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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(4): 600-606, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892873

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective MRI of the prostate improves diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer. Different fusion approaches with transrectal ultrasound images are employed. Objective To determine detection rate of prostate cancer in men undergoing transperineal MRI-based cognitive fusion biopsy. Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty-four consecutive men underwent a multiple-core prostate transperineal biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to address the relationship between clinical parameters and prostate cancer detection rate. Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mpMRI prior to the transperineal biopsy, 52 (45%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer, of them, 36 had Gleason score ≥7 (69%). Among these 114 patients, 82 had suspicious lesions on MRI, and 43 of them were diagnosed with cancer (52%). On multivariate analysis, the most significant independent predictive factors were PSA density (P<0.001) and suspicious MRI lesion (P=0.006). Men with a PSA density of more than 0.22 and a suspicious lesion on MRI had a detection rate of 78%. Detection rate among 50 patients with no MRI study prior to this biopsy was 26%. Conclusions This study showed that among a group of mostly multi-biopsied patients, the presence of mpMRI lesions and high PSA density values helped to detect clinically significant prostate cancer using cognitive MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(3): 416-421, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year) or earlier (<1 year), respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%), 7 (5%), 69 (44%) and 54 (34%) patients, respectively. Twenty (13%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3%) patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84%) had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94%) had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Analysis , Mass Screening , Cohort Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
6.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 305-309, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted a prospective single-center study to evaluate the possibility of discontinuation of dutasteride after combination therapy with an alpha blocker for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively treated BPH patients with an alpha blocker and dutasteride (0.5 mg/d). Patients who had been treated with alpha blockers against BPH for more than 2 months were eligible, and 20 patients were included in the study. After 6 months of combination therapy, dutasteride was discontinued. Patients were followed for 12 months after cessation. Prostate volume, intraprostatic architecture determined by transrectal ultrasound, peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, and the serum prostate-specific antigen level were evaluated every 6 months, and the International Prostate Symptom Score and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) every 3 months. Patients were allowed to restart dutasteride during the follow-up period according to their desire. RESULTS: Twelve patients (12/20, 60%) restarted the combination therapy from 6 to 12 months into the follow-up period. For patients who restarted dutasteride, the prostate volume and OABSS had increased and worsened after discontinuation, respectively. A visible transition zone with a clear border on transrectal ultrasound at baseline and regrowth of the prostate after discontinuation of dutasteride were risk factors for restarting the therapy (Mann-Whitney U test: p=0.008, p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic enlargement after discontinuation of dutasteride differs among patients. Rapid regrowth of the prostate leads to deterioration of storage symptoms and a tendency to restart dutasteride. Baseline intraprostatic architecture may be a predictive factor for whether the patient is a good candidate for discontinuation.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Aged , Drug Monitoring , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Dutasteride/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Prostate/drug effects , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Secondary Prevention/methods , Treatment Outcome , Withholding Treatment
7.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 310-317, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34596

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential benefits of testosterone administration to elderly men (>65 years) with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in comparison with younger men and to assess the safety of testosterone administration to elderly men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 561 hypogonadal men from two registry studies were divided into age groups of 65 years (group O, n=111; range, 66-84 years). Following an initial 6-week interval, all men were treated with 3-month injections of parenteral testosterone undecanoate for up to 6 years. RESULTS: Over the 6 years, there was a progressive decrease of body weight and waist circumference. Beneficial effects on lipids and other metabolic factors and on psychological and sexual functioning progressed over the first 24 to 42 months and were sustained. Rather than a deterioration, there was an improvement of urinary parameters. Prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen increased moderately. Hematocrit levels increased but remained within safe margins. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of restoring serum testosterone in men with LOH were not significantly different between men older than 65 years of age and younger men. There were no indications that side effects were more severe in elderly men. The effects on prostate and urinary function and hematocrit were within safe margins. Age itself need not be a contraindication to testosterone treatment of elderly men with LOH.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Age of Onset , Aged , Androgens/administration & dosage , Anthropometry/methods , Drug Monitoring/methods , Germany , Humans , Hypogonadism/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prostate/drug effects , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Registries , Sexual Behavior/drug effects , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157679

