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1.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 91-98, 2022. ilus, Grafs, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370967

ABSTRACT

El antígeno específico de próstata (PSA, del inglés, Prostate Specific Antigen) es una glicoproteína producida por la próstata, y es el marcador tumoral de mayor uso. Sin embargo, su baja especificidad para diferenciar entre cáncer de próstata y otras alteraciones no malignas, como la hipertrofia benigna de la próstata (HBP) y la prostatitis aguda, limitan su utilidad diagnóstica


Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced by the prostate and is the most widely used tumor marker. However, its low specificity to differentiate between prostate cancer and other non-malignant conditions, such as benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and acute prostatitis, limits its diagnostic utility


Subject(s)
Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatitis , Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins , Biomarkers, Tumor
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1370822

ABSTRACT

O antígeno prostático específico (PSA) é o marcador mais importante para a detecção e monitoramento do câncer de próstata. Objetivo: O estudo objetivou analisar os dados laboratoriais e epidemiológicos do antígeno prostático específico de pacientes atendidos no Laboratório Clínico do Hospital do Policial Militar de Goiânia-GO (LC/HPM), considerando as medidas preventivas em relação ao câncer de próstata. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo baseado na análise de 1.249 prontuários de usuários do LC/HPM. O levantamento de dados laboratoriais e epidemiológicos, como idade, resultados do PSA total e PSA livre foi realizado por meio de um formulário padronizado pelos pesquisadores. Foram analisados 1.249 exames de PSA L/T, dos quais 58 (4,6%) apresentaram PSA total com resultados entre 4,0 e 10,0 ng/mL e 16 (1,3%) apresentaram concomitantemente valores de PSA total entre 4,0 e 10,0 ng/mL e relação PSA L/T < 25%. Os pacientes apresentaram faixa etária entre 34 e 93 anos, sendo a média 60 anos. Tornou-se evidente que tanto no ano de 2018 quanto em 2019, realizou-se um número maior de exames de PSA L/T, em comparação ao ano de 2020. O estudo revelou que 16 (1,3%) pacientes apresentaram risco aumentado para o desenvolvimento de neoplasia prostática, sendo observada uma diminuição do número de indivíduos que procuraram o LC/HPM para realização de exames de PSA livre e total no ano de 2020, quando comparado aos anos de 2019 e 2018, possivelmente em razão da pandemia de Covid-19, uma tendência global


Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important marker for the detection and monitoring of prostate cancer. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological and laboratory data of prostate-specific antigen of patients treated at the Clinical Laboratory of the Military Police Hospital at Goiânia-GO (CL/MPH), considering preventive measures in relation to prostate cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study with analysis of 1,249 medical records of CL/MPH users. The collection of epidemiological and laboratory data, such as age, total PSA and free PSA results, was performed using a form standardized by the researchers. We analyzed 1,249 PSA T/F tests, and of these, of which 58 (4.6%) total PSA sink with results between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL and 16 (1.3%) were concomitantly presenting total PSA values between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL and PSA T/F < 25%. The patients were aged between 34 and 93 years, with a mean age of 59 years. It became evident that both in 2018 and in 2019, there were a greater number of PSA T/F exams, compared to 2020. This study revealed that 16 (1.3%) patients were at increased risk for the development of prostate cancer, with a decrease in the number of individuals who sought the CL/MPH for free and total PSA tests in 2020, compared to 2019 and 2018, possibly due to Covid-19 pandemic, a global trend


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitals, Military
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 244-251, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of speech and language therapy (SLT); however, precise therapeutic parameters remain unclear. Evidence for the use of adjunctive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to treat post-stroke aphasia (PSA) is promising; however, the utility of combining tDCS and electroacupuncture (EA) has not yet been analyzed. This study assessed the therapeutic consequences of EA and tDCS coupled with SLT in subacute PSA patients who were also undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on subacute (< 6 months) PSA patients who were divided into three groups: patients who received EA plus tDCS (acupuncture group), patients who underwent tDCS (tDCS group), and patients who experienced conventional therapy (HBOT + SLT). All subjects underwent 21 days of treatment and also received conventional treatment. The aphasia battery of Chinese (ABC) was used to score pre- and post-intervention status.@*RESULTS@#The analysis comprised 238 patients. Cerebral infarction was the most frequent stroke type (137 [57.6%]), while motor (66 [27.7%]) and global aphasia (60 [25.2%]) were the most common types of aphasia. After 21 days of intervention, the ABC scores of all patients were improved. The acupuncture group had the highest ABC scores, but only repetition, naming, and spontaneous speech were statistically improved (P < 0.01). Post-hoc tests revealed significant improvement in word retrieval in the acupuncture and tDCS groups (P < 0.01, P = 0.037), while the acupuncture group had additional significant improvement in spontaneous conversation (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Combining acupuncture and tDCS as an adjuvant therapy for subacute PSA led to significant spontaneous speech and word retrieval improvements. Future prospective, multi-ethnic, multi-center trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
Aphasia/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Retrospective Studies , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 195-200, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928548

