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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(1)ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1094638

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad meningocócica provoca cada año más de 500.000 casos y 85.000 muertes en el mundo y un 20 por ciento de los sobrevivientes sufre secuelas. En Cuba, en 1980, la incidencia llegó a 14,4 por 100.000 habitantes para todas las edades y fue declarada como el principal problema de salud del país. En niños menores de 1 año se reportaron más de 120 casos por 100.000 habitantes en algunas provincias. En 1989, investigadores en La Habana, Cuba desarrollaron una vacuna contra meningococo B y C; VA-MENGOC-BC®, la primera en el mundo eficaz contra el meningococo del serogrupo B. Su eficacia de 83 por ciento se demostró en un estudio de campo prospectivo a doble ciegas, aleatorizado, contra placebo. En su producción se empleó por primera vez la tecnología vesicular o proteoliposómica. Esta vacuna se usó en una campaña de vacunación masiva y posteriormente fue incluida en el Programa Ampliado de Inmunización en Cuba y tuvo un impacto acumulado sobre la incidencia de la enfermedad meningocócica del serogrupo B superior a 95 por ciento (93 por ciento-98 por ciento). La vacunación masiva y sistemática cambió el espectro de cepas del meningococo en los portadores asintomáticos sanos y la circulación de cepas en las poblaciones hacia fenotipos no virulentos. La enfermedad dejó de ser un problema de salud en el país. VA-MENGOC-BC® es la vacuna contra la enfermedad meningocócica del serogrupo B que se aplicó en el mayor número de susceptibles en el mundo. En América Latina se administraron más de 60 millones de dosis. En varios países donde se ha usado VA-MENGOC-BC®, circulan cepas diferentes a la vacunal y contra todas ellas se demostró un elevado porcentaje de efectividad (55%-98% en menores de 4 años y 73 por ciento-100 por ciento en mayores de 4 años). VA-MENGOC-BC® y su tecnología proteoliposómica han tenido impacto y mantienen su potencialidad, no solo en la enfermedad meningocócica, sino en el desarrollo de otras vacunas y adyuvantes(AU)


Every year, meningococcal infection by Neisseria meningitidis causes over 500,000 cases and 85,000 deaths in the world, with 20 percent of survivors suffering sequelae. In Cuba its incidence in 1980 reached 5.9 cases per 100,000 population; about 80 percent of cases were serogroup B, prompting health authorities to declare meningococcal disease the country's main public health problem. Several provinces reported over 120 cases per 100,000 children aged <1 year, overwhelmingly serogroup B. At that time, no vaccines existed with proven efficacy against N. meningitidis serogroup B, nor was there a vaccine candidate that could be successful in the short term. By 1989, researchers in Havana had developed a Cuban meningococcal B and C vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC®, the world's first against serogroup B meningococcal disease. Its efficacy of 83% was demonstrated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field study. Vaccine production used vesicle or proteoliposome technology for the first time. The same year, the World Intellectual Property Organization awarded its gold medal to the main authors of the VA-MENGOC-BC® patent. The vaccine was used in a mass vaccination campaign and later included in Cuba's National Immunization Program, with a cumulative impact on incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease greater than 95 percent (93 percent-98 percent). Mass, systematic vaccination shifted the spectrum of meningococcal strains in healthy asymptomatic carriers and strains circulating among population groups toward nonvirulent phenotypes. The disease ceased to be a public health problem in the country. VA-MENGOC-BC® is the most widely applied vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease in the world. Over 60 million doses have been administered in Latin America. In several countries where it has been applied, in which strains other than the vaccine-targeted strains circulate, VA-MENGOC-BC® has demonstrated effectiveness against all (55%-98% in children aged ≥4 years and 73 percent-100 percent in children aged >4 years). The vaccine and its proteoliposome technology have had an impact and continue to have potential, not only for meningococcal disease, but also for development of other vaccines and adjuvants(AU)


Subject(s)
Meningococcal Vaccines , Reference Drugs , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Cuba
2.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(1): e005-e005, ene.-abr. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIPECS | ID: biblio-1095495