ABSTRACT

Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is an established tumor marker for prostate cancer but its “specificity” for prostatic diseases was challenged after its extra prostatic sources and its presence in female serum was detected. Various studies showed the association of Total PSA (TPSA) and Free PSA (FPSA) with breast cancer in females. The present study was conducted to evaluate the status of TPSA and FPSA as a tumor marker in breast cancer patients. 54 breast cancer cases with 36 fibroadenoma patients along with 40 controls were selected for the study. Their blood samples were analyzed for estimation of serum Testosterone, TPSA and FPSA along with routine biochemical parameters. 34 breast cancer with 20 fibroadenoma cases were reevaluated for TPSA and FPSA 6 months after tumor removal by surgery. Our observations revealed high TPSA in the patient group compared to controls and raised FPSA specifically in breast cancer cases. FPSA was also found to be the predominant molecular form in breast cancer cases. A significant positive association was documented between serum Testosterone and PSA level in the study group. Both the parameters registered a significant decline after surgery. On statistical analysis TPSA and FPSA were found to possess high specificity for breast cancer cases but were deficient in the desired sensitivity to be considered as an ideal tumor marker.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biomarkers, Tumor
9.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jul-Sep; 51(3): 335-337
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154403

ABSTRACT

Aims: To find out the utility of free to total PSA ratio in discriminating chronic prostatitis and prostate cancer. Setting and design: The patients visited urology clinics at Batra Hospital and Medical Research Center, New Delhi. Background: The use of serum free to total PSA as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer has led to early detection of prostate cancer; however, the effect of inflammation on f/t PSA ratio restricts its use in early detection of cancer. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in age related 101 patients which include 27 carcinoma patients (group I), 34 BPH patients (group II) and 40 chronic prostatitis patients (group III). Serum total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) were analyzed on Elecsys 2010. These were compared with histological reports of biopsy specimen. Other biochemistry tests were done on Randox Imola. P Value was calculated using one way ANOVA with posthoc Bonferroni analysis. Results: Serum total PSA levels were comparable in group I and III and were higher than group II (P < 0.049). Serum fPSA in group I was not significantly different from group II and III, However, group II has higher levels than group III (P < 0.035). Difference was significant for f/t PSA ratio in group I and II (P < 0.00) and group II and III (P < 0.000).Group I and III were with comparable levels (P < 0.807). Conclusions: f/t PSA ratio is not a good discriminator for malignancy and chronic prostatitis. This limitation of f/t PSA ratio must be taken into consideration while interpreting the results clinically.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , India , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatitis/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140355

ABSTRACT

The University of California, San Francisco, announced in 2011 Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score which included pathologic data, but there were no results for comparing preoperative predictors with the CAPRA-S score. We evaluated the validation of the CAPRA-S score in our institution and compare the result with the preoperative progression predictor, CAPRA score. Data of 130 patients were reviewed who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 2008 to 2013. Performance of CAPRA-S score in predicting progression free probabilities was assessed through Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression test. Additionally, prediction probability was compared with preoperative CAPRA score by logistic regression analysis. Comparing CAPRA score, the CAPRA-S score showed improved prediction ability for 5 yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.80, P = 0.04). After risk group stratification, 3 group model of CAPRA-S was superior than 3 group model of CAPRA for 3-yr progression free survival and 5-yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.74 vs. 0.70, 0.77 vs. 0.71, P < 0.001). Finally the CAPRA-S score was the more ideal predictor concerned with adjuvant therapy than the CAPRA score through decision curve analysis. The CPARA-S score is a useful predictor for disease progression after radical prostatectomy.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Decision Making , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Postoperative Period , Proportional Hazards Models , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140354

ABSTRACT

The University of California, San Francisco, announced in 2011 Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score which included pathologic data, but there were no results for comparing preoperative predictors with the CAPRA-S score. We evaluated the validation of the CAPRA-S score in our institution and compare the result with the preoperative progression predictor, CAPRA score. Data of 130 patients were reviewed who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 2008 to 2013. Performance of CAPRA-S score in predicting progression free probabilities was assessed through Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression test. Additionally, prediction probability was compared with preoperative CAPRA score by logistic regression analysis. Comparing CAPRA score, the CAPRA-S score showed improved prediction ability for 5 yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.80, P = 0.04). After risk group stratification, 3 group model of CAPRA-S was superior than 3 group model of CAPRA for 3-yr progression free survival and 5-yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.74 vs. 0.70, 0.77 vs. 0.71, P < 0.001). Finally the CAPRA-S score was the more ideal predictor concerned with adjuvant therapy than the CAPRA score through decision curve analysis. The CPARA-S score is a useful predictor for disease progression after radical prostatectomy.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Decision Making , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Postoperative Period , Proportional Hazards Models , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Retrospective Studies
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 150 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847168