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical application of free/total prostate-specific antigen (F/T PSA) ratio, considering the new broad serum total PSA (T-PSA) "gray zone" of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1 in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate diseases (BPD) in men over 50 years in Western China. A total of 1655 patients were included, 528 with PCa and 1127 with BPD. Serum T-PSA, free PSA (F-PSA), and F/T PSA ratio were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the efficiency of PSA and F/T PSA ratio. There were 47.4% of cancer patients with T-PSA of 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1. When T-PSA was 2.0-4.0 ng ml-1, 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1, and 10.0-25.0 ng ml-1, the area under the curve (AUC) of F/T PSA ratio was 0.749, 0.769, and 0.761, respectively. The best AUC of F/T PSA ratio was 0.811 when T-PSA was 2.0-25.0 ng ml-1, with a specificity of 0.732, a sensitivity of 0.788, and an optimal cutoff value of 15.5%. The AUC of F/T PSA ratio in different age groups (50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and ≥80 years) was 0.767, 0.806, 0.815, and 0.833, respectively, and the best sensitivity (0.857) and specificity (0.802) were observed in patients over 80 years. The T-PSA trend was in accordance with the Gleason score, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and American Joint Committee on Cancer prognosis group. Therefore, the F/T PSA ratio can facilitate the differential diagnosis of PCa and BPD in the broad T-PSA "gray zone". Serum T-PSA can be a Gleason score and prognostic indicator.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 154-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928527

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroid switching can reverse abiraterone resistance in some patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we investigated the potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of corticosteroid switching during treatment with abiraterone acetate (AA). We retrospectively analyzed 101 mCRPC patients receiving corticosteroid switching from West China Hospital and Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2016 and December 2018. All cases received AA plus prednisone as first-line therapy during mCRPC. Primary end points were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival (OS). The risk groups were defined based on multivariate analysis. A total of 42 (41.6%) and 25 (24.8%) patients achieved 30% and 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), respectively, after corticosteroid switching. The median bPFS and median OS on AA plus dexamethasone were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-6.0) months and 18.8 (95% CI: 16.2-30.2) months, respectively. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) expression (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.15, 95% Cl: 1.22-3.80, P = 0.008) and baseline serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP; HR: 4.95, 95% Cl: 2.40-10.19, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of efficacy before corticosteroid switching in the multivariate analysis of bPFS. Only baseline serum ALP >160 IU l-1 (HR: 3.41, 95% Cl: 1.57-7.38, P = 0.002) together with PSA level at switch ≥50 ng ml-1 (HR: 2.59, 95% Cl: 1.22-5.47, P = 0.013) independently predicted poorer OS. Based on the predictive factors in multivariate analysis, we developed two risk stratification tools to select candidates for corticosteroid switching. Detection of serum ALP level, PSA level, and tissue AKR1C3 expression in mCRPC patients could help make clinical decisions for corticosteroid switching.


