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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1057-1061, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136332

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE This study aimed to investigate the effect of propylthiouracil treatment on adhesion molecules in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. METHODS In this study, a total of 168 patients diagnosed with subclinical hyperthyroidism were treated with propylthiouracil for one year. The levels of adhesion molecules, consisting of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-Selectin, before and after the treatment were measured and compared. These results were compared with the levels of 148 healthy controls who received a placebo. RESULTS sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in subclinical hyperthyroidism patients than in healthy controls (*pa=0.000). sICAM-1 levels were significantly decreased after the treatment (**pb=0.000). Despite this decrease in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism, it did not decrease to the level of the control group. sVCAM-1 did not change before and after propylthiouracil treatment. The level of sE-selectin was similar to that of the pretreatment control group, but it did not have statistical significance, although it increased after the treatment (**pb=0.004). CONCLUSION The sICAM level was significantly higher than the pretreatment values and decreased after the propylthiouracil treatment. However, further studies are needed to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and cancer in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.


RESUMO ANTECEDENTES O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito do tratamento com propiltiouracil nas moléculas de adesão em pacientes com hipertireoidismo subclínico. MÉTODOS Neste estudo, 168 pacientes diagnosticados com hipertireoidismo subclínico foram tratados com propiltiouracil por um ano. Os níveis de moléculas de adesão, especificamente sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 e sE-Selectina, antes e após o tratamento foram medidos e comparados. Esses resultados foram comparados com os níveis de 148 indivíduos saudáveis no grupo de controle que receberam um placebo. RESULTADOS Os níveis de sICAM-1 foram significativamente maiores em pacientes com hipertireoidismo subclínico do que nos controles saudáveis (*pa=0,000). Os níveis de sICAM-1 diminuíram significativamente após o tratamento (**pb=0,000). Apesar dessa diminuição em pacientes com hipertireoidismo subclínico, ela não diminuiu para o nível do grupo controle. O sVCAM-1 não se alterou antes e após o tratamento com propiltiouracil. O nível de sE-Selectina foi semelhante ao do grupo de controle pré-tratamento, mas não apresentou significância estatística, embora tenha aumentado após o tratamento (** pb = 0,004). CONCLUSÃO O nível de sICAM foi significativamente superior aos valores pré-tratamento e diminuiu após o tratamento com propilciliouracil. No entanto, mais estudos são necessários para reduzir o risco de aterosclerose e câncer em pacientes com hipertireoidismo subclínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Propylthiouracil/therapeutic use , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , E-Selectin
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e498, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126592

ABSTRACT

Se estudió una paciente de 33 años de edad con antecedentes patológicos de Bocio tiroideo difuso desde hace 8 años, que acude al cuerpo de guardia por presentar falta de aire, fiebre de 39-40 °C, dolor de garganta y palpitaciones hace alrededor de tres días. Al examen físico se le constató exoftalmos, mucosas hipocoloreadas y faringe purulenta y punteada de color blanquecina, artralgia y taquicardia. Referente a los exámenes complementarios presentó anemia, leucopenia y pancitopenia luego de haber consumido propiltiouracilo (50mg) por un período prolongado; por lo que se concluye como agranulocitosis como consecuencia de una reacción adversa al propiltiouracilo. Luego de ser tratada la paciente se recupera de su gravedad con el uso de factores estimulantes de colonias de granulocitos(AU)


A female 33-year-old patient with an 8-year history of diffuse thyroid goiter presents at the emergency service with shortness of breath, a 39-40ºC fever, a sore throat and palpitation of 3 days' evolution. Physical examination revealed exophthalmos, hypopigmented mucosas, a purulent pharynx dotted with whitish spots, arthralgia and tachycardia. Complementary tests found anemia, leukopenia and pancytopenia upon consumption of propylthiouracil (50 mg) for a long period. The diagnosis is agranulocytosis resulting from an adverse reaction to propylthiouracil. After being treated the patient recovered from her severe status with the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Propylthiouracil/adverse effects , Agranulocytosis/complications , Goiter
3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 164-167, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811079