ABSTRACT

O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi explorar a versatilidade de filmes multicamadas de polieletrólitos (PEM) e suas aplicações em sistemas de entrega de drogas e como filmes funcionais para aplicações biomédicas. Filmes PEM montados pela técnica de camada por camada (layer­-by­-layer, LbL), foram explorados em três aplicações principais. Na primeira, foi explorado o desenvolvimento de um protocolo de funcionalização em filmes de poli(alilamina)/poli (estireno sulfonato), PAH/SPS. Os parâmetros de construção do filme para biotinilação dos grupamentos amina do PAH foram otimizados e aplicados na captura e detecção do antígeno específico da próstata (PSA), na concentração de 100 a 0,1 ng/mL, usando pontos quânticos (Qdots). Em comparação com outros trabalhos, este sistema apresentou uma boa sensibilidade na detecção de PSA, dentro do limite de detecção clínica de 0,4 a 0,1 ng/mL. A segunda aplicação envolveu o desenvolvimento de filmes de sacrifício baseados nas interações naturais da mucina submandibular bovina e da lectina, jacalina (BSM/JAC). Filmes de BSM/JAC apresentaram estabilidade quando submetidos a uma ampla faixa de pH (pH 3-­-9) e em solução de alta força iônica (5 M NaCl). A dissolução dos filmes BSM/JAC pôde ser seletivamente desencadeada mediante à incubação em solução de melibiose, 37 °C, pH 7,4, sem apresentar citotoxicidade às células. Na última parte deste trabalho, a incorporação de lipossomos ecogênicos (ELIP) em mochilas celulares foi investigada. Mochilas celulares são "patches" de 7­-10 µm de diâmetro que podem ser fabricados por meio de deposição alternada de polímeros utilizando-­-se a técnica de LbL, sobre uma matriz pré­-moldada obtida por fotolitografia, a fim de criar um sistema composto por três multicamadas estratificadas: uma região de liberação, para promover o destacamento do substrato, uma região de carga de droga, e uma região adesiva às células. O uso de ELIP permitiu incorporação de até 9x mais doxorrubicina (DOX) se comparado com o fármaco livre em solução absorvido pelos dos filmes. A liberação de DOX pelos filmes foi monitorado por 25 dias. Mochilas contendo ELIP-­DOX foram então aderidos a monócitos, e sua viabilidade monitorados por 72h. Mochilas vazias mostraram diminuir a proliferação de monócitos ao longo das 72 horas, enquanto mochilas carregadas com ELIP-­DOX mostraram uma diminuição dramática na população celular, apontando uma potencialização dos efeitos da droga pela sua proximidade com as células


The overall goal of this thesis was to exploit the versatility of polyelectrolite multilayers (PEM) to be applied in drug delivery systems and biofunctionalizable films for biomedical applications. PEM films assembled by the layer-by­-layer technique were explored in three main applications. In the first part of this work, the development of a functionalization protocol of poly(allylamine)/poly(styrene sulfonate), PAH/SPS was explored. The optimal film parameters to the use of biotinylated multilayers were applied for the capture and detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein in the range of 100 to 0.1 ng/mL, by using quantum dots. Compared to previous work, this system presented a good sensitivity for PSA detection that is within the clinical limit range of 0.4 to 0.1 ng/mL. The second application involved the creation of a novel sacrificial multilayer film. Films based in natural interactions of bovine submaxillary mucin and the lectin jacalin, BSM/JAC were assembled. BSM/JAC films showed stability when underwent a wide rage of pH (pH 3 to 9) and high ionic strength (5 M NaCl) solutions. BSM/JAC dissolution could be triggered released by incubation in melibiose at 37 °C in pH 7.4 buffer, without cytotoxicity. In the last part of this work the incorporation of echogenic liposomes (ELIP) into cell backpacks was investigated. Cell backpacks are 7-10 µm diameter patches that can be fabricated through LbL polymer deposition onto a photopatterned array to create a stacked composite of three stratified multilayer systems: a releasable region for easy detachment from the substrate, a drug payload region, and a cell adhesive region. The use of ELIP allowed up to 9x more doxorubicin (DOX) loading when compared to free drug in solution adsorbed through the films. DOX release from films was monitored for over 25 days. ELIP­-DOX backpacks were then attached to mouse monocytes and their viability monitored by 72h. Empty backpacks showed to decrease monocytes proliferation over the course of 72h, while ELIP­-DOX backpacks showed a dramatic decrease in cell population, showing that DOX effects were enhancement in drug potency by its proximity