Subject(s)
Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Androstenes , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Male , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 161-166, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928524

ABSTRACT

Ethnicity might be associated with treatment outcomes in advanced prostate cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with apalutamide in East Asians with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The original phase 3 Targeted Investigational Treatment Analysis of Novel Anti-androgen (TITAN) trial was conducted at 260 sites in 23 countries. This subgroup analysis included patients enrolled in 62 participating centers in China, Japan, and Korea. Radiographic progression-free survival (PFS), time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, and PSA changes from baseline were compared between groups in the East Asian population. The intent-to-treat East Asian population included 111 and 110 participants in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively. The 24-month radiographic PFS rates were 76.1% and 52.3% in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively (apalutamide vs placebo: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.506; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.302-0.849; P = 0.009). Median time to PSA progression was more favorable with apalutamide than placebo (HR = 0.210; 95% CI, 0.124-0.357; P < 0.001). Median maximum percentages of PSA decline from baseline were 99.0% and 73.9% in the apalutamide and placebo groups, respectively. The most common adverse event (AE) was rash in the apalutamide group, with a higher rate than that in the placebo group (37.3% vs 9.1%). The most common grade 3 or 4 AEs were rash (12 [10.9%]) and hypertension (12 [10.9%]) for apalutamide. The efficacy and safety of apalutamide in the East Asian subgroup of the TITAN trial are consistent with the global results.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Exanthema/chemically induced , Far East , Humans , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Thiohydantoins/adverse effects
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 235-239, set 29, 2021. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354397

ABSTRACT

Introdução: no Brasil, o câncer de maior incidência nos homens é o câncer de próstata (CaP), com 6,9% de mortalidade. Atualmente, discute-se a aplicabilidade do antígeno prostático específico (PSA) em políticas de rastreamento para CaP e os riscos associados ao sobrediagnóstico. Objetivo: correlacionar a dosagem do PSA com fatores de risco, história clínica e a presença de neoplasia prostática. Metodologia: estudo descritivo transversal que analisou, comparativamente, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e níveis séricos de PSA de 200 pacientes. Valores de PSA foram estratificados em três categorias (<2,5, 2,5­10,0 e >10 ng/ml). Resultados: os fatores de risco analisados foram relacionados significativamente com o aumento do PSA e neoplasia prostática. A prevalência de CaP (11%) e hiperplasia prostática (61%) foi observada nos pacientes com maior dosagem de PSA, enquanto 1% dos pacientes apresentou CaP sem alteração do PSA e 4% tiveram CaP com 2,5­10,0 ng/ml de PSA. Maiores níveis séricos do biomarcador foram relacionados a diabetes (70%), hipertensão (77%), uso crônico de medicações (60%) e ausência de exames periódicos (58%). O grupo com PSA >10 ng/ml teve média de idade maior que o primeiro (p = 0,002) e o segundo grupos (p = 0,027). Conclusão: a prevalência de hiperplasia prostática benigna associada à alteração do PSA, e o elevado risco de exames falso-positivos evidenciam a preocupação com o sobrediagnóstico. No contexto dos dados clinico-epidemiológicos avaliados, a possibilidade de resultados falso-positivos e falso-negativos associados à dosagem do PSA deve ser considerada, ressaltando a importância de adoção de exames complementares para rastreio do CaP.


Introduction: in Brazil, the cancer with the highest incidence in men is prostate cancer (PCa), with 6.9% mortality. Currently, the applicability of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in screening policies for PCa and the risks associated with overdiagnosis are discussed. Objective: to correlate the PSA level with risk factors, clinical history and the presence of prostatic neoplasm. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study that analyzed, comparatively, clinical-epidemiological data and serum PSA levels of 200 patients. PSA values were stratified into three categories (<2.5, 2.5­10.0 and> 10 ng / ml). Results: the risk factors analyzed were significantly related to the increase in PSA and prostatic neoplasm. The prevalence of PCa (11%) and prostatic hyperplasia (61%) was observed in patients with higher levels of PSA, while 1% of patients had PCa without PSA changes and 4% had PCa with 2.5­10.0 ng/ml PSA. Increased serum levels of the biomarker were related to diabetes (70%), hypertension (77%), chronic use of medications (60%) and periodic exams (58%). The group with PSA> 10 ng/ml had a mean age greater than the first (p = 0.002) and the second group (p = 0.027). Conclusion: the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with PSA change and an increased risk of false-positive tests show a concern with overdiagnosis. In the context of clinical-epidemiological data, the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results associated with the PSA measurement have to be considered, highlighting the importance of complementary tests for PCa screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Biomarkers , Risk Factors , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blacks , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Utilization
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
10.
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 144-151, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248815