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la presencia de los defectos de desarrollo del esmalte (DDE) de la dentición decidua. Material y métodos: El diseño de investigación fue, observacional, prospectivo y transversal; la muestra fue de 135 niños, 37 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para el estudio, todos fueron evaluados en un consultorio dental. Resultados: Se realizó el análisis estadístico de los datos de manera descriptiva, con (chi-cuadrado, coeficiente de contingencia y gamma) para encontrar y evaluar las relaciones, respecto al DDE. El 59% de los niños evaluados fueron de sexo masculino, mientras que el 41% fueron niñas; en todos se encontró opacidad difusa. El nacimiento pretérmino se presentó en un 30% de los casos estudiados, mientras que el 70% cumplió el ciclo normal. La opacidad difusa fue la más prevalente. El 27% que nació con bajo peso presentan DDE. Se reportaron 4 niños con hipoplasia, de los cuales todos nacieron con un peso normal (>2500 gramos), solo 10 niños del total tuvieron un bajo peso, de entre 1500 y 2500 gramos y la mayoría fueron afectados por una opacidad difusa. El 78% de los niños presentó DDE en la zona anterior de la dentición. Conclusión: Los factores asociados en la aparición de DDE en el presente estudio no sería ninguno de los factores citados; sin embargo, el análisis descriptivo desarrollado establece que el sexo del bebé, el peso al nacer, el tipo de parto, las infecciones maternas durante la gestación y las infecciones durante el primer año de vida del bebé, podrían influenciar. (AU)


Objective: To identify the factors associated with the presence of enamel development defects (DDE) of deciduous teeth. Material and methods: This was a descriptive, prospective, transversal, observational study. The sample included 135 children, 37 of whom met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study and all were evaluated in a dental office. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed with the chi-square test, contingency coefficients and gamma statistics to determine and evaluate the relationships with respect to DDE. 59% of the children evaluated were male while 41% were females, with all showing diffuse opacity. Preterm birth occurred in 30% of the cases studied, while 70% had been delivered at term. Of the children with DDE, 27% were underweight at birth. Four children with hypoplasia had had a normal weight at birth (>2500 grams), while only 10 children had a low weight (1500-2500 g), and most presented diffuse opacity. 78% of children had DDE in the previous teething area. Conclusion: The factors associated with the occurrence of DDE in this study were not related to any of the factors cited; however sex, birth weight, type of delivery, maternal infections during pregnancy and infections during the first year of the baby's life may influence the presence of DDE. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Dental Enamel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 4-10, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1100756

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo, incluyendo 103 pacientes que fueron tratados por cáncer de laringe en etapa inicial (T1-T2) con cirugía transoral. De ellos, 55 se diagnosticaron en estadio T1, 16 en estadio T1-b y 32 en estadio T2. El control local inicial (CLI) en pacientes con tumores malignos de laringe estadificados T1 fue 91%, el control local con rescate (CLR) 96%, la preservación de la función de la laringe (PFL) 93% y la sobrevida específica 96%. En T1-b, el CLI fue 81%, el CLR 94%, la PFL 94% y la sobrevida específica 94%. En T2, el CLI fue 63%, el CLR 94%, la PFL 72% y la sobrevida específica 78%. La cirugía transoral en cáncer de laringe con T inicial tiene resultados oncológicos similares a otros tratamientos (cirugía externa o radioterapia), pero consideramos que es la mejor opción por su baja morbilidad, menor duración del tratamiento, y porque deja abiertas todas las posibilidades para tratar posibles recurrencias. (AU)


A prospective and descriptive study was conducted, including 103 patients who were treated for early stage laryngeal cancer (T1-T2) with transoral surgery. Of these, 55 were diagnosed in stage T1, 16 in stage T1-b and 32 in stage T2. The initial local control (CLI) in patients with malignant T1 laryngeal tumors was: 91%, local control with rescue (CLR) 96%, preservation of larynx function (PFL) 93% and specific survival 96%. In T1-b the CLI was 81%, the CLR 94%, the PFL 94% and the specific survival 94%. In T2 the CLI was 63%, the CLR 94%, the PFL 72% and the specific survival 78%. Transoral surgery in laryngeal cancer with initial T has oncological results similar to other treatments (external surgery or radiotherapy), but we consider that it is the best option because of its low morbidity, shorter duration of treatment, and because it leaves open all the possibilities to treat possible recurrences. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Vocal Cords/pathology , Voice Quality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Laryngeal Neoplasms/classification , Laryngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Laryngeal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/mortality , Laryngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Prospective Studies , Epiglottis/pathology , Duration of Therapy , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data
4.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 24-30, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Facial nerve palsy results in both functional disability and psychological morbidity. There are several well-established grading scales to quantify the quality of life of these patients. Objective Translate and validate the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale and Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods This study adopted a forward-backward translation method and performed cross-cultural adaptation. A pilot study was conducted to correct any confusing language and to evaluate content validity. A validation study was then performed. Internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the FaCE and SAQ items was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was assessed by Spear- man's Rank Correlation Coefficient between FaCE and SAQ scores to eFACE, House- Brackmann, Short Form 12 (SF-12) and Facial Disability Index (FDI) (sub)scores. Results A total of 90 patients were included. Cronbach's alpha for total domain scored 0.881 for FaCE and 0.809 for SAQ. FaCE total score correlation to eFACE total and House- Brackmann showed Spearman's r value of 0.537 and -0.538, respectively (p < 0.001). SAQ correlation to eFACE synkinesis subdomain was -0.449 (p < 0.001). No correlation was found between SAQ and HB score. FaCE total score correlations were of 0.301 and 0.547 for SF-12 PCS and MCS, respectively (p < 0.001). Correlation between FaCE total and FDI Physical and Social/well-being functions were 0.498 and 0.567 (p < 0.001). Conclusion Brazilian Portuguese FaCE scale and SAQ versions achieved high validity and reliability in the present study. These translated instruments demonstrated good psychometric properties, being proper to use in clinical practice in Brazil and with Brazilian Portuguese speakers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Translating , Surveys and Questionnaires , Synkinesis , Facial Paralysis , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Disability Evaluation
6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 68-71, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1055368