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced vasculitis is an inflammation of small-sized blood vessel caused by the use of drugs. It accounts for approximately 10% of acute cutaneous vasculitis. Propylthiouracil, hydralazine, and allopurinol have been widely known as causative agents. The most common clinical feature of drug-induced vasculitis is palpable purpura on lower extremities. A 66-year-old Korean female presented with erythematous nodules on upper chest and back. She had been on medication for multiple myeloma. Laboratory results showed neutropenia. After a single injection of filgrastim (recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), she developed cutaneous lesions with concurrent increase in absolute neutrophil count. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis. After discontinuation of filgrastim injection, her skin lesions disappeared spontaneously.


Subject(s)
Aged , Allopurinol , Biopsy , Blood Vessels , Female , Filgrastim , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Humans , Hydralazine , Inflammation , Lower Extremity , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Propylthiouracil , Purpura , Skin , Thorax , Vasculitis , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 755-760, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013003

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are available as therapy. Agranulocytosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of this therapy. In this study, we report agranulocytosis induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) in a patient with GD and the difficulties of clinical management. CASE: RNBA, male, 30 years old, with GD, treated with propylthiouracil (PTU). He progressed with pharyngotonsillitis. Then, PTU was suspended and antibiotic, filgrastim, propranolol, and prednisone were initiated. Due to the decompensation of hyperthyroidism, lithium carbonate, dexamethasone, and Lugol's solution were introduced. Total thyroidectomy (TT) was performed with satisfactory postoperative progression. DISCUSSION: We describe here the case of a young male patient with GD. For the treatment of hyperthyroidism, thioamides are effective options. Agranulocytosis induced by ATDs is a rare complication defined as the occurrence of a granulocyte count <500/mm3 after the use of ATDs. PTU was suspended, and filgrastim and antibiotics were prescribed. Radioiodine (RAI) or surgery are therapeutic alternatives. Due to problems with ATD use, a total thyroidectomy was proposed. The preoperative preparation was performed with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, lithium carbonate, and Lugol solution. Cholestyramine is also an option for controlling hyperthyroidism. TT was performed without postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Thionamide-induced agranulocytosis is a rare complication. With a contraindication to ATDs, RAI and surgery are definitive therapeutic options in GD. Beta-blockers, glucocorticoids, lithium carbonate, iodine, and cholestyramine may be an adjunctive therapy for hyperthyroidism.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Graves (DG) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada por hipertireoidismo. As drogas antitireoidianas (DAT) são opções terapêuticas disponíveis. A agranulocitose é uma complicação rara, potencialmente fatal desta terapia. Neste estudo, relatamos um caso de agranulocitose induzida por propiltiouracil (PTU) em paciente com DG e as dificuldades do manejo clínico. RELATO DE CASO: RNBA, sexo masculino, 30 anos, com DG, tratado com PTU. Evoluiu com faringoamigdalite, sendo o PTU suspenso e antibióticos, filgrastim, propranolol e prednisona, iniciados. Devido à descompensação do hipertireoidismo, iniciou carbonato de lítio (CL), dexametasona e a solução de Lugol. A tireoidectomia total (TT) foi realizada com boa evolução pós-operatória. DISCUSSÃO: Descrevemos caso de paciente jovem, sexo masculino, com DG. Para o tratamento do hipertireoidismo, as tionamidas são opções efetivas. A agranulocitose induzida por DATs é uma complicação rara, definida como a ocorrência de contagem de granulócitos <500/mm3 após uso de dats. PTU foi suspenso e foram prescritos filgrastim e antibiótico. O radioiodo (RAI) ou a cirurgia são alternativas terapêuticas. Devido a problemas com o uso de DAT, a TT foi proposta. A preparação pré-operatória foi realizada com betabloqueador, glicocorticoide, CL e solução de Lugol. A colestiramina também é uma opção para controlar o hipertireoidismo. A TT foi realizada sem complicações pós-operatórias. CONCLUSÃO: A agranulocitose induzida por drogas antitireoidianas é uma complicação rara. Com a contraindicação às DATs, RAI e cirurgia são opções terapêuticas definitivas para DG. Os betabloqueadores, glicocorticoides, CL, iodo e a colestiramina podem ser uma terapia adjuvante para o hipertireoidismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Propylthiouracil/adverse effects , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Agranulocytosis/chemically induced , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroidectomy , Rare Diseases
5.
Acta méd. colomb ; 43(3): 150-155, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-983697