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Male hypogonadism (MH) is common among infertile men. Besides testosterone, limited MH biomarkers are available, while researchers have suggested the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to help diagnose MH. Hence, we sought to evaluate the potential use of PSA to predict MH among relatively young men with infertility in Nigeria. Materials and methods: The study included 707 male partners (35-44 years) in infertile couples seeking infertility evaluation at a third-level care center in Nigeria. MH was diagnosed using standard guidelines. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and regression analyses explored the potential of serum free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in predicting MH and MH-related clinical features. Results: In all, 29.7% of the patients had MH (MH+ve). The MH+ve group had lower mean values of fPSA and tPSA than the group without MH (MH-ve). The best fPSA threshold of < 0.25 μg/L compared with the best tPSA threshold of < 0.74 μg/L had higher accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] 0.908 versus 0.866, respectively), sensitivity (87% versus 83%, respectively), and specificity (42% versus 37%, respectively) for MH diagnosis. After adjustment for confounders, fPSA level ≤ 0.25 μg/L was more likely to predict MH-related decreased libido (odds ratio [OR] 2.728, p<0.001) and erectile dysfunction (OR 3.925, p<0.001) compared with tPSA ≤ 0.74 μg/L in the MH+ve group. Conclusion: For MH diagnosis, fPSA and tPSA had good sensitivity but very poor specificity, although fPSA had better potential for MH diagnosis and association with MH-related clinical features than tPSA. Hence, fPSA could complement other biomarkers for MH diagnosis in men 35-44 years, although we recommend further studies to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Hypogonadism/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , ROC Curve , Nigeria
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 51-53, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361751

ABSTRACT

A metastização ganglionar cervical por neoplasia da próstata é rara, sendo ainda menos frequente como manifestação inicial da doença. O presente estudo é um relato de um caso clínico de uma pessoa do sexo masculino, com 72 anos, que apresentava massa cervical esquerda, indolor, com 2 meses de evolução e dores ósseas lombar e torácica. A citologia aspirativa por agulha fina com estudo imuno-histoquímico revelou positividade para o antígeno prostático específico, concluindo se tratar de metástase ganglionar de carcinoma da próstata. Analiticamente, constatou-se que o valor do antígeno prostático específico foi maior que 1.000ng/mL, além da elevação da fosfatase alcalina. A cintilografia óssea de corpo inteiro revelou envolvimento ósseo secundário. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente iniciou hormonoterapia e recusou radioterapia com intuito paliativo. Oito meses após o diagnóstico, constatou-se a recorrência da doença, com elevação do valor do antígeno prostático específico novamente. Dessa forma, relata-se um caso de neoplasia da próstata com metastização óssea e ganglionar cervical esquerda em um indivíduo assintomático do ponto de vista urológico. Salienta-se que, no diagnóstico diferencial de adenopatias cervicais, deve-se considerar a neoplasia da próstata em pessoas do sexo masculino. (AU)


Cervical lymph nodes involvement is rare in prostate cancer and uncommon as an initial manifestation. This study is a clinical case report of a 72-year-old man who presented with a left cervical painless mass of 2-month progression, and bone pain on the lumbar and thoracic regions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology with immunohistochemistry staining was performed and revealed positivity for prostate-specific antigen consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis. Blood tests revealed a prostate-specific antigen of more than 1,000ng/mL, as well as high alkaline phosphatase. Whole-body bone scan showed secondary bone involvement. Following diagnosis, the patient started hormonal therapy and refused palliative radiotherapy. Eight months after diagnosis, recurrence was observed, with prostate-specific antigen elevation again. Thus, a clinical case of prostate cancer with bone and cervical lymph node metastasis in a patient with no urologic symptoms is reported. It should be noted that prostate cancer shall always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies in male patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma/secondary , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Recurrence , Chest Pain/etiology , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Carcinoma/therapy , Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Low Back Pain/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hospitalization
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6325, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350695