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Biomarkers/metabolism , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Liposomes , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Regenerative Medicine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for population screening has presented controversial results in large trials and prior reviews. We investigated the effectiveness of PSA population screening in a systematic review. METHODS: The study was conducted using existing systematic reviews. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane library, and the major Korean databases. The quality of the systematic reviews was assessed by two reviewers independently using AMSTAR. Randomized controlled trials were assessed using the risk of bias tool in the Cochrane group. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager. The level of evidence of each outcome was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Prostate-cancer-specific mortality was not reduced based on similar prior reviews (relative risk [RR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.07, P=0.31). The detection rate of stage 1 prostate cancer was not greater, with a RR of 1.67 (95% CI, 0.95-2.94) and high heterogeneity. The detection rate of all cancer stages in the screening group was high, with a RR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13-1.85). No difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the screening and control groups (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.01, P=0.50). Prostate-cancer-specific mortality, all-cause mortality, and diagnosis of prostate cancer at stages 3-4 showed moderate levels of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Differently from prior studies, our review included updated Norrkoping data and assessed the sole effect of PSA testing for prostate cancer screening. PSA screening alone did not increase early stage prostate cancer detection and did not lower mortality.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasm Staging , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 68 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-708327

ABSTRACT

A testosterona tem sido cada vez mais usada em homens na fase do envelhecimento como prevenção e tratamento de doenças metabólicas, melhora do desempenho sexual, proteção cardiovascular e manutenção da cognição. Porém ainda há conflito sobre seus efeitos na próstata com relação às doenças benignas e malignas. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito do tratamento com duas formas de testosterona sobre carcinoma de próstata induzido por N-Metil-N-Nitrosureia (NMU) a partir de análises histopatológicas e séricas do antígeno prostático específico (PSA). Para tal foram utilizados 80 ratos Wistar jovens, sadios, divididos em dois grupos (40 animais cada) tratados ou não com NMU intraperitoneal. Cada grupo foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais e tratados durante 16 semanas: 1) tratado com cipionato de testosterona a cada sete dias via intramuscular; 2) tratado com cipionato de testosterona a cada 14 dias via intramuscular; 3) tratado com undecanoato de testosterona oral diariamente; 4) tratado com óleo mineral. Após 16 semanas e tratamento, os níveis do PSA não alteraram em nenhum grupo ou subgrupo e não houve desenvolvimento de tumores em nenhum deles. Portanto, as duas formas distintas de testosterona associada ao uso de NMU em curto espaço de tempo por via intraperitoneal não alteraram as dosagens séricas do PSA e não induziram a formação de tumores na próstata em ratos Wistar jovens e saudáveis. As alterações histopatológicas acinares encontradas nas próstatas foram projeção, secreção, congestão e inflamação, e as epiteliais foram: epitélio normal, redução do epitélio e redução na altura do mesmo. Tais achados colaboram para que outros estudos sejam realizados de maneira a orientar o uso de testosterona na prática clinica diária sem receio de indução do câncer na próstata.


Testosterone has been increasingly used in men during the aging process as prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases, improving sexual performance, cardiovascular protection and maintenance of cognition. But there are still conflicted about its effects in the prostate with respect to benign and malignant diseases. The present study evaluated the effect of treatment with two forms of testosterone on prostate carcinoma induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) from pathological examinations and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). For this we used 80 young Wistar rats, healthy, divides into two groups (40 animals each) or not treated with intraperitoneal NMU. Each group was divided into four equal subgroups and treated for 16 weeks: 1) treated with testosterone cypionate every seven days intramuscularly, 2) treated with testosterone cypionate every 14 days intramuscularly, 3) treated with oral testosterone undecanoate daily, 4) treated with mineral oil. After 16 semanas and treatment, PSA levels did not change in either group or sub-group and no tumor development in any of them. Therefore, two different forms of testosterone associated with the use of NMU in short time intraperitoneally did not affect the serum PSA and did not induce tumor formation in prostate in young healthy rats. Acinar histopathological changes were found in the prostates projection, secretion, congestion and inflammation, epithelial and were normal epithelium, epithelial reduction and reduction in height thereof. These findings collaborate to further studies are performed in order to guide the use of testosterone in daily clinical practice without fear of inducing prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Prostate/physiology , Prostate/pathology , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Methylnitrosourea/administration & dosage , Methylnitrosourea/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemically induced , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar
15.
Lima; s.n; 2013. 44 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-713906