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: en Colombia no se conoce la prevalência de los trastornos asociados a tirotoxicosis ni se dispone de estudios fármacoepidemiológicos acerca de la prescripción de los medicamentos antitiroideos. Objetivo: determinar los patrones de prescripción de los antitiroideos y variables asociadas a su uso en una población de pacientes en Colombia. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal, realizado entre enero 1 y marzo 30 de 2015 sobre los hábitos de prescripción de medicamentos antitiroideos en una población afiliada al sistema de salud colombiano. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas, farmacológicas y de comedicación. Se diseñó una base de datos sobre el consumo de medicamentos y se utilizaron pruebas t de student, X 2 y modelos de regresión logística. Resultados: un total de 327 pacientes en tratamiento con medicamentos antitiroideos fueron incluidos. La edad media fue de 53.7±18.1 años y 78.3% de pacientes correspondió a mujeres. El metimazol se prescribió en 95.4% de los pacientes, el propiltiouracilo en 4.6%. En 76.8% de pacientes se presentó comedicación; en particular con antihipertensivos (38.2%) y adicionalmente con propranolol (34.3%). Conclusiones: la tendencia de prescripción de medicamentos antitiroideos en Colombia es similar a lo reportado en diferentes estudios a nivel mundial. El principal medicamento antitiroideo es metimazol, con una tasa de uso mayor a la reportada en Norteamérica y en estudios europeos. Las dosis del metimazol y de propiltiouracilo reportadas en este estudio se ajustan a las recomendaciones de la Asociación Americana de Endocrinología Clínica.


Abstract Introduction: the prevalence of disorders associated with thyrotoxicosis is not known in Colombia, nor pharmacoepidemiological studies are available on the prescription of antithyroid drugs. Objective: to determine the prescription patterns of antithyroid drugs and variables associated with their use in a population of Colombian patients. Methods: cross-sectional study, conducted between January 1 and March 30, 2015 on the prescription habits of antithyroid drugs in a population affiliated with the Colombian Health System. Sociodemographic, pharmacological and comedication variables were measured. A database on drug consumption was designed and student t-tests, X 2 and logistic regression models were used. Results: a total of 327 patients in treatment with antithyroid drugs were included. The mean age was 53.7 ± 18.1 years and 78.3% of patients corresponded to women. Methimazole was prescribed in 95.4% of patients, propylthiouracil in 4.6%. In 76.8% of patients, comedication was present in particular with antihypertensive agents (38.2%) and additionally with propranolol (34.3%). Conclusions: the prescription tendency of antithyroid drugs in Colombia is similar to that reported in different studies worldwide. The main antithyroid drug is methimazole, with a rate of use higher than that reported in North America and in European studies. The doses of methimazole and propylthiouracil reported in this study are in accordance with the recommendations of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinology.


Subject(s)
Hyperthyroidism , Propylthiouracil , Antithyroid Agents , Thyrotoxicosis , Pharmacoepidemiology , Methimazole
6.
Acta méd. costarric ; 60(1): 45-47, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886401

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes con hipertiroidismo tienen varias opciones de tratamiento. El tratamiento de la enfermedad de Graves consiste en bloquear el exceso de hormonas tiroideas empleando tionamidas, tiroidectomía o terapia con I131. Los agentes antitiroideos como el metimazol, carbimazole, propiltiuracilo, son efectivos para controlar el hipertirodismo en pacientes con enfermedad de Graves, pero tienen efectos adversos incluyendo, alergias, gastritis, hepatitis y agranulocitosis. Se presenta un paciente hipertiroideo con neutropenia severa durante tratamiento con propiltiuracilo.