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate awareness of prostate cancer in the population of the city of São Paulo. Methods: A total of 392 adults were randomly interviewed on public spaces in the city of São Paulo, and answered a questionnaire that addressed demographic questions and specific knowledge about the prostate cancer. A score was used to assess awareness of cancer in general, and of prostate cancer, considering satisfactory knowledge a score of 6 points. Results: The mean age was 36.9 years (standard deviation of ±12.6) and 58.2% of participants were male. No previous contact with information related to prostate cancer was reported by 45.5% of participants. For these cases, a greater proportion was observed among men aged over 50 years. As to the score, the mean was 3.7 (standard deviation of ±1.3), with a positive correlation among higher scores, higher income and education level. Less than 5% of participants believed they should only search for prostate cancer screening when symptomatic. Finally, among the less frequent responses to risk factors for prostate cancer, is "ethnic origin" (2.8%). Conclusion: Even though most participants did not have a satisfactory score, the level of awareness demonstrated in this study seems superior to that of other populational series. Hence it suggested the assessed population understood some essential concepts in prostate cancer, such as the importance of screening and the follow-up. The efforts made by the Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia on educational campaigns partially explain this. However, working in some concepts, like identifying risk factors for prostate cancer, might optimize screening outcomes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento da população da cidade de São Paulo em relação ao câncer de próstata. Métodos: Foram entrevistados randomicamente 392 adultos em espaços públicos da cidade de São Paulo, os quais responderam a um questionário que abordava questões demográficas e de conhecimentos específicos sobre o câncer de próstata. Um escore foi utilizado para avaliar o conhecimento de câncer em geral e do câncer de próstata, considerando um conhecimento satisfatório com escore de 6 pontos. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 36,9 anos (desvio-padrão de ±12,6), e 58,2% dos participantes eram do sexo masculino. Ausência de contato anterior com informações relacionadas ao câncer de próstata foi relatada por 45,5% dos participantes. Nesses casos, maior proporção foi observada entre os homens com mais de 50 anos. Quanto ao escore, a média foi 3,7 (desvio-padrão de ±1,3), com correlação positiva entre maiores escores e maiores renda e escolaridade. Menos de 5% dos participantes acreditavam que só deveriam procurar o rastreamento do câncer de próstata quando sintomáticos. Por fim, entre as respostas menos frequentes aos fatores de risco para câncer de próstata, encontrou-se "etnia" (2,8%). Conclusão: Embora a maioria dos participantes não tenha apresentado escore satisfatório, o nível de conhecimento revelado neste estudo parece superior ao de outros estudos populacionais. Assim, sugere-se que a população avaliada tenha compreendido alguns conceitos essenciais do câncer de próstata, como a importância do rastreamento e do acompanhamento. Os esforços da Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia nas campanhas educacionais explicam parcialmente isso. No entanto, trabalhar em alguns conceitos, como identificar fatores de risco para câncer de próstata, pode otimizar os resultados do rastreamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Prostate-Specific Antigen
14.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20212965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340675

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A main challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer is to identify which tumor is aggressive and needs invasive treatment. Thus, being able to predict which cancer will progress to biochemical recurrence is a great strategy to stratify prostate cancer patients. With that in mind, we created a mathematical formula that takes into account the patients clinical and pathological data resulting in a quantitative variable, called PSA density of the lesion, which has the potential to predict biochemical recurrence. To test if our variable is able to predict biochemical recurrence, we use a cohort of 219 prostate cancer patients, associating our new variable and classic parameters of prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence. Total PSA, lesion weight, volume and classic PSA density were positively associated with biochemical recurrence (p<0.05). ISUP score was also associated with biochemical recurrence in both biopsy and surgical specimen (p<0.001). The increase of PSA density of the lesion was significantly associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.03). Variables derived from the formula, PSA 15% and PSA 152, were also positive associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.01 and p=0.002 respectively). Logistic regression analysis shows that classic PSA density, PSA density of the lesion and total PSA, together, can explain up to 13% of cases of biochemical recurrence. PSA density of the lesion alone would have the ability to explain up to 7% of cases of biochemical recurrence. In conclusion, this new mathematical approach could be a useful tool to predict disease recurrence in prostate cancer.


