiology (known or unexplained etiology), frequency of spasms before treatment, and presence or absence of combination therapy (ACTH used alone or in combination with magnesium sulfate) had a significant influence on spasm control time in infants with infantile spasms. The infants with a known etiology had a significantly shorter spasm control time than those with unexplained etiology, and the infants with a low frequency of spasms before treatment and receiving ACTH combined with magnesium sulfate early had a significantly longer spasm control time than their counterparts (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For infants with infantile spasms at initial diagnosis, etiology should be clarified, which may helpful for evaluating prognosis. A combination of ACTH and magnesium sulfate should be given as soon as possible, which may improve their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Anticonvulsants , Humans , Infant , Proportional Hazards Models , Spasm , Spasms, Infantile , Drug Therapy
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 525-533, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are positive in some patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the prognostic value of ANAs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ANAs as a prognostic factor in CLL.@*METHODS@#This study retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 216 newly diagnosed CLL subjects with ANAs test from 2007 to 2017. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to screen the independent prognostic factors related to time to first treatment (TTFT), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Receiver operator characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were utilized to assess the predictive accuracy of ANAs together with other independent factors for OS.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of ANAs abnormality at diagnosis was 13.9%. ANAs positivity and TP53 disruption were independent prognostic indicators for OS. The AUC of positive ANAs together with TP53 disruption was 0.766 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.697-0.826), which was significantly larger than that of either TP53 disruption (AUC: 0.706, 95% CI: 0.634-0.772, P = 0.034) or positive ANAs (AUC: 0.595, 95% CI: 0.520-0.668, P < 0.001) in OS prediction. Besides, serum positive ANAs as one additional parameter to CLL-international prognostic index (IPI) obtained superior AUCs in predicting CLL OS than CLL-IPI alone.@*CONCLUSION@#This study identified ANAs as an independent prognostic factor for CLL, and further investigations are needed to validate this finding.


Subject(s)
ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1 , Blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Blood , Autoimmunity , Physiology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Blood , Mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Mutation , Genetics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Blood , Young Adult , ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase , Blood
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1028-1036, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The mortality of cardiovascular disease is constantly rising, and novel biomarkers help us predict residual risk. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of serum homocysteine (HCY) levels on prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).@*METHODS@#The 419 consecutive patients with STEMI, treated at one medical center, from March 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively investigated. Peripheral blood samples were obtained within 24 h of admission and HCY concentrations were measured using an enzymatic cycling assay. The patients were divided into high HCY level (H-HCY) and low HCY level (L-HCY) groups. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared, as were age-based subgroups (patients aged 60 years and younger vs. those older than 60 years). Statistical analyses were mainly conducted by Student t-test, Chi-squared test, logistic regression, and Cox proportional-hazards regression.@*RESULTS@#The H-HCY group had more males (84.6% vs. 75.4%, P = 0.018), and a lower prevalence of diabetes (20.2% vs. 35.5%, P < 0.001), compared with the L-HCY group. During hospitalization, there were seven mortalities in the L-HCY group and 10 in the H-HCY group (3.3% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.440). During the median follow-up period of 35.8 (26.9-46.1) months, 33 (16.2%) patients in the L-HCY group and 48 (24.2%) in the H-HCY group experienced major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (P = 0.120). History of hypertension (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.881, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.178-3.005, P = 0.008) and higher Killip class (HR: 1.923, 95% CI: 1.419-2.607, P < 0.001), but not HCY levels (HR: 1.007, 95% CI: 0.987-1.027, P = 0.507), were significantly associated with long-term outcomes. However, the subgroup analysis indicated that in older patients, HCY levels were significantly associated with long-term outcomes (HR: 1.036, 95% CI: 1.011-1.062, P = 0.005).@*CONCLUSION@#Serum HCY levels did not independently predict in-hospital or long-term outcomes in patients with STEMI; however, among elderly patients with STEMI, this study revealed a risk profile for late outcomes that incorporated HCY level.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chi-Square Distribution , Coronary Angiography , Female , Homocysteine , Blood , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Blood , Pathology
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for falls in tertiary hospital inpatients and to suggest data for developing a nursing intervention program for preventing falls.METHODS: Data were collected between January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. Kaplan-Meier estimation was used to measure the survival rate, and the log-rank test was used for the differences between the fall group and the non-fall group. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors for falls.RESULTS: The incidence rate of falls for the inpatients was 1.2 cases per 1,000 days of hospitalization. The risk factors for falls were more likely to be found among those who were aged ≥81, had not undergone surgery, had poor joint motion, had unsteady gait, needed help or supervision, used assistive devices, had comorbidity, and took at least two drugs.CONCLUSION: For the inpatients, the risk factors for falls included age, surgery, comorbidity, medication that could change mobility, joint motion, and use of patient care equipment. It is necessary to give special attention to inpatients who have any of these risk factors and to develop a falls risk assessment tool.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Comorbidity , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Joints , Nursing , Organization and Administration , Patient Care , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Self-Help Devices , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Grip strength has been found to be closely related to mortality and disease morbidity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between grip strength and mortality in middle aged and elderly Koreans.METHODS: Study subjects were selected from the participants of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing from 2006 to 2016. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the association between grip strength, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality according to age and sex, after adjusting for covariates.RESULTS: The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was decreased in the high grip strength group (male: HR=0.580, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.478–0.704; female: HR=0.601, 95% CI=0.483–0.747) compared to the low grip strength group in both sexes. In male, cardiovascular mortality (middle group: HR=0.453, 95% CI=0.278–0.738; high group: HR=0.538, 95% CI=0.332–0.871) and cancer mortality (middle group: HR=0.697, 95% CI=0.514–0.945; high group: HR=0.589, 95% CI=0.427–0.812) were significantly lower in the middle and high grip strength groups compared to the low grip strength group. The HR for mortality due to stroke in male decreased significantly according to grip strength, but this became nonsignificant after adjusting for covariates. No association between cause-specific mortality and grip strength was found in female.CONCLUSION: In this study, grip strength was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, with similar effects on cause-specific mortality due to heart disease and cancer in male. Grip strength is a useful predictor of health status, and further studies are needed to evaluate its clinical relevance in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Hand Strength , Heart Diseases , Humans , Korea , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Stroke
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