Abstract Patients with hyperthyroidism have several treatment options. The treatment of Graves' disease consists of blocking the excess of thyroid hormones using thionamides, thyroidectomy or I131 therapy. Antithyroid agents such as methimazole, carbimazole, propylthiuracil are effective in controlling hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' disease, but they have adverse effects including, allergies, gastritis, hepatitis and agranulocytosis. We present a hyperthyroid patient with severe neutropenia during treatment with propylthiuracil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Propylthiouracil/therapeutic use , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Costa Rica
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(1): 32-40, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced memory impairment was investigated in juvenile rats. The rats were grouped into control, Hypo, Hypo-TQ5 and Hypo-TQ10. Propylthiouracil increased latency time in the Morris water maze test and decreased delay in entering the dark compartment in the passive avoidance test. Both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses of TQ decreased latency time in the Morris water maze test and increased delay in entering the dark compartment in a passive avoidance test. The PTU also increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites in the brain while reduced the thiol content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and serum T4 level. Both doses of TQ decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites in the brain while enhanced the thiol content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and serum T4 level. The results of the present study showed that TQ protected against PTU-induced memory impairments in rats.


RESUMO Neste estudo, foi investigado o efeito da timoquinona (TQ) contra deficiências de memória induzidas por propiltiouracilo (PTU) em ratos juvenis. Os ratos foram agrupados em grupos: controle, Hypo, Hypo-TQ5, e Hypo-TQ10. O PTU aumentou o tempo de latência no teste do labirinto aquático de Morris (MWM) e diminuiu o atraso para entrar no compartimento escuro no teste de evasão passiva (PA). Ambas as doses de TQ diminuíram o tempo de latência no teste de MWM e aumentaram o atraso para entrar no compartimento escuro no teste de PA. O PTU também aumentou os metabolitos de malondialdeído (MDA) e óxido nítrico (NO) no cérebro, enquanto reduziu o teor de tiol e as atividades de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) e catalasa (CAT) e o nível sérico de T4. Ambas as doses de TQ diminuíram os metabolitos de MDA e de NO no cérebro, aumentaram o conteúdo de tiol e as atividades de SOD e CAT e o nível de T4 no soro. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram que a TQ protegeu contra deficiências de memória induzidas por PTU em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/complications , Learning Disabilities/drug therapy , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Propylthiouracil , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Antithyroid Agents , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Catalase/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Learning Disabilities/chemically induced , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Nitric Oxide/analysis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738939

ABSTRACT

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis has been reported in Graves' disease patients treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), especially propylthiouracil. ATD-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis usually involved the kidneys followed by the respiratory organs and skin. The treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis induced by ATDs is to stop ATD therapy immediately, which often leads to an overall good prognosis. We report a case of ANCA-associated vasculitis in the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities in a 66-year-old woman who was treated with methimazole (MMI) for Graves' disease. To our knowledge, this is the third case of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement of ATD-induced vasculitis and the first case of PNS vasculitis associated with MMI.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Antithyroid Agents , Female , Graves Disease , Humans , Kidney , Lower Extremity , Methimazole , Peripheral Nerves , Peripheral Nervous System , Prognosis , Propylthiouracil , Skin , Vasculitis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715822