ABSTRACT

Objective: Circadian dysregulation plays an important role in the etiology of mood disorders. Evening chronotype is frequent in these patients. However, prospective studies about the influence of chronotype on mood symptoms have reached unclear conclusions in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between chronotype and prognostic factors for BD. Methods: At the baseline, 80 euthymic BD patients answered a demographic questionnaire and clinical scales to evaluate anxiety, functioning and chronotype. Circadian preference was measured using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, in which lower scores indicate eveningness. Mood episodes and hospitalizations were evaluated monthly for 18 months. Results: Among the BD patients, 14 (17.5%) were definitely morning type, 35 (43.8%), moderately morning, 27 (33.7%) intermediate (neither) and 4 (5%) moderately evening. Eveningness was associated with obesity or overweight (p = 0.03), greater anxiety (p = 0.002) and better functioning (p = 0.01), as well as with mood episodes (p = 0.04), but not with psychiatric hospitalizations (p = 0.82). This group tended toward depressive episodes (p = 0.06), but not (hypo)mania (p = 0.56). Conclusion: This study indicated that evening chronotype predicts a poor prognostic for BD. It reinforces the relevance of treating rhythm disruptions even during euthymia to improve patient quality of life and prevent mood episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chronobiology Disorders/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 76-91, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1099147

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La adaptación del corazón humano al acondicionamiento físico ha sido un tema de interés médico-científico, pues el remodelado cardíaco que comprende variación en el tamaño, forma, grosor de las paredes, y masa ventricular responde al tipo de actividad física. Objetivo: Determinar las modificaciones anatómicas del ventrículo izquierdo en kayacistas y canoístas femeninos y masculinos de alto rendimiento. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo de corte transversal en deportistas de canotaje de alto rendimiento que acudieron al Instituto de Medicina del Deporte durante la preparación especial con vistas a participar en los Juegos Olímpicos de Rio de Janeiro 2016. La muestra se conformó con 20 deportistas que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión establecidos, se recogieron los resultados de los diferentes parámetros ecocardiográficos que fueron estudiados para comprobar si existía modificación anatómica del ventrículo izquierdo (MAVI). Se empleó la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: Edad promedio 20,9 ± 1,18 años, predominio del sexo masculino (65 por ciento); kayak (60 por ciento) y velocidad (55 por ciento) fueron las disciplinas deportivas y modalidades competitivas predominantes , fue frecuente la hipertrofia concéntrica en ambos sexos (65 por ciento), la edad deportiva de igual o menos de 10 años (60 por ciento), espesor relativo de la pared aumentado (65 por ciento), el índice AKS mayor se encontró en la hipertrofia excéntrica (1,3 por ciento) y el porciento de grasa predominante fue en la hipertrofia concéntrica para un (7,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: El espesor relativo de la pared ventricular tuvo una relación significativa con la modalidad competitiva(AU)


Introduction: The adaptation of the human heart to physical conditioning has been a medical and scientific topic of interest where cardiac remodeling involving changes in size, form, thickness of the walls and ventricular mass responds to the type of physical activity. Objective: To determine the anatomical modifications of the left ventricle in high performance male and female canoeing and kayaking athletes. Material and methods: A prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in high performance canoeing athletes that attended the Instituto de Medicina del Deporte during the special training in view of the preparation for the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, 2016. The sample was composed of 20 athletes that fulfilled the established inclusion criteria. The results of the different echocardiographic parameters were collected and analyzed in order to check whether there were anatomical modifications of the left ventricle (AMLV). Differential and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The average age was 20, 9 ± 1, 18 years, the male sex predominated in the study (65 percent), kayak (60 percent) and velocity (55 percent) were the predominant sports disciplines and competitive modalities, respectively. Concentric hypertrophy in both sexes (65 percent), sporting age of 10 years or less (60 percent), and increase in relative wall thickness (65 percent) were frequent; the highest AKS index was found in eccentric hypertrophy (1,3 percent) and predominant fat percentage was observed in concentric hypertrophy (7,9 percent). Conclusions: The relative thickness of the ventricular wall had a significant relationship with the competitive modalities(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Water Sports/injuries , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
8.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(1): 3-11, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1093924