RESUMO Um dos principais desafios no manejo clínico do câncer de próstata é identificar qual tumor é agressivo e precisa de tratamento invasivo. Assim, ser capaz de prever qual irá progredir para recorrência bioquímica é uma ótima estratégia para estratificar pacientes com câncer de próstata. Pensando nisso, criamos uma fórmula matemática que leva em consideração os dados clínicos e patológicos resultando em uma variável quantitativa, denominada densidade de PSA da lesão, que tem potencial para predizer recidiva bioquímica. Para testar se nossa variável é capaz de predizer recorrência bioquímica, usamos uma coorte de 219 pacientes com câncer de próstata, associando nossas variáveis e parâmetros clássicos como a recorrência bioquímica. PSA total, peso da lesão, volume e densidade de PSA clássico foram associados com recorrência bioquímica (p<0,05). O escore ISUP também foi associado à recorrência bioquímica na biópsia e na amostra cirúrgica (p<0,001). O aumento da densidade do PSA da lesão foi significativamente associado à recidiva bioquímica (p=0,03). As variáveis ??derivadas da fórmula, PSA 15% e PSA 152, também foram associadas positivamente à recorrência bioquímica (p=0,01 e p=0,002 respectivamente). A análise de regressão logística mostra que a densidade do PSA clássico, do PSA da lesão e PSA total, juntos, podem explicar até 13% dos casos de recorrência. A densidade de PSA da lesão por si só poderia explicar até 7% dos casos de recorrência. Em conclusão, esta nova abordagem matemática pode ser uma ferramenta útil para prever a recorrência da doença no câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Biopsy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 86-90, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287865

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This article aims to alert health professionals for cancer screening in the face of the possibility of new waves of disease. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted through a search in MEDLINE, Lilacs, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and international medical societies publications. RESULTS: Breast cancer: in high-risk patients (confirmed familial cancer syndrome or with high-risk tools scores), clinicians should act according to usual recommendations; in average-risk individuals, consider screening with mammography with a longer time span (maximum of two years). Cervical cancer: women turning 25 years old who have already been immunized and with no previous Pap test can have the test postponed during the pandemic; if there is no previous dose of Human Papillomavirus vaccination, initiation of screening should be recommended following a more rigid approach for COVID prevention; in women over 30 years of age who have never participated in cervical screening, the first screening exam is also essential. Colorectal cancer: if the individual is at elevated risk for familial cancer, the screening with colonoscopy according to usual recommendations should be supported; if at average risk consider screening with Fecal Occult Blood Test. Prostate cancer: there is a trend to postpone routine prostate cancer screening until the pandemic subsides. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to keep cancer screening must be discussed and individualized, considering the possibility of new waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Mass Screening , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11439, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285649

ABSTRACT

Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is a cysteine protease responsible for the adhesion and migration of both immune and tumor cells. Due to its dual role, we hypothesized that the site of CTSZ expression could be determinant of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects of this enzyme. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CTSZ expression data in healthy and tumor tissues by bioinformatics and evaluated the expression levels of CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells of prostate cancer (PCa) patients by qRT-PCR compared with healthy subjects, evaluating its diagnostic and prognostic implications for this type of cancer. Immune cells present in the blood of healthy patients overexpress CTSZ. In PCa, we found decreased CTSZ mRNA levels in blood cells, 75% lower than in healthy subjects, that diminished even more during biochemical relapse. CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells had an area under the curve for PCa diagnosis of 0.832, with a 93.3% specificity, and a positive likelihood ratio of 9.4. The site of CTSZ mRNA expression is fundamental to determine its final role as a protective determinant in PCa, such as CTSZ mRNA in the blood cells, or a malignant determinant, such as found for CTSZ expressed in high levels by different types of primary and metastatic tumors. Low CTSZ mRNA expression in the total blood is a possible PCa marker complementary to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for biopsy decisions, with the potential to eliminate unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cathepsin Z , Prognosis , Blood Cells , RNA, Messenger , Prostate-Specific Antigen
17.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 886-891, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922171

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the risk factors for clinically significant PCa diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic prostate biopsy in patients with MRI-negative and PSA-abnormal findings.@*METHODS@#From January 2014 to December 2017, 335 male patients with MRI-negative (PI-RADS 2.0 score ≤ 2) and PSA-abnormal (4-30 ng/ml ) findings underwent systematic prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasound under local anesthesia in our department. We collected and analyzed the demographic data, clinical symptoms, complications, past history and PSA density (PSAD) of the patients.@*RESULTS@#Clinically significant PCa was diagnosed in 21 (6.3%) of the 335 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors were higher age (AUC: 0.704, P 71 years old or with PSAD >0.18 ng/ml/ml so as to avoid missed diagnosis and unnecessary invasive biopsy as well. /.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 803-808, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922161