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar el punto de corte de sensibilidad óptima del cociente PSAL/PSAt, para detectar CaP en pacientes tratados en el Hospital Nacional PNP Luis N. Sáenz en el periodo entre el 2008 al 2012. Material y métodos: Estudio de tipo retrospectivo y metodología observacional, comparativa (no concurrente), analítico y descriptivo en 398 pacientes con sospecha de Cáncer de próstata quienes se les realizó biopsia de próstata transrectal eco-dirigidas en el Servicio de Urología del Hospital Nacional PNP Luis N. Sáenz, post criterios de inclusión. La ficha de datos, fue el instrumento principal de la investigación. Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 61.4 años, donde la edad más frecuente fue entre 66-70 años (55.75 por ciento). Se diagnosticaron 61 adenocarcinoma de Próstata (15.35 por ciento), con un valor de corte por debajo de 15 por ciento de PSAL/PSAt, en 55 pacientes con CaP y menos del 10 por ciento de CaP presentaron índices de PSAL/PSAt > 20 por ciento. La curva de ROC señala decidir entre 14 y 15 como valor de corte. Se observaron 269 casos con complicaciones post biopsia 178 leves (44.70 por ciento) y 91 no leves (22.90 por ciento). Conclusiones: El cociente PSAL/PSAt o porcentaje de PSAL incrementa la especificidad del PSA en pacientes asintomáticos y con un valor de PSAt entre 4 y 10 ng/ml. Con un punto de corte del 15 por ciento, la sensibilidad de CaP fue de 90.15 por ciento, pero con una especificidad de 22 por ciento (decreciente). El índice PSAL/PSAt, es un método útil para optimizar la indicación de biopsia y mejorar así la tasa de productividad de la misma, evitando así biopsias innecesarias. Las complicaciones del método diagnóstico por biopsia prostática transrectal ecodirigida fueron frecuentes en esta serie (67.60 por ciento), con un aumento de costo hospitalario adicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Image-Guided Biopsy , Mass Screening , Early Detection of Cancer , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(1): 93-97, ene. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627614

ABSTRACT

Male accessory sexual glands arising in ovarian cystic teratoma are exceedingly rare. We report a 56-year-old female subjected to an ovariohysterectomy due to a left ovarian mass. The pathological study of the surgical piece revealed a tumor composed of different mature tissue elements and well defined nodules of benign prostatic tissue.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermoid Cyst/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Teratoma/pathology , Dermoid Cyst/chemistry , Ovarian Neoplasms/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostate/chemistry , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/analysis , Teratoma/chemistry
18.
Rev. chil. cir ; 63(6): 609-616, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report our initial experience in 50 cases submitted to a Robotic Radical Prostatectomy (RRP), evaluating results and the learning curve. Material and Methods: From January to October 2010 we performed 50 consecutives cases of RRP with the da Vinci S-HD Surgical System®. The database was performed prospectively, and was analyzed retrospectively. We evaluate demographic data (age, body mass index) and perioperative data such as clinical stage, preoperative PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen), Gleason Score, ASA, operative times, estimated blood loss, morbidity, hospital stay, time of bladder catheterization and positive margins. A statistical analysis of exponential regression was performed to estimate the learning curve. Results: The mean age was 62 years and the most frequent clinical stage was T1c (84 percent). The mean PSA was 6.36 ng/mL and in 50 percent of the patients the Gleason Score was 7. The median surgical time was 199 minutes. The mean blood loss was 666 mL (50-4.000 mL). The hospital stay and the average bladder catheterization time were 2 and 6 days, respectively. There were 2 conversions to a laparoscopic approach, none to open surgery, and 8 percent of postoperative complication (all Clavien 1). Inmediat urinary continence and potency rates were 88.3 percent and 33.3 percent, respectively. When comparing the 25 initial cases versus the last 25, there was a decrease in surgical time and estimated blood loss (254 minutes vs 189 minutes and 876 mL vs 467 mL, respectively). We also found a lower rate of positive margins (20 percent vs 12 percent). The learning curve statistically estimated is 40 procedures. Conclusion: The surgeon's experience determine a decrease in surgical time, intraoperative bleeding and especially in the rate of positive margins.