ABSTRACT

Raynaud syndrome is a medical condition that causes pain, numbness, and changes in skin color at the distal extremities. Raynaud syndrome can be subdivided into primary Raynaud's and secondary Raynaud's. The former is diagnosed when the cause is unknown and the latter is caused by an underlying condition, such as connective tissue diseases, injury, smoking, or certain medications. Both cancer chemotherapy and β-blockers are relatively common causes of Raynaud syndrome but there are no reports of its association with methimazole administration. The authors encountered a 43-year old woman with hyperthyroidism who developed digital ulcers associated with Raynaud syndrome after a methimazole treatment. Her digital ulcers and Raynaud syndrome were improved after methimazole was replaced with propylthiouracil and conventional therapy. This paper reports this case along with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Connective Tissue Diseases , Drug Therapy , Extremities , Female , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hypesthesia , Methimazole , Propylthiouracil , Skin Pigmentation , Smoke , Smoking , Ulcer
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid nodules has increased worldwide in recent years. Thyroid dysfunction is a potential risk factor for hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arrhythmia, and neuropsychiatric disease. This study investigated the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism in Koreans. METHODS: In this nationwide population-based cohort study, 51,834,660 subjects were included using the National Health Information database from 2006 to 2015, after the exclusion of subjects with thyroid cancer. RESULTS: The prevalence in Korea in 2015 of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism in patients taking thyroid hormone, and hyperthyroidism in patients undergoing treatment was 15.82/1,000 population, 15.94/1,000 population, and 2.76/1,000 population, respectively. All these diseases were more prevalent among women than among men. The number of incident cases of these three thyroid diseases steadily increased from 2006 to 2012, and then decreased through 2015. The incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism treated with thyroid hormone, and treated hyperthyroidism was 6.79/1,000 population, 1.76/1,000 population, and 0.55/1,000 population, respectively, in Korea in 2015. The use of methimazole continuously increased, from 33% of total antithyroid drug prescriptions in 2006 to 74.4% in 2015, and it became the most frequently prescribed antithyroid drug in Korea. In contrast, the use of propylthiouracil continuously decreased. CONCLUSION: This was the first nationwide study of the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism to take into account recent changes and to include the current status of patients receiving treatment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Drug Prescriptions , Female , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Incidence , Korea , Male , Methimazole , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Propylthiouracil , Risk Factors , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766498

ABSTRACT

Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy can result in serious complications for both the mother and infant. However, these complications can be prevented by the optimal treatment of overt maternal thyroid dysfunction. The serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is the most reliable measure of thyroid function during pregnancy. Due to the physiologic changes in TSH levels during pregnancy, the correct interpretation of thyroid function requires knowledge of the gestational week and the appropriate population-based reference interval. In addition to a TSH test, the measurement of thyroid peroxidase antibody helps determine whether to treat subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Since the use of antithyroid drugs during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, it is recommended to discontinue the medication and to perform repeated thyroid function testing during the first trimester. If therapy is needed during the first trimester, propylthiouracil is preferred over methimazole.


Subject(s)
Antithyroid Agents , Congenital Abnormalities , Female , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Infant , Iodide Peroxidase , Methimazole , Mothers , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy , Propylthiouracil , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719029

ABSTRACT

Most cases of congenital hyperthyroidism are autoimmune forms caused by maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies. Nonautoimmune forms of congenital hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene are rare. A woman gave birth to a boy during an emergency cesarean section at 33 weeks of gestation due to fetal tachycardia. On the 24th day of life, thyroid function tests were performed due to persistent tachycardia, and hyperthyroidism was confirmed. Auto-antibodies to TSHR, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin were not found. The patient was treated with propylthiouracil and propranolol, but hyperthyroidism was not well controlled. At 3 months of age, the patient had craniosynostosis and hydrocephalus, and underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Direct sequencing of the TSHR gene showed a heterozygous mutation of c.1899C>A (p.Asp633Glu) in exon 10. No mutations were discovered in any of the parents in a familial genetic study. We have reported a case of sporadic nonautoimmune congenital hyperthyroidism, by a missense mutation of the TSHR gene, for the first time in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Craniosynostoses , Emergencies , Exons , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hyperthyroidism , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Iodide Peroxidase , Korea , Male , Mutation, Missense , Parents , Parturition , Pregnancy , Propranolol , Propylthiouracil , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Tachycardia , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Function Tests , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29550