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the prostate health index (PHI) as a tool for the diagnosis of PCa with a PSA level of 4-10 μg/L and determine the best cut-off value of PHI.@*METHODS@#Fifty-eight patients with a PSA level of 4-10 μg/L underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy in our hospital between April 2017 and June 2019. We constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the relationship of the biopsy results with the level of PSA, the ratio of [-2] proPSA to fPSA and PHI, and calculated the area under the ROC curves (AUC).@*RESULTS@#Prostatic biopsy revealed 18 cases of PCa in the 58 patients (31.0%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the PCa and non-PCa groups in [-2] proPSA, %[-2] proPSA and PHI, but not in tPSA, % fPSA and PSA-density. The AUCs of PSA, % fPSA, PSA-density, [-2] proPSA, %[-2] proPSA and PHI were 0.556, 0.407, 0.533, 0.746, 0.751 and 0.774, respectively. The specificity of PHI was 27.50% (95% CI: 14.6%-43.9%), the highest among the above predictors at 90% sensitivity. By applying PHI to this cohort, 13 cases (22.4%) of unnecessary biopsy could be avoided.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of PHI can increase the accuracy of PCa prediction and reduce unnecessary prostatic biopsy.、.


Subject(s)
Asians , Humans , Macau , Male , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1576-1583, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Various prediction tools have been developed to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, few of the previous prediction tools used serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir after RP and maximum tumor diameter (MTD) at the same time. In this study, a nomogram incorporating MTD and PSA nadir was developed to predict BCR-free survival (BCRFS).@*METHODS@#A total of 337 patients who underwent RP between January 2010 and March 2017 were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The maximum diameter of the index lesion was measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent predictors of BCR. A nomogram was subsequently developed for the prediction of BCRFS at 3 and 5 years after RP. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analyses were performed to identify the advantage of the new nomogram in comparison with the cancer of the prostate risk assessment post-surgical (CAPRA-S) score.@*RESULTS@#A novel nomogram was developed to predict BCR by including PSA nadir, MTD, Gleason score, surgical margin (SM), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), considering these variables were significantly associated with BCR in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P < 0.05). In addition, a basic model including Gleason score, SM, and SVI was developed and used as a control to assess the incremental predictive power of the new model. The concordance index of our model was slightly higher than CAPRA-S model (0.76 vs. 0.70, P = 0.02) and it was significantly higher than that of the basic model (0.76 vs. 0.66, P = 0.001). Time-dependent ROC curve and decision curve analyses also demonstrated the advantages of the new nomogram.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PSA nadir after RP and MTD based on MRI before surgery are independent predictors of BCR. By incorporating PSA nadir and MTD into the conventional predictive model, our newly developed nomogram significantly improved the accuracy in predicting BCRFS after RP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Nomograms , Prognosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Seminal Vesicles
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 984-992, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134246

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Focal therapy (FT) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is raising interest. New technological mpMRI-US guided FT devices have never been compared with the previous generation of ultrasound-only guided devices. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data of men undergoing FT for localized low- or intermediate-risk PCa with US- (Ablatherm®-2009 to 2014) or mpMRI-US (Focal One®-from 2014) guided HIFU. Follow-up visits and data were collected using internationally validated questionnaires at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results We included n=88 US-guided FT HIFU and n=52 mpMRI-US guided FT HIFU respectively. No major baseline differences were present except higher rates of Gleason 3+4 for the mpMRI-US group. No major differences were present in hospital stay (p=0.1), catheterization time (p=0.5) and complications (p=0.2) although these tended to be lower in the mpMRI-US group (6.8% versus 13.2% US FT group). At 3 months mpMRI-US guided HIFU had significantly lower urine leak (5.1% vs. 15.9%, p=0.04) and a lower drop in IIEF scores (2 vs. 4.2, p=0.07). Of those undergoing 12-months control biopsy in the mpMRI-US-guided HIFU group, 26% had residual cancer in the treated lobe. Conclusion HIFU FT guided by MRI-US fusion may allow improved functional outcomes and fewer complications compared to US- guided HIFU FT alone. Further analysis is needed to confirm benefits of mpMRI implementation at a longer follow-up and on a larger cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Treatment Outcome , Prostate-Specific Antigen
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