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo no se han caracterizado las adolescentes maternas ingresadas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Objetivo: Caracterizar la morbilidad materna en adolescentes ingresadas en la UCI del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo durante el año 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo y transversal, con todas las maternas adolescentes ingresadas en dicha unidad durante el 2019. En cada una se analizó la edad, antecedentes patológicos, estado al egreso, modo de terminar el embarazo, realización de tratamiento quirúrgico, enfermedades relacionadas o no con el embarazo, complicaciones y si se trataron con ventilación mecánica. Resultados: El 18,2 % de las maternas ingresadas fueron adolescentes (3,2 del total de ingresos en la unidad). El 9,7 % recibió ventilación artificial. El 64,7 % tenía entre 18 y 19 años de edad y todas egresaron vivas. El 23,5 % era asmática, el 70,7 % era puérpera e ingresó por enfermedad obstétrica, al 41,2 % se les realizó tratamiento quirúrgico, el más común fue la histerectomía (41,2 %). La preclampsia grave - eclampsia (23,4 %) y la atonía uterina (25,9 %) fueron las enfermedades más comunes. El choque hipovolémico por atonía uterina (23,4 %) determinó el criterio de morbilidad materna severa. El 52,9 % de las pacientes presentó complicaciones. Conclusiones: La morbilidad materna en adolescentes ingresadas en esta UCI reveló que en esta etapa de la vida fue elevada la morbilidad por complicaciones del embarazo, el parto y el puerperio, lo que es un problema de salud no resuelto en la provincia de Guantánamo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: In the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto" of Guantanamo have not characterized the maternal adolescents admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Objective: To characterize maternal morbidity in adolescents admitted to the ICU of the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Agostinho Neto"of Guantanamo during the year 2019. Method: An observational, prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out, with all adolescent mothers admitted to said unit during 2019. In each one, age, pathological history, state at discharge, were analyzed. way of terminating pregnancy, performing surgical treatment, diseases related or not to pregnancy, complications and whether they were treated with mechanical ventilation. Results: 18.2% of the mothers admitted were adolescents (3.2 of the total income in the unit). 9.7% received artificial ventilation. 64.7% were between 18 and 19 years old and all graduated alive. 23.5% were asthmatic, 70.7% were poor and admitted for obstetric disease, 41.2% underwent surgical treatment, the most common was hysterectomy (41.2%). Severe preclampsia-eclampsia (23.4%) and uterine atony (25.9%) were the most common diseases. Hypovolemic shock due to uterine atony (23.4%) determined the criterion of severe maternal morbidity. 52.9% of the patients presented complications. Conclusions: Maternal morbidity in adolescents admitted to this ICU revealed that morbidity due to complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium was elevated at this stage of life, which is an unresolved health problem in the province of Guantanamo.


RESUMO Introdução: No Hospital Geral de Ensino "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo não foram caracterizadas as adolescentes maternas internadas na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Objetivo: Caracterizar a morbidade materna em adolescentes internadas na UTI do Hospital Geral de Ensino "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo durante o ano de 2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, prospectivo e transversal, com todas as mães adolescentes internadas nessa unidade durante o ano de 2019. Em cada uma, foram analisadas a idade, história patológica, estado de alta, maneira de interromper a gravidez, realizar tratamento cirúrgico, doenças relacionadas ou não à gravidez, complicações e se foram tratadas com ventilação mecânica. Resultados: 18,2% das mães admitidas eram adolescentes (3,2 da renda total da unidade). 9,7% receberam ventilação artificial. 64,7% tinham entre 18 e 19 anos e todos se formaram vivos. 23,5% eram asmáticos, 70,7% eram pobres e admitidos por doença obstétrica; 41,2% foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico; o mais comum foi a histerectomia (41,2%). Pré-eclâmpsia-eclâmpsia grave (23,4%) e atonia uterina (25,9%) foram as doenças mais comuns. O choque hipovolêmico por atonia uterina (23,4%) determinou o critério de morbidade materna grave. 52,9% dos pacientes apresentaram complicações. Conclusões: A morbidade materna em adolescentes internadas nesta UTI revelou que a morbidade por complicações na gravidez, parto e puerpério estava elevada nesta fase da vida, que é um problema de saúde não resolvido na província de Guantánamo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Maternal Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 4-10, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095269