ABSTRACT

Sweet's syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, occurs in association with autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis but is rare in Graves' disease, in which all cases are induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a patient with Graves' disease treated with methimazole (MMI) during three weeks. A 34-year-old man presented with the acute onset of high fever, skin rashes on the whole body, arthralgia, and acroparesthesia. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. MMI first stopped and antibiotics and antihistamine therapy started, but his symptoms dramatically improved after oral prednisolone. Graves' disease has again been treated by MMI because of his aggravated ophthalmopathy. After one year of retreatment with MMI, there has been no recurrence of Sweet's syndrome, supporting that Sweet's syndrome in this case was not related to MMI exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sweet's syndrome associated with Graves' disease per se but not PTU or MMI use.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arthralgia , Autoimmune Diseases , C-Reactive Protein , Exanthema , Fever , Graves Disease , Humans , Leukocytosis , Methimazole , Prednisolone , Propylthiouracil , Recurrence , Retreatment , Sweet Syndrome , Thyroid Gland , Thyroiditis
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 147-153, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.


Resumo Fundamento: Deficiência de hormônio da tireoide durante vida fetal pode afetar a função cardíaca no futuro. O mecanismo subjacente dessa ação em hipotireoidismo fetal (HF) em ratos ainda não tem explicação. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar o efeito de HF na função cardíaca em ratos macho e determinar a contribuição da α-miosina de cadeia pesada (α-MCP) e de isoformas β-MCP. Métodos: Seis ratos fêmea gestantes foram aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos. O grupo do hipotireoidismo recebeu água contendo 6-propil-2-tiouracil durante a gestação, e os ratos no grupo de controle receberam água de torneira. Os filhotes dos ratos foram testados quando atingiram idade adulta. O coração dos ratos HF e controle foram isolados e submetidos a perfusão pelo método de Langendorff para medição de parâmetros hemodinâmicos. Também foram medidas as expressões de mRNA do coração de α-MCP e β-MCP por qPCR. Resultados: PVED de base (74,0 ± 3,1 vs. 92,5 ± 3,2 mmHg, p < 0,05) e pressão arterial (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 batidas/min, p < 0,05) mostraram-se mais baixas em ratos HF do que em ratos controle. Além disso, esses resultados mostraram a mesma significância em ±dp/dt. Em ratos HF, a expressão de β-MCP foi mais alta (201%) e a de α-MCP foi mais baixa (47%) do que em ratos controle. Conclusão: Deficiência de hormônio da tireoide durante a vida fetal pode enfraquecer funções cardíacas normais em ratos adultos, efeito devido em parte à expressão aumentada de β-MCP em relação a α-MCP no coração.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Body Weight/drug effects , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , Congenital Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Propylthiouracil , Antithyroid Agents , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Congenital Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Congenital Hypothyroidism/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate
15.
Diagn. tratamento ; 21(2): 70-73, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784403