Objetivo: Comunicar nuestra experiencia inicial en 50 casos de Prostatectomía Radical Robótica (PRR), evaluando resultados y curva de aprendizaje. Material y Métodos: Desde enero a octubre de 2010 se realizaron 50 PRR con el sistema da Vinci S-HD®. La base de datos fue confeccionada en forma prospectiva y se evaluaron en forma retrospectiva los datos demográficos (edad, índice de masa corporal), estadio clínico, valor de Antígeno Prostático Específico (APE), Score de Gleason, ASA, tiempos quirúrgicos, sangrado estimado, complicaciones, estadía hospitalaria, tiempo de sonda vesical y tasa de márgenes positivos. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de regresión exponencial para estimar la curva de aprendizaje del método. Resultados: La edad media fue de 62 años y el estadio clínico más frecuente fue el T1c (84 por ciento). El valor medio de APE fue de 6,36 ng/mL. El score de Gleason en un 50 por ciento correspondió al 7 y la media del ASA a 2. La mediana del tiempo quirúrgico fue de 199 minutos. El sangrado medio estimado fue de 666 mL (50-4.000 mL). La media de la estadía hospitalaria y el tiempo de sonda fueron de 2 y 6 días, respectivamente. Hubo 2 conversiones a cirugía laparoscópica, ninguna a cirugía abierta y un 8 por ciento de complicaciones postoperatorias (todas Clavien 1). La tasa de continencia y de potencia inmediata fue de 88,3 por ciento y 33,3 por ciento, respectivamente. Cuando comparamos los 25 casos iniciales versus los 25 finales hubo un descenso significativo en el tiempo quirúrgico y sangrado estimado (254 minutos vs 189 minutos y 876 mL vs 467 mL, respectivamente). También encontramos una menor tasa de márgenes positivos en el grupo 2 (12 por ciento vs 20 por ciento). El análisis estadístico determinó la curva de aprendizaje en 40 procedimientos. Conclusión: Una mayor experiencia del cirujano, determina una disminución en los tiempos quirúrgicos, sangrado intraoperatorio y sobre todo en la tasa de márgenes positivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatectomy/methods , Robotics , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Blood Loss, Surgical , Body Mass Index , Clinical Competence , Penile Erection/physiology , Learning , Length of Stay , Neoplasm Staging , Regression Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157360

ABSTRACT

A case of locally confined primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the prostate in an 85 years old male with complaints of retention of urine, dysuria and frequent nocturia is reported. On per rectal digital examination, hard nodular prostate of grade 3 enlargement was palpated. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level was 33.7ng/ ml. Chest x-ray and computed tomography of the pelvis was negative for metastatic disease. Hematological and biochemical investigations were within normal limits. Transurethral prostatic biopsy was done and histopathology revealed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) with bilateral orchidectomy along with radiotherapy was selected as modality of treatment. After histopathological examination of TURP specimen with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain, a diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of prostate was given which was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/analysis , Acid Phosphatase/blood , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/surgery , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Male , Orchiectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/methods
20.
Clinics ; 66(1): 27-34, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7 percent) had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4 percent) had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9 percent) had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6 percent) presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy values for localizing low-risk prostate cancer were 53.1 percent, 48.3 percent, 63.4 percent, 37.8 percent and 51.3 percent for transrectal ultrasound; 70.4 percent, 36.2 percent, 65.1 percent, 42.0 percent and 57.7 percent for amplitude Doppler ultrasound; 71.5 percent, 58.9 percent, 76.6 percent, 52.4 percent and 67.1 percent for magnetic resonance imaging; 70.4 percent, 58.7 percent, 78.4 percent, 48.2 percent and 66.7 percent for magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 67.2 percent, 65.7 percent, 79.3 percent, 50.6 percent and 66.7 percent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values for detecting extracapsular extension were 33.3 percent, 92 percent, 14.3 percent, 97.2 percent and 89.7 percent for transrectal ultrasound and 50.0 percent, 77.6 percent, 13.7 percent, 95.6 percent and 75.7 percent for magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. For detecting seminal vesicle invasion, these values were 66.7 percent, 85.7 percent, 22.2 percent, 97.7 percent and 84.6 percent for transrectal ultrasound and 40.0 percent, 83.1 percent, 15.4 percent, 94.7 percent and 80.0 percent for magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION: Although preliminary, our results suggest that imaging modalities have limited usefulness in localizing and locally staging clinically low-risk prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms , Biopsy , Contrast Media , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prostatectomy , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods
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