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El maltrato infantil es causa frecuente de hospitalización en países en desarrollo. Los niños que sufren algún tipo de abuso físico o psicológico pueden desarrollar problemas de adaptación social. Este estudio analiza los factores de riesgo asociados con el síndrome de maltrato infantil en niños hospitalizados en el Servicio de Urgencias. Población y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles de niños con y sin maltrato infantil en una proporción 1:1, desde enero de 2015 a diciembre de 2016. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo más relevantes; se consideró estadísticamente significativo si la P ≤ 0,05. Resultados. Se incluyeron 148 niños con maltrato y 148 sin maltrato. El maltrato fetal fue el más frecuente, seguido del abandono. El agresor, en la mayoría de los casos, fue un familiar o algún conocido del niño. Ser madre adolescente (oddsratio ajustado [ORa] 3,19; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95 %: 1,49-6,80), baja educación (ORa 4,70; IC 95 %: 2,33-9,45), ingresos económicos bajos (ORa 2,02; IC 95 %: 1,16-3,5), uso de drogas ilegales (ORa 15,32; IC 95 %: 6,22-37,7), niño con discapacidad (ORa 8,58; IC 95 %: 2,76-26,6) y menores de 2 años (ORa 2,08; IC 95 %: 1,20- 3,63) fueron los factores de mayor riesgo para maltrato infantil. Conclusión. Madres adolescentes con bajo nivel socioeconómico tienen mayor riesgo por parte del cuidador. La discapacidad es un factor de riesgo que se incrementa al doble en el análisis multivariado cuando se asocia madre adolescente y consumo de drogas ilegales


Introduction. Child maltreatment is a common cause of hospitalization in developing countries. Children who suffer some type of physical or psychological abuse may develop social adaptation problems. This study analyzed the risk factors associated with child maltreatment syndrome in children admitted to the Emergency Department. Population and methods. This was a case-control study of children who suffered maltreatment and controls at a 1:1 ratio conducted between January 2015 and December 2016. The most relevant risk factors were analyzed; a p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. In total, 148 children who suffered maltreatment and 148 controls were included. Fetal abuse was the most common problem, followed by neglect. In most cases, the abuser was a relative or acquaintance of the child. Being a teenage mother (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.19; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.80), a low level of education (aOR: 4.70; 95 % CI: 2.33-9.45), a low income (aOR: 2.02; 95 % CI: 1.16-3.5), illegal drug use (aOR: 15.32; 95 % CI: 6.22-37.7), a child with disability (aOR: 8.58; 95 % CI: 2.76-26.6), and age younger than 2 years (aOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.20-3.63) were the highest risk factors for child maltreatment. Conclusion. Teenage mothers with a low socioeconomic level have the higher risk for abuse from a caregiver. Disability is a risk factor that doubles in the multivariate analysis when associated with teenage mothers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child Abuse/ethnology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Social Class , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders , Emergency Medical Services , Mexico
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e8-e15, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095409

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los probióticos y prebióticos presentan beneficios potenciales en la inflamacióncrónica de las mucosas, incluida la prevención de la enterocolitis necrosante. No obstante, los mecanismos y resultados de estos efectos inmunomoduladores son confusos. El objetivo fue investigar la respuesta de las citocinas a Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium asociados con fructo- y galactooligosacáridos (simbióticos) y lactoferrina en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer.Población y métodos. Se asignó aleatoriamente a lactantes con ≤32 semanas de gestación y ≤1500 g de peso para recibir simbióticos o 1 ml de agua destilada como placebo desde la primera alimentación hasta el alta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre los días posnatales 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2 y 28 ± 2, y se midieron interferón-γ, interleucina (IL)-5, IL-10 e IL-17A.Resultados. En el grupo del estudio (n = 25), la concentración de IL-10 disminuyó a lo largo del estudio (p = 0,011), pero no cambió en el grupo de referencia. La concentración de IL-5 se mantuvo constante los primeros 14 días y luego disminuyó significativamente (p= 0,042) en el grupo del estudio, mientras que aumentó en los primeros 14 días (p = 0,019) y luego disminuyó en 28 días (p = 0,011) en el grupo de referencia (n = 25).La concentración de otras citocinas no cambió a lo largo del estudio.Conclusión. El uso combinado de probióticos con oligosacáridos y lactoferrina estuvo asociado con una disminución en la concentración de IL-10, pero no se observó un cambio en las otras citocinas.


Introduction. Probiotics and prebiotics, which are multifunctional agents, have potential benefits in chronic mucosal inflammation, including the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the mechanisms and the results of these immunomodulatory effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the cytokine response to the combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides (symbiotic) and lactoferrin in very low birth weight neonates.Population and Methods. Infants ≤ 32 GWs and ≤ 1,500 g were randomly assigned to receive a symbiotic combination or 1 ml distilled water as placebo starting with the first feed until discharge. Blood samples were obtained at postnatal 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 2 days, and the serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured.Results. In the study group (n = 25), the IL-10 levels decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.011) but did not change in the control group. The IL-5 levels remained steady in the first 14 days and decreased significantly thereafter (p = 0.042) in the study group, whereas they increased in the first 14 days (p = 0.019), and then decreased in 28 days (p = 0.011) in the control group (n = 25). The levels of the other cytokines did not change throughout the study period.Conclusion.The combined use of probiotics with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin was associated with a decrease in IL-10 levels, but no change was observed in the other cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cytokines/analysis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Prebiotics , Synbiotics/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Turkey , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Milk, Human
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 30-34, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056392