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Relata-se caso de aplasia cutânea congênita, doença rara caracterizada por áreas de pele ausente já ao nascimento. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, de cinco anos de idade, com quatro áreas de alopecia cicatricial próximas à linha mediana do couro cabeludo. Paciente nascido de parto normal a termo, sem comorbidades, sem antecedentes familiares de lesões semelhantes e com adequado desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. A mãe do paciente relata ter sido tratada com metimazol durante toda a gestação devido a hipertireoidismo. Discussão: A etiopatogenia da aplasia cutânea congênita não é bem esclarecida, podendo ser de ocorrência esporádica ou herança autossômica dominante, bem como estar relacionada a fármacos teratogênicos (metimazol, ácido valproico, carbimazol, misoprostol e heparina de baixo peso molecular). Os locais mais comumente afetados são o couro cabeludo, especialmente próximo ao vértice. A apresentação pode variar de lesões cicatriciais até ausência completa de todas as camadas da pele, inclusive com comprometimento do crânio e meninges subjacentes. As principais complicações são sangramentos, tromboses e infecções de estruturas meníngeas. Quando o acometimento cutâneo é maior, pode ser realizada exérese da área com fechamento por primeira ou segunda intenção. Defeitos grandes podem necessitar de retalhos cutâneos. No caso em questão, a substituição do metimazol pelo propiltiouracil durante a gestação poderia ter evitado a ocorrência da aplasia. Conclusões: A aplasia cutânea congênita é rara e pode estar associada a importantes malformações cranianas. Alguns casos podem ter complicações potencialmente graves. Destaca-se a importância da substituição do metimazol pelo propiltiouracil durante a gestação como medida preventiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Propylthiouracil , Scalp , Teratogens , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Alopecia
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms in iodide excess-induced thyroid disease. Metallothioneins (MTs) are regarded as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oxidative stress. Our aim is to investigate the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU), a thyroid peroxidase inhibitor, perchlorate (KClO4), a competitive inhibitor of iodide transport, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on mitochondrial superoxide production instigated by high concentrations of iodide in the thyroids of MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old 129S7/SvEvBrd-Mt1(tm1Bri) Mt2(tm1Bri)/J (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild type (WT) mice were used. RESULTS: By using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX Red), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, we demonstrated that the decreased relative viability and increased LDH release and mitochondrial superoxide production induced by potassium iodide (100 µM) can be relieved by 300 µM PTU, 30 µM KClO4, or 10 U/L TSH in the thyroid cell suspensions of both MT-I/II KO and WT mice (P<0.05). Compared to the WT mice, a significant decrease in the relative viability along with a significant increase in LDH release and mitochondrial superoxide production were detected in MT-I/II KO mice(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that PTU, KClO4, or TSH relieved the mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of iodide in the thyroids of both MT-I/II KO and WT mice. MT-I/II showed antioxidant effects against high concentrations of iodide-induced mitochondrial superoxide production in the thyroid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Iodide Peroxidase , Iodides , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metallothionein , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress , Potassium Iodide , Propylthiouracil , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides , Suspensions , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine if there is a significant difference in the recovery time and duration of hospital stay of patients with anti-thyroid drug-(ATD) induced agranulocytosis with and without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) therapy. It also aims to describe the clinical characteristics of patients who had anti-thyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis.METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study of hyperthyroid patients on anti-thyroid drugs (ATD) who had an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 500/?L. Their charts were reviewed for collection of data on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), type and duration of ATD and use of antibiotic and steroid. Recovery time and length of hospital stay were compared between those who received and did not receive GCSF.RESULTS: With similar clinical features between the GCSF and non-GCSF groups, the recovery time from agranulocytosis and duration of hospitalization were significantly shorter in the GCSF group, despite lower ANC.CONCLUSION: GCSF significantly decreased recovery time (4 versus 7 days, p=0.005) and duration of hospital stay (5 versus 7 days, p=0.009) of hyperthyroid patients with anti-thyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis compared to patients not given GCSF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Granulocytes , Neutrophils , Neutropenia , Hyperthyroidism , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antithyroid Agents , Agranulocytosis , Methimazole , Propylthiouracil
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(3): 235-240, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761504

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes).Objective:This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats.Method:In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage.Results:Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively).Conclusion:The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.