ABSTRACT

Realizar un estudio anatómico in vivo con la especial y pequeña disección quirúrgica durante una colecistectomía laparoscópica sobre las variaciones de la arteria cística. Estudio prospectivo de 38 meses, en 2000 pacientes consecutivos sometidos a colecistectomía laparoscópica programada, sin signos de inflamación aguda, ni alteración que impida disección y correcta evaluación del triángulo hepatocístico. Se disecó quirúrgicamente identificándose la arteria cística y posible duplicación, eran clínicamente importantes aquellas con diámetro mayor a 1,5 mm, requerían maniobra hemostática. Se anotaron los hallazgos en planilla especial a los fines del presente estudio. En 1831 casos había arteria única en medio del triángulo hepatocístico. Hubo 169 variaciones (8,45 %). En 97 casos: doble vascularización, con una arteria en situación normal y otra ubicada lateralmente al triangulo hepatocístico. En 44 pacientes había una arteria única lateralmente al conducto cístico que no lo cruzaba nunca. En 22 casos existía una arteria cruzando el colédoco y el cístico entrando en el triángulo. En 6 oportunidades una doble arteria, una en el triángulo hepatocístico y otra lateralmente que no cruzaba el cístico ni colédoco. En una oportunidad se observó una sola arteria importante que salía directamente de la placa cística entre segmento 4 y 5, y en otro caso solo pequeñas arterias proveniente de la placa cística. Podemos dividirlas en arterias únicas o dobles, en base exclusiva a la necesidad de maniobra hemostática. Podemos decir que las variaciones estarán presentes en aproximadamente 1/12 casos y necesitará una maniobra hemostática especial en 1/20 casos.


This is an anatomical study with the special and small dissection of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the surgically important variations of the cystic artery. A prospective, 19-month study was conducted in 2000, including consecutive patients undergoing programmed laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without signs of acute inflammation, or alteration, that would prevent dissection and correct evaluation of the cystohepatic triangle. It was surgically dissected, identifying the main cystic artery and its possible collateral arteries. Those with a diameter greater than 1.5 mm being considered as clinically important, requiring haemostatic maneuver (clipping and / or electrocoagulation). The findings were recorded on a special form for the purposes of this study. The classic, single-artery arrangement in the middle of the cystohepatic triangle was found in 1831 cases. The variations found were 169 (8.45 %). In 97 cases there was double vascularization, with one artery in normal position and another outside the cystic duct. In 44 patients, a single artery that did not cross the cystic was observed. In 22 cases an artery outside the cystic but crossing it before the duct. In 6 cases a double artery, one in the cystohepatic triangle and another outside the triangle, did not cross the cystic or the bile duct. In one instance, a single major artery was seen emerging directly from the cystic plaque between segments four and five. These can be divided into single or double arteries, based exclusively on the need for hemostatic maneuver. Knowledge of anatomical variations of the cystic artery is important for the surgeon. The variation presents in 1 of 12 cases, and requires a special hemostatic maneuver in 1 of 20 cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystic Duct/blood supply , Anatomic Variation , Gallbladder/blood supply , Gallbladder Diseases/surgery , Hepatic Artery/anatomy & histology , Prospective Studies , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic
12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 72-76, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1055367

ABSTRACT

Objective: Depression has been associated with hepatitis C, as well as with its treatment with proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interferon). The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have minimal adverse effects and high potency, with a direct inhibitory effect on non-structural viral proteins. We studied the incidence and associated factors of depression in a real-life prospective cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the new DAAs. Methods: The sample was recruited from a cohort of 91 patients with hepatitis C, of both sexes, with advanced level of fibrosis and no HIV coinfection, consecutively enrolled during a 6-month period for DAA treatment; those euthymic at baseline (n=54) were selected. All were evaluated through the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-DSM-IV), at three time points: baseline, 4 weeks, and end-of-treatment. Results: The cumulative incidence (95%CI) of major depression and any depressive disorder during DAA treatment was 13% (6.4-24.4) and 46.3% (33.7-59.4), respectively. No differences were observed between those patients with and without cirrhosis or ribavirin treatment (p > 0.05). Risk factors for incident major depression during DAA treatment included family depression (relative risk 9.1 [1.62-51.1]), substance use disorder (11.0 [1.7-73.5]), and baseline PHQ-9 score (2.1 [1.1-3.1]). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of screening for new depression among patients receiving new DAAs, and identify potential associated risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/psychology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Middle Aged
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the most valuable cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) parameters for evaluating aortic stenosis (AS) and determine whether they can predict the prognosis in asymptomatic AS patients with preserved ejection fraction (pEF).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 123 moderate to severe AS patients (60 males, 68.6 ± 9.2 years) and 32 control subjects (14 males, 67.9 ± 4.4 years) underwent echocardiography and 3T CMR imaging from 2011–2015. CMR cine images were analyzed using CMR-FT to assess the left ventricular radial, circumferential, and longitudinal peak strain (PS) in 2- and 3-dimensions. The primary endpoints were clinical cardiac events (CCEs), including cardiac death, heart failure, and AS-associated symptom development. For statistical analysis, logistic regression and log-rank tests were used.RESULTS: Global PSs differed between AS patients and controls and between severe and moderate AS patients (p < 0.05). Two-dimensional (2D) global radial and longitudinal PSs changed gradually with the severity of AS groups (p < 0.001). Twenty-two of 67 asymptomatic AS patients with pEF experienced CCEs during the follow-up (median: 31.1 months). 2D global longitudinal PS (GLPS) was the single risk factor for CCE (p = 0.017). The relative risk for CCE was 3.9 (p = 0.016, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–11.9) based on 2D GLPS with a cutoff of −17.9% according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Survival analysis demonstrated that asymptomatic AS patients with pEF having impaired 2D GLPS experienced worse event-free survival than the others (p = 0.041).CONCLUSION: 2D global longitudinal and radial PSs may reflect cardiac dysfunction according to the degree of AS. 2D GLPS might be a prognostic predictor of CCEs in asymptomatic AS patients with pEF.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis , Cohort Studies , Death , Disease-Free Survival , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the evaluation of thyroid nodules is non-inferior to radiologists with different levels of experience.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with thyroid nodules with a decisive diagnosis of benign or malignant nodule were consecutively enrolled from November 2017 to September 2018. Three radiologists with different levels of experience (1 month, 4 years, and 7 years) in thyroid ultrasound (US) reviewed the thyroid US with and without using the CAD system. Statistical analyses included non-inferiority testing of the diagnostic accuracy for malignant thyroid nodules between the CAD system and the three radiologists with a non-inferiority margin of 10%, comparison of the diagnostic performance, and the added value of the CAD system to the radiologists.RESULTS: Altogether, 197 patients were included in the study cohort. The diagnostic accuracy of the CAD system (88.48%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.65–92.53) was non-inferior to that of the radiologists with less experience (1 month and 4 year) of thyroid US (83.03%, 95% CI = 76.52–88.02; p < 0.001), whereas it was inferior to that of the experienced radiologist (7 years) (95.76%, 95% CI = 91.37–97.96; p = 0.138). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the CAD system were significantly higher than those of the less-experienced radiologists were, whereas no significant difference was found with those of the experienced radiologist. A combination of US and the CAD system significantly improved sensitivity and negative predictive value, although the specificity and positive predictive value deteriorated for the less-experienced radiologists.CONCLUSION: The CAD system may offer support for decision-making in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules for operators who have less experience with thyroid US.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 406-417, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is recommended to improve symptoms in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), improvement of exercise performance is controversial. This study aimed to investigate changes in exercise duration after PCI according to functional completeness of revascularization by comparing pre- and post-PCI exercise stress test (EST).METHODS: Patients with SIHD were enrolled from a prospective PCI registry, and divided into 2 groups: 1) functional complete revascularization (CR) group had a positive EST before PCI and negative EST after PCI, 2) functional incomplete revascularization (IR) group had positive EST before and after PCI. Primary outcome was change in exercise duration after PCI and secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE, a composite of any death, any myocardial infarction, and any ischemia-driven revascularization) at 3 years after PCI.RESULTS: A total of 256 patients (149 for CR group, and 107 for IR group) were eligible for analysis. Before PCI, exercise duration was not significantly different between the functional CR and IR groups (median 540 [interquartile range; IQR, 414, 602] vs. 480 [402, 589] seconds, p=0.091). After PCI, however, the CR group had a significantly higher increment of exercise duration than the IR group (median 62.0 [IQR, 12.0, 141.0] vs. 30.0 [−11.0, 103.5] seconds, p=0.011). The functional CR group also had a significantly lower risk of 3-year MACE (6.2% vs. 26.1%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.09–0.41; p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Functional CR showed a higher increment of exercise duration than functional IR.