ResumoFundamento:O sistema cardiovascular é um dos alvos mais importantes dos hormônios tireoidianos. As seguintes alterações hemodinâmicas foram observadas em pacientes com hipotireoidismo: redução da frequência cardíaca (FC) de repouso, da contratilidade miocárdica e do débito cardíaco; e aumento da pressão diastólica e da resistência vascular sistêmica. Além disso, tais pacientes apresentam alterações eletrocardiográficas, como bradicardia sinusal e baixa voltagem dos complexos (ondas P e complexos QRS).Objetivo:Avaliar o efeito profilático da apelina nas alterações de FC e voltagem de QRS que ocorrem em ratos com hipotireoidismo induzido por propiltiouracil (PTU).Método:Este estudo dividiu de maneira aleatória 48 ratos Wistar machos adultos, pesando 170-235g, em seis grupos: grupo controle (CO), injeção intraperitoneal (ip) de solução salina + água potável gavagem; grupo hipotireoideo (P), PTU 0,05% em água potável; grupo A, apelina ip (200 µg.kg-1.dia-1); grupo PA, coadministração de PTU e apelina; grupo PT, coadministração de PTU e T4, 0.2 mg/g por dia por gavagem; e grupo PAT, coadministração de PTU, apelina e T4. Todos os experimentos foram realizados durante 28 dias consecutivos, sendo então os animais anestesiados com injeção ip de cetamina (80 mg/kg) e xilazina (12 mg/kg). Utilizou-se o registro do ECG na derivação DII para calcular a FC e a voltagem do QRS.Resultados:Houve aumento mais significativo da FC e da voltagem do QRS no grupo hipotireoideo que recebeu apelina e T4 (201±4 bpm, 0,71±0,02mV) do que no hipotireoideo (145±9 bpm, 0,563±0,015 mV), respectivamente.Conclusão:A coadministração de apelina e T4 mostrou efeito protetor na voltagem do QRS e FC em ratos com hipotireoidismo induzido por PTU.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/administration & dosage , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Antithyroid Agents , Body Weight , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Propylthiouracil , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood
19.
Clinics ; 70(6): 453-459, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749790

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the association of either propylthiouracil or methimazole treatment for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy with congenital malformations, relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. We intended to include randomized controlled trials, but no such trials were identified. Thus, we included cohort studies and case-control studies in this meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The results revealed an increased risk of birth defects among the group of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole compared with the control group (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.47-2.10) or the non-exposed group (odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.10). A maternal shift between methimazole and propylthiouracil was associated with an increased odds ratio of birth defects (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.77). An equal risk of birth defects was observed between the group of pregnant women with hyperthyroidism treated with propylthiouracil and the non-exposed group (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.42). There was only a slight trend towards an increased risk of congenital malformations in infants whose mothers were treated with propylthiouracil compared with in infants whose mothers were healthy controls (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.55). The children of women receiving methimazole treatment showed an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes relative to those of mothers receiving propylthiouracil treatment. We found that propylthiouracil was a safer choice for treating pregnant women with hyperthyroidism according to the risk of birth defects but that a shift between methimazole and propylthiouracil failed to provide protection against birth defects. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Methimazole/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Propylthiouracil/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Methimazole/administration & dosage , Odds Ratio , Propylthiouracil/administration & dosage , Risk
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) can lead to the development of agranulocytosis, which is the most serious adverse effect. Characteristics of ATD-induced agranulocytosis (AIA) have seldom been reported due to the rarity. In this study, we characterized the clinical features for AIA in Korean patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from patients with AIA diagnosed between 1997 and 2014 at four tertiary hospitals. Agranulocytosis was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) below 500/mm3. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients (11 males, 43 females) was 38.2+/-14.9 years. Forty-eight patients (88.9%) with AIA had fever and sore throat on initial presentation, 20.4% of patients developed AIA during the second course of treatment, and 75.9% of patients suffered AIA within 3 months after initiation of ATD. The patients taking methimazole (n=39) showed lower levels of ANC and more frequent use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor than propylthiouracil (n=15) users. The median duration of agranulocytosis was 5.5 days (range, 1 to 20). No differences were observed between the long (> or =6 days) and short recovery time (< or =5 days) groups in terms of age, gender, ATDs, duration of ATDs, or initial ANC levels. Four patients (7.4%) who were taking ATDs for less than 2 months died of sepsis on the first or second day of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The majority of AIA incidents occur in the early treatment period. Considering the high fatality rate of AIA, an early aggressive therapeutic approach is critical and patients should be well informed regarding the warning symptoms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Agranulocytosis , Antithyroid Agents , Fever , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Graves Disease , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Male , Methimazole , Neutrophils , Pharyngitis , Propylthiouracil , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Tertiary Care Centers
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