Subject(s)
Angina, Stable , Exercise Test , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816632

ABSTRACT

Adrenal masses are mainly detected unexpectedly by an imaging study performed for reasons unrelated to any suspect of adrenal diseases. Such masses are commonly defined as “adrenal incidentalomas” and represent a public health challenge because they are increasingly recognized in current medical practice. Management of adrenal incidentalomas is currently matter of debate. Although there is consensus on the need of a multidisciplinary expert team evaluation and surgical approach in patients with significant hormonal excess and/or radiological findings suspicious of malignancy demonstrated at the diagnosis or during follow-up, the inconsistency between official guidelines and the consequent diffuse uncertainty on management of small adrenal incidentalomas still represents a considerable problem in terms of clinical choices in real practice. The aim of the present work is to review the proposed strategies on how to manage patients with adrenal incidentalomas that are not candidates to immediate surgery. The recent European Society of Endocrinology/European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors guidelines have supported the view to avoid surveillance in patients with clear benign adrenal lesions <4 cm and/or without any hormonal secretion; however, newer prospective studies are needed to confirm safety of this strategy, in particular in younger patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Consensus , Cushing Syndrome , Diagnosis , Endocrinology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Practice Management, Medical , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Uncertainty
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-816622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been some controversy regarding the role of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in the treatment of low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), especially papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This study aimed to compare quality of life (QoL) parameters between patients with PTMC who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) alone and those who underwent TT with RAI ablation.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with PTMC who underwent TT with/without RAI remnant ablation were prospectively enrolled between June 2016 and October 2017. All patients completed three questionnaires: the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire, and fear of progression (FoP) questionnaire.RESULTS: The TT and TT with RAI groups comprised 107 and 182 patients, respectively. The TT with RAI group had significantly lower serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels than the TT group. However, after matching for TSH levels between the groups (n=100 in both groups), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. According to the SF-12, the score for general health was significantly lower in the TT with RAI group than in the TT group (P=0.047). The THYCA-QoL also showed a significant difference in the “felt chilly” score between groups (P=0.023). No significant differences in FoP scores were observed between the groups.CONCLUSION: Patients with PTMC who underwent TT with RAI ablation experienced more health-related problems than those managed with TT alone. These findings support the idea that RAI ablation should be carefully considered in patients with low-risk DTCs.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Humans , Iodine , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 3-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-785462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reliable objective tool using as a predictor of asthma control status could assist asthma management.OBJECTIVE: To find the parameters of forced oscillation technique (FOT) as predictors for the future loss of asthma symptom control.METHODS: Children with well-controlled asthma symptom, aged 6–12 years, were recruited for a 12-week prospective study. FOT and spirometer measures and their bronchodilator response were evaluated at baseline. The level of asthma symptom control was evaluated according to Global Initiative for Asthma.RESULTS: Among 68 recruited children, 41 children (60.3%) maintain their asthma control between 2 visits (group C-C), and 27 children (39.7%) lost their asthma control on the follow-up visit (group C-LC). Baseline FOT parameters, including the values of respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5), respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R20), respiratory reactance at 5 Hz, area of reactance, %predicted of R5 and percentage of bronchodilator response (%∆) of R5 and R20 were significantly different between C-C and C-LC groups. In contrast, only %∆ of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁), and FEF25%–75% (forced expiratory flow 25%–75%) were significantly different between groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that %predicted of R5, %∆R5, %predicted of FEV₁ and %∆FEV₁ were the predictive factors for predicting the future loss of asthma control. The following cutoff values demonstrated the best sensitivity and specificity for predicting loss of asthma control: %predicted of R5=91.28, %∆R5=21.2, %predicted of FEV₁=89.5, and %∆FEV₁=7.8. The combination of these parameters predicted the risk of loss of asthma control with area under the curve of 0.924, accuracy of 83.8%.CONCLUSION: Resistance FOT measures have an additive role to spirometric parameter in predicting future loss of asthma control.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-785459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) among children has increased significantly over the past decade. Even though the prevalence of PA in Singapore is considered low, peanut is the top trigger for food-induced anaphylaxis in Singaporean children.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical features of children with PA.METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective review of children diagnosed with PA based on clinical history coupled with a positive skin prick test to peanut or positive oral food challenge results.RESULTS: There were 269 patients (53.9% males) with a clinical diagnosis of PA. The median age at first allergic presentation for the PA group was 24 months old, with interquartile range of 13–39 months. The most common form of peanut introduced was roasted peanut. The rate of peanut anaphylaxis was 7.1%. Concomitant tree nut sensitization was found in 32.3% of this cohort, predominantly to cashew nut. Majority of them have a personal history of atopy – 75.8% with eczema, 63.6% with allergic rhinitis, and 19.7% with asthma.CONCLUSION: This is the first large review of peanut-allergic children in Singapore. Prospective population-based studies are needed to establish the true prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of this potentially life-threatening condition.


Subject(s)
Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asia , Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Eczema , Humans , Nuts , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Skin , Trees
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